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Sample records for abuse involving penetration

  1. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  2. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  3. Sexual abuse involving children with an intellectual disability (ID): a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wissink, Inge B; van Vugt, Eveline; Moonen, Xavier; Stams, Geert-Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The current paper provides a narrative review of the literature on sexual abuse, involving children with Intellectual Disability (ID). The thirteen articles that were found and met our criteria vary in their definitions of sexual abuse and in how ID was determined. Still, they do paint a general picture concerning (1) the extent of sexual abuse, (2) the nature of the sexual abuse, and (3) the institutional reactions following sexual abuse of children with ID. Our findings confirm the greater vulnerability of children with ID to become involved in sexual abuse both as a victim and as a perpetrator, and we discuss ways to help strengthening prevention and intervention methods. Nevertheless, more research is needed, as it is still a rather unexplored topic, which is striking in light of the high vulnerability of this group.

  4. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  5. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  6. Satanism as a response to abuse: the dynamics and treatment of satanic involvement in male youths.

    PubMed

    Belitz, J; Schacht, A

    1992-01-01

    Male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into satanic cults. Families that are abusive, devalue or invalidate the abused child's feelings, blame the child for the family's problems, and view the world in rigidly moralistic terms create environments in which the youths are likely to identify with the aggressor and label themselves as evil. These youths, who may have poor social skills and feelings of anger, low self-esteem, self-blame, depression, powerlessness, and isolation as a result of the abuse, may use satanic involvement as a means of legitimizing their experience and differentiating from a negatively enmeshed and/or abusive family system. In this paper, the etiological factors and treatment approaches of ten hospitalized boys who had voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group satanic activities during their adolescence are described, and two case illustrations are given. Recommendations for understanding and treating such cases are provided. PMID:1471565

  7. Satanism as a response to abuse: the dynamics and treatment of satanic involvement in male youths.

    PubMed

    Belitz, J; Schacht, A

    1992-01-01

    Male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into satanic cults. Families that are abusive, devalue or invalidate the abused child's feelings, blame the child for the family's problems, and view the world in rigidly moralistic terms create environments in which the youths are likely to identify with the aggressor and label themselves as evil. These youths, who may have poor social skills and feelings of anger, low self-esteem, self-blame, depression, powerlessness, and isolation as a result of the abuse, may use satanic involvement as a means of legitimizing their experience and differentiating from a negatively enmeshed and/or abusive family system. In this paper, the etiological factors and treatment approaches of ten hospitalized boys who had voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group satanic activities during their adolescence are described, and two case illustrations are given. Recommendations for understanding and treating such cases are provided.

  8. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN).

    PubMed

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  9. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  10. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  11. An Interesting Case of Penetrating Craniofacial Trauma Involving a Wooden Stick

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Vishnudas, Praveesh; Dev, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating craniofacial trauma, although uncommon, has a high potential for death or catastrophic consequences from head injury or vital neurovascular injuries. The foreign body may cause significant challenge, especially when it is a large one. Airway obstruction, vascular injuries, intracranial communication, ocular injury and injuries to any other adjacent vital structures when involved may change the treatment objectives from simple foreign body retrieval to a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to stabilize the patient. Retrieval of foreign bodies may be challenging because of many factors including the size of the object, its site, and the surrounding anatomical structures. Accurate localization of the foreign body before removal is essential in craniofacial region. We present a case of penetrating craniofacial trauma from a wooden stick, with an in situ foreign body, that was managed by emergency surgical exploration in general anaesthesia and retrieval of foreign body in Toto under antibiotic coverage and tetanus prophylaxis. PMID:27190963

  12. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  13. Examining the Associations Between Sex Trade Involvement, Rape, and Symptomatology of Sexual Abuse Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D.; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist–40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  14. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  15. Involvement in High-Profile Child Sexual Abuse Controversies: Costs and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildred, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The costs and benefits associated with participation in conflicts around child sexual abuse are explored. Using qualitative data from interviews with 40 high-profile participants, findings suggest that professionals experience both positive and negative consequences as a result of their involvement. Costs identified include attacks and…

  16. Satanism as a Response to Abuse: The Dynamics and Treatment of Satanic Involvement in Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belitz, Jerald; Schacht, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into satanic cults. Describes etiological factors and treatment approaches of 10 hospitalized boys who voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group satanic activities during their adolescence. Includes two case illustrations. Provides…

  17. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  18. The Role of Interagency Collaboration for Substance-Abusing Families Involved with Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Beth L.; Rockhill, Anna; Burrus, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the needs of families who are involved with the child welfare system because of a substance abuse issue remains a challenge for child welfare practitioners. In order to improve services to these families, there has been an increasing focus on improving collaboration between child welfare, treatment providers, and the court systems. This…

  19. Substance abuse treatment and criminal justice involvement for SSI recipients: results from Washington state.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, Bill; Nordlund, Dan; Estee, Sharon; Lund, Peter; Krupski, Antoinette; Stark, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between receiving substance abuse treatment and subsequent criminal justice involvement. The sample consisted of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients in the state of Washington that were determined to be in need of treatment. Fifty-two percent of those clients entered substance abuse treatment during the study period, while 48% did not. Arrests, felony convictions and convictions for less serious crimes were tracked for 8343 adults for one year following the end of an index treatment episode. Results showed that entering treatment was associated with reduced risks for each outcome. In addition, further analyses were conducted just on those entering treatment. Among that subset of the study population, the completion of treatment and having an episode of treatment lasting at least 90 days were both associated with reduced criminal justice risks. These results suggest that efforts to provide substance abuse treatment for SSI recipients have the potential to provide substantial public benefits.

  20. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  1. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  2. Segmentation in low-penetration and low-involvement categories: an application to lottery games.

    PubMed

    Guesalaga, Rodrigo; Marshall, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Market segmentation is accepted as a fundamental concept in marketing and several authors have recently proposed a segmentation model where personal and environmental variables intersect with each other to form motivating conditions that drive behavior and preferences. This model of segmentation has been applied to packaged goods. This paper extends this literature by proposing a segmentation model for low-penetration and low involvement (LP-LI) products. An application to the lottery games in Chile supports the proposed model. The results of the study show that in this type of products (LP-LI), the attitude towards the product category is the most important factor that distinguishes consumers from non consumers, and heavy users from light users, and consequently, a critical segmentation variable. In addition, a cluster analysis shows the existence of three segments: (1) the impulsive dreamers, who believe in chance, and in that lottery games can change their life, (2) the skeptical, that do not believe in chance, nor in that lottery games can change their life and (3) the willing, who value the benefits of playing.

  3. Identifying the Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Caregivers Involved with Child Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers’ identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. PMID:23453481

  4. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed.

  5. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  6. Accessing substance abuse treatment: issues for parents involved with child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Rockhill, Anna; Green, Beth L; Newton-Curtis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues associated with barriers to treatment entry for parents who are involved with child welfare has not been well explored. Accessing timely treatment is now critical for these parents since the introduction of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, limiting the time until a permanency decision is made. Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, substance-abusing parents from 15 families, their relevant family members, and service providers were interviewed approximately every 3 months over an 18-month period. The experiences of these parents add to our knowledge of the unique barriers this population faces, and expands our understanding of the mechanisms by which certain barriers may delay treatment.

  7. Extradyadic Sexual Involvement and Sexual Compulsivity in Male and Female Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John

    2016-01-01

    We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749

  8. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  9. The conserved oligomeric Golgi complex is involved in penetration resistance of barley to the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Maya; Stammler, Johanna; Douchkov, Dimitar; Eichmann, Ruth; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2013-04-01

    Membrane trafficking is vital to plant development and adaptation to the environment. It is suggested that post-Golgi vesicles and multivesicular bodies are essential for plant defence against directly penetrating fungal parasites at the cell wall. However, the actual plant proteins involved in membrane transport for defence are largely unidentified. We applied a candidate gene approach and single cell transient-induced gene silencing for the identification of membrane trafficking proteins of barley involved in the response to the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. This revealed potential components of vesicle tethering complexes [putative exocyst subunit HvEXO70F-like and subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex] and Golgi membrane trafficking (COPIγ coatomer and HvYPT1-like RAB GTPase) as essential for resistance to fungal penetration into the host cell. PMID:23145810

  10. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  11. Preventive involvement in child abuse and neglect by general pediatrician in a military community.

    PubMed

    Brown, G W

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three cases among nineteen troubled families of U.S. Coast Guard personnel with problems of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii were managed by joint U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Army, State and County child protection, social and health staff, and local and area-wide lay volunteers. These cases ranged from inaccurate accusations in an emergency room to abdominal gunshot wounds. The preventive role of primary pediatric involvement in community health areas such as pre-school, day care, prenatal infant care education, parent discussion groups, and lay therapists is stressed. The early intervention therapy of pediatric advocacy for social and psychological services to families in stress is emphasized. Continued pediatric leadership for prevention and early intervention is essential in our times of pervasive family breakdown.

  12. High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami; Brom, Danny; Baum, Naomi; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-10-01

    This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence). In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events. At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors. We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys). We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence. The findings revealed extensive exposure to war events among both Jewish and Arab students. A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use. Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence. Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use. Arab students were a more vulnerable population. They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students. However, exposure to war events had similar effects on both Arab and Jewish students. We conclude that war effects include a broad range of psychological distress and risk behaviors that last long after the war ends, especially among youth who have experienced childhood trauma and high exposure to war-related stressors.

  13. Ethical issues in mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Labrique, Alain B; Kirk, Gregory D; Westergaard, Ryan P; Merritt, Maria W

    2013-01-01

    We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-established systematic general ethical framework for biomedical research with human participants, we identify a range of ethical issues that have particular salience for the protection of participants in mHealth research on HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. PMID:24171110

  14. Factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex in a sample of women experiencing police-involved intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Thaller, Jonel; Bagwell, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant social problem, particularly among women who are concurrently experiencing physical violence in their intimate relationships. This research examined the prevalence and factors associated with IPSV among a sample of women recruited at the scene of police-involved intimate partner violence incidents (N = 432). Within this sample, 43.98 percent of participants reported experiencing IPSV; this includes 17.36 percent who reported sexual abuse and 26.62 percent who reported forced sex. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex, controlling for victim and relationship characteristics. Compared with women not reporting IPSV, women who were sexually abused or forced into sexual intercourse were significantly more likely to experience strangulation, feelings of shame, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Women whose partners had forced sex were more likely to report that they had a child in common with their abusive partner; and that their partner was sexually jealous, had threatened to kill them, had stalked or harassed them, or caused them to have a miscarriage due to abuse. These findings can be used to better inform social work practitioners about the prevalence and nature of IPSV and the associated risk factors, and can assist in routine screening and intervention. PMID:25095631

  15. A deep penetrating facial congenital melanocytic tumor with bone involvement and ipsilateral eye blindness.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Reuven; Ben-Arush, Miriam W; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Gilboa, Michael; Simon, Einav; Hershkovitz, Dov; Sabo, Edmond; Maly, Alexander; Gerami, Pedram; Goldsher, Dorith

    2015-01-01

    Bone involvement has been described in tumors with melanocytic differentiation such as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, and very rarely in cellular blue nevi and neurocristic cutaneous hamartoma. We present an unusual case of facial congenital melanocytic tumor that involved the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and led to unilateral blindness. A newborn with a large red bluish patch with peripheral brown and black macules overlying marked swelling on the left side of his face was presented. The tumor was shown by magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy, and histopathology to invade the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and to compress the left eyeball resulting in blindness. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, morphometric computerized microscopy, molecular genetic mutation analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization studies were more congruent with a melanocytic nevus. An 8.5-year follow-up was uneventful, with spontaneous partial shrinkage of the tumor. PMID:25222197

  16. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  17. Child abuse victims' involvement in community agency treatment: service correlates, short-term outcomes, and relationship to reabuse.

    PubMed

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Caldwell, Nicola

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the correlates and impacts of child treatment in 68 cases referred to community agency providers after reports of child physical or sexual abuse. Standardized clinical assessments were conducted with child victims and their caregivers at intake and short-term follow-up (FUP-1), supplemented by official record reviews at a long-term follow-up (FUP-2). Child treatment was received by 19% and 50% of the children at FUP-1 and FUP-2, respectively. There were few correlates of initial child treatment involvement (sexual abuse or parent and family services received concurrently). Initial child treatment was not associated with significant gains in child outcomes. Child improvement in abuse-related outcomes was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and lower adjustment at intake. Initial child treatment was unrelated to reabuse or out-of-home placement by FUP-2. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the process and outcome of referral of child abuse victims to community-based services. PMID:14604175

  18. Parents with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Abuse Conditions Involved in Child Protection Services: Clinical Profile and Treatment Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromwall, Layne K.; Larson, Nancy C.; Nieri, Tanya; Holley, Lynn C.; Topping, Diane; Castillo, Jason; Ashford, Jose B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings of an exploratory study of 71 parents with substance abuse conditions involved in a child dependency court. Over half (59%) of the parents had a co-occurring mental health condition. Parents with co-occurring conditions (PWCC) differed in several important ways from those with only substance abuse conditions. PWCC…

  19. Substance Abuse Treatment, Anticipated Maternal Roles, and Reentry Success of Drug-Involved Women Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Cynthia A.; Martin, Steven S.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports analyses of recidivism and relapse experiences of substance-abusing women inmates as they reenter the community. Outcomes are compared for women who completed a work-release therapeutic community program, women who entered but did not complete the program, and those who did not receive work-release therapeutic community…

  20. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    PubMed

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment.

  1. Expert testimony influences juror decisions in criminal trials involving recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Ayesha; Jacquin, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of expert witness orientation (researcher or clinical practitioner) and type of testimony (testimony for the prosecution, defense, both prosecution and defense, or no testimony) on mock jurors' decisions in a sexual abuse trial. Participants acted as mock jurors on a sexual abuse criminal trial based on recovered memory that included expert witness testimony. Results showed that expert witness testimony provided by a researcher did not impact mock jurors' guilt ratings any differently than the expert witness testimony provided by a clinical practitioner. However, type of testimony had a significant effect on jurors' guilt ratings such that jurors who read only defense or only prosecution testimony made decisions favoring the relevant side. PMID:24283545

  2. Standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children. Interim final rule (IFR).

    PubMed

    2014-12-24

    This IFR proposes standards and procedures to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children (UCs) in ORR's care provider facilities. DATES: This IFR is effective on December 24, 2014. ORR care provider facilities must be in compliance with this IFR by June 24, 2015 but encourages care provider facilities to be in compliance sooner, if possible. HHS will work with facilities to implement and enforce the standards contained in this rule. Comments on this IFR must be received on or before February 23, 2015. PMID:25546883

  3. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  4. Parents with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse conditions involved in Child Protection Services: clinical profile and treatment needs.

    PubMed

    Stromwall, Layne K; Larson, Nancy C; Nieri, Tanya; Holley, Lynn C; Topping, Diane; Castillo, Jason; Ashford, José B

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings of an exploratory study of 71 parents with substance abuse conditions involved in a child dependency court. Over half (59%) of the parents had a co-occurring mental health condition. Parents with co-occurring conditions (PWCC) differed in several important ways from those with only substance abuse conditions. PWCC were also more likely than their case managers were to report a need for mental health treatment. Implications for child welfare practice and research are offered.

  5. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  6. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  7. Buprenorphine in drug-facilitated sexual abuse: a fatal case involving a 14-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Tracqui, Antoine; Cirimele, Vincent; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-10-01

    The first case involving repetitive sexual abuse linked to the use of buprenorphine is reported. Under the tradename Subutex, buprenorphine is largely used for the substitution management of opiate-dependent individuals, but it can also be easily found on the black market. A 14-year-old boy was found dead at the home of a well-known sex offender of minors. At the autopsy, no particular morphological changes were noted, except for pulmonary and visceral congestion. There was no evidence of violence, and no needle marks were found by the pathologist. Toxicological analyses, as achieved by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, demonstrated both recent and repetitive buprenorphine exposure in combination with nordiazepam. Buprenorphine concentrations were 1.1 ng/mL and 23 pg/mg in blood and hair, respectively. The boy's death was attributed to accidental asphyxia in a facilitated repetitive sexual abuse situation due to the combination of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines, even at therapeutic concentrations. The use of buprenorphine as a sedative drug was not challenged by the perpetrator. PMID:14607012

  8. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration.

    PubMed

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine.

  9. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine. PMID:26682577

  10. Angiostrongylus cantonensis cathepsin B-like protease (Ac-cathB-1) is involved in host gut penetration.

    PubMed

    Long, Ying; Cao, Binbin; Yu, Liang; Tukayo, Meks; Feng, Chonglv; Wang, Yinan; Luo, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Although the global spread of the emerging zoonosis, human angiostrongyliasis, has attracted increasing attention, understanding of specific gene function has been impeded by the inaccessibility of genetic manipulation of the pathogen nematode causing this disease, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Many parasitic proteases play key roles in host-parasite interactions, but those of A. cantonensis are always expressed as the inactive form in prokaryotic expression systems, thereby impeding functional studies. Hence, a lentiviral system that drives secreted expression of target genes fused to a Myc-His tag was used to obtain recombinant Ac-cathB-1 with biological activity. Although this class of proteases was always reported to function in nutrition and immune evasion in parasitic nematodes, recombinant Ac-cathB-1 was capable of hydrolysis of fibronectin and laminin as well as the extracellular matrix of IEC-6 monolayer, so that the intercellular space of the IEC-6 monolayer increased 5.15 times as compared to the control, while the shape of the adherent cells partly rounded up. This suggests a probable role for this protease in intestinal epithelial penetration. The inhibition of Ac-cathB-1 enzymatic activity with antiserum partly suppressed larval penetration ability in the isolated intestine. Thus, an effective system for heterologous expression of parasite proteases is presented for studying gene function in A. cantonensis; and Ac-cathB-1 was related to larval penetration ability in the host small intestine. PMID:26682577

  11. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established.

  12. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

  13. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  14. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  15. Secondary conformational conversion is involved in glycosaminoglycans-mediated cellular uptake of the cationic cell-penetrating peptide PACAP.

    PubMed

    Tchoumi Neree, Armelle; Nguyen, Phuong Trang; Chatenet, David; Fournier, Alain; Bourgault, Steve

    2014-12-20

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) contribute to the cellular uptake of cationic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). However, molecular details about the contributions of GAGs in CPP internalization remain unclear. In this study, we examined the cellular uptake mechanism of the arginine-rich CPP pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). We observed that the uptake efficacy of PACAP is dependent on the expression of cell surface GAGs. As the binding of PACAP to sulfated GAGs induced a random coil-to-α-helix conformational conversion, we investigated the role of the helical formation in PACAP internalization. Whereas this secondary structure was not crucial for efficient internalization in GAGs-deficient cells, PACAP α-helix was essential for GAGs-dependent uptake.

  16. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment insecurities as predictors of women's own and perceived-partner extradyadic involvement.

    PubMed

    Frías, María Teresa; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-09-01

    We examined the association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and a woman's own and perceived-partner extradyadic involvement (EDI). The association was examined both directly and as potentially mediated by attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in a sample of 807 French Canadian women. In line with our hypotheses, we found that a personal history of CSA is associated with a woman's own and perceived-partner EDI and with the woman's levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance. The association between CSA and own EDI was partially mediated by attachment-related avoidance. The results suggest that a sense of betrayal stemming from CSA predisposes a woman to avoidance, which in turn predisposes her to EDI. The association between CSA and perceived-partner EDI was partially mediated by both attachment anxiety and avoidance. These results suggest that victims of CSA become suspicious of others' relational behavior and intentions, which contribute to attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and both own and perceived-partner EDI.

  17. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  18. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  19. Gender Abuse and Incident HIV/STI Among Transgender Women in New York City: Buffering Effect of Involvement in a Transgender Community.

    PubMed

    Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    In a 3 year prospective study of 230 transgender women from the New York City Area, we further examined associations of gender-related abuse with HIV sexual risk behavior and incident HIV/STI, focusing here and the extent to which these associations are buffered by involvement in a transgender community. Largely consistent with the prior study, gender abuse was longitudinally associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with casual and commercial sex partners, and the presumed biological outcome of this behavioral risk, new cases of HIV/STI. Both of these associations, gender abuse with URAI and HIV/STI, were significantly buffered by transgender community involvement (interaction effects). However, independent of these interaction effects, transgender community involvement was also positively associated with URAI and HIV/STI (direct effects). HIV prevention in this population should emphasize the benefits of interactions with transgender peers while also emphasizing the importance of resisting normative permission for HIV risk behavior from these same peers. PMID:25533923

  20. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    PubMed

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  1. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  2. The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

    2009-01-01

    Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

  3. Substance Abuse and Dependency Risk: The Role of Peer Perceptions, Marijuana Involvement, and Attitudes toward Substance Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…

  4. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  5. Penetration equations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1997-10-01

    In 1967, Sandia National Laboratories published empirical equations to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. Since that time there have been several small changes to the basic equations, and several more additions to the overall technique for predicting penetration into soil, rock, concrete, ice, and frozen soil. The most recent update to the equations was published in 1988, and since that time there have been changes in the equations to better match the expanding data base, especially in concrete penetration. This is a standalone report documenting the latest version of the Young/Sandia penetration equations and related analytical techniques to predict penetration into natural earth materials and concrete. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  7. Changing trends in treatment of substance abuse: a look at some of the factors involved in third-party providers and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Pourciau, T; Sanders, A F; Buckel, B

    1992-07-01

    In order to better focus our care in providing patients with treatment that matched their needs, an inpatient study was done on patient discharges for 1990 involving 267 patients. Our study points out the influence of the changing drug scene in this country. In approximately 40% of the patients admitted, the drug of choice is other than alcohol. The importance of family and employer involvement in effective treatment stands out. Fewer patients are being admitted but those admitted are sicker and require more treatment. Chemical dependency programs in Louisiana and the United States are experiencing significant declines in the utilization of their service and many are closing. The patient census has been impaired primarily by the expense of or lack of insurance coverage by third-party payors. For patients with insurance coverage the criteria for inpatient treatment by third-party reviewers are so stringent that staff assessment recommendations are frequently over-ruled. Substance abuse is a chronic relapsing illness, yet many insurance companies limit coverage both in time and money. In no other field of medicine do patients leave treatment prematurely as they do in substance abuse.

  8. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  9. Involvement of AMPA/kainate and GABAA receptors in topiramate neuroprotective effects against methylphenidate abuse sequels involving oxidative stress and inflammation in rat isolated hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-08-01

    Abuses of methylphenidate (MPH) as psychostimulant cause neural damage of brain cells. Neuroprotective properties of topiramate (TPM) have been indicated in several studies but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. The current study evaluates protective role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism of action in MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The neuroprotective effects of various doses of TPM against MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation were evaluated and then the action of TPM was studied in presence of domoic acid (DOM), as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist and bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, in isolated rat hippocampus. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity changes. Oxidative, antioxidant and inflammatory factors were measured in isolated hippocampus. TPM (70 and 100mg/kg) decreased MPH induced motor activity disturbances and inhibit MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation. On the other hand pretreatment of animals with DOM or BIC, inhibit this effect of TPM and potentiate MPH induced motor activity disturbances and increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) level, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampal cells and decreased reduced form of glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity. It seems that TPM can protect cells of hippocampus from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and it could be partly by activation of GABAA receptor and inhibition of AMPA/kainite receptor.

  10. Involvement of AMPA/kainate and GABAA receptors in topiramate neuroprotective effects against methylphenidate abuse sequels involving oxidative stress and inflammation in rat isolated hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-08-01

    Abuses of methylphenidate (MPH) as psychostimulant cause neural damage of brain cells. Neuroprotective properties of topiramate (TPM) have been indicated in several studies but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. The current study evaluates protective role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism of action in MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The neuroprotective effects of various doses of TPM against MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation were evaluated and then the action of TPM was studied in presence of domoic acid (DOM), as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist and bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, in isolated rat hippocampus. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity changes. Oxidative, antioxidant and inflammatory factors were measured in isolated hippocampus. TPM (70 and 100mg/kg) decreased MPH induced motor activity disturbances and inhibit MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation. On the other hand pretreatment of animals with DOM or BIC, inhibit this effect of TPM and potentiate MPH induced motor activity disturbances and increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) level, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampal cells and decreased reduced form of glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity. It seems that TPM can protect cells of hippocampus from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and it could be partly by activation of GABAA receptor and inhibition of AMPA/kainite receptor. PMID:27105819

  11. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  12. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  13. Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-11-01

    Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported.

  14. Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-11-01

    Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported. PMID:23156936

  15. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  16. Involvement of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 in ethanol glucuronidation, and interactions with common drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Al Saabi, Alaa; Allorge, Delphine; Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Tournel, Gilles; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination is increasingly used in clinical and forensic toxicology to document ethanol consumption. The enzymes involved in EtG production, as well as potential interactions with common drugs of abuse, have not been extensively studied. Activities of human liver (HLM), kidney (HKM), and intestinal (HIM) microsomes, as well as of 12 major human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), toward ethanol (50 and 500 mM) were evaluated in vitro using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined for pooled microsomes and recombinant UGTs with significant activity. Individual contributions of UGTs were estimated using the relative activity factor approach, proposed for scaling activities obtained with cDNA-expressed enzymes to HLM. Interaction of morphine, codeine, lorazepam, oxazepam, nicotine, cotinine, cannabinol, and cannabidiol (5, 10, 15 mg/l) with ethanol (1.15, 4.6, 11.5 g/l; i.e., 25, 100, 250 mM) glucuronidation was assessed using pooled HLM. Ethanol glucuronidation intrinsic clearance (Cl(int)) was 4 and 12.7 times higher for HLM than for HKM and HIM, respectively. All recombinant UGTs, except UGT1A1, 1A6, and 1A10, produced EtG in detectable amounts. UGT1A9 and 2B7 were the most active enzymes, each accounting for 17 and 33% of HLM Cl(int), respectively. Only cannabinol and cannabidiol significantly affected ethanol glucuronidation. Cannabinol increased ethanol glucuronidation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas cannabidiol significantly inhibited EtG formation in a noncompetitive manner (IC(50) = 1.17 mg/l; inhibition constant (K(i)) = 3.1 mg/l). UGT1A9 and 2B7 are the main enzymes involved in ethanol glucuronidation. In addition, our results suggest that cannabinol and cannabidiol could significantly alter ethanol glucuronidation. PMID:23230132

  17. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  18. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  19. Epistatic interactions involving DRD2, DRD4, and COMT polymorphisms and risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating disturbances.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Howard; Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Labbe, Aurelie; Israel, Mimi; Kucer, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Substance abuse is common in individuals with bulimia-spectrum (binge-purge) eating disturbances, a co-occurrence that has been attributed to shared neurobiological substrates--notably alterations in dopaminergic activity. We examined the implications of variations of selected, dopamine-relevant polymorphisms (DRD2 Taq1A, DRD4 7R, and COMT) for risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating syndromes. We genotyped 183 women (66.1% showing full-threshold BN and 33.9% showing sub-syndromic variants), and assessed lifetime presence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and stimulant abuse or dependence using structured interviews. Tests for main and interaction effects of various allele combinations revealed that individuals who carried high function COMT and low-function DRD4 7R alleles (a combination expected to be associated with higher risk) did indeed show more lifetime substance abuse and, specifically, more cannabis abuse. Our findings suggest that a gene combination that, in theory, codes for low levels of dopaminergic neurotransmission coincides with sensitivity to substance abuse in a sample displaying binge-purge eating-disorder variants. PMID:26950642

  20. The roles of emotion dysregulation and dissociation in the association between sexual abuse and self-injury among juvenile justice-involved youth.

    PubMed

    Chaplo, Shannon D; Kerig, Patricia K; Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A

    2015-01-01

    To date, scholars have established associations among nonsuicidal self-injury and sexual abuse, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and dissociation. However, leading theoretical models of the mechanisms underlying the association between trauma and negative outcomes suggest a more parsimonious explanation in that deficits in emotion regulation may underlie these various risk factors for self-injury. This study examined whether sexual abuse was differentially associated with nonsuicidal self-injury over and above other forms of traumatic experiences and whether the association between sexual abuse and self-injury was statistically mediated by emotion dysregulation and dissociation. Participants included 525 youth (392 boys, 133 girls) recruited from the U.S. juvenile justice system who completed measures of self-reported trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and emotion dysregulation. Results of a hierarchical regression demonstrated that sexual abuse predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms and self-injury over and above other forms of traumatic experiences. Results of bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation and dissociation in combination were implicated in self-injury among youth. The results suggest that youth in the juvenile justice system who experience sexual abuse may be at risk for higher rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms and that self-injury may be particularly salient for youth who experience sexual abuse. Furthermore, the results shed light on the role that dissociation and emotion dysregulation play in the relation between sexual abuse and self-injury, suggesting that a larger framework of self-regulation may have both empirical and clinical utility in helping to understand the underlying processes at play in these associations. PMID:25759937

  1. Spiritual abuse.

    PubMed

    Purcell, B C

    1998-01-01

    Spiritual abuse is the act of making people believe--whether by stating or merely implying--that they are going to be punished in this life and/or tormented in hell-fire forever for failure to live life good enough to please God and thus earn admission to heaven. Spiritual terrorism is the most extreme form of spiritual abuse and may cause serious mental health problems. Those people who have not been spiritually terrorized have not necessarily been spared from spiritual abuse and therefore may still be in need of competent, spiritual counseling. Spiritual abuse, which may be active or passive, can best be conceptualized on a continuum from terroristic to zero abuse. Severity is determined by intensity, age of onset, duration, and individual reaction. The underlying issue in all forms of abuse is control. PMID:9729974

  2. Sexual child abuse in a defined Swedish area 1993-97: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, A; Forsman, A; Soderstrom, H

    2001-10-01

    Attempting to avoid some of the most common methodological problems involved in research on sexual child abuse, we collected data on crimes, perpetrators, and sanctions in all convicted cases of sexual child abuse in a defined population during a 5-year period. This approach provided amply documented and ascertained cases with precise definitions and descriptions of the crimes involved, no clinical referral bias, and minimal dependence on memory effects. The results are valid for the small proportion of cases that lead to conviction in the context of Swedish legislation. Structured data were collected from the court dossiers in all cases of sexual crimes against minors (less than 15 years of age) tried and sentenced at the courts in the Västra Götaland region of Sweden between 1993 and 1997. The total number of 496 sentences for sexual crimes during the study period included 203 cases of sexual child abuse (40.8%) with 283 victims and 196 perpetrators, all men. Girls were victims in 85% of the cases, boys in 12%, and boys as well as girls in 3%. Sexual penetration had occurred in 54.5% of cases and the total proportion of hands-on crimes was 83%. Most perpetrators, 72%, were well known to the child. The most severe offenses took place within the family. A wide range of acts were classified as sexual child abuse, but most common was sexual penetration of a female child by her biological father or a family friend. PMID:11501297

  3. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  4. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  5. Inspecting the reactor vessel penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bodson, F.; Fleming, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibility of Alloy 600 to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) continues to plague nuclear power plants. Recently, the problem of PWSCC cracking has manifested itself in Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) head penetrations in nuclear plants in Europe. Framatome has been extensively involved in the performance of both inspections and repairs of CRDM head penetrations at Electricite de France (EdF) plants. B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT), building on Framatome technology, has developed a fully integrated service package and robotic manipulator to inspect and repair CRDM head penetrations for US utilities. Reactor vessel bottom penetration are also made of Alloy 600 and to tackle this potential PWSCC problem at EdF plants, Framatome has been performing specific inspections in order to detect the appearance of the phenomenon. This paper describes the overall range of inspection techniques and toolings developed to address these issues.

  6. Treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary central nervous system involvement: encouraging efficacy using CNS-penetrating R-IDARAM chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maciocia, Paul; Badat, Mohsin; Cheesman, Simon; D'Sa, Shirley; Joshi, Rahul; Lambert, Jonathan; Mohamedbhai, Sajir; Pule, Martin; Linch, David; Ardeshna, Kirit

    2016-02-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL) is a rare condition carrying a poor prognosis. No optimal therapeutic regimen has been identified. We retrospectively analysed 23 patients with SCNS-DLBCL treated with R-IDARAM (rituximab 375 mg/m(2) IV day 1; methotrexate 12·5 mg by intrathecal injection day 1; idarubicin 10 mg/m(2) /day IV days 1 and 2; dexamethasone 100 mg/day IV infusion over 12 h days 1-3; cytosine arabinoside 1000 mg/m(2) /day IV over 1 h days 1 and 2; and methotrexate 2000 mg/m(2) IV over 2 h day 3. Ten out of 23 (44%) patients had CNS involvement at initial presentation ('new disease'), 10/23 (44%) had relapsed disease and 3/23 (13%) had primary refractory disease. 14/23 (61%) of patients responded - 6 (26%) complete response, 8 (35%) partial response. Grade 3-4 haematological toxicity was seen in all cycles, with no grade 3-4 or long-term neurological toxicity. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 49 months. At 2 years, estimated progression-free survival (PFS) was 39% and overall survival (OS) was 52%. Encouraging outcomes were reported in patients with new disease, with 5-year estimated PFS of 50% and OS 75%. R-IDARAM is a well-tolerated regimen with encouraging efficacy in patients with SCNS-DLBCL, although patients with relapsed or refractory disease continue to fare poorly. PMID:26684148

  7. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  8. Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179

  9. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Tanya; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Jackson, Allison M; Khademian, Zarir

    2015-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of child physical abuse that involves inflicted injury to the brain and its associated structures. Abusive Head Trauma, colloquially called Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the most common cause of serious or fatal brain injuries in children aged 2 years and younger. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the term Abusive Head Trauma, as opposed to Shaken Baby Syndrome, as the former term encompasses multiple forms of inflicted head injury (inertial, contact, and hypoxic-ischemic) and a range of clinical presentations and radiologic findings and their sequelae. Children diagnosed with AHT are 5 times more likely to die compared with accidentally head-injured children, yet signs and symptoms are not always obvious, and therefore the diagnosis can be overlooked. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics has tasked pediatricians with knowing how and when to begin an evaluation of children with signs and symptoms that could possibly be due to AHT. Overall, a detailed history of present illness and medical history, recognition of physical and radiological findings, and careful interpretation of retinal pathology are important aspects of formulating the differential diagnoses and increasing or decreasing the index of suspicion for AHT.

  10. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  11. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  12. Stress, substance abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Duffing, Tiffany M; Greiner, Stefanie G; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing stressful life events is reciprocally associated with substance use and abuse. The nature of these relationships varies based on the age of stress exposure and stage of substance use involvement. This chapter reviews the developmental and biological processes involved in the relationship of stress exposure and substance use initiation, substance use maintenance and relapse, and response to substance abuse treatment. Special emphasis is given to describing the various stress-related mechanisms involved in substance use and abuse, highlighting the differences between each of these phases of drug use and drawing upon current research to make suggestions for treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Stress is inherent to the experience of life and, in many situations, unavoidable. Through ongoing research and treatment development, there is the potential to modify the relationship of stress with ongoing substance use and abuse. PMID:24510301

  13. Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep.

    PubMed

    Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P

    2009-12-01

    A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

  14. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

  15. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  16. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  17. Fluorescent penetrant inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with fluorescent penetrant inspection and to relate it to classification of various defects. The penetrant method of nondestructive testing is a method for finding discontinuities open to the surface in solids and essentially nonporous bodies. The method employs a penetrating liquid which is applied over the surface and enters the discontinuity or crack. After the excess of penetrant has been cleaned from the surface, the penetrant which exudes or is drawn back out of the crack indicates the presence and location of a discontinuity. The experimental procedure is described.

  18. FAA fluorescent penetrant activities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Larson, B.F.

    1997-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) and the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability (CASR) are currently working to develop a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) system evaluation capability that will support the needs of the penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the FAA. The main focus of this facility is to support the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials, penetrant systems and to apply resources to support industry needs. This paper discusses efforts to create such a facility and an initial project to produce fatigue crack specimens for evaluation of Type 1 penetrant sensitivities.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  20. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  1. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  2. Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, D

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 150,000 confirmed cases of child sexual abuse were reported to child welfare authorities in the United States during 1993. This number represents about 15% of the more than one million confirmed cases of all child abuse and neglect. But the true scope of this problem is better reflected in retrospective surveys of adults, and this article summarizes data from 19 of these surveys. Considerable evidence exists to show that at least 20% of American women and 5% to 10% of American men experienced some form of sexual abuse as children. The rates are somewhat lower among people born before World War II, but there is little evidence of a dramatic increase for recent generations. The studies provide little evidence that race or socioeconomic circumstances are major risk factors. They do show elevated risk for children who experienced parental inadequacy, unavailability, conflict, harsh punishment, and emotional deprivation. Adult retrospective studies are also good sources of information about the characteristics of abuse. Most sexual abuse is committed by men (90%) and by persons known to the child (70% to 90%), with family members constituting one-third to one-half of the perpetrators against girls and 10% to 20% of the perpetrators against boys. Family members constitute a higher percentage of the perpetrators in child protective agency cases because the mandate of these agencies generally precludes their involvement in extrafamily abuse. Around 20% to 25% of child sexual abuse cases involve penetration or oral-genital contact. The peak age of vulnerability is between 7 and 13. Studies of the criminal justice processing of sexual abusers suggest that, compared with other violent criminals, slightly fewer are prosecuted, but of those prosecuted, slightly more are convicted. Studies conducted in the 1980s also showed that, once convicted, relatively few sexual abusers receive sentences longer than one year, while 32% to 46% serve no jail time. Overall, there

  3. Chemical penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Newton, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Chemical penetration enhancers are utilized in topical preparations as a method for enhancing permeation of drugs across the skin. In particular, they are utilized for transdermal delivery of medications in an attempt to produce a systemic response, to avoid first-pass metabolism, and to decrease the gastrointestinal transit time observed with oral medications. A review of the selection of chemical penetration enhancers, their mechanism of action, the most common chemical penetration enhancers in each class, and alternatives will be discussed in detail.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  5. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  6. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    PubMed

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  7. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  8. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  9. Percutaneous penetration--methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-07-01

    Studies on percutaneous penetration are needed to assess the hazards after unintended occupational skin exposures to industrial products as well as the efficacy after intended consumer exposure to topically applied medicinal or cosmetic products. During recent decades, a number of methods have been developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present MiniReview discusses some of the existing and well-known experimental in vitro and in vivo methods for studies of percutaneous penetration together with some more recent and promising methods. After this, some considerations and recommendations about advantages and limitations of the different methods and their relevance for the prediction of percutaneous penetration are given. Which method to prefer will depend on the product to be tested and the question asked. Regulatory guidelines exist for studies on percutaneous penetration, but researchers as well as regulatory bodies need to pay specific attention to the vehicles and solvents used in donor and sampling fluids so that it reflects in-use conditions as closely as possible. Based on available experimental data, mathematical models have been developed to aid predictions of skin penetration. The authors question the general use of the present mathematical models in hazard assessment, as they seem to ignore outliers among chemicals as well as the heterogeneity of skin barrier properties and skin conditions within the exposed populations. PMID:24373389

  10. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  11. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  12. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  13. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  14. Teachers and Child Abuse Prevention. Item 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…

  15. Family Behavior Therapy for Use in Child Welfare: Results of a Case Study Involving an Abused Woman Formally Diagnosed With Alcohol Dependence, Bipolar Disorder, and Several Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Donohue, Brad C.; Hill, Heather H.; Powell, Suzanne; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Azrin, Nathan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The results of a multiple-baseline case study of family behavior therapy (FBT) is described in a woman formally diagnosed with alcohol dependence, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and panic disorder. She was referred to treatment from the local Department of Family Services for child neglect and domestic violence. After baseline measures were administered, the first phase of treatment involved home safety tours aimed at reducing home hazards and cleanliness. A second phase of treatment additionally targeted family relationships through communication skills training exercises, and a third phase involved administration of the remaining FBT components to assist in comprehensively addressing other problem areas. Results indicated most problem areas were substantially improved, but only after they were comprehensively targeted in therapy. PMID:23136557

  16. The Child Abuse Crisis: Impact on the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fead, A. Kelley

    This report explains the roles and responsibilities of schools in dealing with child abuse. The introduction lists child abuse facts and figures, defines child abuse and neglect, provides a rationale for the involvement of educators in treatment and prevention efforts, and considers ethical issues. Chapter 1, which concentrates on keeping abusers…

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  18. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  19. Child Abuse, Dissociation, and Core Beliefs in Bulimic Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartt, Joanne; Waller, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 23 British women with bulimic disorders found no dimensional relationship between any form of child abuse and bulimic pathology. However, neglect and sexual abuse were correlated with dissociation. A subset of core beliefs was associated with child abuse, with different cognitive profiles associated with each trauma. (Contains…

  20. Women as Child Abusers: Indicators, Treatment, and Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; And Others

    Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Policy concerning child abuse involves a criminal justice approach, a treatment approach, and a prevention approach. Prevention programs have focused on identifying and serving high-risk groups and on preventive education. A study was conducted to examine issues related to child abuse. Four…

  1. Prevalence of child sexual abuse: a comparison among 4 Italian epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Beatrice; Festa, Fiorella; Di Sanzo, Maria Angela; Guala, Andrea; Pellai, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria), using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated), the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese) and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria). In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials. PMID:26429122

  2. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  3. Counseling Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  4. Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jerry G.

    1982-01-01

    Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)

  5. The First Lady Talks about Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)

  6. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  7. Penetration of yawed projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J.E.

    1990-10-08

    We used computer simulations and experiment to study the penetration of tungsten-alloy projectiles into a thick, armored steel target. These projectiles, with length-to-diameter ratios of 4, strike the target with severe yaws, up to 90{degree}(side-on-impact), such as might be induced in an originally longer projectile by a multiple-spaced plate array. In this study, we focus on the terminal ballistics of these projectiles and ignore how the yaw was induced. We found that the minimum penetration depth occurs at 90{degree}yaw. This case is well approximated by the two-dimensional plane-strain penetration of a side-on cylinder. The ratio of penetration depth to diameter, P:D, for this case is larger than that for a sphere because the plane-strain geometry lacks hoop stress, which is activated in axisymmetric geometry. A more surprising result of work is that the penetration at 60{degree} yaw is only slightly deeper than that of the side-on impact. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  9. Drugs of abuse--opiates.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, W; Wesson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, for which there are specific diagnostic criteria, and an understanding of the pharmacology of opiates of abuse and the medications used in treating opiate dependence. The opiate agonist, methadone, is useful for both detoxification and maintenance. The opiate antagonist, naloxone, is the treatment of choice for opiate overdose, and naltrexone, also an opiate antagonist, is a useful adjunct in subgroups of opiate-dependent patients for preventing relapse. New medications for the treatment of opiate dependence are being developed. PMID:2161588

  10. Chainsaw penetrating neck injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, A F

    1995-06-01

    A case of chainsaw injury to the neck is described. Previous reports in the English language are exceedingly rare. A brief discussion of safety features on chain saws is followed by a review of selective vs. mandatory surgical exploration in penetrating neck trauma, including the role of ancillary diagnostic tests.

  11. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  12. Jet penetration in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.; Kusubov, A.

    1991-05-01

    We describe a phenomenological model which accounts for the mechanical response of glass to intense impulsive loading. An important aspect of this response is the dilatancy accompanying fracture. We have also conducted a number of experiments with 38.1-mm diameter precision shaped charges to establish the performance against various targets and to allow evaluation of our model. At 3 charge diameters standoff, the data indicate that both virgin and damaged glass offer better (Bernoulli-scaled) resistance to penetration than either of 4340 steel, or 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Time-resolved measurements indicate two distinct phases of jet penetration in glass: An initial hydrodynamic phase, and a second phase characterized by a slower penetration velocity. Our calculations show that at early time, a crater is formed around the jet and only the tip of the undisturbed jet interacts with the glass. At late time the glass has collapsed on the jet and degraded penetration continues via a disturbed and fragmented jet.

  13. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  14. Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented.

  15. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  16. [Child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Pitche, P

    2005-11-01

    Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures.

  17. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  18. Ground-penetrating rada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuma, W. R.

    The theory and applications of digital Ground-Penetrating Radar were discussed at a 5-day seminar held at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, People's Republic of China, in April. Cohosted by the Department of Applied Geophysics and Canada-China Geoscience, more than 60 senior geophysicists, engineers, technical specialists, university professors and researchers attended.Focus of the meeting was the expanded uses of the new deep-penetrating fully digital PulseEKKO, which is gaining wide acceptance around the world. Attendees showed intense interest in this new and unique technology. Applications covered were groundwater and mineral exploration; engineering, construction and toxic waste site surveying; tunnel and underground mine probing for potential geological hazards, blind ore zones, karst cavities and solution pathways; and locating buried objects such as petroleum storage tanks, unexploded bombs and archeological remains.

  19. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  20. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  1. Abuse during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ...

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  3. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  4. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  5. Penetrating extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts.

  6. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases. PMID:2909975

  7. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  8. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  9. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  10. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  11. Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    A series of four documents address the definition and identification of child abuse and neglect. In the first, which is designed for professionals, a historical review is followed by discussion of clinical and social evidence of abuse. Resources for managing child abuse are described, and personnel functions are outlined. The second document,…

  12. Dynamics of Parental Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Eugene; Schlater, Theodore L.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of the various categories of parental abuse are examined with special emphasis on abuse by adult offspring living in the same household or adults acting as caretakers or legal guardians for their elderly parents. Society's role in the dynamics of parental abuse is examined.

  13. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  14. Assessment of Professionals' and Nonprofessionals' Attitudes toward Child Abuse in Croatia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajdukovic, Marina; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by 154 Croatian professionals involved with abused children and 152 Croatian individuals without such involvement were analyzed in terms of attitudes toward conditions, causes, and reactions to child abuse; congruency of factor structures; attitude intensity toward child abuse; and influence of individual characteristics…

  15. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  16. Ground-penetrating radar: use and misuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olhoeft, Gary R.

    1999-10-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to explore the subsurface of the earth since 1929. Over the past 70 years, it has been widely used, misused and abused. Use includes agriculture, archaeology, environmental and geotechnical site characterization, minerals, groundwater and permafrost exploration, tunnel, utility, and unexploded ordnance location, dam inspection, and much more. Misuse includes mistaking above ground reflections for subsurface events or mapping things from off to the side as if they were directly below, synthetic aperture processing of dispersive data, minimum phase deconvolution, locating objects smaller than resolution limits of the wavelength in the ground, ignoring Fresnel zone limitations in mapping subsurface structure, processing radar data through seismic software packages without allowing for the differences, mapping the bottom of metal pipes from the top, claiming to see through thousands of feet of sediments, and more. GPR is also being abused as the regulatory environment changes and the radiofrequency spectrum is becoming more crowded by cellular phones, pagers, garage door openers, wireless computer networks, and the like. It is often thought to be a source of interference (though it never is) and it is increasingly interfered with by other radiofrequency transmitters.

  17. The deep penetrating nevus.

    PubMed

    Strazzula, Lauren; Senna, Maryanne Makredes; Yasuda, Mariko; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-12-01

    The deep penetrating nevus (DPN), also known as the plexiform spindle cell nevus, is a pigmented lesion that commonly arises on the head and neck in the first few decades of life. Histopathologically, the DPN is wedge-shaped and contains melanocytes that exhibit deep infiltration into the dermis. Given these features, DPN may clinically and histopathologically mimic malignant melanoma, sparking confusion about the appropriate evaluation and management of these lesions. The goal of this review is to summarize the clinical and histopathological features of DPN and to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for dermatologists.

  18. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  19. International issues in abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Lori D; Kelly, Patrick; Al-Eissa, Majid; Otterman, Gabriel J

    2014-12-01

    In the decades since Dr. John Caffey described a series of children with chronic subdural hematoma and long bone fractures, there has been a substantial increase in the medical recognition of various forms child abuse. In the United States, the term shaken baby syndrome was coined to explain a constellation of injuries assumed to be the result of violent shaking of infants. After improved understanding of the variety of mechanisms that occur when children are abused, abusive head trauma (AHT) has become the recommended terminology. AHT is a more comprehensive term that reflects the brain injuries that children suffer as the result of abuse. AHT continues to include shaking as a mechanism of injury as well as shaking with impact, impact alone, crushing injuries or combinations of several mechanisms. The medical community in the United States has led the way in developing new terminology and research to describe this unique and devastating form of abuse. The globalization of medicine and rapid information transfer has resulted in AHT becoming well-recognized internationally as a form of serious and fatal child abuse. This paper will review the historical basis in the United States for the diagnosis of AHT. We will also review some of the current international issue in epidemiology, diagnosis, legal processes and outcomes in selected countries/regions where child abuse physicians are actively involved in the evaluation of AHT. PMID:25501737

  20. Food for thought [on child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Tan, M

    1999-01-01

    This article uncovers the hidden side of child rape and sexual abuse in the Philippines. The imposition of the death penalty, however, is not the solution to the problem because, firstly, child abuse often occurs over a prolonged period of time, before a complaint is made; secondly, child abuse cases will not make it to courts unless an adult recognizes the problem; thirdly, victims often keep silent because they know adults will not believe them and will blame them instead; fourthly, many victims keep silent to protect a mentor, especially a relative; finally, child sexual abuse involves authoritarian power relations. Thus, this article suggests preventive measures to prevent incidents from occurring. These are: recognizing that there is a problem, identifying the problem through rigorous research, identifying local risk factors that lead to abuse, and recognizing that children can prevent abuse. No one can heal a sexually abused child; only the victim can do this, given the opportunity and support to move forward on the road toward becoming a survivor.

  1. Development of a Rover Deployed Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Schutz, A. E.; Campbell, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    Development of a rover deployable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) involves: the nearly finished design and testing of a transducer array with high frequency (bistatic) and low frequency (monostatic) components; and design and development of a complete impulse GPR system.

  2. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  3. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  4. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  5. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  6. Child abuse: a study of the child's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Moore, C; McPhee, J; Trought, P

    1986-01-01

    This study ascertained the child's response to various types of abuse and neglect. With interviews and questionnaires for the staff of a child psychiatric unit, the mothers and the children involved, we assessed the severity, frequency and duration of physical abuse, verbal abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect or sexual abuse of children. The physically abused children accepted blame for mild but not severe mistreatment. Verbally and sexually abused children did not believe it was their fault if the mistreatment was moderately extensive but did if it was mild or severe. The relationship between extent of abuse and blame was less clear for neglect, but children usually though it was their fault. Verbal and sexual abuse appeared to have a greater impact on the children's perception of themselves and the world. Verbally abused children were more angry and more pessimistic about their future. Although physical abuse appeared to make some children feel they were unwanted at birth, how much the mother wanted her children was not related to the extent of any type of abuse. Both the type and extent of mistreatment appear to have different effects on the child's subjective experience. The use of the visual analogue scale in this study made it possible to differentiate a continuum of severity and frequency of five types of mistreatment without the need for definition.

  7. Benefits and Limits of Abuse-Deterrent Painkillers.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Hollie; Hanson, Karmen

    2016-02-01

    Abuse of opioid prescription products, meant to reduce pain, has been making headlines in recent years as a growing problem not only in rural and urban areas, but also across population groups. Policymakers looking for effective ways to reduce such abuse are employing various strategies, including setting up prescription drug monitoring programs. Another approach gaining attention involves encouraging or requiring the use of prescription drug formulas that can help deter abuse of opioid painkiller products.

  8. Analysis of sexual abuse hotline reports.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R L; Pierce, L H

    1985-01-01

    As concern about physical child abuse and neglect has increased, so too has the realization that children are also sexually exploited and abused. Yet, many protective service workers are often ill prepared to perform the difficult task of treating the abused child and his/her family. Through the analysis of sexual abuse hotline reports, the central aim of this study was to generate findings that would increase the knowledge base of protective service workers and private therapists engaged in treating sexually abused children and their families. To accomplish this task, and using seven classes of variables, analysis was performed on 205 substantiated cases of childhood sexual abuse. A number of important conclusions were discovered including: One-third of the cases had been reported to the agency previously; less than one-half (48%) of the victimized children were living with their natural fathers; natural fathers were identified as the perpetrator in 39% of the cases; and in contrast to other studies, a great number of cases (43%) involved vaginal intercourse between the victim and the perpetrator. Implications for treatment are also discussed, particularly in relation to improving resources and specialized training for workers involved in this highly sensitive area of practice.

  9. Genetic variability and molecular responses of root penetration in cotton.

    PubMed

    Klueva; Joshi; Joshi; Wester; Zartman; Cantrell; Nguyen

    2000-06-12

    Compacted soils restrict root penetration hindering productivity. In this paper, genetic variability of cotton (Gossipium spp.) root capacity to penetrate hard soil layers and the patterns of gene expression during penetration event were investigated. To mimic hard soil layers, wax-petrolatum mixtures were used. Genetic variability among 27 cotton genotypes for the root capacity to penetrate wax-petrolatum disks of 500-700 g wax/kg of mixture was high indicating that breeding efforts targeted to improve this trait can be successful. In the root tips of a cotton strain with high root penetrating ability (G. hirsutum HS 200) which penetrated through wax-petrolatum disks (P), quantity of four polypeptides with molecular weights 35-66 kDa increased compared to those root tips which grew in the absence of mechanical impedance (NP). Differential display showed significant differences in the sets of mRNA expressed in P and NP roots. Out of a total of 917 cDNAs scored in the differential display experiment, 118 cDNAs, or 13%, were specific to P roots and hence could be associated with the root penetration event. Further detailed study of gene expression in penetrated roots will pinpoint molecular factors involved in root penetration ability in cotton. PMID:10773338

  10. Genetic variability and molecular responses of root penetration in cotton.

    PubMed

    Klueva; Joshi; Joshi; Wester; Zartman; Cantrell; Nguyen

    2000-06-12

    Compacted soils restrict root penetration hindering productivity. In this paper, genetic variability of cotton (Gossipium spp.) root capacity to penetrate hard soil layers and the patterns of gene expression during penetration event were investigated. To mimic hard soil layers, wax-petrolatum mixtures were used. Genetic variability among 27 cotton genotypes for the root capacity to penetrate wax-petrolatum disks of 500-700 g wax/kg of mixture was high indicating that breeding efforts targeted to improve this trait can be successful. In the root tips of a cotton strain with high root penetrating ability (G. hirsutum HS 200) which penetrated through wax-petrolatum disks (P), quantity of four polypeptides with molecular weights 35-66 kDa increased compared to those root tips which grew in the absence of mechanical impedance (NP). Differential display showed significant differences in the sets of mRNA expressed in P and NP roots. Out of a total of 917 cDNAs scored in the differential display experiment, 118 cDNAs, or 13%, were specific to P roots and hence could be associated with the root penetration event. Further detailed study of gene expression in penetrated roots will pinpoint molecular factors involved in root penetration ability in cotton.

  11. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  12. [Sexual abuse of minors].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The author gives a definition of sexual abuse on minors, emphasizing its more frequent occurrence inside the family (incest) than outside. He describes the countertransference reactions induced by this type of abuse, especially in professional teams who tend to put each other in a position of rivalry. Next, he sketches the pathogeny of sexual abuse, the clinical signs and the long term effects. The author deduces what should be the first signs of sexual abuse and proposes a pattern of diagnosis. Finally, he explains a management model, of the crisis and the follow-up of this difficult situation. PMID:1670411

  13. Elder physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse.

  14. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  15. Projectile penetration into representative targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, George W.

    1994-10-01

    The differential equation representing the penetration of a 'hard' projectile into semi-infinite, homogeneous target materials is solved for several generic combinations of the target material/projectile characteristics. A 'hard' projectile is defined as one that does not change size or shape and does not lose mass during the penetration process. The target materials evaluated range from the structurally 'soft' materials (liquids) to structurally 'hard' materials (armor plate) with viscous and fluid dynamic drag considered. The solutions to the differential equation(s) are expanded in series form to demonstrate the underlying parameters governing projectile penetration and the way they interact to limit penetration in a given target material. It is shown that the fundamental parameter governing projectile penetration into structurally 'firm' materials is the initial kinetic energy of the projectile divided by the frontal area of the projectile and the inherent structural characteristic of the target. Experimental data on the penetration of steel spheres into ballistic gelatin and for armor piercing bullets into armor plate materials are used to verify the characteristics of the solutions to the equation of motion for the projectile and to demonstrate how penetration can vary with projectile size and target characteristics. The penetration equation for a single 'hard' target material is used to develop a solution for the penetration of multilayered 'hard' target materials.

  16. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  17. Intrafamilial Sexual Abuse: Brother-Sister Incest Does Not Differ from Father-Daughter and Stepfather-Stepdaughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain

    2002-01-01

    A study compared 72 girls (ages 5-16) sexually abused by brothers, fathers, or stepfathers. Results suggested few differences in characteristics of sexual abuse. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest group. More victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically significant distress (90%), than stepfather victims…

  18. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  19. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  20. Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)-p53-p21 axis in mediating neural stem/progenitor cell cycle arrest in co-morbid HIV-drug abuse exposure.

    PubMed

    Malik, Shaily; Saha, Rinki; Seth, Pankaj

    2014-06-01

    Neurological complications in opioid abusing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) patients suggest enhanced neurodegeneration as compared to non-drug abusing HIV-1 infected population. Neural precursor cells (NPCs), the multipotent cells of the mammalian brain, are susceptible to HIV-1 infection and as opiates also perturb their growth kinetics, detailed mechanistic studies for their co-morbid exposure are highly warranted. Using a well characterized in vitro model of human fetal brain-derived neural precursor cells, we investigated alterations in NPC properties at both acute and chronic durations. Chronic morphine and Tat treatment attenuated proliferation in NPCs, with cells stalled at G1-phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore HIV-Tat and morphine exposure increased activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), enhanced levels of p53 and p21, and decreased cyclin D1 and Akt levels in NPCs. Regulated by ERK1/2 and p53, p21 was found to be indispensible for Tat and morphine mediated cell cycle arrest. Our study elaborates on the cellular and molecular machinery in NPCs and provides significant mechanistic details into HIV-drug abuse co-morbidity that may have far reaching clinical consequences both in pediatric as well as adult neuroAIDS.

  1. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  2. Group Work with Sexually Abused Children: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn

    Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…

  3. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  4. Sexual Abuse of Vulnerable Young and Old Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.

    2007-01-01

    During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…

  5. Major Concerns Associated with Recovered Memories of Childhood Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Kristina J.

    When accusations of child abuse result from false memories, all parties involved suffer. This paper examines some of the issues surrounding recovered memories of childhood abuse. The mechanisms that the mind may employ to deal with traumatic events, such as disassociation and repression, must be further explored through experimental research to…

  6. Teachers That Sexually Abuse Students: An Administrative and Legal Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.

    This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…

  7. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  8. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  9. Elder abuse and neglect: a survey of Irish general practitioners.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, James G; Riain, Ailis Ni; Collins, Claire; Long, V; O'Neill, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to survey general practitioners (GPs) in Ireland regarding their experience with elder abuse. A random sample of 800 GPs were mailed a survey in March 2010, with a reminder in May 2010, yielding a 24% response rate. The majority, 64.5%, had encountered elder abuse, with 35.5% encountering a case in the previous year. Most were detected during a home visit. Psychological abuse and self-neglect were most common. Most GPs in Ireland have encountered cases of elder abuse, most were willing to get involved beyond medical treatment, and 76% cited a need for more education. PMID:24779541

  10. Abused and Neglected Elderly: What Can the Family Physician Do?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels H.

    1986-01-01

    Family abuse involving children and spouses is estimated to occur with one Canadian child or spouse in 10. The same figures probably apply to elderly persons cared for by a family member. This paper defines and describes abuse and neglect of the elderly, reviews the stress factors that often underlie it and profiles high-risk candidates for giving and receiving abuse. It provides guidance in detecting the occurrence of abuse of the elderly and suggests means of handling such occurrences in a humane, sensible and protective way. PMID:20469454

  11. Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

  12. Attribution retraining with sexually abused children: review of techniques.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne; Hazzard, Ann; Campbell, Susan K; Lang, Claudia B

    2002-02-01

    Clinicians increasingly use empirically based cognitive-behavioral techniques in their treatment of child victims of sexual abuse. Attribution retraining is often a primary component of this work, and it involves various techniques aimed at decreasing abuse-related self-blame and encouraging the child to attribute responsibility for the abuse to the perpetrator This article reviews literature that highlights the complexity of self and other blame for sexually abused children in terms of developmental status, the multifaceted nature and interrelationships of abuse-specific attributions, and the psychological effects of self-blame and perpetrator blame. A review of written attribution retraining techniques developed by diverse authors for use with sexually abused children and their nonoffending parents is provided, including written and verbal techniques and techniques using games and the arts. The relative utility of different approaches with children of various stages of development is discussed, along with the need for empirical research regarding the effectiveness of these techniques.

  13. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    PubMed

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change.

  14. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  15. Penetration seals for TFTR shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1980-12-01

    The penetrations of the shielding provided for TFTR are required to be sealed to avoid radiation streaming. This report provides a discussion of the properties required for these penetration seals. Several alternate designs are discussed and evaluated and designs recommended for specific applications.

  16. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  17. Substance abuse in women: relationship between chemical dependency of women and past reports of physical and/or sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, G B; Andersen, M D

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe a group of chemically dependent females who were involved with the criminal justice system and note if they reported histories of physical/sexual abuse. Data for this study were obtained from Andersen's 1986 research project funded by the Michigan Department of Corrections and Wayne State University. The findings showed that 19.7% reported histories of sexual abuse and that 27% reported histories of physical/sexual abuse prior to incarceration. These findings suggest a need for a sexual assessment tool and for further research on the relationships of sexual/physical abuse and chemical dependency. PMID:2606585

  18. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  19. Teen dating abuse: recognition and interventions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sally Ann; Rosenbluth, Barri; Cotton, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Teen dating abuse, also known as teen dating violence, is a significant public health issue. Adolescents with a history of dating abuse may struggle academically and experience increased risk for serious injury or even death. They may engage in risky sexual behavior, substance abuse, and unhealthy dieting and exhibit suicidal behaviors. School nurses may be the first adults that teens confide in when experiencing dating abuse and may lack the knowledge and skills to intervene with teens involved in unhealthy dating relationships. Beginning in 2008, Dell Children s Medical Center in Austin, Texas, partnered with SafePlace (a local nonprofit that serves survivors of sexual and domestic violence) to address dating abuse. This collaboration is part of Start Strong Austin, one of 11 communities nationwide participating in the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships Initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The Start Strong model employs innovative strategies in education, community engagement, policy change, and social marketing to prevent dating abuse before it starts.

  20. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  1. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  2. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  3. Antitussives and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  5. Gender Differences in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys. PMID:27266537

  6. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L

    2005-06-21

    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.

  7. Static penetration resistance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgunoglu, H. T.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Model test results were used to define the failure mechanism associated with the static penetration resistance of cohesionless and low-cohesion soils. Knowledge of this mechanism has permitted the development of a new analytical method for calculating the ultimate penetration resistance which explicitly accounts for penetrometer base apex angle and roughness, soil friction angle, and the ratio of penetration depth to base width. Curves relating the bearing capacity factors to the soil friction angle are presented for failure in general shear. Strength parameters and penetrometer interaction properties of a fine sand were determined and used as the basis for prediction of the penetration resistance encountered by wedge, cone, and flat-ended penetrometers of different surface roughness using the proposed analytical method. Because of the close agreement between predicted values and values measured in laboratory tests, it appears possible to deduce in-situ soil strength parameters and their variation with depth from the results of static penetration tests.

  8. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  9. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  10. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799

  11. [Child psychiatric assessment and the debate regarding the abuse of abuse].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    1995-03-01

    The current discussion on false allegations in sexual abuse cases has led to a polarization in the views expressed about the credibility of children. Some authors even speak of a "child sexual accuse syndrome" or of a "sexual abuse allegation in divorce" (SAID) syndrome. A phenomenological analysis of the multiple reasons for misinterpretations is presented. Instead of stressing the importance only of false positives in child sexual abuse questions, an attempt is made to describe reasons for false negatives. Based on a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive child psychiatric experts in connection with court cases, there does not appear to be an increase in false accusations. Rather, only about one third of the cases even involved suspected sexual abuse. Sexual abuse allegations were much more frequent in girls than in boys. Of 20 abuse allegations we judge four to be false allegations. In only one of these cases, that of an adolescent girl who had been abused in childhood, was the false allegation intended.

  12. Simulation of penetration into porous geologic media

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O Y; Liu, B T; Lomov, I N; Antoun, T

    2005-05-31

    We present a computational study on the penetration of steel projectiles into porous geologic materials. The purpose of the study is to extend the range of applicability of a recently developed constitutive model to simulations involving projectile penetration into geologic media. The constitutive model is non-linear, thermodynamically consistent, and properly invariant under superposed rigid body motions. The equations are valid for large deformations and they are hyperelastic in the sense that the stress tensor is related to a derivative of the Helmholtz free energy. The model uses the mathematical structure of plasticity theory to capture the basic features of the mechanical response of geological materials including the effects of bulking, yielding, damage, porous compaction and loading rate on the material response. The new constitutive model has been successfully used to simulate static laboratory tests under a wide range of triaxial loading conditions, and dynamic spherical wave propagation tests in both dry and saturated geologic media.

  13. Physical abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D E; Cecutti, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal clinic, private obstetricians' offices in a large city, private family physicians' offices in a large city, family physicians' offices in a small town, and a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: English-speaking women at 20 weeks' or more gestation attending or admitted consecutively. INTERVENTIONS: Three self-report questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) and the study questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirteen women (2.4%) refused to participate in the survey. Of the 548 women who completed the questionnaires 36 (6.6%) reported physical abuse during the current pregnancy and 60 (10.9%) before it. There were no significant differences in rates of abuse between settings. Of the women abused during the pregnancy 23 (63.9%) reported increased abuse during the pregnancy, and 28 (77.8%) remained with the abuser. Twenty-four pregnant women (66.7%) received medical treatment for abuse, but only 1 (2.8%) told her prenatal care provider of the abuse. Factor analysis revealed three factors associated with physical abuse in pregnancy: "social instability" (comprising low age, unmarried status, lower level of education, unemployment and unplanned pregnancy), "unhealthy lifestyle" (comprising poor diet, alcohol use, illicit drug use and emotional problems) and "physical health problems" (comprising health problems and prescription drug use). The GHQ scores showed that the abused women were significantly more emotionally distressed than the

  14. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  15. Transdermal penetration of UV filters.

    PubMed

    Klinubol, P; Asawanonda, P; Wanichwecharungruang, S P

    2008-01-01

    A penetration study of 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methyl benzylidenecamphor (MBC), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM), 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (EHTMC) and di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (TMB) through baby mouse skin (Mus musculus Linn.) was carried out using a vertical Franz diffusion cell. At 4.4 mg/cm(2) coverage of UV filter on the skin, 2.98 +/- 0.38, 1.15 +/- 0.14 and 0.80 +/- 0.28% of the applied EHMC, MBC and BMBM were detected in the receptor fluid at 24 h after application. Penetrations of UV filter in an ethanolic solution and lotion forms were comparable. EHTMC and TMB showed insignificant penetration across the baby mouse skins. Baby mouse skins kept at 4, -20 and -80 degrees C gave similar EHMC penetration results. Penetrations of EHMC, BMBM, EHTMC and TMB across human epidermis were carried out upon 5 volunteers using the suction blister technique. The results also confirmed the significant penetrations of EHMC and BMBM and the insignificant penetrations of EHTMC and TMB.

  16. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (<120m/s). The results of sphere penetration depth versus projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed.

  17. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (<120m/s). The results of sphere penetration depth versus projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. PMID:24184862

  18. Conservative management of aortic arch injury following penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R K; Cheung, S; Parikh, S P; Asgaria, K

    2015-04-01

    Aortic arch injuries following penetrating trauma are typically lethal events with high mortality rates. Traditionally, the standard of care for patients presenting with penetrating injury and aortic involvement has included surgical intervention. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who was managed non-operatively after sustaining multiple stab wounds to the left chest and presenting with mid aortic arch injury.

  19. Preventing abuse of older people.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Aileen

    2010-10-01

    The author travelled to the United States on a Florence Nightingale Travel Scholarship to study the systems in place to respond to and prevent elder abuse. She visited centres in Orange County, California, and New York City that are involved in dealing with the issue. This article provides a summary of her findings, with emphasis on education and training strategies for healthcare professionals working with older people, and provides recommendations for developments in safeguarding older people in the UK. The author also reviews models of service, models of evaluation and approaches to older people who self-neglect.

  20. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided.

  1. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  2. Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Clyde; And Others

    A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…

  3. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  4. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  5. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  6. Aggression and hostility in substance abusers: the relationship to abuse patterns, coping style, and relapse triggers.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R A; Smith, M

    1995-01-01

    A cohort of 3,367 substance abusers seeking treatment were administered measures of aggression and hostility including the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the NEO Personality Inventory Hostility Scale. Polysubstance abusers scored significantly higher on all measures of hostility and aggression, regardless of whether they abused cocaine or not. Subjects scoring higher on aggression and hostility utilized escape-avoidance, distancing, and confrontational coping styles more regularly. Subjects scoring higher on measures of aggression and hostility reported more situations that triggered their use of substances and less confidence that they could resist using when faced with such situations in the future. This was especially true for situations involving unpleasant internal states, situations involving rejection, and situations involving conflict with family and friends. The implications of these findings for clinical assessment and treatment planning are discussed.

  7. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  9. Investigations into Monochloramine Biofilm Penetration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct b...

  10. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement.

  11. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

  12. Penetrating nontorso trauma: the extremities

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Similar to penetrating torso trauma, nontorso injuries have undergone a fascinating oscillation between invasive and noninvasive approaches. This article discusses an organized approach to the evaluation and initial treatment of penetrating extremity injuries based on regional anatomy and clinical examination. The approach is reliable, efficient and minimizes both delays in diagnosis and missed injuries. Outpatient follow-up is particularly important for patients with extremity injuries who are discharged home from the emergency department. PMID:26022152

  13. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals.

  14. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals. PMID:26844902

  15. Elder Physical Abuse and Failure to Report Cases: Similarities and Differences in Case Type and the Justice System's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Treated initially as a social problem, elder abuse has only recently been criminalized. The criminalization of elder abuse involves penalizing offenders for actively abusing offenders as well as for violating mandatory reporting laws. Mandatory reporting laws exist to encourage professionals to report suspected cases of elder abuse. In this study,…

  16. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. HELP AN ABUSED CHILD Learn about the ... as cigarette burns Choke marks around the neck Circular marks around the wrists or ankles from twisting ...

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  19. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  20. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  1. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  2. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    PubMed Central

    Capriola, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

  3. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Pandey, P. N.; Ghani, A.; Jaiswal, G.

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society's recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI) have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case. PMID:23125489

  4. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507

  5. Abuse in the investigation and treatment of intrafamilial child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of current practice in the investigation and treatment of documented incest abusers on the offenders and families involved. Fifteen offenders attending the Utah Parents United group completed a questionnaire on the sequence of events in the investigation and prosecution of their cases and the concomitant results of the investigation on their job status, living and financial situations, family and social relationships, and media reporting of the abuse. Results indicate that there is great variability in the investigation and prosecution of incest cases and the public announcement of abuse convictions. The consequences of the abuse investigation are devastating for offender and his family in terms of job loss; need for public assistance; family disbandonment through removal of the offender, victim, or both from the family, marital separation, and foster care for nonabused siblings; changes of residence, and the public announcement of the abuse in the media. Results also show that offenders receive little, if any, social support from family or friends. Changes in the current approach to the investigation and prosecution of incest offenders are proposed and include the following: banning the publication of convictions for child abuse; streamlining the legal process so that it is consistent from case to case; and developing diversion programs as alternatives to prison for offenders. Suggested are self-help, court-ordered therapeutic programs, such as Parents United, that are designed for the treatment of families involved in child sexual abuse and incest. The desired outcomes of such a diversion program are low offender recidivism, avoidance of the offender's family being placed on welfare, less reliance on foster care placement for the offender's children, involvement of the offender's family in moving toward reunion when feasible, and the use of existing half-way houses in lieu of incarceration when necessary.

  6. [A case of tianeptine abuse].

    PubMed

    Saatçioğlu, Omer; Erim, Rahşan; Cakmak, Duran

    2006-01-01

    Tianeptine is an antidepressant agent like the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The anxiolytic efficacy of tianeptine is similar to that of tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. Very few cases have been reported in connection with excessive consumption of tianeptine. Although it is not reconciled with results of many studies on excessive consumption of tianeptine, stimulant action has been specifically emphasized on some case reports of tianeptine abuse. These reports indicate that a tolerance is developed, there is a strong mode of feeling, and there are physical withdrawal symptoms if not taken again. Treatment with tianeptine can pose a risk for addicted patients in terms of high doses as well as tolerability. In this article, we report a 24-year-old patient who abused tianeptine for one year. The biological tolerance was excellent, and hepatic parameters were not affected. The patient experienced and seeks a psychostimulant effect. The patient had a previous history of addiction to cannabis, opiates and cocaine. We concluded that the effect of tianeptine and its addiction risk at the patient who had a history of addiction to multiple substances, and spontaneously increased dose of tianeptine during the last one year up to 3000 mg per day at present. In the literature, reports of addictions to antidepressants are scarce and most of them involve agents with amphetamine-like properties, including amineptine and tranylcypromine. Other reports involving other antidepressant agents, including amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tianeptine remain exceptional.

  7. Medical implications of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi

    2005-05-01

    Recognition of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Each year, millions of elderly persons suffer as the result of abuse and neglect. Their quality of life is severely jeopardized in the form of worsened functional status and progressive dependency, poorly rated self-health, feelings of helplessness, and from the vicious cycle of social isolation, stress and further psychologic decline. Other medical implications of abuse and neglect include higher health systems use in the form of frequent ER visits, higher hospitalization, and higher nursing home placement; most importantly, it is an independent predictor for higher mortality. Physicians are well situated in detecting and reporting suspected cases and taking care of the frail elders who are victims of abuse and neglect, but there are barriers on the individual level, and there is a broader need for system change. Through education, training, and reinforcement, there are strategies to get health care professionals more involved and provide effective management protocols and guidelines for us to advocate for our patients in the current epidemic of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:15804552

  8. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking.

  9. Liabilities of a physician confronted with child abuse.

    PubMed

    Vansweevelt, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    Several research questions raises when physicians are confronted with a possible case of child abuse. First, there is a problem of professional secrecy. In most European countries, physicians have the right to speak when confronted with a state of emergency. In other countries, physicians have a duty to speak and alert the police when the life or physical integrity of a person is at stake. A second topic to be discussed involves the possible liability of physicians who do not report child abuse. By not reporting a case of possible child abuse, the physician is respecting the family life of the parents, even though the child might continue to suffer damages. Third and essentially, I analyse the possible liability of physicians who do inform the prosecutor ofa suspected child abuse. Specific criteria are elaborated to establish negligence when physicians report child abuse to the prosecutor. PMID:23984493

  10. Penetration Experiments under Reduced Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Gehlen, M.; Jaquemet, A.; Heller, S.; Sperl, M.; Willnecker, R.

    2013-09-01

    Penetration experiments will find several applications in exploration missions in the near future. Penetrators are common tools for the investigation of physical surface properties. The techniques and theories are widely applied under 1g condition on Earth and the results are used by engineers and scientists. The main contribution to the bearing resistance of a soil is combined of shaft and base resistance [1]. The theories show, that the resistance scales with gravity. Penetration experiments during a parabolic flight campaign have been performed for evaluating this gravity scaling of the bearing resistance in different materials during a parabolic flight campaign in December 2012. The main part of the experiment is composed of a steel rod penetrating into a sample cell. Depth and penetration force are recorded during this process. A sieving mechanism provided the ability of sample preparation during flight. Different compaction regimes of the sample material could be created with a ruttler mounted underneath the sample cell. The parabolic flight campaign consisted of 4 flight days. On each day 13 parabolas with Martian gravity, 12 parabolas with lunar gravity and 6 microgravity parabolas could be performed. Three different sample materials have been examined within the 4 flight days: glass spheres, glass corn and Mojawe sand. The glass spheres and glass corn samples were made of the same material, but with different shape. The Mojawe sand is a natural soil from the Mojawe desert in California (US). The experimental description and the first results will be presented.

  11. Double-Plate Penetration Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    This report compares seven double-plate penetration predictor equations for accuracy and effectiveness of a shield design. Three of the seven are the Johnson Space Center original, modified, and new Cour-Palais equations. The other four are the Nysmith, Lundeberg-Stern-Bristow, Burch, and Wilkinson equations. These equations, except the Wilkinson equation, were derived from test results, with the velocities ranging up to 8 km/sec. Spreadsheet software calculated the projectile diameters for various velocities for the different equations. The results were plotted on projectile diameter versus velocity graphs for the expected orbital debris impact velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/sec. The new Cour-Palais double-plate penetration equation was compared to the modified Cour-Palais single-plate penetration equation. Then the predictions from each of the seven double-plate penetration equations were compared to each other for a chosen shield design. Finally, these results from the equations were compared with test results performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the different equations predict a wide range of projectile diameters at any given velocity, it is very difficult to choose the "right" prediction equation for shield configurations other than those exactly used in the equations' development. Although developed for various materials, the penetration equations alone cannot be relied upon to accurately predict the effectiveness of a shield without using hypervelocity impact tests to verify the design.

  12. Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse characteristics and victims’ emotional and behavioral problems: Findings from a national sample of youth

    PubMed Central

    Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics---penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment---in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with victims’ emotional and behavioral problems. Methods The sample was drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a sample of children investigated by United States child welfare services. Youth in the current study (n = 573, including 234 adolescents) were investigated for alleged sexual abuse. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test for sex differences in abuse characteristics, and to determine whether sex moderated associations between abuse characteristics and emotional and behavioral problems. Results Girls were more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated and to experience penetrative abuse (although differences in penetration status did not emerge among adolescents). Substantiation status and child age were positively associated with caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Sex did not moderate the relationship between abuse characteristics and youth emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Sexual abuse characteristics might not be highly predictive factors when making decisions about services needs. Furthermore, there may not be a strong empirical basis for operating on the assumption that one sex is more vulnerable to negative consequences of abuse than the other, or that abuse affects girls and boys differently. The processes explaining why some victims exhibit more impairment than others are likely complex. PMID:20400178

  13. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed.

  14. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  15. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Mars surface penetrator: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, L. A. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    A point design of a penetrator system for a Mars mission is described. A strawman payload which is to conduct measurements of geophysical and meteorological parameters is included in the design. The subsystems used in the point design are delineated in terms of power, mass, volume, data, and functional modes. The prospects for survival of the rigors of emplacement are described. Data handling and communications plans are presented to allow consideration of the requirements placed by the penetrator on the orbiter and ground operations. The point design is technically feasible and the payload selection scientifically desirable.

  17. Enactment and the treatment of abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a formidable challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to "enactment" inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, with unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and illustrated.

  18. Enactment and the treatment of abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a formidable challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to "enactment" inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, with unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and illustrated. PMID:9559350

  19. Older people's conceptualization of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian J; Killick, Campbell; O'Brien, Marita; Begley, Emer; Carter-Anand, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from eight focus groups involving 58 people aged over 65 years in both urban and rural settings across Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Following training, four older people assisted in facilitation and analysis as peer researchers. Increasing lack of respect within society was experienced as abusive. The vulnerability of older people to abuse was perceived as relating to the need for help and support, where standing up for themselves might have repercussions for the person's health or safety. Emotional abusiveness was viewed as underpinning all forms of abuse, and as influencing its experienced severity. Respondents' views as to whether an action was abusive required an understanding of intent: some actions that professionals might view as abusive were regarded as acceptable if they were in the older person's best interests. Preventing abuse requires a wide-ranging approach including rebuilding respect for older people within society. Procedures to prevent elder abuse need to take into account the emotional impact of family relationships and intent, not just a description of behaviors that have occurred. PMID:24779538

  20. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  1. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  2. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  3. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  4. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  5. Why elder abuse continues to elude the health care system.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Fay S; Paris BE, Barbara E

    2003-01-01

    Elderly men and women of all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds are vulnerable to mistreatment, and most often it goes undetected. For many elderly victims of abuse, the hospital is the only potential site for outside contact and support. An elder abuse program has been created at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, and funding was granted to assist victims with compensation claims; provide counsel and advocacy for victims; and provide support via ongoing telephone contact and referrals to community agencies. Simultaneously, hospital-wide educational seminars and rounds have provided the staff and students with information concerning detection of abuse and neglect. Over a 2-year period, 182 cases were identified and assessed. More than 50% of these cases involved patients with a diagnosis of memory impairment. Five percent of the cases involved a long history of domestic violence. In most cases a family member was identified as the abuser, and in a majority of instances the victim either denied the suspected abuse or tried to rationalize the behavior of the abuser. Patients were afraid of reporting abuse or changing their situation, despite being informed of possible resources. To combat this escalating problem in our growing elderly population, interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians and social workers is often crucial. Communication via the medical record can be key to monitoring patients in the community. There also needs to be ongoing education of all hospital staff in an effort to continually heighten awareness of this problem. PMID:12516011

  6. 20 CFR 667.630 - How are complaints and reports of criminal fraud and abuse addressed under WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fraud and abuse addressed under WIA? 667.630 Section 667.630 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... criminal fraud and abuse addressed under WIA? Information and complaints involving criminal fraud, waste, abuse or other criminal activity must be reported immediately through the Department's...

  7. 20 CFR 667.630 - How are complaints and reports of criminal fraud and abuse addressed under WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fraud and abuse addressed under WIA? 667.630 Section 667.630 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... reports of criminal fraud and abuse addressed under WIA? Information and complaints involving criminal fraud, waste, abuse or other criminal activity must be reported immediately through the...

  8. 20 CFR 667.630 - How are complaints and reports of criminal fraud and abuse addressed under WIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fraud and abuse addressed under WIA? 667.630 Section 667.630 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... criminal fraud and abuse addressed under WIA? Information and complaints involving criminal fraud, waste, abuse or other criminal activity must be reported immediately through the Department's...

  9. The Long-Term Effects of Contact and Noncontact Forms of Child Sexual Abuse in a Sample of University Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 284 university men in South Africa found that a history of child sexual abuse involving physical contact was associated with elevated scores on all subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory, whereas a history of noncontact forms of abuse produced no significant abuse-related effects. (Author/JDD)

  10. Neurobiology of marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Abood, M E; Martin, B R

    1992-05-01

    Marijuana has a long history of abuse yet, as described here by Mary Abood and Billy Martin, there is little evidence that animals will self-administer the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol, or that marijuana stimulates brain reward pathways. While marked tolerance develops to marijuana, it has been difficult to demonstrate physical dependence, and until recently the mechanisms by which cannabinoids produced their behavioral effects were poorly defined. The development of new synthetic analogs played a critical role in the characterization and cloning of the cannabinoid receptor. Insight into cannabinoid receptors may lead to a better understanding of marijuana abuse in humans and provide new therapeutic strategies for several disorders.

  11. Magnetically-Guided Penetrant Applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Orlando G.

    1990-01-01

    Small wheeled vehicle moved inside nonmagnetic enclosure. Miniature magnetically guided truck uses foam-rubber sponge pads to apply penetrant fluid for inspection of welds in hidden surfaces of nonmagnetic tubes. Risk of explosion less than if electric motor used to drive vehicle. Inexpensive to make and made in range of sizes.

  12. Simulation of laser penetration efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, V. V.; Miller, T. F.

    2013-09-01

    The results of numerical simulation of laser beam interaction with a hypothetical metallic material with properties similar to a steel alloy are reported. The numerical simulation was performed using a physical model that includes detailed consideration of surface evaporation, evaporative cooling of the surface and evaporation recoil induced melt ejection. The laser beam ‘penetration’ is considered in terms of melting through the sample or drilling through the sample due to both evaporation and recoil ejection of material. As a demonstration of the predictive capabilities of the model, the average velocity of penetration through a material with steel-like properties is numerically predicted for various laser interaction parameters such as, laser beam radius, laser pulse duration (including CW regime), laser pulse energy and pulse repetition. In particular, the average penetration velocities through a sample due to melting are compared for pulsed and CW lasers of the same power. For the sake of another demonstration of penetration simulation, the temporal dynamics of the position of melt front relative to the sample surface irradiated by a laser beam was computed for different laser pulse repetition rates and constant average laser power. An illustration of the penetration efficiency (W parameter) defined as the amount of energy per unit volume delivered into a target in order to achieve either melting of drilling through a target wall is shown in a wide range of laser pulse parameters covering regimes corresponding to domination of melting through and drilling through.

  13. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  14. Investigation of clandestine graves resulting from human rights abuses.

    PubMed

    Vanezis, P

    1999-12-01

    The role of the forensic scientist in the investigation of clandestine graves resulting from human rights abuses is discussed. Individuals buried in such circumstances have perished following abuse by persons in authority or by other political factions. Such persons have been classed by the abusers as dissidents or political opponents, or have been killed simply for belonging to a particular racial or religious grouping. Guidelines for investigation and the general approach by the scientist are suggested and examples of exhumations are cited in which the author has had personal involvement. These include exhumations carried out in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Chile.

  15. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  16. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  17. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  18. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  19. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  20. Working with the Abused Camper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1990-01-01

    Describes forms of and reasons behind child abuse. Describes camp staff's role as reporters of suspected abuse. Describes techniques for identifying and dealing with abuse victims. Recommends offering victims respect, support, advocacy, and unconditional love. Describes steps staff might take to maximize camp's effectiveness in helping abuse…

  1. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  2. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  3. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  4. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  5. Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a “solvent dominant type” of use to a “cannabis dominant type,” that is, from a “Japanese type” to a “Western type,” (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

  6. Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

    2013-12-01

    Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a "solvent dominant type" of use to a "cannabis dominant type," that is, from a "Japanese type" to a "Western type," (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

  7. Effects of Chronic Solvent Abuse on Public School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullwood, Harry L.; Fournet, Glenn P.

    School youth have been increasingly involved in the dangerous abuse of volatile inhalants. The basic reason to inhale substances is to reach an altered state of consciousness. The 12-17 and 18-25-year-old age groups had the highest rates of inhalant abuse in 1993. Among eighth graders, almost one in five (19%) said they have used inhalants and 5%…

  8. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  9. Which Sexual Abuse Victims Receive a Forensic Medical Examination?: The Impact of Children's Advocacy Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) and other factors, such as the child's age, alleged penetration, and injury on the use of forensic medical examinations as part of the response to reported child sexual abuse. Methods: This analysis is part of a quasi-experimental study, the Multi-Site Evaluation of…

  10. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes

  11. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  12. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  13. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  14. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian Dream?"…

  15. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  16. [Child Abuse: 1979 Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.

    As mandated by Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (Act 124), the document presents the Department of Public Welfare's 1979 report on child abuse. Following an introductory section is a brief section on the nature and scope of the problem. Section III outlines the past year's activities of the Department of Public Welfare's Office of…

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  18. Sexual Abuse of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerstein, Norman S.; Canavan, J. William

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective review of 145 sexually abused children was undertaken to assess the importance of male children as victims and to determine if they pose problems different from those of girl victims. Journal Availability: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610. (Author/PHR)

  19. Treatment for Child Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  20. Effects of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse and HIV/AIDS Next Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  1. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.

    This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…

  2. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  3. Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.

  4. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  5. A study of shame from sexual abuse within the context of a Norwegian incest center.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny

    2013-01-01

    Working with those who have experienced sexual abuse is a complicated matter because such abuse not only involves the violation of the victim's body, but it often generates shame in those involved. This article is based on empirical data from 26 hours of videotaped focus group interviews with 19 adult men and women in a Norwegian incest center who spoke openly of the shame they experienced from sexual abuse as children, parents, and employees. Findings from this study show that shame from sexual abuse can be grouped into seven major categories: (a) family, (b) emotions, (c) body, (d) food, (e) self-image, (f) sex, and (g) therapy.

  6. Sexual abuse of children. Detection and management.

    PubMed

    Herjanic, B; Wilbois, R P

    1978-01-23

    Detection of sexual abuse in children involves careful history-taking, complete physical examination, and most importantly, a high index of suspicion. Primary care physicians play an important role, since they are likely to be the first persons consulted. Complete management includes immediate attention to physical care, prophylactic measures, psychological evaluation and treatment, and collection of medicolegal evidence. For the protection of the child, one person must assume responsibility to coordination of treatment and adequate follow-up.

  7. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

  8. [A classification system of anogenital findings. A diagnostic tool in the assessment of sexually abused children].

    PubMed

    Myhre, A K; Berntzen, K; Selvaag, E; Normann, E K; Ruud, B; Borgen, G

    1998-01-10

    The assessment of suspected sexual child abuse demands teamwork where the paediatrician plays a central role. From a juridical point of view, the task of the paediatrician is to evaluate the anatomic, microbiologic and forensic medical findings. In 1995, in order to improve the quality of this work, Norwegian paediatricians established a peer review group which meets on a regular basis. Based on available literature and the experience of the individual members, a classification system for anogenital findings has been developed. The findings are divided into five classes. Class one comprises findings frequently seen in children who have not been abused. Class two comprises findings not considered to be normal, but for which there could be many different causes. Classes three, four and five represent findings which are increasingly predictive with respect to injury penetration or attempted penetration. Since our knowledge of anogenital anatomy in children who have not been abused is limited, our classification system should be updated regularly. PMID:9481915

  9. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  10. Cytomegalovirus keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, S R; Manning, F J; Proia, A D; Burchette, J L; Foulks, G N

    1995-11-01

    We report the development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) keratitis in the penetrating keratoplasty of a 59-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative woman after uncomplicated corneal transplantation. Immunosuppression with topical cyclosporine A 2% in corn oil and topical prednisolone acetate 1% suspension was used postoperatively. The 15-month postoperative course was complicated by multiple episodes of endothelial rejection, medically controlled elevated intraocular pressure, polymicrobial bacterial (coagulase-negative staphlococcus and alpha-hemolytic streptococcus) keratitis, and endothelial plaque formation with associated hypopyon and epithelial defect. The graft failed and penetrating keratoplasty was repeated. Cytomegalovirus infection of superficial keratocytes in a region of scarring was identified in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and confirmed using mouse monoclonal anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies. Excision of the diseased corneal button with no additional treatment appears to have been curative. Low-grade keratitis was the only manifestation of the CMV infection, and it has not recurred 6 months postoperatively.

  11. Weld penetration and defect control

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, B.A.

    1992-05-15

    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  12. [Penetrating injuries to the pelvis].

    PubMed

    Doll, D; Lenz, S; Exadaktylos, A K; Stettbacher, A; Degiannis, E; Düsel, W; Siewert, J R

    2006-09-01

    As criminality and weapon use increase, general and military surgeons are increasingly confronted with penetrating pelvic injuries both at home and on peacekeeping missions. Penetrating injuries to the iliac vascular axis are associated with considerable mortality, and thus the majority of these emergency patients arrive in a state of deep hypovolemic shock. Concomitant bowel injuries are present in one of five cases, resulting in contamination of the damaged area. Surgical options are simple lateral repair, ligation of the veins, temporary shunt insertion, and prosthetic graft interposition in the injured artery. In extremis ligation of the common or external iliac artery may be the only option to save the patient's life. Surgeons must be aware that damage control surgery and related methods may be needed early on to enable patient survival. PMID:16906417

  13. Jeeps Penetrating a Hostile Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herb

    2009-01-01

    Several jeeps are poised at base camp on the edge of a desert aiming to escort one of them as far as possible into the desert, while the others return to camp. They all have full tanks of gas and share their fuel to maximize penetration. In a friendly desert it is best to leave caches of fuel along the way to help returning jeeps. We solve the…

  14. Take a Multidisciplinary, Team-based Approach on Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    While EDs are well positioned to identify incidents of elder abuse, providers often miss the opportunity. Experts say providers find only one in every 24 cases, and that the pendulum must swing toward over-detection. Investigators acknowledge elder abuse is difficult to confirm, given that disease processes can explain some of the signs. Further, older adults are often reluctant to report abuse because they fear they will be removed from their homes or separated from their caregivers. Given the complexity involved with addressing the issue, investigators recommend EDs establish a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Providing great care to a victim of elder abuse requires time and setting up a circumstance whereby one can actually communicate with the patient reliably and alone. While most states require providers to report suspected cases of elder abuse to Adult Protective Services, there is little evidence this requirement has incentivized more reports in the same way a similar requirement has prompted providers to report cases of suspected child abuse. Investigators advise ED leaders to train and empower every member of their team to identify potential signs of elder abuse. PMID:27439225

  15. How Much Child Sexual Abuse is “Below the Surface,” and Can We Help Adults Identify it Early?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) occurs frequently in society to children aged between 2 and 17. It is significantly more common in girls than boys, with the peak age for CSA occurring when girls are aged 13–17. Many children experience multiple episodes of CSA, as well as having high rates of other victimizations (such as physical assaults). One of the problems for current research in CSA is different definitions of what this means, and no recent review has clearly differentiated more severe forms of CSA, and how commonly this is disclosed. In general we suggest there are four types of behavior that should be included as CSA, namely (1) non-contact, (2) genital touching, (3) attempted vaginal and anal penetrative acts, and (4) vaginal and anal penetrative acts. Evidence suggests that CSA involving types (2), (3), and (4) is more likely to have significant long-term outcomes, and thus can be considered has having higher-impact. From the research to date approximately 15% of girls aged 2–17 experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 12 and 18% of girls experience higher-impact CSA). Approximately 6% of boys experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 5 and 8% experience higher-impact CSA). The data also suggests that in over 95% of cases the CSA is never disclosed to authorities. Thus, CSA is frequent but often not identified, and occurs “below the surface” in the vast majority of higher-impact cases. Helping adults to understand “below the surface” CSA might help them to recognize it early, but there are very few indicators specific to CSA, making this a challenging goal to achieve. Nonetheless, given that CSA frequently occurs with other types of abuse, a training program that focuses on both CSA and other abuse may offer a method to allow both early recognition and prevention by adults in the general population. PMID:23874306

  16. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  17. Building a “smart nail” for penetration tests on Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatchard, T. D.; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    Nail penetration is one safety test that Li-ion cells experience in order to simulate some aspects of an internal short circuit event. To our knowledge, nail penetration is usually performed with an ordinary steel nail. Normally, the only data gathered has been a simple pass/fail result depending on whether or not the cell emitted smoke or flame, along with a thermocouple on the surface of the cell. A "smart nail" has been developed to allow the collection of temperature versus time data at the point of nail penetration. This nail, in conjunction with a thermocouple on the cell surface and tabs on the ends to measure voltage, should provide some new insights into the behavior of cells during this type of abuse testing as well as aid in the developing of safer Li-ion cell chemistries.

  18. Aeromonas hydrophilia infections after penetrating foot trauma.

    PubMed

    Larka, Ulla-Britt; Ulett, Dane; Garrison, Thomas; Rockett, Matthew S

    2003-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus commonly found in natural bodies of water and can cause infection in patients who suffer water-associated trauma or in immunocompromised hosts. The authors present 5 cases of penetrating wound trauma that did not involve any aquatic environment and developed rapidly forming infections. All patients presented with severe pain, cellulitis, ascending lymphangitis, fever, and pain on range of motion of the joint near the traumatic site. Presentation of clinical symptoms mimicked that of a septic joint or of severe streptococcal infection. All patients required surgical incision and drainage, intravenous and oral antibiotics using levofloxacin or bactrim, and local wound care. Results from cultures taken intraoperatively showed only A hydrophilia in every case. Resolution of symptoms occurred rapidly after surgery, and clinical resolution was seen within 72 hours. Each patient healed uneventfully and returned to preinjury status.

  19. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  20. Skeletal trauma in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2013-11-01

    Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries.

  1. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  2. Contemporary drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Giannini, M C

    1986-03-01

    The physician needs to know the signs, symptoms and recommended treatments of drug overdoses. Overdose of hallucinogens usually does not require drug therapy. Overdose of amphetamines ("uppers") may be complicated by the presence of PCP, a dissociative substance. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the street terminology for contemporary drugs of abuse and to be aware of how users obtain these drugs.

  3. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  4. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia. PMID:6642801

  5. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill. PMID:24779543

  6. Suspected child abuse: cost in medical time and finance.

    PubMed

    Summers, C L; Molyneux, E M

    1992-07-01

    In a prospective study the number of children attending the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital (RLCH) for examination after allegations of child abuse, and the type of abuse involved, was recorded from July to December 1990. The cost to the hospital of these examinations and initial investigations was assessed. The study was carried out in the major and minor accident and emergency departments and the Rainbow Centre of the RLCH. In six months 181 children were examined. Cases of sexual abuse and non-accidental injury were seen in equal numbers. Girls outnumbered boys and 60% were referred by social services. The costs over the six month period were 31,739 pounds. The minimum projected annual cost is 63,500 pounds. We conclude that the cost of running an effective service for the initial assessment of children who are possible victims of child abuse is considerable in practical terms and in medical time. PMID:1519956

  7. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia.

  8. Barbs Facilitate the Helical Penetration of Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) Stingers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zhao, Jieliang; Ye, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration. PMID:25089826

  9. Validated models for predicting skin penetration from different vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ghafourian, Taravat; Samaras, Eleftherios G; Brooks, James D; Riviere, Jim E

    2010-12-23

    The permeability of a penetrant though skin is controlled by the properties of the penetrants and the mixture components, which in turn relates to the molecular structures. Despite the well-investigated models for compound permeation through skin, the effect of vehicles and mixture components has not received much attention. The aim of this Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) study was to develop a statistically validated model for the prediction of skin permeability coefficients of compounds dissolved in different vehicles. Furthermore, the model can help with the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in the permeation process. With this goal in mind, the skin permeability of four different penetrants each blended in 24 different solvent mixtures were determined from diffusion cell studies using porcine skin. The resulting 96 kp values were combined with a previous dataset of 288 kp data for QSAR analysis. Stepwise regression analysis was used for the selection of the most significant molecular descriptors and development of several regression models. The selected QSAR employed two penetrant descriptors of Wiener topological index and total lipole moment, boiling point of the solvent and the difference between the melting point of the penetrant and the melting point of the solvent. The QSAR was validated internally, using a leave-many-out procedure, giving a mean absolute error of 0.454 for the logkp value of the test set.

  10. Cocaine abuse during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Alex M; Natekar, Aniket; Kim, Eunji; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy is a significant public health problem but is infrequently discussed between physicians and patients. The impact of in utero cocaine exposure on pregnancy and the baby has received significant media attention in preceding decades because of fears of teratogenicity, long-term health consequences, and poor cognitive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We sought to review the medical literature examining these phenomena. We identified risks to the pregnancy and baby in women abusing cocaine during pregnancy. These include preterm birth, placenta-associated syndromes (e.g., placental abruption, preeclampsia, and placental infarction), and impaired fetal growth. Long-term neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits include (but are not limited to) poorer language development, learning and perceptual reasoning, behavioural problems, and adverse effects on memory and executive function. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously because cocaine abuse may be accompanied by many other maternal and sociodemographic risk factors, so it is difficult to ascertain the effect of cocaine alone. Therefore, it is critical to counsel patients about potential risk, and perhaps more importantly, to treat addiction and to better understand, and advocate for improvements to, these patients' high-risk environment.

  11. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women.

  12. Substance abuse: an overview.

    PubMed

    Comerci, G D; Schwebel, R

    2000-02-01

    Substance abuse continues to be a major adolescent health risk. Despite encouraging trends toward decreased drug use in the late 1980s, an increase in use occurred in the early 1990s and only now is beginning to level off. A brief update on the status of the most commonly abused substances is provided. A discussion of current research is given in support of viewing drug addiction as a medical condition, i.e., a "brain disease." Reasons are suggested to explain why adolescents use and abuse drugs and why trends occur in their use. Two aspects of diagnosis are reviewed: psychiatric and medical comorbidity and drug screening and laboratory assessment of the adolescent. Prevention and early intervention are presented with an emphasis on drug education, behavioral wellness, family communication, doctor-patient discussion and assessment, and referral. Commentary is made on the ethics of care; issues of confidentiality and the right to privacy with regard to drug testing and sharing of information are explored. A review of various policy statements of the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical organizations is presented.

  13. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  14. Enhanced regional brain metabolic responses to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    While dopamine (DA) appears to be crucial for cocaine reinforcement, its involvement in cocaine addiction is much less clear. Using PET we have shown persistent reductions in striatal DA D2 receptors (which arc predominantly located on GABA cells) in cocaine abusers. This finding coupled to GABA`s role as an effector for DA led us to investigate if there were GABAergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission). Methods: The experimental subjects consisted of 12 active cocaine abusers and 32 age matched controls. Each subject underwent two PET FDG scans obtained within 1 week of each other. The first FDG scan was obtained after administration of placebo (3 cc of saline solution) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG; and the second after administration of lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG. The subjects were blind to the drugs received. Results: Lorazepam-induced sleepiness was significantly greater in abusers than in controls (p<0.001). Lorazepam-induced decreases in brain glucose metabolism were significantly larger in cocaine abusers than in controls. Whereas in controls whole brain metabolism decreased 13{+-}7 %, in cocaine abusers it decreased 21{+-}13 % (p < 0.05). Lorazepam-induced decrements in regional metabolism were significantly larger in striatum (p < 0.0 1), thalamus (p < 0.01) and cerebellum (p < 0.005) of cocaine abusers than of controls (ANOVA diagnosis by condition (placebo versus lorazepam) interaction effect). The only brain region for which the absolute metabolic changes-induced by lorazepam in cocaine abusers were equivalent to those in controls was the orbitofrontal cortex. These results document an accentuated sensitivity to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers which is compatible with disrupted GABAergic function in these patients.

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  16. Management of penetrating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

  17. Demography of penetrating cardiac trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, M J; Brissie, R M; Bessey, P Q; McEachern, M M; Donald, J M; Laws, H L

    1989-01-01

    All cases of penetrating cardiac trauma in 1985 and 1986 in Jefferson County, Alabama, where patients dying of penetrating trauma received autopsies, were retrospectively reviewed. All hospitals in the county plus the single coroner's office provided the records of the 72 patients comprising this study. Incidents occurred most often in the home or residence (70%) by a known assailant (83%) due to domestic/social disputes (73%). Frequency was greatest in the evening hours (73% between 6:00 PM and 3:00 AM), on weekends in spring and summer. Victims tended to be male (86%), black (72%), married (46%), blue collar workers (62%). There were 41 (57%) gunshot wounds, 3 (4%) shotgun wounds, and 28 (39%) stab wounds with an associated mortality rate of 97%, 100%, and 68%, respectively. Prehospital mortality rate (dead at the scene) was 54.2% (39/72), and death on arrival was 26.4% (19/72), for a combined pretreatment mortality rate of 80.6%. All patients who arrived with no vital signs died. Mortality appeared to be related to mechanism of injury, age, race, sex, vital signs on arrival, number and specific cardiac chambers injured, associated major vascular injury, hematocrit, and mode of transportation. Mortality was not related to caliber of weapon, ethanol level, transport time, time from arrival to operation, or transfusion requirements. There were only ten survivors (1 gunshot wound and 9 stab wounds), all of whom had ventricular injuries and no associated major vascular injuries. The ten survivors represented a 71.4% (10/14) salvage rate for those victims arriving with vital signs. Complications occurred in three patients. Hospitalization averaged 7.3 days in the survivors. Penetrating cardiac trauma remains a serious, socially linked disease with a high rate of mortality. Rapid transport, aggressive resuscitation and cardiorrhaphy remain the best treatment. PMID:2730180

  18. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  19. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  20. Chylothorax associated with child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Atsuo; Sato, Kodai; Nakamura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Norihiko; Tanoue, Koji; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of right chylothorax associated with physical abuse in a 10-month-old boy who presented with respiratory decompensation. Chylothorax was improved by thoracic drainage and nutrition management, such as fasting followed by medium-chain triglyceride milk. Chest computed tomography on admission showed bilateral old rib fractures. Accordingly, physical abuse was suspected. Chylothorax of unknown cause in infancy, especially in those with coexisting rib fractures, must be scrutinized for child abuse. PMID:26388541

  1. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  2. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  3. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  4. Initial basalt target site selection evaluation for the Mars penetrator drop test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Quaide, W. L.; Polkowski, G.

    1976-01-01

    Potential basalt target sites for an air drop penetrator test were described and the criteria involved in site selection were discussed. A summary of the background field geology and recommendations for optimum sites are also presented.

  5. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)

  6. Breaking the Abuser-Abused Paradigm in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Strickland, Gloria

    The STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (STOP ABS) Project attempts to implement a community-based discipline model for inner-city elementary schools that avoids both physical and emotional abuse by teachers and students, while contributing to the students' overall development. Prevailing disciplinary models either relate to children as objects to be…

  7. Abusive Partner Relationships in Secondary Schools: Identification and Intervention Strategies for School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protivnak, Jake J.; McRoberts, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    School counsellors occasionally encounter students who are involved in abusive partner relationships that negatively impact their academic, career, and personal/social development. This article will briefly discuss the prevalence and types of abusive student relationships, strategies to assess for both victim and perpetrator, and professional…

  8. Teaching Abuse-Protection Skills to People with Intellectual, Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Adam H.; Kane, Lindsey M.

    2010-01-01

    Lumley and Miltenberger (1997) noted the paucity of empirical investigations involving teaching sexual-abuse-protection skills to people with intellectual disabilities. We reviewed relevant empirical investigations since 1997. Six studies trained sexual-abuse-protection skills, and two also included protection skills related to physical and verbal…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

  10. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  11. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  12. Case Series: Mental Health Needs and Perspectives of Rural Children Reared by Parents Who Abuse Methamphetamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa; Haight, Wendy; Black, James; Choi, Ga-Young; Kingery, Linda; Sheridan, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This case-based, mixed-methods study was undertaken to understand the perspectives and mental health needs of rural children exposed to parental methamphetamine abuse. Method: Participants were 23 children involved with a state child protective agency because of parental methamphetamine abuse. A semistructured interview provided…

  13. Domestic Abuse and Child Contact: Positioning Children in the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year Irish research study, this paper focuses on the decision-making process in child contact, specifically the assessment and management of risk of continuing abuse to young people previously exposed to domestic abuse. A mixed methodological approach involved the completion of survey questionnaires by 219 mothers and the…

  14. Abusive Head Trauma in Young Children: Characteristics and Medical Charges in a Hospitalized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettaro, L.; Berger, R. P.; Songer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the presenting characteristics, hospital course, and hospital charges associated with hospital admissions for head trauma in young children at a regional pediatric trauma center, and to examine whether these factors differ among abused and non-abused subjects. Method: Comparative case series study involving a retrospective…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  16. Female Adolescents with a History of Sexual Abuse: Risk Outcome and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use of female teenagers with a history of sexual abuse. Found that they reported higher rates of adverse outcomes than did teenagers without a background of abuse. Lists protective factors and risk factors that influenced outcomes. (RJM)

  17. Adolescent Clients of Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andris, Lydia M.; And Others

    Many adolescent clients of the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse (DASA) in Washington come also with psychiatric problems, are involved with the legal system, live with someone who abuses drugs or alcohol, have poor social support networks, or live in poverty. This report describes a sample of adolescent clients who received treatment and/or…

  18. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  19. In the Name of God: A Profile of Religion-Related Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Bette L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines cases of religion-related child abuse reported to mental health professionals nationwide and statistically describes cases involving the withholding of medical care, the expulsion of evil in a child, and abuse by persons holding religious authority. The authors argue that society should protect children's rights and welfare whenever they…

  20. Identification and Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Elementary School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Lisa; Bruno, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize aspects of theory and research on child sexual abuse that suggest best practices for identifying and addressing abuse involving elementary school children. Teachers and school counselors often have the most interaction with children this age, yet they may feel inadequately prepared to intervene…

  1. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools.

  2. The patient-physician relationship and the sexual abuse of patients.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The CMA's policy on the patient-physician relationship and the sexual abuse of patients follows a review of policies and initiatives of its provincial and territorial divisions and other professional associations. The CMA's approach to this policy has been to consider the overall patient-physician relationship in order to understand factors associated with functional and dysfunctional relationships, including those involving sexual abuse. In addition to defining abuse of patients by physicians in general and sexual abuse in particular this document gives guidelines on such issues as sexual or romantic relationships with current or former patients and provides educational and preventive strategies. PMID:8199968

  3. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships. PMID:26301436

  5. Blessed be the Children: A Case-Control Study of Sexual Abusers in the Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Cynthia; Fargo, Jamison; Jeglic, Elizabeth; Terry, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Individuals working in churches and other youth-serving institutions have a unique level of access to children, yet the problem of sexual abuse in institutional settings has received scant research attention. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a large sample of clergy (N = 1,121) and applied a social-ecological model of offending to identify risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration. Using a case-control study design that compared clergy sexual abusers with three control groups of clergy, this study focuses specifically on individual-, relationship-, and community-level factors associated with a higher risk of abuse in professional populations. Findings revealed that clergy sexual abusers tended to have more truncated pre-seminary dating histories, and that their dating and sexual partners were more likely to have been male than female. Self-reported sexual abuse history was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual abuse perpetration among clergy. Clergy abusers tended to be more involved with youth and adolescents in their ministries; however, they were observed to relate less well to youth and adolescents than their clergy counterparts. Given widespread changes in our cultural understanding of abuse as well as more specific changes in the organizational approach to seminary education, these differences underscore the role that youth-serving institutions and society can have in the primary prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:26294387

  6. Analyses of Child Sex Abuse Cases in Turkey: A Provincial Case.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    Sexual abuse is a significant problem, especially for children, but only a limited number of sexual abuse cases involving children are reported to the relevant authorities. One hundred and fifty files recorded in the National Judiciary Information System between 2006-2012 relating to cases of child sexual abuse and considered to be within the scope of Offences Against Sexual Integrity pertaining to Turkish Penal Code were analyzed for this research. Statements of the victims, defendants, and witnesses, together with the minutes issued by law enforcement officers, hospital or forensic reports, and arrest warrants were used to collect data. The average values and percentage test analysis were used to assess data. A large portion of the sexually abused children were determined to be between 14 and 17 years of age, female, and had been abused before, while a majority of the abusers were between 19 and 25 years of age, and all of the abusers identified as male. Most of the cases of abuse were planned and carried out under threat, and a certain number of such crimes resulted in pregnancy, were repeated systematically, and became evident when the mothers of the abused children found out or when a pregnant child was referred to a hospital for childbirth. The sexual abuse of children is a significant problem for Turkish society, just as it is for other societies, and it is recommended that further research be conducted with a broader scope in order to present this issue more clearly and to develop solutions.

  7. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  8. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  9. Brainwashing and battering fatigue. Psychological abuse in domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Mega, L T; Mega, J L; Mega, B T; Harris, B M

    2000-01-01

    Intimate partner violence occurs often in the United States; it involves an interrelated combination of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, usually directed against women. The psychological aspect deserves special attention because victims who lose their independence, self-esteem, and dignity tend to remain in abusive situations. The abuse is perpetrated by a domestic partner to maintain power and control in the relationship. To assert control, the abuser uses "brainwashing tactics" similar to those used on prisoners of war, hostages, or members of a cult. Common features of brainwashing include isolation, humiliation, accusation, and unpredictable attacks. The abusive environment produces real and anticipated fear, which contributes to the battered woman's belief that her situation is hopeless and that she must depend on her abuser. She develops coping strategies to deal with her oppressive environment, but eventually exhibits symptoms of "battering fatigue," similar to the battle fatigue of soldiers in combat who, like battered women, live in fear of being killed or severely injured. Recognizing the state of mind of these women can help us understand why it is difficult for them to flee their traumatic environment and why they may resort to suicide or homicide. For healthcare providers to screen and treat their patients adequately, it is imperative that they appreciate the complex and devastating psychological aspects of domestic violence.

  10. Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse risk. At the bivariate level, mothers married to fathers were at lower risk for most indicators of maternal physical child abuse. However, after accounting for specific fathering factors and controlling for background variables, multivariate analyses indicated that marriage washed out as a protective factor, and on two of three indicators was linked with greater maternal physical abuse risk. Regarding fathering factors linked with risk, fathers’ higher educational attainment and their positive involvement with their children most discernibly predicted lower maternal physical child abuse risk. Fathers’ economic factors played no observable role in mothers’ risk for physical child maltreatment. Such multivariate findings suggest that marriage per se does not appear to be a protective factor for maternal physical child abuse and rather it may serve as a proxy for other father-related protective factors. PMID:19581432

  11. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry K.; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  12. A lightweight ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S.K.; Allen, C.M.; Gardner, D.; Wong, H.R.

    1998-12-31

    The detection of buried objects, particularly unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the US in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing humanitarian concern. The application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. Bechtel Nevada, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) has developed several frequency modulated, continuous wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units for the US Department of Energy since 1984. To meet these new technical requirements for high resolution data and UXO detection, STL is moving forward with advances to GPR technology, signal processing, and imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery operated unit that does not require surface contact and can be operated by a novice user.

  13. [Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery].

    PubMed

    Klink, T; Matlach, J; Grehn, F

    2012-08-01

    Patients at high risk of developing complications (e.g. high myopia, aphakia, advanced visual field defects) benefit from non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS). Neovascular glaucoma, traumatic glaucoma or patients with a narrow angle (a scleral spur must at least be visible) are not suitable for NPGS. The aim of deep sclerectomy (DS) is mainly external subconjunctival drainage. Modified with mitomycin C and intrascleral implants, intraocular pressure (IOP) and success of DS are comparable to trabeculectomy. Viscocanalostomy and the further development to canaloplasty aim for blebless IOP control. Viscocanalostomy has an extremely low complication profile but only a slight reduction in IOP. Canaloplasty creates much more favourable results. Combined with phacoemulsification canaloplasty appears to lower IOP comparable to phacotrabeculectomy and demonstrates a more sustainable success compared to canaloplasty alone.

  14. Overview-hard rock penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C. )

    1993-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, borehole instrumentation, acoustic telemetry, slimhole drilling, geothermal heat pumps. A new project to improve synthetic diamond drill bits for hard rock drilling was initiated during the year. Accomplishments during the year include completion of important acoustic telemetry tests in the Long Valley Well. These tests produced the first set of reliable, repeatable data in a drill hole. The results indicate the promise of acoustic transmission through drill pipe for great distances without repeaters. The rolling float meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow was duplicated and sent to six different companies for evaluation in the field. A new slimhole spectral gamma tool for operation at temperatures up to 300 C was fabricated and evaluated in the laboratory. Slimhole drilling for exploration and reservoir characterization was begun with several projects jointly completed with industry.

  15. Sibling Maltreatment: The Forgotten Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Morrill-Richards, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the study of family violence in the past 30 years. However, sibling abuse and its prevalence in the family have largely been overlooked. In this article, the major issues associated with sibling maltreatment are highlighted, and strategies for helping the victims and perpetrators of sibling abuse and their families…

  16. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  17. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  18. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  19. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  20. Angiopep-2 and activatable cell penetrating peptide dual modified nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting and penetrating.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ling; Zhang, Qianyu; Yang, Yuting; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2014-10-20

    Delivering chemotherapeutics by nanoparticles into tumor was influenced by at least two factors: specific targeting and highly efficient penetrating of the nanoparticles. In this study, two targeting ligands, angiopep-2 and activatable cell penetrating peptide (ACP), were functionalized onto nanoparticles for tumor targeting delivery. In this system, angiopep-2 is a ligand of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) which was highly expressed on tumor cells, and the ACP was constructed by the conjugation of RRRRRRRR (R8) with EEEEEEEE through a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) sensitive linker, enabling the ACP with tumor microenvironment-responsive cell penetrating property. 4h incubation of ACP with MMP-2 leads to over 80% cleavage of ACP, demonstrating ACP indeed possessed MMP-2 responsive property. The constructed dual targeting nanoparticles (AnACNPs) were approximately 110 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.231. In vitro, ACP modification and angiopep-2 modification could both enhance the U-87 MG cell uptake because of the high expression of MMP-2 and LRP-1 on C6 cells. AnACNPs showed higher uptake level than the single ligand modified nanoparticles. The uptake of all particles was time- and concentration-dependent and endosomes were involved. In vivo, AnACNPs showed best tumor targeting efficiency. The distribution of AnACNPs in tumor was higher than all the other particles. After microvessel staining with anti-CD31 antibody, the fluorescent distribution demonstrated AnACNPs could distribute in the whole tumor with the highest intensity. In conclusion, a novel drug delivery system was developed for enhanced tumor dual targeting and elevated cell internalization.

  1. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  2. Penetration Analysis of Aluminum Alloy Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nianmei; Yang, Guitong

    Aluminum alloy foam offers a unique combination of good characteristics, for example, low density, high strength and energy absorption. During penetration, the foam materials exhibit significant nonlinear deformation. The penetration of aluminum alloy foam struck transversely by cone-nosed projectiles has been theoretically investigated. The dynamic cavity-expansion model is used to study the penetration resistance of the projectiles, which can be taken as two parts. One is due to the elasto-plastic deformation of the aluminum alloy foam materials. The other is dynamic resistance force coming from the energy of the projectiles. The penetration resistance expression is derived and applied to analyze the penetration depth of cone-nosed projectiles into the aluminum alloy foam target. The effect of initial velocity, the geometry of the projectiles on the penetration depth is investigated.

  3. Anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Landry, G L; Primos, W A

    1990-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing strength and muscle bulk in certain individuals when combined with a proper diet and an intense training program. Any steroid that is anabolic is also androgenic. Anabolic steroids are fraught with numerous side effects, a few of which are potentially life threatening, and some of which are permanent. Most of the side effects are mild and reversible. Use of anabolic steroids in sports is as much a moral issue as a medical one. Drug testing has not been a very successful means to eradicate abuse in the sporting arena. Education alone is probably not the answer to stopping anabolic steroid abuse but is an essential first step in combating this problem. Use of anabolic steroids in athletes is a form of cheating, and use will likely continue, especially if the rewards for success in sports remain so high. Physicians should avoid condemning individuals who choose to use anabolic steroids and encourage discussion of use with their health providers.

  4. Respirator Testing Using Virus Aerosol: Comparison between Viability Penetration and Physical Penetration.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H; Pui, David Y H

    2015-07-01

    Viability, fluorescence (particle volume), photometric, viral RNA, and particle number penetration of MS2 bacteriophage through filter media used in three different models of respirators were compared to better understand the correlation between viability and physical penetration. Although viability and viral RNA penetration were better represented by particle volume penetration than particle number penetration, they were several-fold lower than photometric penetration, which was partially due to the difference in virus survival between upstream and downstream aerosol samples. Results suggest that the current NIOSH photometer-based test method can be used as a quick means to roughly differentiate respirators with different performance against virus aerosols.

  5. Respirator Testing Using Virus Aerosol: Comparison between Viability Penetration and Physical Penetration.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H; Pui, David Y H

    2015-07-01

    Viability, fluorescence (particle volume), photometric, viral RNA, and particle number penetration of MS2 bacteriophage through filter media used in three different models of respirators were compared to better understand the correlation between viability and physical penetration. Although viability and viral RNA penetration were better represented by particle volume penetration than particle number penetration, they were several-fold lower than photometric penetration, which was partially due to the difference in virus survival between upstream and downstream aerosol samples. Results suggest that the current NIOSH photometer-based test method can be used as a quick means to roughly differentiate respirators with different performance against virus aerosols. PMID:25846360

  6. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, kK.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical.

  7. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Kotarski, Jan; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Radowicki, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation defines child sexual abuse as the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. It is estimated that in the world on average one in 3-4 women and one in 6-10 men were victims of sexual abuse in childhood. In Poland, according to the estimates of the Child's Rights Protection Committee, approximately 20% of girls and 5-6% of boys under the age of 15 years has suffered sexual abuse. In 2007 there was an increase in violence victims in all age categories, but the most alarming data concerned minors under 13 years. Girls fall victim to sexual abuse three times more frequently than boys. Sexual abuse of boys frequently involves violence. Data show that there are fewer women than men who execute such actions against a minor. Most victims (49-84%) know the perpetrator, and approximately 14-20% of acts of violence take place within the family. This article presents recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning procedures in cases of suspected sexual abuse of children. PMID:21061918

  9. [Child abuse in the family].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  10. A dentist's social responsibility to diagnose elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Because of the high prevalence of dental disease and consequent need for dental care in the elderly, dentists are in frequent contact with the elderly, thus providing an opportunity for realizing their social obligation to become more involved in diagnosing and reducing elder abuse. Current estimates of the incidence of elder abuse in the US indicate that nearly 10% of the elderly population is affected, and this incidence rate is steadily increasing. Problems of vague definitions regarding abuse, elusiveness of the problem, and limited interest on the part of health care professionals may have deterred dentists from more involvement in the past. Apathy, tunnel vision, and vested interests of dental professionals may also contribute to the poor oral health of the elderly and consequently decrease the elders' quality of life. However, by developing a clear understanding of possible etiologies and by knowing physical and behavioral indicators of abuse, dentists can better fulfill their moral and social obligations and greatly reduce the incidence of elder abuse.

  11. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    PubMed

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance.

  12. Penetration strength of coarse granular materials from DEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Saussine, Gilles; Breul, Pierre; Radjai, Farhang

    2013-06-01

    Field tests are widely used for soil characterization in geotechnical applications in spite of implementation difficulties. The light penetrometer test is a well-known testing tool for fine soils, but the physical interpretation of the output data in the case of coarse granular materials is far less evident. In fact, the data are considerably more sensitive to various parameters such as fabric structure, particles shape or the applied impact energy. In order to achieve a better understanding of the underlying phenomena, we performed a numerical study by means contact dynamics DEM simulations. We consider the penetration of a moving tip into a sample composed of irregular grain shapes and we analyze the influence of the driving velocity and applied energy on the penetration strength. We find that the latter grows with both the penetration rate and energy. Force fluctuations on the tip involve a jamming-unjamming process. The typology of contact network and inter-granular friction play a major role in the fluctuations and measured values of the cone penetration strength.

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-15

    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by the soil

  14. Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Stark, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic impacting penetrators (USIPs) are recent additions to the series of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). A USIP enables a rod probe to penetrate packed soil or another substance of similar consistency, without need to apply a large axial force that could result in buckling of the probe or in damage to some buried objects. USIPs were conceived for use in probing and analyzing soil to depths of tens of centimeters in the vicinity of buried barrels containing toxic waste, without causing rupture of the barrels. USIPs could also be used for other purposes, including, for example, searching for pipes, barrels, or other hard objects buried in soil; and detecting land mines. USDCs and other apparatuses based on USDCs have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The ones reported previously were designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. As shown in the figure, a basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, a backing and a horn connected to the stack, a free mass (free in the sense that it can slide axially a short distance between the horn and the shoulder of tool bit), and a tool bit, i.e., probe for USIP. The piezoelectric stack is driven at the resonance frequency of the stack/horn/backing assembly to create ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. To prevent fracture during operation, the piezoelectric stack is held in compression by a bolt. The bouncing of the free mass between the horn and the tool bit at sonic frequencies generates hammering actions to the bit that are more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations in ordinary ultrasonic drills. The hammering actions

  15. Completing substance abuse treatment in child welfare: the role of co-occurring problems and primary drug of choice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sam; Ryan, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    A significant number of substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system do not complete substance abuse treatments. Consequently, their children experience longer stays in substitute care settings, and the risk of the termination of parental rights is increased. This study identifies and determines the specific factors that explain the completion of substance abuse treatment for substance-abusing caregivers in child welfare. The sample includes 871 caregivers enrolled in the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse waiver demonstration. Approximately 22% of these caregivers successfully completed all required levels of substance abuse treatment. The multivariate models indicate that age, employment status, and legal involvement were significantly associated with the likelihood of completing substance abuse treatment. Heroin users were significantly less likely to complete treatment as compared with alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana users. The findings are discussed in terms of policy and practice implications for public child welfare systems.

  16. Single crystal tungsten kinetic energy penetrators

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.F.; Gogolewski, R.P.

    1992-05-01

    We have explored the terminal ballistic performance of single crystal tungsten as a kinetic energy penetrator. Scientific speculation as to the anticipated penetration performance and nature of the interaction between such a kinetic energy penetrator and semi-infinite and spaced metallic targets has led us to perform laboratory scale experiments and metallographic examinations of post-impact penetrator materials. The single tungsten crystals were ground into kinetic energy penetrators with the [l angle]111[r angle] and [l angle]100[r angle] crystal direction being coincident with the axis of symmetry of the penetrators. The crystals were electro-polished to their final diameter. We, compared the terminal performance at current ordnance speeds of [l angle]111[r angle] single crystal tungsten to 90W-10 (NiFe) cemented tungsten and textured pure tungsten in laboratory scale ballistic experiments against a spaced steel (triple) target at sixty-five degrees obliquity. We also compared the terminal performance of [l angle]100[r angle] and [l angle]111[r angle] single crystal tungsten with 90W-10 and 98W02 (NiFe) cemented tungsten and textured pure tungsten in laboratory scale ballistic experiments against monolithic 4340 alloy steel (HRC = 36) at normal impact. We radiographed the penetrators during the interactions with the targets, we recovered portions of the penetrators after the ballistic experiments, and we conducted metallographic examinations of penetrator remnants. From the radiographic records and the metallographic examinations, we drew conclusions pertaining to insights into the terminal interactions of the penetrators with the targets and suggestions as to improved compositions of the cemented tungsten penetrators.

  17. Developmental milestones in abused children, and their improvement with a family-oriented approach to the treatment of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Parish, R A; Myers, P A; Brandner, A; Templin, K H

    1985-01-01

    Few objective measures of the efficacy of intervention programs in the treatment of child abuse exist. One such measure may be improvement in the developmental delays often seen in abused children. Using the Learning Assessment Profile, we tested 53 abused children, ages 2.5-5 years, just before and after involvement in our Family Development Center Program (FDC). The FDC emphasizes therapy-group-interaction for parents, where alternative ways of expressing anger are explored. Children attend daily preschool classes, and take occasional outside field trips. Of the 53 children tested 42 (79%) showed greater than expected developmental skills gains. Six children demonstrated no improvement in developmental skills, four of whom had severe developmental delays in one or two areas. Fine motor and language skills were significantly delayed for the group as a whole; these areas showed the greatest improvement after FDC. There did not appear to be an overall association between increased improvement in developmental skills and length of time in the FDC program, although certain subgroups of children appeared to improve with time while others appeared to lose ground. A five-year follow-up study of these children is presently underway. We conclude that a program which involves both parent and child, and focuses on their interaction, appears to be effective in dealing with abusive families; monitoring developmental levels in the abused children is one means of assessing their progress in such a program. Further controlled prospective trials are needed in this area.

  18. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  19. A Systems Approach to Child Abuse: Management and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asen, Karl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An approach to the treatment of child abuse used in a British clinic involves interventions that block or change destructive family interaction patterns. Real life stress situations are recreated in a multifamily group so that families can find new, nonviolent solutions to everyday problems. (MSE)

  20. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  1. Using hidden cameras to monitor suspected parental abuse.

    PubMed

    Arterburn, T

    2001-01-01

    In using hidden cameras to monitor suspected parental abuse a security requirement or an invasion of privacy? Covert surveillance of patients suspected of having Munchausen syndrome by proxy at an Atlanta children's hospital resulted in considerable media scrutiny when researchers published their findings. This article presents details of the research, the involvement of security officers, and the reactions of local authorities and health officials.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  3. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  4. TRAPPED: Technology as a Barrier to Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David; Brinkley, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 259 undergraduates at a large southeastern university designed to assess the degree to which individuals involved in abusive relationships would report that technology in the form of text messages, email, and Facebook would impair their ability to terminate the relationship. Almost sixty percent…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  6. Resources for Fighting the Spread of Narcotics Abuse among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasil'ev, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Survey data on the problem of drug abuse in Russia show a high level of awareness of the issue among young people. To reduce the level of drug use in Russia, a comprehensive, focused, and coordinated program involving representatives of official state and social institutions, as well as institutions of civil society, is needed. Combining their…

  7. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  8. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  9. "Normal" Childhood Sexual Play and Games: Differentiating Play from Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Coakley, Mary

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 128 undergraduate female students indicated that 44% had experienced cross-gender sexual play as children, which was often seen as involving persuasion, manipulation, or coercion. A typology of six kinds of sexual play experiences was derived. Discussion focuses on the differentiation of childhood sexual abuse from play and gender…

  10. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  11. Identifying Sexually Abused Children Using Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper presents a summary of the research literature concerning the psychological and behavioral impact of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. It examines the dynamics involved in the process of making such determinations and examines the utility of using Human Figure Drawings as part of an assessment battery to determine the probability…

  12. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  13. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  14. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  15. Hallucinogenic plants of abuse.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Nicola

    2008-04-01

    Man has used hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms for centuries. The characteristics of these plants that led to their incorporation into important ritualistic and spiritual traditions, however, have also resulted in their widespread propagation and abuse. Hallucinogenic plants have long been depicted as innocuous substances, yet their unpredictable nature makes intoxication potentially dangerous. In present-day society, there is greater access to these drugs and a growing trend among the younger generations to experiment with these plants in a recreational fashion. Emergency physicians need to be aware of the potential sources of plant hallucinogens and the spectrum of toxic effects. A review of the more common hallucinogenic plants and fungi is discussed with reference to historical, pharmacological and clinical aspects of these intoxications.

  16. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  17. Adolescents in Crisis: Parental Involvement. Hearing before the Subcommitte on Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examining How Best to Help Adolescents with Problems of Alcohol Abuse, Drug Dependence, Premature Sexual Involvement, and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document contains prepared statements, articles, and publications from the Congressional hearing on parental involvement with adolescents in crisis. The prepared statements include those by representatives of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Christian Medical Society, the National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth, the…

  18. Caveats of bisphosphonate abuse

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sanjay; Agashe, Vikas M; Shetty, Vivek; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the common drugs used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Short term benefits of the BPs are well known. However, there are concerns regarding their long term use. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between atypical femoral fractures and BP misuse/abuse as well as study the outcome of management of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of a prospectively studied patients who presented with atypical femoral fractures between January 2010 and August 2012 and were followed up upto June 2014. The cohort consisted of nine female patients (12 fractures) with an average age of 71 years (range 58-85 years). Analysis was done for the indications, duration of BP use, configuration of associated fractures and method of treatment. Results: The mean duration of BP use was 6.6 years (range 4-10 years). BP treatment was initiated without sufficient indication and continued without proper review and followup in most cases. Most patients did not followup and continued to consume BPs without any review by the doctors. All patients had prodromal thigh pain of various duration, which was inadequately investigated and managed before the presentation. Two cases with an incomplete fracture and no thigh pain were managed successfully with conservative treatment. The rest were treated by surgery with intramedullary nailing. The average union time was longer and two fractures went into nonunion which required further surgical intervention. Conclusion: Atypical femoral fractures appear to be strongly related to abuse of BPs. Great care is to be exercised at initiation as well as the continuation of BP therapy, and regular review is required. There is a need for improved awareness among physicians about the possibility of such fractures, and interpretation of thigh pain and radiological findings, especially if the patient has been on BPs therapy. Internal fixation for complete fractures and for

  19. Aluminum penetration and fracture of titanium diboride

    SciTech Connect

    Dorward, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Relatively porous titanium diboride (/approximately equals/96% dense) is penetrated with aluminum metal when used as a cathode in aluminum reduction cells operating at 970/sup 0/C. Metal penetration changes the predominant fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular, and has potentially important ramifications on mechanical properties. 3 refs.

  20. Social Penetration: A Description, Research, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Nicole J.

    Social penetration has been described by S.W. Littlejohn (1992) as "the process of increasing disclosure and intimacy in a relationship." The phrase "social penetration" originated with I. Altman and D. Taylor, the foremost researchers in this area. From other theories, Altman and Taylor developed a unified theory which provided a stable base from…

  1. FRACTIONAL PENETRATION OF PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of fractional penetration curves for liquid droplet penetration of overspray arrestors for discrete droplet diameters from 0.3 to 10 micrometers. (NOTE: Fine particulates are particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less.) These data poin...

  2. Tungsten-uranium penetrator target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, P S; Damkroger, B K

    1994-10-01

    Several studies performed in recent years have been directed at determining the penetration mechanism of long rod kinetic energy penetrators into Rolled Homogeneous Armor (RHA). Much of the work has centered on comparing U-0.75Ti and Tungsten Heavy Alloys (WHA), with the goal being to relate the superior ballistic performance of the uranium materials to a fundamental difference in penetration mechanisms. This has been found to be true, with the dominant mechanisms being adiabatic shear in U-0.75Ti and bulk deformation in WHA. Recent work has sought to achieve improvements in the ballistic performance of the tungsten materials via both mechanical property improvements and alloy modifications designed to bring about adiabatic shear. As an alternative, the authors propose the consideration of materials which utilize mechanisms other than bulk deformation and adiabatic shear to optimize ballistic performance. This paper will present the postmortem analysis of a uranium-20 vol% tungsten composite penetrator fired into RHA at 0{degrees} obliquity. The analysis shows that the penetration mechanism in this material is bulk heating and extensive co-melting of the target and penetrator at the penetration interface. The results of the analysis will then be compared to a similar analysis made of targets into which U-0.75Ti penetrators had been fired.

  3. Urolithiasis related to laxative abuse.

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Huang, C H; Chiang, C P; Huang, C N; Wang, C N

    1993-11-01

    Urinary calcareous disease related to laxative abuse is rare. The gastrointestinal loss of fluid and electrolytes leads to chronic depletion of the urinary volume, relative supersaturation and many other pathophysiologic derangements. These calculi are generally radiolucent with uric acid and ammonium acid urate as major components. We report on a female patient with frequent, repetitive formation of urinary calculi and rapid double J stent encrustation, which were related to the chronic abuse of bisacodyl. Although these stones can be fragmented successfully by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, it seems that the better treatment for this type of stone formation is to avoid the abuse of laxatives.

  4. The political abuse of medicine.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lie, A

    1987-01-01

    The author considers the political abuse of medicine to include the suppression of the health professions through the intimidation of individuals and the control of professional organizations, as well as the active or passive participation of health professionals in punishment or torture of prisoners or political dissidents. He labels as indirect political abuse of medicine government policies which divert health resources and personnel from the health needs of the population. He supports actions to "build up a forceful worldwide public opinion against the political abuse of medicine" and suggests also the adoption of "internationally legally correct procedures binding on members of the world community."

  5. Laxative abuse: epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Roerig, James L; Steffen, Kristine J; Mitchell, James E; Zunker, Christie

    2010-08-20

    Laxatives have been used for health purposes for over 2000 years, and for much of that time abuse or misuse of laxatives has occurred. Individuals who abuse laxatives can generally be categorized as falling into one of four groups. By far the largest group is made up of individuals suffering from an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa. The prevalence of laxative abuse has been reported to range from approximately 10% to 60% of individuals in this group. The second group consists of individuals who are generally middle aged or older who begin using laxatives when constipated but continue to overuse them. This pattern may be promulgated on certain beliefs that daily bowel movements are necessary for good health. The third group includes individuals engaged in certain types of athletic training, including sports with set weight limits. The fourth group contains surreptitious laxative abusers who use the drugs to cause factitious diarrhoea and may have a factitious disorder. Normal bowel function consists of the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water from the gut. Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, while the large bowel absorbs primarily water. There are several types of laxatives available, including stimulant agents, saline and osmotic products, bulking agents and surfactants. The most frequently abused group of laxatives are of the stimulant class. This may be related to the quick action of stimulants, particularly in individuals with eating disorders as they may erroneously believe that they can avoid the absorption of calories via the resulting diarrhoea. Medical problems associated with laxative abuse include electrolyte and acid/base changes that can involve the renal and cardiovascular systems and may become life threatening. The renin-aldosterone system becomes activated due to the loss of fluid, which leads to oedema and acute weight gain when the laxative is discontinued. This can result in reinforcing further

  6. Penetration of aflatoxins through isolated human epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.T.; Kemppainen, B.W.; Norred, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could penetrate through isolated human epidermis (stratum corneum plus viable epidermis). ( UC)AFB1 (7.5-9.3 micrograms) was applied to the stratum corneum of epidermal disks mounted in Teflon diffusion cells. ( UC)AFB1 penetrated chemically unaltered through the isolated epidermis. Chloroform-extractable radioactivity accounted for 82.5 +/- 3.7% of the total penetrating radioactivity in the receptor fluid of the diffusion cells. The rate of penetration was very slow when experiments were conducted under nonoccluded conditions, but was approximately 40 times greater under conditions of occlusion. Penetration after 46 h was less than 0.05% and 3.41% of the applied dose under nonoccluded and occluded conditions, respectively. Total recovery expressed as a percentage of the applied radioactivity was 98.6 +/- 6.4%.

  7. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies.

  8. The analysis of BDNF gene polymorphism haplotypes and impulsivity in methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Tao, Jingyan; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Ying; Han, Bin; Lu, Yuling; Sun, Haiwei; Wei, Youdan; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Shengzhen; Wu, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jiajia; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of evidence showed that genetic factors might contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Data from genetic scans in humans suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophic factor family, may be associated with substance abuse or dependence. To test the hypothesis that the BDNF gene polymorphism is involved in methamphetamine abuse, we compared three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs16917204, rs16917234, and rs2030324) of the BDNF gene in 200 methamphetamine abusers and 219 healthy individuals. We also considered the association of these polymorphisms with impulsivity in methamphetamine abusers using Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11(BIS-11) Chinese version. Individual SNP analysis showed no significant differences in genotype and allele distributions between the methamphetamine abusers and controls. Haplotype analysis of rs16917204-rs16917234-rs2030324 revealed that a major C-C-T haplotype was significantly associated a lower odds of methamphetamine abuse, even after Bonferroni correction. Within the methamphetamine-abuse group, subjects carrying the T allele of rs2030324 genotype had significantly higher motor impulsivity scores of BIS compared to those with the C/C genotype. Our findings suggest that the BDNF gene polymorphism may contribute to the impulsivity in methamphetamine abusers.

  9. Membranotropic Cell Penetrating Peptides: The Outstanding Journey

    PubMed Central

    Falanga, Annarita; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Galdiero, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    The membrane bilayer delimits the interior of individual cells and provides them with the ability to survive and function properly. However, the crossing of cellular membranes constitutes the principal impediment to gaining entry into cells, and the potential therapeutic application of many drugs is predominantly dependent on the development of delivery tools that should take the drug to target cells selectively and efficiently with only minimal toxicity. Cell-penetrating peptides are short and basic peptides are widely used due to their ability to deliver a cargo across the membrane both in vitro and in vivo. It is widely accepted that their uptake mechanism involves mainly the endocytic pathway, the drug is catched inside endosomes and lysosomes, and only a small quantity is able to reach the intracellular target. In this wide-ranging scenario, a fascinating novel hypothesis is that membranotropic peptides that efficiently cross biological membranes, promote lipid-membrane reorganizing processes and cause a local and temporary destabilization and reorganization of the membrane bilayer, may also be able to enter cells circumventing the endosomal entrapment; in particular, by either favoring the escape from the endosome or by direct translocation. This review summarizes current data on membranotropic peptides for drug delivery. PMID:26512649

  10. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  11. Ethical dilemma: is this elder abuse?

    PubMed

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2003-08-01

    Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation are major problems today (Marshall, Benton, & Brazier, 2000). Most elder abuse occurs at home and is committed by spouses, children, or other family members. Abuse may go undetected until observant professionals intervene ( AOA, 1998). Sometimes the abuse is a continuation of existing dysfunctional family dynamics. More often, however, the abuse is a result of changes brought about by an older person's growing dependency and need for increased care. PMID:12917522

  12. Sexual abuse of boys in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Collings, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child sexual abuse in a total sample of boys referred for medico-legal assessment in a peri-urban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Method - A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical and social work records for sexually abused boys presenting for medico-legal assessment at the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital (Phoenix, KwaZulu-Natal) during the period January 2001 to December 2003. Results - In the period reviewed, 131 boys reported an incident of sexual abuse with temporal trends indicating a significant increase in the incidence of reported abuse over the three year period. Most victims fell in the 4-11 year age category, anal penetration constituted the most common form of abuse (86% of cases), and perpetrators were predominantly persons who were known to the child. Conclusion - Study findings indicate that the sexual abuse of boys constitutes a sizeable and emerging problem in peri-urban communities in South Africa. Evidence suggests that increased rates of victimisation are associated with a breakdown in family support networks in the context of rapid urbanisation.

  13. Particle Count Statistics Applied to the Penetration of a Filter Challenged with Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Schmoll, Linda H

    2013-01-01

    Statistical confidence in a single measure of filter penetration (P) is dependent on the low number of particle counts made downstream of the filter. This paper discusses methods for determining an upper confidence limit (UCL) for a single measure of penetration. The magnitude of the UCL was then compared to the P value, UCL ≤ 2P, as a penetration acceptance criterion (PAC). This statistical method was applied to penetration trials involving an N95 filtering facepiece respirator challenged with sodium chloride and four engineered nanoparticles: titanium dioxide, iron oxide, silicon dioxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Ten trials were performed for each particle type with the aim of determining the most penetrating particle size (MPPS) and the maximum penetration, Pmax. The PAC was applied to the size channel containing the MPPS. With those P values that met the PAC for a given set of trials, an average Pmax and MPPS was computed together with corresponding standard deviations. Because the size distribution of the silicon dioxide aerosol was shifted towards larger particles relative to the MPPS, none of the ten trials satisfied the PAC for that aerosol. The remaining four particle types resulted in at least 4 trials meeting the criterion. MPPS values ranged from 35 - 53 nm with average Pmax values varying from 4.0% for titanium dioxide to 7.0% for iron oxide. The use of the penetration acceptance criterion is suggested for determining the reliability of penetration measurements obtained to determine filter Pmax and MPPS. PMID:24678138

  14. Elder abuse and neglect: when home is not safe.

    PubMed

    Abbey, L

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence and seriousness of elder abuse and neglect require the collaboration of health care professionals with many other disciplines for adequate assessment and intervention. The home visit provides a unique opportunity for the visitor to evaluate risk factors. Interventions and reporting depend on available resources, expertise and local reporting laws. Possible reasons for low physician and victim self-reporting are reviewed. Domestic violence persists into late life and requires different approaches than dealing with caregiver burnout or self-neglect. Involvement of health professionals in educating others in the community about elder abuse and neglect may allow isolated at-risk elders to be identified.

  15. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  16. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  17. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents.

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...

  19. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents. PMID:11981294

  20. Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the age when drug use begins. Many cultural factors affect drug abuse trends. Research has shown that addiction often begins in childhood or adolescence. NIH-funded studies have found that prevention programs targeting this time ...

  1. Genetic studies of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, M M; Tarter, R E

    2000-05-01

    Genetic studies of substance abuse indicate that variation in the risk for the disorder in the population is contributed by differences in both individual genotypes and environment. Recent developments in genetics raise the possibility of disentangling the complex system of genotype-environment interaction that determines the development of the individual behavioral phenotype. This paper reviews the concepts, methods and results pertaining to genetic investigation of substance abuse.

  2. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI”) and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine”) in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous). Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and

  3. Active penetration of Trypanosoma cruzi into host cells: historical considerations and current concepts

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Wanderley; de Carvalho, Tecia M. Ulisses

    2013-01-01

    In the present short review, we analyze past experiments that addressed the interactions of intracellular pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium) with host cells and the initial use of the term active penetration to indicate that a protozoan “crossed the host cell membrane, penetrating into the cytoplasm.” However, the subsequent use of transmission electron microscopy showed that, for all of the protozoans and cell types examined, endocytosis, classically defined as involving the formation of a membrane-bound vacuole, took place during the interaction process. As a consequence, the recently penetrated parasites are always within a vacuole, designated the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). PMID:23355838

  4. Active penetration of Trypanosoma cruzi into host cells: historical considerations and current concepts.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Wanderley; de Carvalho, Tecia M Ulisses

    2013-01-01

    In the present short review, we analyze past experiments that addressed the interactions of intracellular pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium) with host cells and the initial use of the term active penetration to indicate that a protozoan "crossed the host cell membrane, penetrating into the cytoplasm." However, the subsequent use of transmission electron microscopy showed that, for all of the protozoans and cell types examined, endocytosis, classically defined as involving the formation of a membrane-bound vacuole, took place during the interaction process. As a consequence, the recently penetrated parasites are always within a vacuole, designated the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). PMID:23355838

  5. Crush Test Abuse Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

  6. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  7. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  8. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  9. Aerosol penetration through respirator exhalation valves.

    PubMed

    Bellin, P; Hinds, W C

    1990-10-01

    Exhalation valves are a critical component of industrial respirators. They are designed to permit minimal inward leakage of air contaminants during inhalation and provide low resistance during exhalation. Under normal conditions, penetration of aerosol through exhalation valves is minimal. The exhalation valve is, however, a vulnerable component of a respirator and under actual working conditions may become dirty or damaged to the point of causing significant leakage. Aerosol penetration was measured for normal exhalation valves and valves compromised by paint or fine copper wires on the valve seat. Penetration increased with increasing wire diameter. A wire 250 microns in diameter allowed greater than 1% penetration into the mask cavity. Dirt or paint accumulated on the exhalation valve allowed a similar level of penetration. Work rate had little effect on observed penetration. Penetration decreased significantly with increasing aerosol particle size. The amount of material on the valve or valve seat necessary for significant (greater than 0.5%) inward leakage in a half-mask respirator could be readily observed by careful inspection of the exhalation valve and its seat in good lighting conditions.

  10. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present. PMID:22455509

  11. [Disturbances of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Cylwik, Bogdan; Chrostek, Lech

    2011-04-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse leads to malnutrition, and thus to the deficiency of many nutrients, including vitamins and trace elements. Most often comes to the deficiency of all vitamins, however because the clinical implications, the most important is folic acid (vitamin B9) deficiency. Biochemical effect of folate deficiency is elevated homocysteine concentration in the blood, named "cholesterol of XXI. century". In the paper, the folate and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse was discussed. Mechanisms of alcohol action on folate homeostasis in the human body have been indicated. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to deficiency of this vitamin due to their dietary inadequacy, intestinal malabsorption, decreased hepatic uptake and increased body excretion, mainly via urine. The decreased concentration of serum folic acid may occur in 80% of alcoholics. The cause of elevated concentrations of homocysteine in the serum of alcohol abusers is also a deficiency of vitamins involved such as vitamin B12 and pyridoxal phosphate. Disturbance of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abusers can lead to serious clinical consequences. Folic acid deficiency leads inter alia to macrocytic and megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia occurs in about half of alcohol abusers with chronic liver diseases. In turn, high level of homocysteine in blood is associated with an inreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor that favors the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes in patients with coronary heart disease.

  12. Understanding the diverse needs of children whose parents abuse substances.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M

    2012-06-01

    In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present.

  13. THE PENETRATION OF VESICANT VAPORS INTO HUMAN SKIN.

    PubMed

    Nagy, S M; Golumbic, C; Stein, W H; Fruton, J S; Bergmann, M

    1946-07-20

    penetration of H, EBA, and TBA vapors at 30-31 degrees C. (relative humidity 47 to 49 per cent). At this temperature, a linear relationship was observed between the amount penetrated and the time of exposure. H vapor penetrated at a rate of 2.7 gamma per cm.(2) per minute, EBA vapor at 5.1 gamma per cm.(2) per minute, and TBA vapor at 0.29 gamma per cm.(2) per minute. Three of the subjects in the EBA measurements were Negroes. The permeability of their skin to EBA vapor did not differ from that found for the white subjects. Despite this fact, their skin failed to vesicate after an exposure period twice that which caused 50 per cent vesication in the white subjects. Calculation of the precision of the data showed that the average deviation, standard deviation, and standard error were not appreciably different for the data obtained with human subjects as compared with data for control experiments in which human skin was not involved. Consequently, no significant differences in the rate of penetration into the skin of individual subjects can be discerned from the data presented in this communication. The increase in the rate of penetration of H, EBA, and TBA vapors from 21-23 degrees C. to 30-31 degrees C. is approximately proportional to the increase in volatility of each agent. These results indicate that at the same gas concentration in milligrams per liter, H, EBA, and TBA vapors would all penetrate at about the same rate. The data presented above permit a determination of the approximate amount of each vesicant which must penetrate to cause vesication in about 50 per cent of the exposed sites. This amount has been designated by the symbol V(50). The V(50) for H and TBA at 21-23 degrees C. is the same, being about 6gamma; at 30-31 degrees C., the V(50) is 4 to 5 gamma. On the other hand, the V(50) for EBA at 22 degrees C. and 30-31 degrees C. is about 26 to 28 gamma. Thus, per gamma penetrated, H and TBA vapors are about equally effective in producing vesication while EBA

  14. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  15. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  16. Mechanisms of imiquimod skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2016-09-10

    Imiquimod (IMQ) ia an immunostimulating drug used for the treatment of neoplastic skin diseases, such as actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and as adjuvant for vaccination. Imiquimod formulation and skin delivery is highly challenging because of its very low solubility in most pharmaceutical excipients and poor penetration properties. Objectives of the work were: (1) to evaluate IMQ solubility in different solvents and pharmaceutical excipients; (2) to evaluate IMQ skin retention after the application of simple saturated solutions; (3) to evaluate the role of stratum corneum and solvent uptake on IMQ skin retention and (4) to formulate IMQ in microemulsions - prepared using previously investigated components - and compare them with the commercial formulation. The results show that IMQ solubility is not related to the solubility parameter of the solvents considered. The highest solubility was found with oleic acid (74mg/ml); in the case of PEGs, the solubility increased linearly with MW (PEG 200: 1.9mg/ml; PEG 400 7.3mg/ml, PEG 600 12.8mg/ml). Imiquimod skin retention from saturated solutions (Tween 80, oleic acid, propylene glycol, PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, Transcutol, 2-pyrrolidone, DMSO) resulted relatively similar, being 1.6μg/cm(2) in case of oleic acid (solubility 74mg/ml) and 0.18μg/cm(2) in case of propylene glycol (solubility 0.60mg/ml). Permeation experiments on stripped skin (no stratum corneum) and isolated dermis as well as uptake experiments on isolated stratum corneum sheets demonstrated that IMQ accumulation is related to skin solvent uptake. Finally, microemulsions (MEs) prepared with the above-studied components demonstrated a very good performance. In particular, a ME composed of 10% oleic acid, 35% Transcutol, 35% Tween 80 and 20% water is able to accumulate the same amount of drug as the commercial formulation but with far more efficiency, since its concentration was 12 times lower. PMID:27452419

  17. Drug abuse and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Smith, C G; Asch, R H

    1987-09-01

    It is clear that a number of CNS agents, including drugs of abuse, can inhibit reproductive function. Figure 1 shows the chemical diversity of some of the drug groups that affect reproductive hormones. Their structural dissimilarity to the steroid hormones is also readily apparent in the figure. These chemically diverse drugs share an important pharmacologic property: they are highly potent neuroactive drugs, and they can disrupt hypothalamic-pituitary function. Although it is frequently difficult to distinguish between direct drug actions on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and subsequent effects on gonadal hormones and sex accessory gland function, the distinction is an important one. Most neuroactive drugs produce only transient effects on the central nervous pathways necessary for normal gonadotropin secretion. The disruptive effects of these drugs are likely to be transient and completely reversible, and tolerance to the inhibitory drug effects may occur even with continued drug use. Under these circumstances, normal adults may experience only subtle changes in sexual function. However, individuals with compromised reproductive function may exhibit major problems. It is also likely that adolescents may be at substantial risk for reproductive damage from these neuroactive drugs since the endocrine events associated with puberty are dependent on the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  18. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  19. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment.

  20. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

    1994-08-01

    Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle.

  1. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

    1994-08-01

    Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle. PMID:7953908

  2. Scalable computations in penetration mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kimsey, K.D.; Schraml, S.J.; Hertel, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an explicit message passing paradigm for an Eulerian finite volume method for modeling solid dynamics problems involving shock wave propagation, multiple materials, and large deformations. Three-dimensional simulations of high-velocity impact were conducted on the IBM SP2, the SGI Power challenge Array, and the SGI Origin 2000. The scalability of the message-passing code on distributed-memory and symmetric multiprocessor architectures is presented and compared to the ideal linear performance.

  3. [Penetration of microparticles into human skin].

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Schaefer, H; Otberg, N; Teichmann, A; Blume-Peytavi, U; Sterry, W

    2004-12-01

    The efficacy of the penetration of microparticles into the human skin depends on the size and the type of the formulation with which they are topically applied. Microparticles with a diameter of >1 microm barely penetrate into the human skin. They are located on the skin surface and form a film which, for instance, can be used for camouflage or protection against UV radiation in sunscreens. While the penetration of the microparticles in the lipid layers of the stratum corneum is limited, they penetrate efficiently into the hair follicles up to a depth >2 mm, providing their diameter is <1.5 microm. Thus, microparticles can be used for drug delivery into the hair follicles.

  4. Non-normal impact of earth penetrators

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Macek, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A brief literature review of the general subject of projectile penetration into soil media is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on projectiles impacting soil targets at other than normal incidence and/or at an angle of attack, for which lateral accelerations exist and can dominate the structural response. Comparisons of predicted lateral accelerations with recent earth penetrator experiments are then made using a 3 degree-of-freedom rigid-body approach developed elsewhere to determine the external penetrator loading. Agreement between experimental and calculated accelerations is favorable, but the need to include flexible-body response is indicated. Finally a scheme to incorporate a spherical-cavity-expansion analytical procedure into a detailed finite element model of the penetrator is developed to account for flexible-body response.

  5. Evaluating abuse in the patient with dementia.

    PubMed

    Tronetti, Pamela

    2014-11-01

    For patients with dementia, abuse ranges from subtle scams to outright physical violence. As dementia progresses, abuse escalates. The stages of dementia--mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia, moderate dementia, and severe dementia--lend themselves to varied presentations of abuse. Knowing which types of abuse are more prominent at each stage aids the clinician in anticipating risk of abuse and patient and caregiver needs. Interviewing the victim is crucial in uncovering, documenting, and intervening in an abuse situation. A clinician who is skilled in drawing out the facts while remaining supportive of the patient is key in ending the victimization.

  6. Endoscopic treatment of transnasal intracranial penetrating foreign body.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Seo, Bo Ra; Lim, Sang Chul

    2011-09-01

    Transnasal intracranial penetrating injury is rare. We report a case of transnasal intracranial penetrating metallic chopstick, which was removed successfully by endoscopic approach, and management of transnasal intracranial penetrating injuries.

  7. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  8. Penetration of Enceladus Ice Tiger Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Castillo, J. C.

    2006-09-01

    INTRODUCTION: Measurements from Cassini have determined that warm "tiger stripe” regions on Enceladus are made of water ice that is at a temperature of up to 157 +/-32K (Spencer et al, Science, 311, 1401, 2006). If the tiger stripe region is assumed to be pure polycrystalline water ice, and if liquid water exists below the ice lithosphere, then thermal analyses show that the thickness of the ice is less than 40-m. Two possible means to penetrate the ice are described below. HARPOON PENETRATOR: Sandia National Laboratories has published reports, which give ground penetration depth as a function of various projectile parameters. Applying the Sandia equations (Young, SAND97-2426, 1997) to an Enceladus penetrator, one example shows that a sharp, steel penetrator, that is 10 cm diameter and 2-m length (132 kg) could penetrate through 40-m of ice with an impact velocity of about 150 m/sec and maximum deceleration of 350 g's. This allows ruggedized science instruments to be carried on the harpoon and tethered to an antenna dropped off at the surface level, as was done in many of the Sandia tests. Larger diameters or shorter rods require higher velocities and higher g's. SUBLIMATION PENETRATOR: Calculations have also been performed on soft-landed, heated probes. Using power tethered from the surface craft, the penetrator would sublimate down to the liquid layer. Assuming a 3-cm diameter probe with a 50-w heated tip, the probe would descend at the rate of about 1-m per day with descent rates approximately proportional to power/area. An insulated cylindrical area above the heated tip could contain ports for science instruments that could be located on the surface craft with data transmitted by optical fiber. This research was carried out at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B.G.; Shaw, R.S.; Vella, M.C.

    1981-07-01

    Magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma has been investigated in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.

  10. Anomalous toroidal field penetration in Tormac V

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Vaucher, B. G.; Shaw, R. S.; Vella, M. C.

    1981-07-01

    We investigate magnetic field penetration into a cool, collisional, magnetized plasma in Tormac V. Magnetic probe and laser interferometer studies reveal anomalous penetration of the applied toroidal field into a plasma with an initial parallel bias toroidal field. The applied poloidal field, however, formed a well-defined magnetic front which was effective at sweeping up particles. Lastly, strong shear in the vacuum magnetic field does not inhibit the apparent decoupling of the applied toroidal field from the applied poloidal field.

  11. Sports and Drug Abuse. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (September 25, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing examined the impact of illegal drugs on both professional and amateur sports and the national effort of sports figures to help fight drug abuse. Witnesses included individuals currently involved in programs designed to prevent drug abuse, members of groups formed to rehabilitate drug users, and former professional athletes who…

  12. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  13. Penetration of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus into Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Dinah; e Melo, J. Castro; Chou, D.

    1974-01-01

    Electron microscopy reveals that, in Bdellovibrio infection, after the formation of a passage pore in the host cell wall, the differentiated parasite penetration pole is associated with the host protoplast. This firm contact persists throughout the parasite penetration and after this process is completed. In penetrated hosts this contact is also apparent by phase microscopy. The association between the walls of the parasite and the host at the passage pore, on the other hand, is transient. Bdellovibrio do not penetrate hosts whose protoplast and cell walls are separated by plasmolysis, or in which the membrane-wall relationship is affected by low turgor pressure. It is concluded, therefore, that for penetration to occur it is essential that the host protoplast be within reach of the parasite, so that a firm contact can be established between them. A penetration mechanism is proposed that is effected by forces generated by fluxes of water and solutes due to structural changes in the infected host envelope. These forces cause a differential expansion of the host protoplast and cell wall and their separation from each other around the entry site, while the parasite remains firmly anchored to the host protoplast. Consequently, the parasite ends up enclosed in the expanded host periplasm. The actual entry, therefore, is a passive act of the parasite. Images PMID:4208138

  14. Giant gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    A 57-year-old man developed haematemesis and was referred to our institution. His discomfort had begun 3 weeks earlier and localised to the upper abdomen. Abdominal CT showed a defect of gastric mucosa and gastric wall thickening. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that he had an active gastric ulcer, 40 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the upper third of the corpus and the presence of a pancreatic body at the ulcer base, penetration to the pancreas. Open gastrectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of localised peritonitis caused by penetration of the stomach into the pancreas. Histopathology of resected specimens showed a benign peptic ulcer, 40×40 mm in size, was found on the lesser curvature in the antrum, and this had penetrated through the pancreas. The most serious complications of PUD include haemorrhage, perforation, penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. Approximately 7% of patients experience perforation, which occurs when an ulcer erodes through the wall and leaks air and digestive contents into the peritoneal cavity. Antral and duodenal ulcers can penetrate into the pancreas. We report a case of gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

  15. Romanomermis culicivorax: penetration of larval mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Shamseldean, M M; Platzer, E G

    1989-09-01

    In the presence of second larval instars of three mosquito species the preparasites of Romanomermis culicivorax swam near the water surface in an orthokinetic manner. When the preparasites were ca. 1 mm from the host, they stopped and swam klinotactically toward the host. During this phase, the preparasites secreted a small amount of a putative adhesive material from the anterior region and host contact was completed. The adhesive appeared to aid in attachment of the preparasites to the host and initiation of the search-boring phase. The preparasites glided over the host until a suitable penetration site was found. The penetration phase was initiated by probing with the odontostyle. This was followed by partial paralysis, decreased intestinal peristaltic movement, and temporary cardiac arrest in all host mosquitoes which was probably related to injection of esophageal secretions. SEM observations showed that the abdominal walls were the most frequent site for penetration. As the preparasites entered through the penetration hole, microorganisms adhering to the cuticle of the preparasites were retained by the adhesive which accumulated around the penetration site. Thus, microbial contamination of the host was avoided by a mechanical cleansing mechanism. Penetration was usually completed in less than 10 min.

  16. [Physical and sexual child abuse].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Kathrin

    2008-07-01

    Child abuse may result in dramatic short and longtime damage of children's physical and emotional well being. This underscores the clinician's special responsibility to contribute a sound professional and scientific approach to the multiprofessional diagnosis and intervention in suspected child abuse cases. The approach is to correlate the probability of a given finding with the history and comparing it to biomechanical principles. Of concern are especially all serious injuries with an alleged trivial or inadequate for age mechanism, missing, vague or changing patterns of explanation, injuries of different age, delay of medical care and allegations by independent observers or even the child. Exact documentation of all medical examinations is the basis of any forensic expertise if child abuse is to be considered. This paper ist dealing with morhological findings following various kinds of violence which can often be observed in connection with child abuse, as well as the interpretation of characteristic patterns of findings. Furthermore, practicable procedures after diagnosing child abuse ar being discussed on the basis of legal terms.

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... children. Join us. Find out more Get involved Bullying Prevention and The National Conversation: It's Up to ... has released her initial plans to help stop bullying across the United States . We are glad that ...

  18. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  19. Child abuse history in teen mothers and parent-child risk processes for offspring externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Cyr, Maeve; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether child abuse history in teen mothers impacts offspring externalizing problems indirectly, through its influence on attachment and maternal hostility. In a longitudinal sample of 112 teen mother-child dyads, mothers reported on their own abuse experiences, attachment and maternal hostility were assessed via direct observations, and externalizing problems were measured using maternal reports. Compared with mothers with no abuse history, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse were more likely to have an insecurely attached infant, which predicted higher externalizing problems in preschool, which in turn predicted subsequent increases in externalizing problems in Grade 3. Furthermore, relative to the no abuse history group, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse showed more hostility toward their child at preschool, which in turn predicted elevated externalizing problems in Grade 3. Mothers' history of either sexual or physical abuse alone did not have significant indirect effects on externalizing problems. Fostering secure attachment and reducing risk for maternal hostility might be important intervention goals for prevention programs involving at-risk mothers with abuse histories. PMID:27174770

  20. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  1. Estimating the costs of substance abuse to the Medicaid hospital care program.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K; Merrill, J C; Chang, H H; Califano, J A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to develop a model, using the epidemiologic tool of attributable risk, for estimating the cost of substance abuse to Medicaid. METHODS. Based on prior substance-use and morbidity research, population attributable risks for substance abuse-related diseases were calculated. (These risks measure the proportion of total disease cases attributable to smoking, drinking, and drug use.) The risks for each disease were applied to Medicaid hospital discharges and days on the 1991 National Hospital Discharge Survey that had these diseases as primary diagnoses. The cost of these substance abuse-related days were added to Medicaid hospital costs for direct treatment of substance abuse. RESULTS. More than 60 medical conditions involving 1100 diagnoses were identified, at least in part, as attributable to substance abuse. Factoring these substance abuse-related conditions into hospital costs, 1 out of 5 Medicaid hospital days, or 4 million days, were spent on substance abuse-related care in 1991. In 1994, this would account for almost $8 billion in Medicaid expenditures. CONCLUSIONS. The use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs contributes significantly to hospital costs. To address rising costs, substance abuse treatment and prevention should be an integral part of any health care reform effort. PMID:7832261

  2. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning.

  3. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  4. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Donald E.; Parker, DeRay; Boren, Paul R.

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  5. Myosins XI modulate host cellular responses and penetration resistance to fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long; Qin, Li; Liu, Guosheng; Peremyslov, Valera V; Dolja, Valerian V; Wei, Yangdou

    2014-09-23

    The rapid reorganization and polarization of actin filaments (AFs) toward the pathogen penetration site is one of the earliest cellular responses, yet the regulatory mechanism of AF dynamics is poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging in Arabidopsis, we show that polarization coupled with AF bundling involves precise spatiotemporal control at the site of attempted penetration by the nonadapted barley powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We further show that the Bgh-triggered AF mobility and organelle aggregation are predominately driven by the myosin motor proteins. Inactivation of myosins by pharmacological inhibitors prevents bulk aggregation of organelles and blocks recruitment of lignin-like compounds to the penetration site and deposition of callose and defensive protein, PENETRATION 1 (PEN1) into the apoplastic papillae, resulting in attenuation of penetration resistance. Using gene knockout analysis, we demonstrate that highly expressed myosins XI, especially myosin XI-K, are the primary contributors to cell wall-mediated penetration resistance. Moreover, the quadruple myosin knockout mutant xi-1 xi-2 xi-i xi-k displays impaired trafficking pathway responsible for the accumulation of PEN1 at the cell periphery. Strikingly, this mutant shows not only increased penetration rate but also enhanced overall disease susceptibility to both adapted and nonadapted fungal pathogens. Our findings establish myosins XI as key regulators of plant antifungal immunity. PMID:25201952

  6. Myosins XI modulate host cellular responses and penetration resistance to fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Long; Qin, Li; Liu, Guosheng; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Wei, Yangdou

    2014-01-01

    The rapid reorganization and polarization of actin filaments (AFs) toward the pathogen penetration site is one of the earliest cellular responses, yet the regulatory mechanism of AF dynamics is poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging in Arabidopsis, we show that polarization coupled with AF bundling involves precise spatiotemporal control at the site of attempted penetration by the nonadapted barley powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We further show that the Bgh-triggered AF mobility and organelle aggregation are predominately driven by the myosin motor proteins. Inactivation of myosins by pharmacological inhibitors prevents bulk aggregation of organelles and blocks recruitment of lignin-like compounds to the penetration site and deposition of callose and defensive protein, PENETRATION 1 (PEN1) into the apoplastic papillae, resulting in attenuation of penetration resistance. Using gene knockout analysis, we demonstrate that highly expressed myosins XI, especially myosin XI-K, are the primary contributors to cell wall-mediated penetration resistance. Moreover, the quadruple myosin knockout mutant xi-1 xi-2 xi-i xi-k displays impaired trafficking pathway responsible for the accumulation of PEN1 at the cell periphery. Strikingly, this mutant shows not only increased penetration rate but also enhanced overall disease susceptibility to both adapted and nonadapted fungal pathogens. Our findings establish myosins XI as key regulators of plant antifungal immunity. PMID:25201952

  7. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  8. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  9. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  10. SPIKE PENETRATION IN BLAST-WAVE-DRIVEN INSTABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R. P.

    2012-01-10

    The problem of interest is the unstable growth of structure at density transitions affected by blast waves, which arise in natural environments such as core-collapse supernovae and in laboratory experiments. The resulting spikes of dense material, which penetrate the less dense material, develop broadened tips, but the degree of broadening varies substantially across both experiments and simulations. The variable broadening presumably produces variations in the drag experienced by the spike tips as they penetrate the less dense material. The present work has used semianalytic theory to address the question of how the variation in drag might affect the spike penetration, for cases in which the post-shock interface deceleration can be described by a power law in a normalized time variable. It did so by following the evolution of structure on the interface through the initial shock passage, the subsequent small-amplitude phase of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth, and the later phase in which the spike growth involves the competition of buoyancy and drag. In all phases, the expansion of the system during its evolution was accounted for and was important. The calculated spike length is strongly affected by the drag attributed to spike tip broadening. One finds from such a calculation that it is not unreasonable for narrow spikes to keep up with the shock front of the blast wave. The implication is that the accuracy of prediction of spike penetration and consequent structure by simulations very likely depends on how accurately they treat the broadening of the spike tips and the associated drag. Experimental validation of spike morphology in simulations would be useful.

  11. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  12. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  13. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  14. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  15. What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Return to: What Communities Can Do What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse? A variety of ... Prosecution of offenders Assistance with obtaining restitution Support Services When abuse or neglect is related to the ...

  16. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the ...

  18. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  19. Internal and External Mediators of Women's Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; Newcomb, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Examined 111 women's retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse. Explored domains of circumstances of abuse, mediators, and outcomes (negative effects of abuse). Found long-term negative outcomes of abuse directly affected by close relationship to perpetrator and severity of abuse from circumstance of abuse domain, and immediate negative…

  20. Panlobular emphysema in young intravenous Ritalin abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.A.; Glenny, R.W.; Godwin, J.D.; Hampson, N.B.; Cantino, M.E.; Reichenbach, D.D. )

    1991-03-01

    We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated.