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Sample records for abuse kinderradiologische diagnostik

  1. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  3. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  4. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Kurrle, Susan

    2004-10-01

    Elder abuse is a common and yet often unrecognised problem in our community. With up to 5% of the community dwelling older population being victims of abuse, the general practitioner has a pivotal role in identifying this abuse. This article provides an outline of the definition of elder abuse, describes the types of abuse seen and the reasons for occurrence of abuse. It summarises the role of the GP in the identification and management of abuse and provides guidance on intervention strategies. Case studies are used to illustrate the issues discussed. Elder abuse is defined as any pattern of behaviour which causes physical, psychological, financial or social harm to an older person. The role of the GP in identifying abuse is critical. The vast majority of older people visit their GP at least once a year, and the GP often has a long standing relationship with their patient and the patient's family. They are therefore ideally placed to identify elder abuse.

  5. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms ...

  6. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  7. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  8. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator.

  9. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  10. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  11. Molekulare Diagnostik von Hautinfektionen am Paraffinmaterial - Übersicht und interdisziplinärer Konsensus.

    PubMed

    Sunderkötter, Cord; Becker, Karsten; Kutzner, Heinz; Meyer, Thomas; Blödorn-Schlicht, Norbert; Reischl, Udo; Nenoff, Pietro; Geißdörfer, Walter; Gräser, Yvonne; Herrmann, Mathias; Kühn, Joachim; Bogdan, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Nukleinsäure-Amplifikations-Techniken (NAT), wie die PCR, sind hochsensitiv sowie selektiv und stellen in der mikrobiologischen Diagnostik wertvolle Ergänzungen zur kulturellen Anzucht und Serologie dar. Sie bergen aber gerade bei formalinfixiertem und in Paraffin eingebettetem Gewebe ein Risiko für sowohl falsch negative als auch falsch positive Resultate, welches nicht immer richtig eingeschätzt wird. Daher haben Vertreter der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie (DGHM) und der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft (DDG) einen Konsensus in Form einer Übersichtsarbeit erarbeitet, wann eine NAT am Paraffinschnitt angezeigt und sinnvoll ist und welche Punkte dabei in der Präanalytik und Befundinterpretation beachtet werden müssen. Da bei Verdacht auf eine Infektion grundsätzlich Nativgewebe genutzt werden soll, ist die PCR am Paraffinschnitt ein Sonderfall, wenn beispielsweise bei erst nachträglichaufgekommenem Verdacht auf eine Infektion kein Nativmaterial zur Verfügung steht und nicht mehr gewonnen werden kann. Mögliche Indikationen sind der histologisch erhobene Verdacht auf eine Leishmaniose, eine Infektion durch Bartonellen oder Rickettsien, oder ein Ecthyma contagiosum. Nicht sinnvoll ist oder kritisch gesehen wird eine NAT am Paraffinschnitt zum Beispiel bei Infektionen mit Mykobakterien oder RNA-Viren. Die Konstellation für eine NAT aus Paraffingewebe sollte jeweils benannt werden, die erforderliche Prä-Analytik, die jeweiligen Grenzen des Verfahrens und die diagnostischen Alternativen bekannt sein. Der PCR-Befund sollte entsprechend kommentiert werden, um Fehleinschätzungen zu vermeiden. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... advice. loveisrespect.org : 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline : 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) National Sexual ... Rape National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence If you’re concerned about abusive relationships, here’s ...

  13. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  14. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  15. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... No child is prepared to cope with repeated sexual stimulation. Even a two or three year old, who ... abuse. Some signs can only be detected on physical exam by a physician. Sexual abuse can also include noncontact abuse, such as ...

  17. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  18. Association of Drug Abuse and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Children born to mothers who used illicit drugs during pregnancy were assessed for subsequent abuse or neglect. Of the 513 children exposed inutero to drugs, 102 were substantiated as abused or neglected. Infants exposed inutero to drugs had a higher than expected risk of subsequent abuse compared to children in the general population. (Author/SW)

  19. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  20. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  2. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. The management of abuse: 2. Child abuse.

    PubMed

    Panesear, Jaspel; Sinha, Karen Juggins Sonia; Acharya, Preeti; Jafar, Hima; Bower, Elizabeth J; Harrison, Victoria E; Newton, J Tim

    2006-09-01

    The role of the GDP and the dental team in the recognition and management of child abuse is discussed. Information on the current legislation and protocols for referral are provided. This paper discusses child abuse and offers information and practical advice for the dental team.

  4. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  5. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  6. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  7. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  8. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  9. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elder physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  12. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  13. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  14. Counselor Self-Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    1991-01-01

    Defines counselor self-abuse as a phenomenon which differs from burnout, unethical behavior, and inappropriate countertransference in its underlying dynamics and some of its manifestations. Delineates the main manifestations of counselor self-abuse and outlines appropriate treatments. Emphasizes the need for further research to determine more…

  15. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  16. Preventing Internal Computer Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    abusers of computer systems are individuals who are -’’internal" to and working for the victim organization (these include full-time employees , part...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle Blower" Policy EDP Auditor 1...sensitive computer systems. Of all the controls discussed so far. the Employee Assistance Program ’ EAP

  17. Signs of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  18. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  19. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  20. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  1. Factors Predisposing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Carl D.; Phelps, Brady J.

    The exact nature of the events which may predispose a person to substance abuse is not known. This paper provides a theoretical discussion and review which emphasizes three contexts which have been shown to predispose on individual to drug abuse: (1) prenatal exposure to a given substance; (2) environmental conditions present upon first exposure…

  2. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  3. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  4. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...

  5. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  6. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  7. Sexually Abused Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  8. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. Other types of child abuse are: Neglect ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  9. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  10. Safety and abuse testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, G.

    1978-01-01

    A series of abuse tests on large lithium thionyl chloride cells was initiated. Performance data obtained in testing rectangular 2,000 and 10,000 ampere-hour cells are discussed and graphically presented.

  11. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... investigate potential elder abuse cases Caption: Multidisciplinary Team Technical Assistance Center (MDT TAC) Prev Play Pause Next ... Office of the Inspector General Open Government Plain Writing USA.gov BusinessUSA Footer Menu Justice First Column ...

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... To try to improve concentration and academic or work performance Risk factors Many people fear that they may ... in crime Motor vehicle accidents Decreased academic or work performance Troubled relationships Prevention Prescription drug abuse may occur ...

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  14. Child and Spouse Abuse Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-11

    child abuse . (c) SPouse (C) Military Child Care (4) Involvement n previous established case of spouse abuse (d) Sbl,ng (d) Other Child Care (5...program 16.j.(2) Referred to a drug rehabilitation program 4 16.j.(3) Previous involvement in child abuse 16.j.(4) Previous involvement in spouse abuse 16...investigation, whether "unsubstantiated," "suspected," or "substantiated." 8.a. Child Abuse /Neglect. The physical injury, sexual maltreatment, emotional

  15. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  16. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  17. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Vaccines for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Orson, Frank M; Kinsey, Berma M; Singh, Rana A K; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by antibodies, thereby reducing its entry into the central nervous system and thus its pharmacological effects. The effectiveness of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics is a function of both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies, and this combination will determine the success of the clinical applications of anti-cocaine vaccines in helping addicts discontinue cocaine abuse. This review will discuss these issues and present the current developmental status of cocaine conjugate vaccines.

  19. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  20. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  1. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to drink alcohol. Rural church and faith-based organizations can also play an important role in promoting ... activities focused on substance abuse prevention. Several ... Other organizations that provide substance abuse information and prevention program ...

  2. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Counseling and ... of Health and Human Services website. Children's Bureau. Child abuse and neglect. www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/focus- ...

  3. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  4. Assessing Employee Potentials for Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, M. Dean; McQueen, William M.

    1983-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to abusive (N=21) and nonabusive (N=21) employees to identify potential for institutional child abuse. Results corroborated earlier findings of institutional child abuse and demonstrated an attempt at developing an assessment tool needed to screen staff who are working with the developmentally disabled and children in…

  5. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  6. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  7. Child Abuse and Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlands, Mary; Emery, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A search was made of confidential health department records in Great Britain for abused children, or children at risk for abuse, with siblings who had died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). An association was found between child abuse and about 10 percent of deaths of children diagnosed as SIDS. (BRM)

  8. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  9. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  10. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  11. Handbook On Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Robert I.; And Others

    A decade of professional research on drug abuse has produced both an abundance of materials and a vocabulary that is not shared by planners, clinicians, and policy makers. This handbook compiles the major developments of the period and their treatment and research implications in a style intended to be understood by all three types of…

  12. Subtypes of cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

    1986-09-01

    We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction.

  13. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts about Marijuana - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Facts about Methamphetamine - English PDF Facts about Methamphetamine - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Substance Abuse or Dependence - العربية ( ...

  14. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some people misuse more than one substance. Many older adults who become addicted to drugs also have another serious medical condition, such as chronic pain or a mental ...

  15. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  16. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurting or harming someone) might have frightened the boy or girl into staying quiet. No matter what the abuser ... suit or underwear: breasts, vagina, and bottom for girls, and penis and bottom for boys. If an adult or another kid touches a ...

  18. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  19. Disrespect, harassment, and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine harassment and abusive encounters between family physicians and their patients or colleagues in the workplace. DESIGN Qualitative case study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight family physicians from across the province. METHODS A collective case-study approach was developed, with 24 cases of 2 individuals per case. Cases were selected based on sex, location (urban or rural), language (French or English), and number of years since medical school graduation (< 10 years, 10 to 20 years, or > 20 years). Physicians were interviewed in either French or English. Participants were recruited using the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick’s physician directory. Based on the rates of response and participation, some cases were overrepresented, while others were not completed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically using a categorical aggregation approach. A coding scheme for the thematic analysis was developed by the research team before the interviews were transcribed. MAIN FINDINGS Although the original intent of this study was to examine the work environment of family physicians in light of the increasing number of women entering the profession, harassment and abusive encounters in the workplace emerged as a main theme. These encounters ranged from minor to severe. Minor abusive encounters included disrespectful behaviour and verbal threats by patients, their families, and occasionally colleagues. More severe forms of harassment involved physical threats, physical encounters, and stalking. Demanding patients, such as heavy drug users, were often seen as threatening. Location of practice, years in practice, and sex of the physician seemed to affect abusive encounters—young, female, rural physicians appeared to experience such encounters most often. CONCLUSION Abusive encounters in the workplace are concerning. It is essential to

  20. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  1. Substance abuse and cancer.

    PubMed

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  2. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improvemore » lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.« less

  3. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Opioid Abuse after TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE "Opioid Abuse after TBI" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...17beta‐estradiol confers protection following  traumatic brain injury in the rat and involves activation of G Protein‐coupled estrogen receptor 1 ( GPER

  5. Abusive families and character formation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  6. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  8. [Physical abuse of women].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Ma Dolores; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca O; Estrada-López, Mireya; Isais-Millán, Rebeca; Bayardo-Quezada, Cristina; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Tene, Carlos Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was determine prevalence of intrafamily violence of the type physical-abuse, toward female claimants aged 18 years and older at the HGZ MF No. 1 in Colima. A transversal study was conducted in 288 females aged 18 years and older who were seen at the Family Medicine Unit for external consultation. Average age was 33.86 years (+/- 11.6), the highest level of schooling was primary for 33% of subjects and secondary for 26%, 75% of our female claimants were divorced, 53.5% of monthly family incomes in each household was between 1,000 and 3,000 thousand Mexican pesos, and 27.8% of physical abuse consisted of shoving. Our research revealed that there is indeed physical violence toward 63.45% of female claimants at our hospital, especially toward those with low level of schooling, low socioeconomic status, and monthly income below minimum wage. These conditions only contribute toward making women fall prey to physical violence. Our study is only a first step for better understanding of domestic violence. Risk factors associated with physical abuse need to be controlled to decrease rate of interfamily violence against our claimants.

  9. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  10. Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

  11. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  13. Substance abuse disorders in nurses.

    PubMed

    Griffith, J

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious concern in the profession of nursing. The American Nurses Association (1997) estimates that 10% to 20% of nurses have substance abuse problems, and that 6% to 8% of registered nurses are impaired due to their abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Chemical dependency is considered a disease that requires treatment. Early identification and treatment of the chemically dependent nurse is important for the safety of the public and for the well-being of the nurse and her profession. This article addresses substance abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective, and includes a description of an approach to treatment and suggestions for the role of nursing administration.

  14. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  15. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  16. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341

  17. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  18. Wife Abuse and the Wife Abuser: Review and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carden, Ann D.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on wife abuse/abusers. Presents historical and contextual information, overview of domestic violence, prevalence data, and descriptions of evolution and current status of public and professional awareness and response. Proposes integrative model for understanding etiologic, dynamic, and…

  19. Substance abuse as a symptom of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Teusch, R

    2001-11-01

    The recovery process of a 37-year-old woman with adult onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presented. The patient had suffered childhood sexual abuse and had self-medicated for many years with drugs and alcohol to maintain the dissociation of memories of abuse and to facilitate interpersonal functioning. Upon onset of PTSD, the patient's substance abuse became a full-blown addiction that was highly resistant to treatment. It became evident that her substance abuse symbolically repeated her traumatization. In reexperiencing the affects associated with her earlier trauma (despair, denial, shame, and helplessness) as part of her substance abuse and in the transference, the patient was able to gain mastery over these affects and, subsequently, was able to achieve a stable recovery from both illnesses.

  20. Sibling Maltreatment: The Forgotten Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Morrill-Richards, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the study of family violence in the past 30 years. However, sibling abuse and its prevalence in the family have largely been overlooked. In this article, the major issues associated with sibling maltreatment are highlighted, and strategies for helping the victims and perpetrators of sibling abuse and their families…

  1. Observations on Substance Abuse Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Applies a philosophy of science perspective to substance abuse theory to clarify these theories in general and peer cluster theory in particular. Examines the natural history of an illicit drug from a macroscopic level of analysis to illuminate some of the social-psychological factors that influence drug use and abuse patterns. (Author/KS)

  2. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  3. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse].

    PubMed

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-03-08

    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.

  4. Working on Memories of Abuse....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsman, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  5. A Study in Computer Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield Inst. of Technology (Australia).

    Computer abuse is examined as both a general issue and as a specific problem. A statistical profile of computer crime lists distribution by country of reported cases, by industry of occurrence, and by amount of monetary loss. The characteristics of computer abuse are described along with the important categories of such crimes. Factors inhibiting…

  6. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  7. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  8. [Child abuse: a world problem].

    PubMed

    Santana-Tavira, R; Sánchez-Ahedo, R; Herrera-Basto, E

    1998-01-01

    Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.

  9. [Child abuse in the family].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  10. Substance abuse vaccines.

    PubMed

    Orson, Frank M; Kinsey, Berma M; Singh, Rana A K; Wu, Yan; Gardner, Tracie; Kosten, Thomas R

    2008-10-01

    Conventional substance-abuse treatments have only had limited success for drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine. New approaches, including vaccination to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, are in advanced stages of development. Although several potential mechanisms for the effects of antidrug vaccines have been suggested, the most straightforward and intuitive mechanism involves binding of the drug by antibodies in the bloodstream, thereby blocking entry and/or reducing the rate of entry of the drug into the central nervous system. The benefits of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics will be influenced by both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies. The sum of these effects will determine the success of the clinical applications of antidrug vaccines in addiction medicine. This review will discuss these issues and present the current status of vaccine development for nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, and morphine.

  11. Update on child abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D; Lane, Wendy G; Walsh, Christina M

    2007-12-01

    Child abuse remains a significant problem in the United States with 2.9 million reports and 825 000 indicated cases in 2005. This report will highlight recent efforts toward child abuse prevention, focusing on home visiting programs, abusive head trauma primary prevention, parent training programs, sexual abuse prevention, and the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment. Most home visitation programs have demonstrated a lack of effectiveness in recent randomized trials. One exception is the Nurse Family Partnership, which remains the most effective and longest enduring intervention for high-risk families. Child sexual abuse prevention programs and parent training programs need further evaluation with more rigorous methodology and outcome measures. Providing universal parent education about coping with crying infants appears to be effective in lowering the incidence of abusive head trauma. Although advocated for, further study will determine the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment or mandating abusive head trauma education to parents of newborns. Pediatricians play an important role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of different programs can help guide parents toward appropriate services.

  12. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  13. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  14. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  15. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 1 Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative ... Shapiro & G. M. Dominiak (Eds.), Sexual trauma and psychopathology. NY: Lexington Books. 56 Goldsmith et al., (2000). ...

  17. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... None / Reverse   Treatment for non-substance abuse addiction disorder   Treatment for gambling disorder   Treatment for internet use disorder Detoxification All / None / Reverse   Alcohol ...

  18. Maternal sexual abuse of male children.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Andrew J; Peterson, Linda W

    1993-07-01

    Preview Sexual abuse of boys by their mothers is being increasingly reported and must be considered in the course of history taking and physical examination. Often there is little objective evidence of such abuse, and only a cluster of signs and risk factors may reveal the victimization. Drs Elliott and Peterson list characteristics that can help physicians identify sexually abusive mothers and sexually abused children; they also discuss how to retrieve a report of abuse from a child and assess its credibility.

  19. Personality risk factors for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Yates, W R; Fulton, A I; Gabel, J M; Brass, C T

    1989-07-01

    To evaluate the role of personality in cocaine abuse, 59 adults meeting DSM-III criteria for cocaine abuse were compared to similar-aged non-cocaine alcohol abusers and community controls on a DSM-III measure of personality. Cocaine abusers were more likely than non-cocaine alcohol abusers to display narcissistic personality traits (Odds ratio 6.86, 95% CI = 4.52, 15.60). (Am J Public Health 1989; 79:891-892.

  20. Behavioural consequences of child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  1. Androgen abuse in the community.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    To provide information of the current prevalence of illicit use of androgens by individuals of the community. Prevalence of abuse of androgens in individuals of the general population has reached alarming dimensions. Use of androgens is no longer limited to competitive sports, but has spread to leisure and fitness sports, bodybuilding, and nonathletes motivated to increase muscular mass and physical attractiveness. Alarming studies from Germany demonstrated that members of the healthcare systems provide illegal androgens to 48.1% of abusers visiting fitness centers. The new trend to combine androgens with growth hormone, insulin, and insulinotropic milk protein-fortified drinks may potentiate health risks of androgen abuse. The use of androgens has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public health concern. The potential health hazards of androgen abuse are underestimated in the medical community, which unfortunately contributes to illegal distribution of androgens. Both the adverse effects of current androgen abuse especially in young men as well as the chronic toxicity from past long-term abuse of now middle-aged men has to be considered as a growing public health problem. In the future, an increasing prevalence of androgen misuse in combination with other growth-promoting hormones and insulinotropic milk protein products has to be expected, which may have further promoting effects on the prevalence of chronic western diseases.

  2. Abuse-resistant drug delivery.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Robert L; Bensinger, Peter B

    2006-08-01

    In attempting to reduce the nonmedical use of controlled substances, a reasonable step is to educate the physicians prescribing controlled substances, including the prescription stimulants used to treat ADHD, as well as patients and family members, about the risks of nonmedical use and the dangers of giving or selling these medicines to persons for whom they were not prescribed. Patients who find benefits in the use of such medicines have a significant interest in protecting their continued access to them. Such access is potentially threatened by concerns about widespread nonmedical use. Physicians can help protect the appropriate medical use of prescription stimulants by considering the abuse potential of various medicines used to treat patients with ADHD, especially when these patients also have a history of nonmedical substance use. In addition, we suggest that today there is an opportunity to add a new and perhaps more hopeful paradigm: the wider use of drug delivery systems that make products less attractive to drug abusers. This new drug abuse prevention paradigm holds great promise for efforts to reduce the nonmedical use of prescription controlled substances, including the prescription stimulants used to treat ADHD. To achieve the full potential of this new paradigm to reduce prescription drug abuse, it will be necessary to develop standards to assess the relative abuse resistance of various drug formulations and delivery systems, as well as meaningful incentives to foster the development of these abuse-resistant delivery systems for controlled substances.

  3. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  4. Immunotherapy for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R

    2011-12-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use.

  5. Screening for childhood physical and sexual abuse among outpatient substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, T L; Westerberg, V S; Little, L M; Trujillo, M

    1994-01-01

    Research demonstrates that substance-abusing individuals report substantially higher rates of childhood sexual and physical abuse than the general population. This study sought to test a method of identifying substance-abusing clients with histories of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse and to explore the differences between those reporting childhood abuse and those not. Files of substance abusing clients from two distinct time periods were examined for reports of childhood abuse. At Time 1 (n = 399) clients were not systematically asked about experiences of childhood abuse, and at Time 2 (n = 305) clients were routinely asked about this issue. Results indicate that significantly more male and female clients disclosed childhood abuse at Time 2. Additionally, male clients reporting childhood abuse appeared more distressed than those not reporting abuse; female clients reporting childhood abuse did not appear more distressed than their counterparts.

  6. Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Edwards, George A

    2015-10-01

    Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  8. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  10. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  11. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    refer spouse abuse or child abuse offenders with identified alcohol or other drug involvement to the on-base counseling center for a substance...abuse assessment. The military’s response to combat substance abuse involves a combination of education, prevention, random testing for illicit drug ...data from three Army sources: the Army Central Registry (ACR), the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS), and Army personnel data

  12. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  13. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  14. Substance abuse among registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Patricia M; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2010-12-01

    The stressful conditions under which nurses work, due in part to the nursing shortage, are among the risk factors that contribute to nurses' abuse of illicit drugs. Nurses differ from the general population in that they work in an environment where they not only have access to controlled substances, but also are exposed to death and dying, the stress of which can increase the risk of drug abuse. However, practicing while impaired places patients' lives at risk and decreases staff morale. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. MMPI subtypes for cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Craig, R J; Olson, R

    1992-01-01

    The MMPIs of 104 cocaine abusers in treatment were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis and two basic profile types emerged. Type I consisted of a spike on Pd and a subspike on Hyp, reflecting a rebellious, acting out character-disordered style with narcissistic traits. Type II consisted of a high-ranging, floating profile consisting of marked elevations on F, Sc, Dep, Pt, Pd, and Pa, reflecting a psychiatric patient who concurrently abused cocaine. These findings were contrasted to other MMPI typological studies, and the similarities and differences were discussed.

  16. Factsheets: Indicators of Fraud, Waste and Abuse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Factsheets: Indicators of Fraud, Waste and Abuse - You can tell if fraud, waste and abuse are occurring by looking for indicators. These are clues that may warrant further review of a specific area or activity.

  17. Self Concept of Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)

  18. Child Abuse: One Tree in the Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burland, J. Alexis; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The records of 28 abused or severely neglected children, as reviewed and analyzed, show the importance of meeting the child's and parent's dependency needs, rather than focusing exclusively on the abuse itself. (Author/CS)

  19. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... irritability, or restlessness. What could be other telltale behaviors of inhalant abuse? Inhalant abusers also may exhibit ... to three companions, the four teenagers had taken gas from a family's grill propane tank. They put ...

  20. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  1. Growing up with Parental Alcohol Abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Shanta R.; Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Croft, Janet B.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 8,629 adults examined the association between parental alcohol abuse and child abuse, neglect, and other household dysfunction. Compared to households without alcohol abuse, the adjusted odds ratio for each category of adverse childhood experience was 2 to 13 times higher if parents abused alcohol. (Contains references.) (CR)

  2. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  3. Abuse of elderly people by their carers.

    PubMed Central

    Homer, A C; Gilleard, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of abuse of elderly people by their carers and the characteristics of abusers and the abused. DESIGN--Information on abuse and risk factors was collected over six months from carers and patients. Risk factors were identified in the abused group and compared with those in a non-abused control group. SETTING--Carers were interviewed at home; patients were examined in the wards of Putney and Barnes geriatric hospitals, London. SUBJECTS--All patients referred from any source for respite care to the geriatric services over a six month period and their carers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Amount of physical and verbal abuse or neglect. Quantification of risk factors and correlation with the presence or absence of abuse. RESULTS--45% Of carers openly admitted to some form of abuse. Few patients admitted abuse. The most significant risk factor for physical abuse was alcohol consumption by the carer (p less than 0.001). Other significant risk factors were a poor pre-morbid relationship and previous abuse over many years. Abuse was often reciprocated and was associated with social dysfunction in many patients. Service delivery, respite care, and level of mental and physical disability were not significantly associated with abuse. CONCLUSION--The high level of abuse found in elderly patients in respite care was particularly associated with alcohol abuse and long term relationships of poor quality, which are difficult to change. Even with increased provision of services, care in the community may not be the best solution for these people. PMID:2271883

  4. Establishing "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations: A proposed development framework.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Cone, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations are one strategy for mitigating the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Regulatory guidance documents describe the requirements for developing abuse-deterrent formulations of novel drugs and formulations; however, they do not address "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic formulations. As generics may be produced with different excipients and formulations compared to reference drugs, differences in their properties may impact their abuse-deterrent features. Currently, it is unclear what specific studies are needed to support generic abuse-deterrence claims. This commentary outlines several recommendations on the in vitro and in vivo testing required, including the conditions for conducting a human abuse potential study.

  5. Measuring Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors: Revising the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-05-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to understanding how abusers use economic abuse strategies. Unfortunately, limited measures are available to accurately understand the prevalence of economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Recently, researchers created the 28-item Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) but further validation is needed. This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the SEA through confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses using data collected with 120 survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEA-12 as a shorter instrument to measure economic abuse as a distinct form of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Instruments for Assessing Substance Abuse: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew E.; Plescia, Joanne

    A review of the assessment literature on substance abuse has revealed 27 separate instruments for assessing substance abuse. These include 22 alcohol instruments and five instruments for assessing other drug abuse. The instruments are listed in a table that provides the title, source, description, population, and psychometric properties of each…

  7. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  8. Parents Who Abuse: What Are They Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Alexandra C.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered…

  9. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  10. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  11. Attitudes of Jordanian Society toward Wife Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Btoush, Rula; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study among a convenience sample of 260 Jordanian men and women, using self-administered open and closed questions to examine the participants' approach toward wife abuse. In general, there was high awareness of wife abuse and the different types of abuse (mainly physical and psychological), a general tendency…

  12. Adolescent Victims of Abuse: A Treatment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Merchant, Darlene

    This paper presents a theory and model for treating adolescent victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect. The theory examines issues related to abuse or neglect and the effect that an abusive history has on adolescent development. Specific issues noted are depression, anger, low self-esteem, self-shame, lack of trust, a sense of…

  13. Protocols for the Assessment of Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Terry; Wetle, Terrie

    The fact that many states have passed elder abuse reporting laws has left care providers with a dilemma. If suspected abuse is reported, the relationship between caregiver and patient may change and the family's difficulties may increase. Indicators of abuse are not easy to differentiate from health problems, especially in the frail elderly. An…

  14. Physicians' Mandatory Reporting of Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, R. Steven; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated physicians' responses to Alabama state elder abuse reporting statutes in Alabama Protective Services Act of 1976. Survey responses from over 100 Alabama physicians suggest that they have reservations about their ability to diagnose abuse, operation of the law, and their willingness to report abuse. (Author/NB)

  15. Understanding elder abuse in family practice

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  16. Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Elyse; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

  17. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  18. Elder Abuse: What's a Clinician To Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Bruce E.

    Incidence rates are critically examined in light of varying definitions of what constitutes elder abuse. It is suggested that the clinician's position of mandatory reporting is an unrealistic response in many cases of elder abuse due to the lack of adequate support services for either the abuser or the elder. Outcome studies are used to support…

  19. Signs of Painkiller Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts » Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Listen © ...

  20. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  1. Drug Abuse Montgomery County Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Drug Commission, Norristown, PA.

    This is a research report and survey on drug abuse in Montgomery County, Norristown, Pennsylvania, conducted by the Montgomery County Drug Commission. The nine-month study is incorporated into a single volume. An analysis of the results of the drug survey points out that many variables which had heretofore been regarded as being significantly…

  2. Family Sexual Abuse Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Noel Ruth

    This report describes various aspects of an inservice training program for human service professionals concerned with family sexual abuse. Covered in the report are the content, objectives and phases of the training program, demographic information on the trainees, and a description of the types of evaluation conducted. The overall purpose of the…

  3. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  4. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  5. The Aging and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jacob A.

    Demographic data suggest that alcohol abuse among the elderly will increase in proportion to the population growth of that group. Four factors which may cause the elderly to be a highly susceptible group for alcohol problems are: (1) retirement and its boredom, role changes, and financial problems; (2) increased concern with death and losses of…

  6. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  7. Teachers' Verbal Abuse: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving a somewhat sarcastic elementary teacher, a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court reversed the state commissioner of education's affirmation of her dismissal based on persistent negligence. Results of teachers' alleged verbal abuse of students depends on the nature of the claim, not just specific evidence. (MLH)

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  9. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  10. Intervention Strategies for Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rencken, Robert H.

    This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…

  11. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  12. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  13. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  14. Molekulare Diagnostik der HPV Infektion

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, PD Dr. med. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause the majority of cervical cancers and other anogentical cancers. Large randomized trials have shown that HPV testing can be efficiently used for primary cervical cancer screening. Other applications include the triage of abnormal cytology results and the follow-up of women after treatment. Many assays have been developed to measure DNA, RNA, and proteins of HPV. The various tests can have very different applications. It is important to validate HPV assays before they are implemented in screening or clinical care. PMID:21845360

  15. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-04

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    PubMed

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  17. The Many Victims of Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding environments and support systems. In this article, we present a clinical case of opioid dependence and discuss various treatment options and modalities. We will discuss different variables that may maximize positive treatment outcomes. Also a review of the current literature regarding substance abuse treatment, psychotherapy with the drug abuser, and grief therapy should the substance abusing patient die for the surviving family members will be presented. PMID:20532120

  18. Psychological abuse: a variable deserving critical attention in domestic violence.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, K D

    1999-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers give psychological abuse considerably less attention than physical abuse in the partner abuse area. One reason for the relative neglect of psychological abuse is that there are difficulties in arriving at a common definition of psychological abuse that might be useful to both the mental health and legal professions. Another reason for the relative neglect of psychological abuse has been an implicit assumption that physical abuse exacts a greater psychological toll on victims than does psychological abuse. At the extreme level of physical abuse, this assumption seems defensible, but at levels of physical aggression that are most common in marriage and long-term relationships, psychological abuse appears to have as great an impact as physical abuse. Even direct ratings of psychological and physical abuse by women in physically abusive relationships indicate that psychological abuse has a greater adverse effect on them than physical abuse. Retrospective reports, longitudinal research, and treatment dropout research all provide evidence that psychological abuse can exact a negative effect on relationships that is as great as that of physical abuse. Finally, psychological abuse almost always precedes physical abuse, so that prevention and treatment efforts clearly need to address psychological abuse. Eight measures of various forms of psychological abuse that have reasonable psychometric properties and considerable construct validity are reviewed and a definition of psychological abuse in intimate relations is provided.

  19. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  20. Abuse-deterrent formulations, an evolving technology against the abuse and misuse of opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Tammi

    2012-12-01

    The increased use of opioid pain medication has been mirrored by the increased misuse and abuse of these drugs. As part of a multidisciplinary approach to this epidemic, pharmaceutical companies, with the encouragement of the Food and Drug Administration, have increased the development of abuse-deterrent formulations. While all have the goal of treating pain while mitigating misuse and abuse, there are different technologies utilized to impart the abuse-deterrent properties. The goal of this paper is to review the basis of abuse-deterrent formulations, the different types and approaches of some of the abuse-deterrent products, and their current regulatory status in the USA.

  1. Alcohol abuse as a risk factor for and consequence of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Widom, C S; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between child abuse and the use or abuse of alcohol has two aspects. First, some findings have indicated that parental alcohol abuse may be associated with the physical or sexual abuse of children. Research findings in this area remain inconsistent, however. Second, the experience of being abused as a child may increase a person's risk for alcohol-related problems as an adult. This relationship has best been demonstrated in women who had been victims of childhood abuse. Several factors most likely contribute to or influence this relationship, including coping skills; antisocial behavior; and psychological problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. [Child abuse: an interdisciplinary management experience].

    PubMed

    Seldes, José Julio; Ziperovich, Valentina; Viota, Alejandra; Leiva, Fernanda

    2008-12-01

    Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. A series of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance and qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.

  3. Clinically speaking, psychological abuse matters.

    PubMed

    Começanha, Rita; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Maia, Ângela

    2017-02-01

    The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse. A total of 75% of men and 72% of women reported lifetime psychological victimization and no differences were found for sociodemographic factors, including gender. However, women reported significantly more instigations of psychological abusive acts (OR =5.41, 95% CI=1.88-15.55). Multivariate linear regression models revealed that post-traumatic stress symptoms-PTSS (β=.51; p<.001), depression (β=.34; p<.001) and anxiety (β=.22; p<.001)-were predicted by psychological IPV. The strongest relationship was established between psychological IPV and PTSS, and the final model accounts for 28.6% of the variance (F(6357)=23.86, p<.001). This article provides an empirical basis to recognize the unique and serious impact of psychological IPV on mental health, and recommends screening psychological IPV as part of the clinical routine, developing a gender-inclusive approach, and implementing evidence-based protocols tailored to the needs of these victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality inferences drawn about abusive mothers.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W B; Jennings, C

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated the personality inferences people draw about abusive mothers by having 287 subjects view videotapes of four female targets engaged in social discourse with other adults. Some subjects were primed beforehand to believe that the female targets had physically abused or neglected their child and other subjects viewed the tapes without being primed. Afterward, all subjects rated the targets' personalities using 17 bipolar trait scales and estimating the likelihood of six social behaviors. Analyses compared the ratings of the two types of abuse groups (physical abuse and neglect) with each other and with the unprimed control group. Analysis showed that ratings of one or both of the abuse groups differed from those of the control group on 10 of the 17 trait dimensions and four of six social behaviors. Implications are drawn about the social forces experienced by abusive mothers and the possible role of such forces in therapeutic change.

  5. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  7. Medical student abuse: perceptions and experience.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, J A; Kay, J; Rudisill, J R; Bienenfeld, D; Gillig, P; Klykylo, W M; Markert, R J

    1993-07-01

    A questionnaire containing 18 vignettes of common clinical educational situations with potentially abusive treatment of medical students and a 10-item attitude assessment about abusive behaviour were administered to the first- and fourth-year medical students at a mid-west US university medical school. The first- and fourth-year groups did not differ significantly on perceived abusiveness of most of the vignettes, although several of the individual vignettes were perceived significantly differently by the two groups. As hypothesized, the fourth-year students had experienced such situations more frequently. Attitudes towards abusive behaviour did not differ between the two groups. The authors contrast teaching interactions perceived as educationally useful and not abusive with those seen as abusive and not useful and offer explanations for the differences observed. Finally, the possible implications of the results for medical education are discussed.

  8. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  9. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  10. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  11. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  12. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  13. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  14. A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeff; And Others

    Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

  15. A Profile of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villas, Paul

    A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…

  16. A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Michael A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

  17. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical care aspects of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanouri, Ibrahim; Dikin, Matthew; Soubani, Ayman O

    2005-03-01

    The authors reviewed MEDLINE and references of major articles in the published literature over the last 30 years regarding the complications of alcohol abuse and discuss the critical care aspects of alcohol abuse. This article discusses the severe medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse that lead to admission to the medical intensive care unit. The clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnostic studies, and management of these conditions are discussed in detail.

  19. Treating the drug-abusing offender.

    PubMed

    Leukefeld, C; Matthews, T; Clayton, R

    1992-01-01

    The association between drug abuse treatment and criminal justice control is examined in this article. A framework is presented for mental health administrators and policy-makers to examine and appreciate the use of authority derived from the criminal justice system for drug abusers involved in community treatment. In addition, an overview of relevant literature is provided to encapsulate the literature related to the drug-abusing criminal offender which is most useful for mental health administrators and policy-makers.

  20. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

  1. Profile of narcotic abuse in peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; Haq, S

    1980-01-01

    Demographic and drug abuse characteristics of 3,484 new drug abuse contacts presenting to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are reported. The large majority were heroin inhalers. They were different from the traditional Eastern opium inhalers and similar to Western heroin injectors in that they were young, male, single, and frequently unemployed. These features and the relative underrepresentation of Chinese suggest that the Chinese of this study did not learn narcotic abuse from opium-smoking relatives.

  2. Affective responsiveness, betrayal, and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2009-01-01

    Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment.

  3. Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    SUBTITLE Combat Stress and Substance Abuse Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0197 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUBJECT TERMS Combat stress, substance abuse , alcohol, brief intervention, military personnel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...reduce stress reactions and substance abuse . These data are vital to understanding additional steps the military might take in addressing issues of

  4. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, E M G; Subhagya, B; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N

    2005-06-01

    Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  5. Childhood abuse, alexithymia and personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, H

    1996-12-01

    I examined the relationships among childhood abuse, alexithymia, and personality disorder. Participants were 60 adults who were receiving outpatient psychotherapy. Both the participants and their therapists used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale to provide independently information concerning the client's level of alexithymia. The therapists provided information concerning DSM-III-R personality disorder diagnoses, and participants completed portions of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised. Information concerning childhood abuse history was obtained from the therapists. As expected, childhood abuse, alexithymia, and personality disorder were all associated with each other. The abilities to identify and communicate emotions were differentially associated with childhood abuse and personality disorder.

  6. Economic abuse in Lebanon: experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Usta, Jinan; Makarem, Nisrine N; Habib, Rima R

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the experiences and perceptions of Lebanese women and men with economic abuse. Data were drawn from focus group discussions and face-to-face interviews with men, women and social workers. The findings reveal that Lebanese women experience many forms of economic abuse, including the withholding of earnings, restricted involvement in the labor force, and limited purchasing decisions. Inheritance laws and practices still favor men over women. Women tolerate economic abuse to avoid more serious forms of abuse and ensure family stability. Practical implications of the findings are presented.

  7. Imaging and Diagnosis of Physical Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marlene M

    2017-09-01

    Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  8. Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  10. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Physically Abusive Parents: Efficacy for Reducing Future Abuse Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Mark; Silovsky, Jane F.; Funderburk, Beverly; Valle, Linda Anne; Brestan, Elizabeth V.; Balachova, Tatiana; Jackson, Shelli; Lensgraf, Jay; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to test the efficacy and sufficiency of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in preventing re-reports of physical abuse among abusive parents. Physically abusive parents (N=110) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: (a) PCIT, (b) PCIT plus individualized enhanced services, or (c) a…

  11. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  12. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  13. Alcoholism and Familial Abuse: Enhancement of Quality Force Programs Using a Companion-Problem Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    physical auc] sexual abuse and spouse abuse) hurt Air Force readiness and mission accomiplishmnent. The Air Force needs better means of problem identi- A...Abuse and Domestic Violence ................... 7 Alcohol Abuse and Child Physical Abuse ............... 9 i Alcohol Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse...abuse (spouse abuse, child phyzical abuse, and child sexual abuse) are serious problems in today’s Air Force. Beyond the moral considerations, they

  14. [Medicolegal aspects of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Hofer, P; Brandau, L-M; Mützel, E

    2016-05-01

    The prevention and clinical diagnostics of maltreatment of children and adolescents represents a great challenge to all medical disciplines concerned; therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration is indispensable. Medicolegal experts require specific radiological examination methods for the differentiation between accidental and non-accidental injuries, depending on the corresponding point in question. In addition, a clear and structured radiological appraisal of the findings is necessary. On the other hand, radiologists require an appropriate succinctly phrased question from the medicolegal expert. A close collaboration between radiologists and medicolegal experts is mandatory for a better recognition of cases of child abuse; therefore, the joint establishment of diagnostic standards and a comprehensive implementation is necessary.

  15. Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.

  16. Gender Differences in Social Reactions to Abuse Disclosures, Post-Abuse Coping, and PTSD of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, S.E.; Filipas, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the understudied issue of gender differences in disclosure, social reactions, post-abuse coping, and PTSD of adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). Method: Data were collected on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 733 college students completing a confidential survey about their demographic…

  17. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  18. How Teachers Can Help Victims of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Identifies aspects of students' behavior and appearance which may indicate child abuse, discusses various types of physical and emotional child abuse, and points out steps which teachers should take if they suspect that a student is being abused. (DB)

  19. The Association Between Childhood Abuse and Elder Abuse Among Chinese Adult Children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Li, Ge; Simon, Melissa A

    2017-07-01

    The previous researchers have postulated that an abused child may abuse his or her abuser parent when the parent is getting old, also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence. However, few studies use data to support this model, and it has yet to be examined in the U.S. Chinese community. This study aims to examine the association between childhood abuse and elder abuse reported by Chinese adult children in the United States. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and older participated in this study. Childhood abuse was assessed by four-item Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) scale. Elder abuse was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Childhood abuse was associated with caregiver abuse screen results (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.95). Being physically hurt (r = .13, p < .01), insulted (r = .15, p < .001), threatened (r = .12, p < .01), and screamed at (r = .18, p < .001) as a child were significantly correlated with caregiver abuse screen results. This study suggests that childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of elder abuse among Chinese adult children in the United States. Longitudinal research should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which childhood abuse and its subtypes links with elder abuse. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... others in healthy ways or cause problems with aggression or self-control. Of course, not everyone with ... and concentrating. They may not do well at school because they are angry or frightened, or feel ...

  1. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Care Costs Paying for Care Insurance Social Security Disability Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax ... Ave. Floor 17 Chicago, IL 60601 Contact Us Security and Privacy Policy Copyrights and Reprints Pressroom Select ...

  2. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  3. [Drug abuse in nursing students].

    PubMed

    Garrido-González, Iria; Bugarín-González, Rosendo; Machín-Fernández, Antonio Javier

    2016-01-01

    To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89.9% (58.4% of the total got drunk). 2.2% were consuming tranquilizers/hypnotics in the same time period. The most widely used illegal drug was cannabis (17.8%) and then cocaine (2.2%). There is a significant correlation between illegal drug consumption and being male, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, living alone or with friends (not family), have poor academic performance and public drinking (botellón). There were no association between illegal drugs and sports or reading. Polydrug use was also studied: a 16.2% declared to have consumed alcohol and cannabis simultaneously, and a 4.9% alcohol and cocaine. Consumption patterns are similar compared to the general population in that age group, with some of them being higher. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures in order to prevent substance abuse at the university level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Candida endophthalmitis after heroin abuse.

    PubMed

    Malecaze, F; Arne, J L; Bec, P; Séguéla, J P; Linas, M D; Recco, P; Béssières, M H

    1985-11-01

    Three cases of ocular candidosis involving heroin abusers have been observed in 1983 in Toulouse department of ophthalmology. These three patients had used iranian brown heroin. Twenty similar cases have been published in these last years. This new pathology can be explained on two reasons. The first is that the drug abusers have some immunity pertubation; however, immunity exploration in these patients does not reveal any immunodeficiency. The second reason, certainly more important, is the method of using heroin. The diagnosis of Candida endophthalmitis of course based on clinical context must be proved by biological tests. Candida albicans is never identified in aqueous humor. For this reason, it seems very interesting to detect anti-candida antibodies in aqueous humor. It has been used as methods of dosage laser Nephelemetry for IgG and immunofluorescence for candidosis antibodies. The criterion used is similar to the toxoplasmosis coefficient established by Desmonts (3). In two cases, this test was the only way that permits us to have certitude of candidosis ocular diagnosis. Otherwise the observations show that anterior chamber punction is more significant when there is an anterior uveitis.

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip; Murthy, Pratima; Singh, Swaran P

    2003-01-01

    The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use. Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered. Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD-10 system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted. Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed. PMID:21206852

  6. Sexual maturation and control issues among sexually abused and non-abused anorexia patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J; Burns, F

    2000-09-01

    To assess the relative salience of the maintenance of control and the avoidance of sexual maturation as sources of motivation for maintaining pathological eating behaviours among sexually abused anorexic patients. A two-factor mixed experimental design was employed. Three independent groups (sexually abused anorexics (N = 12); non-abused anorexics (N = 9); non-anorexic/non-abused controls (N = 12)) constituted the between-subjects factor. Allocation to abuse/non-abuse group was dependent upon replies to a questionnaire-based measure of unwanted sexual experience. The within-subjects factor comprised three conditions in which words of various colours were presented to participants for colour-naming (Stroop, 1935). The conditions were represented by lists of neutral words, sexual maturation words, and control-related words. Two trials were carried out in each condition and mean response times were measured. Within-group analyses revealed that interference was greater from sexual maturation words than from control-related words among the sexually-abused anorexics, but of equal magnitude among non-abused counterparts. Between-groups analyses found that abused patients experienced marginally greater cognitive interference from sexual maturation words than the non-abused patients. Theoretically, support is offered for elaborated schematic models of cognitive processing. Clinically, treatment interventions may need to pay particular attention to issues of sexual maturation among sexually abused anorexic patients.

  7. Cognitive and emotional differences between abusive and non-abusive fathers.

    PubMed

    Francis, Karen J; Wolfe, David A

    2008-12-01

    Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Abusive (n=24) and non-abusive (n=25) fathers completed standard measures assessing their experience and expression of anger, mental health, parenting stress, and their empathy and perceptions of children's socio-emotional signals. Abusive fathers differed from comparisons on almost all constructs. They experienced more anger and were more likely to express that anger aggressively. They reported more mental health concerns (such as depression, hostility, and paranoid ideation), more stress in parenting, and significantly less empathy for their children. They were also more likely to perceive children's emotional expressions as depicting negative emotions, such as anger and disgust. Abusive fathers struggle with a myriad of difficulties that likely contribute to their problematic parenting. These difficulties are both inter- and intra-personal in nature. The findings suggest that abusive fathers require comprehensive assessment that includes mental health screening. Interventions should be selected carefully to target abusive fathers' high levels of negative affect and negative perceptions. Treatment strategies should address problems related to parenting style (e.g., managing stress and interpretation of children's socioemotional signals) as well as their personal adjustment (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies for regulating affect and cognitive distortions).

  8. School-Based Counseling of Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Rivelis, Erin; Diaz, Vielka

    2009-01-01

    Abused children experience high rates of behavior, emotional, and learning problems but infrequently receive treatment. Most services provided to abused children and their families are not based on any clear evidence that they work. A number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating a range of…

  9. Cultures of Abuse within Residential Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Wendy; Green, Lorraine

    1997-01-01

    Uses interviews with residents and ex-residents, ethnographic techniques, and document analysis to examine sexuality and sexual abuse in residential childcare settings, including how their culture and leadership contribute to abuse and the denial and invisibility of sexuality. Discusses issues around researching sexuality, children, and abusive…

  10. Drug Abuse: A Challenge for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Anthony E.; Mason, Eugene R.

    This report provides comprehensive information regarding drug use/abuse. The first chapter describes drugs -- those generally accepted by society as well as those less accepted -- and discusses potential psychic and physical dangers inherent in their abuse. The second chapter explains the reasons offered by drug users for their generally…

  11. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  12. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  13. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  14. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  16. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  17. Typology for Parents of Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Michael P.; Meier, John H.

    This paper reports an effort to classify parents of abused children according to existing and new typologies derived from parents' psychopathological personality profiles. Several previously reported typologies for abusive parents are reviewed and elaborated. In addition, reference is given to data and insights gained from an ongoing study of 50…

  18. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  19. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  20. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  1. The Principal's Role in Reporting Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Beth

    1991-01-01

    The role of the principal in identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect is discussed in this bulletin. Although all 50 states and the District of Columbia have laws that require educators to report cases in which they have knowledge or reasonable cause to suspect child abuse, passage of legislation does not always lead to compliance.…

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  3. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  4. Prosecution: An Effective Response to Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshbarger, Scott

    A district attorney of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, argues that prosecution is the most effective and appropriate response to child abuse cases. Two basic premises are advanced. First, anyone who physically abuses, sexually assaults, or rapes a child has committed a serious crime, regardless of the relationship of the victim to the offender.…

  5. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  7. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  8. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  9. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  10. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  11. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Curriculum Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladbach, Randall M.; Wheeler, Virginia R.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of abused and neglected children in our nation's classrooms strongly argues the case for a curriculum component in both pre-service and in-service teacher education. The objectives and content of a child abuse and neglect curriculum component and its implementation are discussed.

  13. Correlates of cyber dating abuse among teens.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancements in technology (e.g., social networking, texting) have created new ways for dating youth to relate to one another, including in abusive ways via "cyber dating abuse." Cyber dating abuse is a form of teen dating violence that overlaps with other types of abuse (e.g., psychological) but also has several unique characteristics. Given the phenomenon's limited presence in dating violence literature, we focus on identifying how experiencing cyber dating abuse relates to youths' individual behaviors and experiences (e.g., substance use, sexual activity), psychosocial adjustment, school connection, family relationships, and partner relationships. A total of 3,745 youth (52% female, 74% White) in three northeastern states participated in the survey and reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. We found that experiences of cyber dating abuse were most significantly correlated with being female, committing a greater variety of delinquent behaviors, having had sexual activity in one's lifetime, having higher levels of depressive symptoms, and having higher levels of anger/hostility. Further, cyber dating abuse appeared somewhat more strongly related to depressive symptoms and delinquency than did other forms of teen dating violence and abuse.

  14. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  15. Child Abuse Issues for Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marlys; Koskie, Beth

    Written for child caregivers, this booklet provides very basic information about child abuse and neglect, discusses early warnings that signal when a family is in trouble or when a child is at risk, and indicates how caregivers can helpfully intervene. Also suggested are ways caregivers might protect themselves against the charge of child abuse.…

  16. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  17. Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapes, Bruce E.

    Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

  18. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  19. The Medicalization and Legalization of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard

    The authors propose that theoretical confusion and clinical inadequacy regarding child abuse is due, in part, from medical and legal ambiguity concerning child abuse and from dilemmas surrounding social policy and the professional response toward families and children. The dilemmas of social policy (family autonomy versus coercive intervention)…

  20. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  1. Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…

  2. Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Dennis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews policies that address substance abuse among the homeless. Recommends that the changing needs of the homeless require an integration of alcoholism and drug abuse recovery services with programs for various groups, substance-free housing, and psychological knowledge incorporated into programs for those struggling with addiction and…

  3. Drug Abuse Information, Teacher Resource Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Haskell, Comp.

    This informational publication is to be used as an aid for teachers, bringing them basic facts regarding drugs and drug abuse. Its purpose is to (1) give additional teacher background information and (2) enrich any course of study that has been developed on drug abuse. To use the material most effectively, it is suggested the teacher have an…

  4. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  5. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  6. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect: Protecting Massachusetts Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts KIDS COUNT, Boston.

    This Massachusetts Kids Count report focuses on child abuse and neglect in the state of Massachusetts and presents recommendations for alleviating stressors contributing to child maltreatment. The report presents incidence information and identifies the impact of child abuse on future risk status. In addition, the report differentiates the 12…

  8. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  9. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  10. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  11. Child Abuse: Helping Children through Bibliotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Andrea; Bruneau, Odette

    Since children who have been abused much of their lives may be unaware that what is happening is unusual, it may be necessary for teachers to take the initiative in educating young children to recognize that abuse is not normal and to talk with someone if and when they realize they are a victim. This education can take place through the use of…

  12. Drug Abuse Control--Administrative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    These guidelines were developed to assist administrators, teachers, and other staff members of the Los Angeles Public Schools in the formulation of an effective program designed to alleviate drug abuse. Staff responsibilities are spelled out. Specific attention is directed to the problems of drug abuse, drug possession and drug selling. The…

  13. Cardiac conduction disturbance after loperamide abuse.

    PubMed

    Marraffa, J M; Holland, M G; Sullivan, R W; Morgan, B W; Oakes, J A; Wiegand, T J; Hodgman, M J

    2014-11-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is a major public health concern and an ongoing epidemic in the United States. Loperamide is a widely available and inexpensive over-the-counter antidiarrheal with peripheral mu-opioid receptor activity. Online resources discuss the use of loperamide for the amelioration of withdrawal symptoms or recreational abuse. We describe the clinical course of 5 patients abusing loperamide, 3 of whom had life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. In this observational case series, patients with cardiac arrhythmias or history of loperamide abuse with cardiac arrhythmias were identified; 5 patients were identified and 4 of the 5 patients were seen directly at the bedside. Clinical profile and outcome of patients is reported. We report 5 patients with history of loperamide abuse; 3 of the 5 patients had life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. One of the patients experienced a second life-threatening arrhythmia after he resumed loperamide abuse. Loperamide levels were obtained in 4 of the 5 patients and were at least one order of magnitude greater than therapeutic concentrations. Discontinuation of loperamide resulted in complete resolution of cardiac conduction disturbances. This case series describes several patients with cardiac conduction abnormalities and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias temporally related to loperamide abuse. With the recent efforts to restrict the diversion of prescription opioids, increasing abuse of loperamide as an opioid substitute may be seen. Toxicologists should be aware of these risks and we urge all clinicians to report such cases to FDA Medwatch(®).

  14. Substance Abuse and Counseling: An Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    This chapter discusses current issues and future perspectives in relation to substance abuse counseling. Current issues include: abstinence versus controlled use; coercive versus voluntary treatment; and career development and counseling with clients with substance abuse problems. Future perspectives include: the impact of managed care; the…

  15. DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is an ongoing drug abuse data collection system sponsored by SAMHSA's Office of Applied Studies. DAWN collects data from: (1) hospital emergency departments (EDs) and (2) medical examiners (MEs). The DAWN ED component relies on a nationally r...

  16. Child Abuse: The Crying Baby at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, John

    The author considers the relationship between uncontrollable infant crying and child abuse. An integrative scheme is offered from evidence of child abuse literature, experimentally induced infant crying effects, attribution theory, and learned helplessness. It is suggested that infant crying often has causes beyond caregiver control, such as birth…

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect Curriculum in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane; And Others

    The booklet presents a recommended course outline for a course in child abuse and neglect in schools of education. The course may be adapted to a semester or quarter schedule and be used whole or in part. An introduction gives a rationale for inclusion of child abuse and neglect curriculum in teacher training programs. The course is divided into…

  18. Directions in Substance Abuse Counseling, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam W., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism"…

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ronald S.

    Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…

  20. Theories and measures of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Abolfathi Momtaz, Yadollah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-09-01

    Elder abuse is a pervasive phenomenon around the world with devastating effects on the victims. Although it is not a new phenomenon, interest in examining elder abuse is relatively new. This paper aims to provide an overview of the aetiological theories and measures of elder abuse. The paper briefly reviews theories to explain causes of elder abuse and then discusses the most commonly used measures of elder abuse. Based on the reviewed theories, it can be concluded that elder abuse is a multifactorial problem that may affect elderly people from different backgrounds and involve a wide variety of potential perpetrators, including caregivers, adult children, and partners. The review of existing measurement instruments notes that many different screening and assessment instruments have been developed to identify elders who are at risk for or are victims of abuse. However, there is a real need for more measurements of elder abuse, as the current instruments are limited in scope. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. A Community Response to Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foelker, George A., Jr.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how Dallas, Texas, Area Agency on Aging met requirement of 1987 amendments to Older Americans Act of 1965 that State Offices on Aging identify agencies involved in identifying and treating abused, neglected, and exploited elders and determine their need for services. Describes impact of Elder Abuse Task Force on state law, adult…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  3. A Community Education Approach to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Alcohol and drug abuse not only affect the individual, but the entire community. No single person or organization alone is capable of, nor responsible for solving the substance abuse problem. It is now important that schools establish partnerships with the community to develop and implement appropriate programs to foster healthy adolescent…

  4. Do abuse deterrent opioid formulations work?

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Iwanicki, Janetta L; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Cicero, Theodore J; Schnoll, Sidney H

    We performed a systematic review to answer the question, "Does the introduction of an opioid analgesic with abuse deterrent properties result in reduced overall abuse of the drug in the community?" We included opioid analgesics with abuse deterrent properties (hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone) with results restricted to the metasearch term "delayed onset," English language, use in humans, and publication years 2009-2016. All articles that contained data evaluating misuse, abuse, overdose, addiction, and death were included. The results were categorized using the Bradford-Hill criteria. We included 44 reports: hydrocodone (n = 7), morphine (n = 5), or oxycodone (n = 32) with Food and Drug Administration-approved Categories 1, 2, or 3 abuse deterrent labeling. The data currently available support the Hill criteria of strength (effect size), consistency (reproducibility), temporality, plausibility, and coherence. There was insufficient or no information available for the criteria of biological gradient, experiment, and analogy. We also assessed confounding factors and bias, which indicated that both were present and substantial in magnitude. Our analysis found that only oxycodone extended release (ER) had information available to evaluate abuse deterrence in the community. In Australia, Canada, and the United States, reformulation of oxycodone ER was followed by marked reduction in measures of abuse. The precise extent of reduced abuse cannot be calculated because of heterogeneous data sets, but the reported reductions ranged from 10 to 90 percent depending on the measure and the duration of follow-up.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  6. Women and Substance Abuse. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    There are many issues concerning women of all ages and substance abuse. Women who abuse alcohol or other drugs are particularly at risk for sexual assault; unprotected sex; unwanted pregnancies; and sexually transmitted diseases. Females between the ages of 12 and 17 surpass males in their use of cigarettes; cocaine; crack; inhalants; and…

  7. Prevention of Child Abuse: Theory, Myth, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Newberger, Carolyn Moore

    Child abuse is discussed in terms of theory which when realized may lead to more effective primary and secondary prevention efforts. Theoretical explanations of child abuse are classified as either unitary or interactive. Unitary theories (psychological, sociological, and legal views of behavior) are considered deficient; none is capable of…

  8. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  9. Women's reasons for leaving abusive spouses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Y C

    1991-01-01

    Research has focused on factors associated with leaving physically abusive relationships, yet little is known about what the woman thinks when she leaves. Fifty-one formerly battered women from rural and metropolitan areas in two midwestern states described 86 reasons for leaving a physically abusive relationship. During open-ended interviews, women who rated themselves as severely abused spontaneously emphasized leaving as a process. Content analysis resulted in reasons categorized as safety, dependency, and personal growth. Self-report retrospective data from a nonrandom sample limit generalizability of results; however, the awareness and reasoning of the women, coupled with their emphasis on leaving as process and personal growth, suggest the importance of education and support programs for abused women and women at risk for abuse.

  10. [Suspected child abuse in paediatric emergency service].

    PubMed

    Sabaté Rotés, A; Sancosmed Ron, M; Cebrián Rubio, R; Canet Ponsa, M; Martín González, M

    2009-07-01

    To describe the epidemiology of child abuse in an emergency department of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Descriptive and retrospective study from January 2008 to January 2006 including patients less than sixteen years of age who were suspected of being abused during the examination in the emergency department. Child maltreatment was 0.07% of all paediatric emergencies (45% physical abuse, 35% sexual abuse and 20% neglect). Mean age of 6 years old, with no gender differences. 86% were suspected of maltreatment. An adult living with the child was suspected in 67% of cases. Social and judicial procedures were activated. A total of 24 children were admitted, 14 under medical criteria and the rest in order to protect the child; 2 had serious neurological consequences and one died. Eight patients were discharged to social service care centres. We believe it is necessary to improve the pediatrician's knowledge of child abuse and to create specialized units.

  11. BUPRENORPHINE ABUSE IN INDIA : AN UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Yogesh; Mattoo, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study reviews the available Indian literature on buprenorphine abuse. Buprenorphine was introduced in 1986; the abuse, first noticed in 1987, increased rapidly till 1994, and then decreased gradually. Initiated through other addicts and medical practitioners, the abuse was mostly as a cheap, easily and legally available substitute for opioids. The typical young adult male abuser used an intravenous cocktail with diazepam, pheneramine or promethazine for a better kick. The withdrawal syndrome was typical of the opioids and without an expected delayed onset. Complications of pseudoaneurysm and recurrent koro in repeated withdrawal were reported. Buprenorphine as a detoxifying agent for opioids reportedly gave better symptom control in the first week but high rates of dependence induction were reported. The Indian data tends to caution against the Western enthusiasm to use buprenorphine for detoxification or maintenance of opioid abusers. PMID:21455379

  12. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-04-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an available person prepared to listen. The aim of the study was to explore the ability of the school nurses to detect and support sexually abused children. It is a secondary analysis of focus group interviews with school nurses. Thematic analysis was performed. Results showed that the school nurses avoided addressing CSA due to arousal of strong emotions, ambivalence, and a complicated disclosure process. In order to detect CSA and support abused children, attentiveness of sexual abuse as a possible cause of physical and mental ill-health is crucial.

  13. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide array of psychiatric symptoms. There is little in the literature to differentiate methylphenidate from other stimulants when they are abused. The need for education of all involved with the use of methylphenidate is discussed to help prevent an increasing pattern of methylphenidate abuse. PMID:15014637

  14. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  15. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Elder Abuse in the U.S.: Its Nature, Causes and Some Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of elder abuse: characteristics of victims, common forms of abuse, categories of abuse, victim-abuser relationship, characteristics of abusers, practical responses to the problem, and policy implications and research needs. (CT)

  17. False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegations of abuse did not occur in the context of parental separation, divorce, or custody disputes concerning the children. They occurred in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The age of the children, 3 to 9 years, was older than the usual age for Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The mother was the source of the false allegations and was the person who encouraged or taught six of the children to substantiate allegations of sexual abuse. PMID:8503664

  18. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  19. Forensic and family psychiatry in abuse dwarfism: Munchausen's syndrome by proxy, atonement, and addiction to abuse.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Annecillo, C; Hutchison, J W

    1985-01-01

    The syndrome of abuse dwarfism is characterized by gross impairment of statural and intellectual growth and social maturation while the abused child remains in the domicile of abuse. The parents collude as child abusers, and are medical impostors regarding the symptoms of abuse. The syndrome as a whole is appropriately named Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. Though the mother typically initiates abuse, she cannot give a rational explanation for doing so. In her own history there is a sin that is expiated or atoned for symbolically by the sacrifice of the child--explainable in terms of the theory of opponent-process learning. In the two cases presented, the sin was the mother's own birth out of wedlock, in one case as a sequel to incest. The child's addiction to abuse is a challenge to the program of rehabilitation. With respect to parents at risk, the data of this paper are relevant to the prevention of a predisposition toward, or the actual implementation of child abuse, though a program of prevention needs still to be formulated. The sexological relevance of this paper is that the data demonstrate that the effects of sexual abuse may be transmitted to the next generation and manifested as child abuse which is not necessarily sexual in content.

  20. [Prevalence of sexual abuse in students and its relation with drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Lira, L; Saldívar-Hernández, G; Medina-Mora, M E; Rojas-Guiot, E; Villatoro-Velázquez, J

    1998-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexual abuse among high school (secondary and preparatory) students, male and female, throughout Mexico, and its relationship with drug abuse. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Drug Use in Schools applied in November and December, 1991. A total of 61,779 students, 51.8% men and 47.1% women, with a mean age of 14.4 years completed the self-applied questionnaire. Sexual abuse was explored from the perspective of the abusers and of the victims. The prevalence of sexual abuse in adolescent victims was 4.3% and no statistically significant differences were found between sexes. The prevalence of sexual aggressors was 2.5%. Men coerced someone else in a higher proportion than women. Adolescent women experienced sexual abuse at a younger age than men and they also reported a higher percentage of intrafamily abuse. Men reported friends as the most frequent aggressors. Victims and aggressors of both sexes reported a significantly higher drug consumption than students without these antecedents. The differences in the experience of sexual abuse between men and women are described. In particular, the fact that sexual abuse in men mainly occurs outside the family sphere, while in women it is mainly within the family and at a younger age than in men. Additionally, the need for further research focusing on the consequences on mental health of infantile and adolescent sexual abuse and drug consumption is emphasized, considering the characteristics of each gender.

  1. The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.

  2. Reactive Periostitis from Inhalant Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hock, Lauren E; Honkanen, Iiro; Fiordellisi, Wendy; Bettendorf, Brittany

    2018-04-16

    The patient, a 36-year-old woman, presented with a 6-week history of swollen hands and fingers and associated arthralgia. She had a history of polysubstance abuse. The arthralgia and swelling started one month after she began inhaling two cans of "Dust-Off" (1,1-difluoroethane) daily. Physical examination revealed tender proximal and middle phalanges of all fingers bilaterally with bulbous appearance (A). There was no clubbing. Radiography of the hands revealed diffuse reactive periostitis with discrete layering of periosteal bone formation without bony destruction (B). TSH was normal. Serum alkaline phosphatase was 854 U/L. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of malignancy or pulmonary disease This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  5. Hospitalization of abused and neglected children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W N

    1997-03-01

    To describe the use of inpatient hospitalization for abused and neglected children living in a metropolitan area. Retrospective record review of abused and neglected children admitted in 1992 and 1993 to hospitals with 87% of metropolitan area pediatric admissions; comparison of these data with population, crisis nursery, and child protective services data. Thirty-four abused and neglected children were admitted to hospital, representing 0.3% (34/11,066; 95% confidence interval, 0%-1.2%) of pediatric admissions and 0.2% (34/19,950; 95% confidence interval, 0%-0.6%) of child protective services reports. This represents a rate of hospitalization for child abuse of 10 children (95% confidence interval, 0-46) per 100,000 child population per year. Seven hundred fifteen children were admitted to the crisis nursery by child protective services. Of those admitted to the hospital, 12 needed intensive care, 5 of whom died. Only 3 of 34 hospital-admitted children had private health insurance; 19 of 34 were younger than 1 year. Inpatient hospitalization for abuse represented a small fraction of total pediatric admissions and of child protective services reports. Comprehensive medical care for most abused children and medical education about child abuse must occur in outpatient settings.

  6. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Krim K.; Mouzon, Dawne M.; Govia, Ishtar O.; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M.; Jackson, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. Objectives We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. Methods We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Results Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. Conclusions The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested. PMID:27191862

  7. Judicial outcomes of child abuse homicide.

    PubMed

    Hewes, Hilary A; Keenan, Heather T; McDonnell, William M; Dudley, Nanette C; Herman, Bruce E

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether convictions and sentencing differ between child abuse homicide cases and adult homicide cases and to identify characteristics of the victim, suspect, or crime that influence conviction and sentencing results. Retrospective case review. Homicide data abstracted from the National Violent Death Reporting System in Utah. All deaths classified as homicide in Utah between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Judicial processing of homicide cases for conviction and sentencing results. Conviction rate, level of felony conviction, and severity of sentencing for suspects of child abuse homicide vs adult homicide. Utah had 373 homicide victims during the study period; 52 cases were child abuse homicide. Among 211 homicide cases with an identified suspect, conviction rates for child abuse homicide (88.2%) and adult homicide (83.0%) were similar (risk ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-1.4). There were no significant differences in level of felony conviction (adjusted risk ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.3) or severity of sentencing (adjusted risk ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.5) for suspects of child abuse homicide vs adult homicide. Among child abuse homicide cases, no demographic factor was significantly associated with felony conviction results. Suspects of child abuse homicide are convicted at a rate similar to that of suspects of adult homicide and receive similar levels of felony conviction and severity of sentencing.

  8. Methylphenidate: increased abuse or appropriate use?

    PubMed

    Llana, M E; Crismon, M L

    1999-01-01

    To address the question of the significant increase in methylphenidate (MPD) prescriptions being written and to make recommendations for health care providers involved in providing care for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families. Medline search 1966-1998 for professional articles using the following search terms--methylphenidate, children, adolescents, abuse; Internet search using MPD, Ritalin, and ADHD; and Paper Chase search using methylphenidate. The available literature regarding potential abuse or diversion of MPD consists of case reports, review articles, newspaper articles, and a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) publication. All available literature sources were used. Although the media and DEA report significant abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD, a review of the available literature did not reveal data to substantiate these claims. Nonetheless, there are reasons to suspect that abuse and diversion occur. A potential contributing factor to abuse is the reported similarities in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between MPD and cocaine. Recommendations are made to decrease the possibility of abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD. A balanced middle ground must be found regarding the benefits of MPD and its abuse potential. Education of clinicians, patients, and family members is key in ensuring that MPD is used appropriately.

  9. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  10. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646

  11. Evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Nancy D

    2007-06-01

    This report provides guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. The medical assessment is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate ancillary testing. The role of the physician may encompass reporting suspected abuse; assessing the consistency of the explanation, the child's developmental capabilities, and the characteristics of the injury or injuries; and coordination with other professionals to provide immediate and long-term treatment and follow-up for victims. Accurate and timely diagnosis of children who are suspected victims of abuse can ensure appropriate evaluation, investigation, and outcomes for these children and their families.

  12. Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment.

    PubMed

    Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-07-01

    Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  14. The Role of Parental Stress in Physically Abusive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Ellen E.; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    1991-01-01

    A study of 123 families examined the role of parental stress in physically abusive and nonabusive families with conduct-disordered children. Parental stress was found to play an important role in abusive families. Physically abusive families were found to have lower incomes, younger mothers with less education, a history of child abuse, and more…

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Major Childhood Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Jerome E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The booklet contains an interview with Dr. Lendon H. Smith and bibliographies on child abuse, sexual abuse, and audiovisual aids. Presented in question and answer format, the interview covers such topics as signs of abuse seen by the pediatrician, children at risk for abuse (such as the hyperactive child), and the role of teachers and counselors…

  16. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Males Who Have Been Sexually Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisso, Cynthia V.; And Others

    While female victims of sexual abuse have received increased attention, male victims continue to be overlooked. Recognition of effects of sexual abuse has been an important step in increasing identification of and treatment for victims of abuse. To assess the characteristics of male victims, sexually abused male (N=13) and female (N=16)…

  17. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  18. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  19. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  20. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  1. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: How to Take the First Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cordelia

    This booklet provides advice and guidelines for persons interested in developing and implementing child sexual abuse prevention programs. Eight steps to child sexual abuse prevention are outlined. Step 1 involves recognition that child sexual abuse can be prevented, and provides facts to use when discussing sexual abuse. Step 2 highlights ways of…

  3. 28 CFR 115.186 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The lockup shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse...

  4. 28 CFR 115.186 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The lockup shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse...

  5. 28 CFR 115.186 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The lockup shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse...

  6. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been substantiated...

  7. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been substantiated...

  8. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been substantiated...

  9. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  10. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  11. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  12. Men Who Abuse Their Spouses: Social and Psychological Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovich, Jessica R.

    1990-01-01

    Explores psychological variables which have been identified as characteristic of males who physically abuse their partners to determine which variables explain acts of violently abusive male who engages in spouse abuse. Presents the psychology of wife abuse from the perspectives of personality, social learning theory, and the psychodynamics.…

  13. Facts on Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Nancy; Reilly, Phyllis

    Individuals are considered mentally ill chemical abusers (MICAs) when they exhibit psychotic behaviors and are actively abusing alcohol and/or drugs; are actively psychotic with a history of alcohol or drug abuse; and/or are actively abusing alcohol or other drugs and have a history of severe psychiatric diagnoses. Although some practitioners use…

  14. Psychological Sequelae in Adult Females Reporting Childhood Ritualistic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Kathy J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 19 adult females reporting childhood ritualistic sexual abuse with 27 adult females reporting sexual abuse without ritualism found that women reporting ritualistic abuse scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse severity. Neither posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status nor PTSD…

  15. Emotional Abuse in the Classroom: Implications and Interventions for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional abuse of students by teachers is a topic infrequently discussed in the child abuse literature. In some classrooms, it can be a daily occurrence. This article defines emotional abuse and discusses the types of classroom behaviors teachers may demonstrate that are emotionally abusive to students. The role of school-based counselors in the…

  16. 32 CFR 161.18 - Benefits for abused dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... offense involving physical or emotional abuse of the spouse or child, or was administratively discharged... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benefits for abused dependents. 161.18 Section... Other Eligible Individuals § 161.18 Benefits for abused dependents. (a) Abused dependents of active duty...

  17. Physical and Emotional Abuse of Primary School Children by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…

  18. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  19. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  1. Content Analysis of Measures for Identification of Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; And Others

    Measures designed to detect elder abuse lack uniformity as a result of having been designed in isolation. To develop and test a uniform index for the identification of elder abuse victims, an analysis of existing abuse identification instruments was conducted. Initially, seven elder abuse identification measures were content analyzed, resulting in…

  2. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  3. Drug Traffic and Abuse in Schools: NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse, are the topics of this report. Discussions are provided in these areas: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaching the very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…

  4. Psychosocial Stressors of Drug-Abusing Disadvantaged Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafidi, Frank A.; Field, Tiffany; Prodromidis, Margarita; Rahdert, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Explores psychosocial stressors associated with adolescent pregnancy and drug abuse among 104 mothers between 13 and 21 years of age. Results suggest that drug-abusing mothers were depressed, whereas the nondrug-abusing mothers were not depressed. Drug-abusing mothers reported more mental and physical health problems, more problematic…

  5. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115... ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part, the term— Sexual abuse includes— (1) Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by another inmate...

  6. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115... ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part, the term— Sexual abuse includes— (1) Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by another inmate...

  7. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115... ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part, the term— Sexual abuse includes— (1) Sexual abuse of an inmate, detainee, or resident by another inmate...

  8. Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design.

    PubMed

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. © 2014.

  9. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  10. What causes domestic abuse and how can nurses effectively support abused women?

    PubMed

    McDowall, Holy

    Domestic abuse is a significant public health problem in the UK, primarily perpetrated against women. Nurses can play a vital role in identifying patients who have experienced abuse, and in offering them emotional, psychological and practical support. This article explores the causes of domestic abuse, and nurses' role in caring for those affected. It emphasises the need for enhanced nurse education and awareness to enable nurses to provide holistic care for women.

  11. [Abuse of minors. Clinical considerations on physical abuse, sexual aggression and emotional deprivation].

    PubMed

    Loredo-Abdalá, A; Trejo-Hernández, J; Bustos-Valenzuela, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians and other health personnel dealing with the consequences of child abuse ought to have abroad understanding of the magnitude of this serious medical and social phenomenon. The three main patterns of child mistreatment as observed at a pediatric hospital are reviewed, with emphasis on its medical and juridical aspects. Various pathologic entities are to be taken into account for differential diagnoses when child abuse is suspected. Risk factors regarding the victims, the abusers and the psychosocial environment are noted.

  12. Psychological abuse, substance abuse distress, dissatisfaction with friendships, and incident psychiatric problems.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating role of dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood in the associations between psychological abuse in childhood, substance abuse distress in childhood, and incident psychiatric problems (IPPs) in adulthood over 13 years of follow-up. We used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 9502), a representative, longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associations between psychological abuse, substance abuse distress, dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood, and IPPs in adulthood. Indirect effects and proportion mediated (%) were assessed with the difference-in-coefficients method. Psychological abuse (relative risk [RR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-1.89) and substance abuse distress in childhood (RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.62) were associated with an increased risk of dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood was associated with an increased risk of IPPs in adulthood (RR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.33-2.20). Moreover, dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood mediated 9.31% (95% CI: 4.25-14.57) of the association between psychological abuse in childhood and IPPs in adulthood, and 9.17% (95% CI: 4.35-16.33) of the association between substance abuse distress in childhood and IPPs in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood mediates a minor proportion of the associations between psychological abuse, substance abuse distress, and IPPs in adulthood. Interventions aimed at decreasing dissatisfaction with friendships may dampen some of the effect of psychological abuse and substance abuse distress in childhood on IPPs in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitators and barriers to disclosing abuse among women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Curry, Mary Ann; Renker, Paula; Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Hughes, Rosemary B; Swank, Paul; Oschwald, Mary; Powers, Laurie E

    2011-01-01

    An anonymous audio computer-assisted self-interview (A-CASI) designed to increase awareness of abuse was completed by 305 women with diverse disabilities. Data were also collected about lifetime and past year abuse; perpetrator risk characteristics; facilitators and barriers to disclosing abuse; abuse disclosure to a health provider, case manager, or police officer; and whether a health provider had ever discussed abuse or personal safety. A total of 276 (90%) women reported abuse, 208 (68%) reported abuse within the past year. Women who reported the most abuse experiences in the past year and the most dangerous perpetrators endorsed fewer facilitators and more barriers, but were also more likely to have ever disclosed abuse. Only 15% reported that a health provider had ever discussed abuse and personal safety.

  14. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  15. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  16. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  17. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council.... Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory...

  18. Aiding in the Abatement of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalkanen, Arthur W.

    1972-01-01

    Oakland Community College (Michigan) has instituted a center for drug studies that could serve as a model for other institutions. It includes in-service training programs for counselors, teachers and volunteers, referral services, and drug abuse education programs. (NF)

  19. Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jerry G.

    1982-01-01

    Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)

  20. Incidence of Wife Abuse in Incestuous Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truesdell, Donna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigates a largely uncharted dynamic in the literature--the incidence of wife abuse among incestuous families--and suggests that professional caregivers reevaluate conventional treatment modalities that are based on certain assumptions regarding the mother's role in incest. (Author)

  1. Sexual Abuse of Children: A Clinical Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn

    1978-01-01

    The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)

  2. Neurologic manifestations of chronic methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chronic methamphetamine abuse has devastating effects on the central nervous system. The degree to which addicts will tolerate the dysfunction in the way they think, feel, move, and even look, is a powerful testimony to the addictive properties of this drug. While the mechanisms behind these disorders are complex, at their heart they involve the recurring increase in the concentrations of central monoamines with subsequent dysfunction in dopaminergic neurotransmission. The mainstay of treatment for the problems associated with chronic methamphetamine abuse is abstinence. However, by recognizing the manifestations of chronic abuse, clinicians will be better able to help their patients get treatment for their addiction and to deal with the neurologic complications related to chronic abuse. PMID:21803215

  3. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment.

    PubMed

    Young, L

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  4. Advocacy for the Abused Rural Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leistyna, Joseph A.

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the establishment of a community-based child protection team for working with abused and neglected rural children in a county of 18,000 people. Lists five resources for advocacy groups to contact. (BR)

  5. Infant of a substance-abusing mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in homes that do not promote healthy emotional and mental growth. Alternative Names IUDE; Intrauterine drug exposure; Maternal drug abuse; Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - ...

  6. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  7. Cerebral infarction in association with Ecstasy abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, S.; Connolly, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    A previously fit 35 year old man presented with a right hemiparesis and dysphasia 36 hours after abuse of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Computerized axial tomography scan demonstrated an extensive acute left cerebral infarction and carotid digital subtraction angiogram, 2 days after admission, revealed left middle cerebral artery occlusion. There were no other known risk factors and all other investigations were negative. The patient made a partial recovery. We propose an association between Ecstasy abuse and cerebral infarction. PMID:7904748

  8. Cerebral infarction in association with Ecstasy abuse.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S; Connolly, M J

    1993-11-01

    A previously fit 35 year old man presented with a right hemiparesis and dysphasia 36 hours after abuse of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Computerized axial tomography scan demonstrated an extensive acute left cerebral infarction and carotid digital subtraction angiogram, 2 days after admission, revealed left middle cerebral artery occlusion. There were no other known risk factors and all other investigations were negative. The patient made a partial recovery. We propose an association between Ecstasy abuse and cerebral infarction.

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  10. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study.

  11. Teen dating abuse: recognition and interventions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sally Ann; Rosenbluth, Barri; Cotton, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Teen dating abuse, also known as teen dating violence, is a significant public health issue. Adolescents with a history of dating abuse may struggle academically and experience increased risk for serious injury or even death. They may engage in risky sexual behavior, substance abuse, and unhealthy dieting and exhibit suicidal behaviors. School nurses may be the first adults that teens confide in when experiencing dating abuse and may lack the knowledge and skills to intervene with teens involved in unhealthy dating relationships. Beginning in 2008, Dell Children s Medical Center in Austin, Texas, partnered with SafePlace (a local nonprofit that serves survivors of sexual and domestic violence) to address dating abuse. This collaboration is part of Start Strong Austin, one of 11 communities nationwide participating in the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships Initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The Start Strong model employs innovative strategies in education, community engagement, policy change, and social marketing to prevent dating abuse before it starts.

  12. Clinician responses to sexual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Jackson, H; Nuttall, R

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a survey using an experimental design to identify how and to what extent specific personal and case factors affect clinicians' judgments about sexual abuse allegations. We drew a stratified random sample of 1,635 United States clinicians from national directories of clinical social work, pediatrics, psychiatry and psychology. Six hundred and fifty-six completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a 42% response rate. We asked each subject to read and rate, on a 6 point scale, 16 vignettes alleging sexual abuse. The scale ranged from 1 (very confident it did not occur), to 6 (very confident it did occur). On average, respondents were "slightly confident sexual abuse had occurred" (M = 4.03; SD = 0.6). This finding was significantly different from a mean of 3.50, which is the expected null result. Seven case factors affected credibility ratings at the .01 level; perpetrators' race (Caucasians viewed as perpetrators more than minorities); perpetrators' relationship to victim (family members more often seen as perpetrators); victims' race (minorities more credible as victims); victims' affect (those showing negative affect more believable); age (younger victims more often seen as victimized); behavioral changes in the victim; and perpetrator's history of substance abuse. Six clinician factors were significant at the .05 level: age (younger clinicians were more credulous), gender (females more credulous), discipline (clinical social workers more credulous), theoretical orientation (family systems oriented more credulous) and personal history of sexual or physical abuse (abuse history more credulous).

  13. Abuse notation of improper integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfi, E.; Wiryanto, L. H.

    2018-01-01

    In the definition of \\int_ab {f(x)dx} , it was assumed that the interval [a, b] was finite. However, in many application in physics, engineering, economics, and probability we wish to allow a or b (or both) to be infinite or for the other case when f has an infinite discontinuity in [a, b]. In either case the integral is called improper integral. Definition of improper integral is the limit of a definite integral as an endpoint of the interval of integration approaches either a specified real number or ∞ or -∞ or, in some cases, as both endpoints approach limits. Many of the first-year students in ITERA learning about improper integrals make an abuse notation like written improper integral just like standard definite integral. Based on this situation, we tried to change the habits of the students in the writing of improper integrals by providing sufficient understanding and considerable exercises. It turns out this way gives good result, based on the percentage of the value of the midterms to the problem of improper integrals give a fairly good percentage value.

  14. Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2016-08-16

    Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts‎, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors

  15. Child Abuse in South Africa: An Examination of How Child Abuse and Neglect Are Defined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lois; Bozalek, Vivienne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore which of 17 categories of child maltreatment South Africans evaluated as most serious and to determine if those working with abuse and neglect evaluated abuse and neglect differently from those who did not. Method: A revised version of Giovannoni and Becerra's [Giovannoni, J., & Becerra, R.…

  16. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  17. Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Abuse of Incarcerated Fathers: A Study of the Measurement of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of abuse hypothesis often only examined the "existence" of abuse. The current study utilizes retrospective recalls of incarcerated male defendants (N = 414), using questions formulated from the modified Conflict Tactics Scales. Five logistic regression models are run, representing a different physical…

  19. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  20. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  1. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  2. Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…

  3. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  4. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress in Sexually Abused, Physically Abused, and Nonabused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This investigation compared rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms across sexually abused (N=29), physically abused (N=20), and nonabused (N=29) psychiatrically hospitalized children. Overall rates were not significantly different across groups, but significant differences were found with respect to specific symptoms, especially in…

  6. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  7. Comparison of Family Environments of Abused versus Non-Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cynthia A.; Graybill, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Compared Moos Family Environment Scale scores from 15 physically abusive families with scores from 15 nonabusive families. Results showed that abusive families were less supportive of one another and less free to express their wants and desires, more independent, more likely to express anger and aggression, and more rigid. (JAC)

  8. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the...

  9. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abuse-Specific Attributions of Blame over 6 Years Following Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…

  11. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  12. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  13. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  14. Gender differences in abused children with and without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, D; Randall, W; Parrila, R K

    1997-08-01

    Two questions were posed: (1) What are the proportions of boys and girls in various categories of substantiated child abuse? (2) Do the gender proportions differ for children with and without disabilities? Data collected by previous researchers from a demographically representative sample of U.S. child abuse reporting districts was analyzed. This included 1,249 case files involving 1,834 children. The number of girls and boys who did and did not have disabilities was identified for three age categories and for several categories of abuse. Chi-square analyses were used to determine whether there was a relationship between disability and gender for the various age and abuse categories. More boys were physically abused and neglected, but more girls were sexually abused. Boys with disabilities, however, were over-represented in all categories of abuse. Moreover, gender proportions among abused children with disabilities differed significantly from those found among other abused children. Although slightly more than half of abused children without disabilities were girls, 65% of abused children with disabilities were boys. Boys represented a significantly larger proportion of physically abused, sexually abused, and neglected children with disabilities than would be expected from their respective proportion of abused and neglected children without disabilities. Several possible explanations for the observed gender and disability status interaction are discussed.

  15. Predictors of Intention of Reporting Child Abuse among Emergency Nurses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Ji-Soo

    The current study investigates predictors of intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses in Korea. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected from 200 emergency nurses in eight general hospitals in Korea through a questionnaire that asked about their general characteristics, knowledge about child abuse, perceived behavioral control, experiences of child abuse cases and reporting, and attitude toward child abuse. Multiple regression analysis indicated that attitude toward child abuse was the most influential predictor of the intention of reporting child abuse among Korea's emergency nurses. Knowledge about child abuse, and perceived behavioral control were also significant influencing predictors of reporting intention. These variables explained 22.1% of the variances in the intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses. Reporting child abuse has not yet been established as a professional responsibility among Korea's emergency nurses. Increasing the level of awareness of the characteristics of child abuse and encouraging communication among nurses about the responsibility to report suspected child abuse will increase nurses' confidence to report. Training for reporting child abuse should be implemented in the near future to improve emergency nurses' understanding of child abuse. A support program is also needed to help emergency nurses build confidence in reporting child abuse as a professional responsibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  18. Clinical importance of caffeine dependence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2007-06-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. Caffeine has occasionally been considered a drug of abuse and the potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence or abuse, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition. The authors present two cases of abuse or dependence on the caffeine contained in 'eutrophic' (energy/nutritional) beverages or caffeine preparations, followed by a review of clinical studies demonstrating evidence that some people can manifest a clinical syndrome of caffeine dependence or abuse. The cases suggest that caffeine can produce a clinical dependence syndrome similar to those produced by other psychoactive substances and has a potential for abuse. In a recent study using a structured interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition criteria for substance dependence and abuse, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence or caffeine abuse. Therefore, the authors propose that companies or businesses manufacturing or marketing caffeine or products containing caffeine must meet the following guidelines: (i) clearly indicate the caffeine content of products containing comparatively higher quantities of caffeine; (ii) warn that such products should be avoided by infants and children wherever possible, and inform adult consumers about the precise quantity of caffeine that is considered safe for consumption; and (iii) clearly state that consuming large quantities of caffeine and the long-term use of caffeine carry health risks.

  19. IGF-I abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-09-01

    It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse.

  20. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  1. Evaluation of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) program: A community intervention for child abuse victims.

    PubMed

    Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany

    2017-12-01

    Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cocaine abuse and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Resnick, R B; Resnick, E B

    1984-12-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals with a diagnosis of cocaine abuse (DSM-III, 305.6) are seeking medical and psychiatric care. The majority of users inhale the drug in powdered form, as cocaine is rapidly absorbed by mucous membranes. The patterns of use resemble those for the use of alcohol and marijuana: recreational, intensified, circumstantial, and compulsive. When cocaine is taken intravenously or by freebasing, individuals are much more vulnerable to developing a compulsive pattern of use that could lead to an organic delusional syndrome. Cocaine causes systemic effects that are similar to those of amphetamine, but they have a much shorter duration of action. Blood pressure, heart rate, feelings of "pleasantness" and "stimulation" are increased, and hunger is decreased. Acute tolerance may develop over hours of continuous use, but it disappears after a short period of abstinence (overnight). In psychomotor testing, performance that is impaired by fatigue is restored to baseline levels. Users like cocaine because they feel more alert, energetic, sociable, and sensual. However, these positive feelings are commonly followed by anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue, and craving more cocaine. Chronic intoxication is always associated with adverse psychosocial sequelae. Treatment initially must be directed toward the patient's stopping all use of cocaine, employing strategies such as contingency contracts, urinalysis, family intervention, the assignment of financial control to others, or hospitalization. Several psychopharmacologic agents are helpful as an adjunct to a comprehensive treatment plan. Overdoses of cocaine are treated by diazepam and propranolol. Antidepressant medications, both TCAs and MAOIs, often help relieve the symptoms of depression that emerge when chronic use of cocaine is discontinued. Classical and operant conditioning contribute to craving for the drug and opportunities to extinguish these factors are valuable in preventing relapse

  3. Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Sullivan, Kristen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Rentz, E Danielle

    2010-11-01

    Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to hav e used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions.

  4. Substance abuse among Iranian high school students.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. There is a serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role modeling by parents - mainly fathers - and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4 and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use - mostly opium - was between 1.2 and 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level.

  5. Sexual trajectories of abused and neglected youths.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jocelyn; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Smailes, Elizabeth; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2004-04-01

    The study objective was to examine whether childhood abuse or neglect is associated with the age of onset of puberty and sexual and romantic behavior. A cohort of children (the Children in the Community study) was randomly selected and studied prospectively from childhood to adulthood. A sample of 816 youths were interviewed in their homes at a mean age of 14, 16, and 22 years in 1983, from 1985 to 1986, and from 1991 to 1994. The outcome measures included age of menarche, signs of male puberty, first being in love, dating, sexual intercourse, and pregnancy reported by youths. Child abuse and neglect were measured by official records and youth reports. A history of two or more incidents of sexual abuse was significantly associated with early puberty and early pregnancy after gender, class, race, paternal absence, and mother's age at the birth of the study child were controlled statistically. Public education regarding risk for premature sexual behavior among youths who have experienced sexual abuse is warranted. Efforts to prevent teenage pregnancy should include monitoring and educating sexually abused children as they enter puberty.

  6. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  7. Sexual abuse in therapy: gender issues.

    PubMed

    Quadrio, C

    1996-02-01

    That sexual abuse in therapy occurs predominantly with male perpetrators and female patients is a phenomenon that requires analysis in terms of gender relations. Such an analysis is undertaken here from the perspective of feminist psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories. Data informing the analysis are derived from assessments of 40 women who experienced sexual abuse in therapy. These women had mostly presented depression, 68% had a history of childhood abuse, and one half were themselves helping professionals. The majority were seriously damaged by the abusive therapy. Offenders were chiefly male (90%) and most were senior, well-qualified therapists of high status: some were charismatic leaders or teachers. Such a group cannot be dismissed as marginal, deviant, or ill-informed; a more systemic analysis is necessary to understand how the professions spawn and sometimes protect offenders. It is concluded that the professional culture mirrors fundamental problems of gender relations that inhere in the larger socio-cultural context where they are expressed in various forms of sexual abuse and violence. A cultural change requires better education on issues of power and sexual politics.

  8. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work.

  9. Preferred communication methods of abused women.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Oral health sensations associated with illicit drug abuse.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; Chan, B

    2005-02-12

    To investigate oral health sensations (short term oral health effects) associated with illicit drug abuse. In addition, to identify variations in oral health sensations produced by different illicit drugs. Young adults in a drug rehabilitation programme in Hong Kong, China. Self-completed questionnaire about their previous pattern of drug abuse and oral health sensations experienced (recalled). All (119) subjects were poly-drug abusers (abused one or more illicit drugs in the past). Amphetamine-based drugs such as methamphetamine ('speed') and methylenedioxymethamphetine ('ecstasy') were commonly abused. A wide range of oral health sensations were reported on recall of their abuse of illicit drugs; most frequently dry mouth (95%, 113). Types of illicit drugs abused were associated with oral health sensations reported (P < 0.001). 'Ecstasy' abusers more frequently reported chewing (P < 0.001), grinding (P < 0.001), and TMJ tenderness (P < 0.001) compared to non-'ecstasy' abusers. Illicit drug abuse produces many oral health sensations. Types of drugs abused were associated with oral sensations produced. and behavioural effects that may manifest as depression, anxiety, memory loss and various neuropsychotic disorders.(8),(9) In some cases drug abuse can result in death by various means: malignant hyperthermia, internal bleeding, fatal overdosing and through allergic reactions.(10),(11) Likewise, there have been reports on the long term clinical effects of illicit drug abused on oral health.

  11. Therapeutic Substance Abuse Treatment for Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E. Diane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to explicate attributes of optimal therapeutic strategies for treating incarcerated women who have a history of substance abuse. An expansive search of electronic databases for qualitative research reports relating to substance abuse treatment for incarcerated women was conducted. Nine qualitative research reports comprised the sample for this review. Findings from these reports were extracted, placed into a data analysis matrix, coded, and categorized. Memos were written, and strategies for treating incarcerated women with alcohol problems were identified. Therapeutic effects of treatment programs for incarcerated women with substance-abuse problems appear to be enhanced when trust-based relationships are established, individualized and just care is provided, and treatment facilities are separate from the general prison environment. PMID:21771929

  12. Core data elements tracking elder sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Nancy P; Burgess, Ann W; Gerolamo, Angela M

    2005-05-01

    Sexual abuse in the older adult population is an understudied vector of violent crimes with significant physical and psychological consequences for victims and families. Research requires a theoretical framework that delineates core elements using a standardized instrument. To develop a conceptual framework and identify core data elements specific to the older adult population, clinical, administrative, and criminal experts were consulted using a nominal group method to revise an existing sexual assault instrument. The revised instrument could be used to establish a national database of elder sexual abuse. The database could become a standard reference to guide the detection, assessment, and prosecution of elder sexual abuse crimes as well as build a base from which policy makers could plan and evaluate interventions that targeted risk factors.

  13. An update on zolpidem abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Gérardin, Marie; Rousselet, Morgane; Guerlais, Marylène; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the health authorities (French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety-ANSM) modified the summary of zolpidem characteristics. Particularly it now includes the sentence "a pharmacodependence may materialize." The current article aims to show that despite this modification, zolpidem continues to be associated with problematic drug use, as the official system (Center for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence-Addictovigilance network) providing information on the abuse and dependence potential of drugs informs us. The authors reviewed the literature on this topic and analyzed French data from zolpidem's postmarketing period that were collected by the Addictovigilance network from 2003 to 2010. Postmarketing data and the 30 case reports yielded from the literature review highlight a significant dependence and abuse potential for zolpidem. This survey led to propose in stronger additional rules in France to try to mitigate the abuse potential of zolpidem.

  14. [Child psychiatric assessment and the debate regarding the abuse of abuse].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    1995-03-01

    The current discussion on false allegations in sexual abuse cases has led to a polarization in the views expressed about the credibility of children. Some authors even speak of a "child sexual accuse syndrome" or of a "sexual abuse allegation in divorce" (SAID) syndrome. A phenomenological analysis of the multiple reasons for misinterpretations is presented. Instead of stressing the importance only of false positives in child sexual abuse questions, an attempt is made to describe reasons for false negatives. Based on a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive child psychiatric experts in connection with court cases, there does not appear to be an increase in false accusations. Rather, only about one third of the cases even involved suspected sexual abuse. Sexual abuse allegations were much more frequent in girls than in boys. Of 20 abuse allegations we judge four to be false allegations. In only one of these cases, that of an adolescent girl who had been abused in childhood, was the false allegation intended.

  15. Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant admissions reporting alcohol abuse (with or without drug abuse) decreased from 46.6 percent in 2000 to ... 8 percent in 2010, and the percentage reporting drug abuse but not alcohol abuse increased from 51.1 ...

  16. Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim.” Child sexual abuse is defined in Federal law by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act ( ... Abuse and Neglect : https: / / www. childwelfare. gov/ systemwide/ laws_ policies/ statutes/ define. cfm Signs of Sexual Abuse ...

  17. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse. PMID:27867242

  18. Exploring the Correlates to Depression in Elder Abuse Victims: Abusive Experience or Individual Characteristics?

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana João; Nunes, Baltazar; Kislaya, Irina; Gil, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms have been studied both as risk factors and consequences of elder abuse, even though the most common cross-sectional design of the studies does not allow inferring cause or consequence relationships. This study estimates the proportion of older adults who screened positive for depressive symptoms among those self-reporting elder abuse and examines whether individual characteristics and/or abusive experience aspects are associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. Participants were 510 older adults self-reporting experiences of abuse in family setting enrolled in the cross-sectional victims' survey of the Aging and Violence Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the abbreviated version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5). Poisson regression was used to determine the prevalence ratio (PR) of screening depressive symptoms according to individual and abusive experience covariates: sex, age group, cohabitation, perceived social support, chronic diseases, functional status, violence type, perpetrator, and number of conducts. Women (PR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 1.35]) individuals perceiving low social support level (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.16, 1.60]) and with long-term illness (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.33]) were found to be associated with increased risk for screening depressive symptoms. In regard to abusive experience, only the number of abusive conducts increased the PR (PR = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.05, 1.09]). Routine screening for elder abuse should include psychological well-being assessment. Interventions toward risk alleviation for both mental health problems and elder abuse should target women perceiving low social support level and with long-term illness.

  19. Molecular approaches to treatments for cocaine abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; George, Clifford; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2003-02-01

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system with severe addiction potential. Its abuse is a major problem worldwide. The exact mechanism of action of cocaine is still uncertain but it is known that its reinforcing and stimulant effects are related to its ability to inhibit the membrane bound dopamine transporter (DAT). This paper discusses efforts that are underway to identify ligands for possible use in the treatment of cocaine abuse. Much of this effort has been focussed on understanding cocaine interactions at DAT receptor sites.

  20. Air Duster abuse causing rapid airway compromise.

    PubMed

    Winston, Amanda; Kanzy, Abed; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-07

    Inhalant abuse is potentially life-threatening and has resulted in many complications such as central nervous system depression, cardiac dysrhythmia and hypoxia. Inhalant abuse causing angioedema is rarely reported in the medical literature. In this report we present a case of rapidly progressive airway compromise following recreational huffing. Our patient required intubation and intensive care unit admission with complete recovery after 5 days. The aetiology of airway compromise is postulated to be due to commonly reported frost bite injury and rarely reported angioedema. To the best of our knowledge this the second case reporting angioedema secondary to huffing Air Duster. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Air Duster abuse causing rapid airway compromise

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Amanda; Kanzy, Abed; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is potentially life-threatening and has resulted in many complications such as central nervous system depression, cardiac dysrhythmia and hypoxia. Inhalant abuse causing angioedema is rarely reported in the medical literature. In this report we present a case of rapidly progressive airway compromise following recreational huffing. Our patient required intubation and intensive care unit admission with complete recovery after 5 days. The aetiology of airway compromise is postulated to be due to commonly reported frost bite injury and rarely reported angioedema. To the best of our knowledge this the second case reporting angioedema secondary to huffing Air Duster. PMID:25568278

  2. Profile of children abused by burning.

    PubMed

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K; Mathivanan, Y; Sankar, J

    2010-03-31

    In an analysis of paediatric burn admissions to a hospital in India during the years 1992-2007, 9.3% of burn injuries were found to be secondary to abuse. These had valid documented evidence and child neglect was excluded. This incidence of child abuse has been on the rise in the last seven years and was more evident due to careful investigation by a team comprising a plastic surgeon, a paediatrician, a legal expert, a psychologist, and a social worker. As with the incidence reported by many other researchers, most of the injuries were caused by scalding.

  3. Profile of Children Abused by Burning

    PubMed Central

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Mathivanan, Y.; Sankar, J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In an analysis of paediatric burn admissions to a hospital in India during the years 1992-2007, 9.3% of burn injuries were found to be secondary to abuse. These had valid documented evidence and child neglect was excluded. This incidence of child abuse has been on the rise in the last seven years and was more evident due to careful investigation by a team comprising a plastic surgeon, a paediatrician, a legal expert, a psychologist, and a social worker. As with the incidence reported by many other researchers, most of the injuries were caused by scalding. PMID:21991189

  4. [Substance abuse and toxicity. Fetal drug syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rodé, Magdolna

    2003-08-10

    24% of the 16 years old adolescents have already consumed so called substances suitable for abuse. We must make children, teachers, parents, lawyers, priests, physicians and family aware of the effects and outcomes of drug use. This is just one of the many similar unsolved problems of society like AIDS and smoking. It is imperative that education for healthy lifestyle should be thought at every level of social life. Fighting against the hard problems emerging from drug abuse must be continuously kept on the right place in teaching medicine and in our everyday activity.

  5. The physician as perpetrator of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kluft, R P

    1993-06-01

    Although the exploitation and abuse of patients is forbidden by every code of medical ethics, physicians are in a power position vis-a-vis their patients, and this power may be misused. The spectrum of abusive physician behaviors includes doctors functioning as agents of control, exploiting physicianly perogatives, acting out personal problems in the medical setting, allowing subversion of their judgment, deliberately delivering suboptimal care, dehumanizing care, and sexually exploiting patients. Guidelines for the treatment of patients with such prior experiences are offered.

  6. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abusive supervision and subordinates' organization deviance.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Bennett J; Henle, Christine A; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Giacalone, Robert A; Duffy, Michelle K

    2008-07-01

    The authors developed an integrated model of the relationships among abusive supervision, affective organizational commitment, norms toward organization deviance, and organization deviance and tested the framework in 2 studies: a 2-wave investigation of 243 supervised employees and a cross-sectional study of 247 employees organized into 68 work groups. Path analytic tests of mediated moderation provide support for the prediction that the mediated effect of abusive supervision on organization deviance (through affective commitment) is stronger when employees perceive that their coworkers are more approving of organization deviance (Study 1) and when coworkers perform more acts of organization deviance (Study 2).

  8. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Recent findings Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called “designer,” drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. Summary In this review we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them. PMID:24100364

  9. History of past sexual abuse in married observant Jewish women.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, Rachel; Friedman, Michelle; Rosenbaum, Talli Y; Labinsky, Ellen; Schmeidler, James

    2007-11-01

    The authors examined instances of past sexual abuse and related demographic characteristics in the self-reports of a select group of married observant Jewish women. Orthodox Jewish married women (N=380) ages 19 to 58 responded to advertisements asking them to complete an anonymous questionnaire about sexual experiences, including sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was reported by 26% of the respondents surveyed, with 16% reporting abuse occurring by the age of 13. More ultra-Orthodox Jews reported abuse than modern-Orthodox Jews. Women who were raised observant reported significantly less childhood sexual abuse than those who became observant later in life. Sexual abuse was associated with increased treatment-seeking for depression, marital counseling, or other emotional or psychological problems. While observant Jewish women live in a culture defined by a high degree of adherence to specific laws of conduct, including rules designed to regulate sexual contact, sexual abuse of various types still exists among them.

  10. Negligent Hiring and Retaining of Sexually Abusive Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regotti, Terri L.

    1992-01-01

    Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)

  11. Substance abuse by anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fry, R A

    2005-04-01

    A questionnaire investigating substance abuse was sent to 128 anaesthetic departments in Australia and New Zealand of which 100 (78%) replied. Forty-four cases of substance abuse were reported. Abusers were more likely to be male, aged between 25 and 35 years and abusing opioids. Death was the eventual outcome in 24% of cases. Only 19% of abusers made a long-term recovery within the specialty. Initial signs of abuse were most commonly abnormal conduct (63% of the cases) and observed abuse (37%). More than one precipitating cause was identified in 51% of cases, the most frequently reported were mental health and family problems. The pattern of substances abused was similar to that reported in the previous Australasian survey ten years ago. However, in keeping with an international trend, there appears to be an increased use of anaesthetic agents.

  12. Russian perspectives on elder abuse: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, Karina; Malley-Morrison, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze Russian perceptions of elder abuse as reflected in their examples of abusive behavior from an adult child to an aging parent. Also of interest was the possibility of gender differences in the Russian perspectives on elder abuse. The convenience sample consisted of 21 Russian participants (10 males, 10 females, and one without gender identified), who provided examples of extreme, moderate, and mild abuse from an adult child towards an aging parent. Most examples of extreme abuse were forms of physical violence. Typical examples of moderate abuse were instances of psychological aggression-particularly verbal aggression-and neglect. The most common examples of mild abuse were verbal aggression and neglect. One-way analyses of variance revealed statistically significant gender differences in the number of references to psychological aggression in general and to verbal aggression in particular in the examples of moderate abuse, with females giving more examples than males.

  13. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States or U.S. Territories for substance abuse/addiction and/or mental health problems. PLEASE NOTE: ... and Spanish for individuals and family members facing substance abuse and mental health issues. 24 hours a day, ...

  14. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  15. Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study’s methodology (pooled n = 953). As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. There was also considerable variability in abuse rates and characteristics, including severity of abuse, among sexual minority subgroups. To the extent that differences in reports reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity subgroup differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications. PMID:23345571

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Interventions Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2015: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): ... this information. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2015: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: ...

  17. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    PubMed

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  18. Estimating attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed "abuse-deterrent" prescription opioid formulation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Folensbee, Lesley; Chang, Alan; Katz, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    The present study builds on research to model abusers' perceptions of particular analgesics' attractiveness for abuse and extends these methods to derive an estimate of attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) of a prescription opioid (Remoxy), Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA, and King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN). In a previous study, the Opioid Attractiveness Technology Scaling (OATS) method identified, from a drug abuser's point of view, the particular features of a prescription opioid relevant to its attractiveness for recreational use. A second online sample rated the extent to which these features applied to particular products they had actually used/abused. These data were used to model the abusers' overall preference for prescription opioids they had used/abused. In the present study, this method was applied to a not-yet-marketed ADF using substance abuse counselors as proxies for prescription opioid abusers. Thirty-eight counselors were given materials describing the new ADF along with four known products. Thirty-two counselors demonstrated sufficient agreement with abusers' ratings of the overall attractiveness of these drugs. The overall model yielded a significant pseudo R(2) of 0.15 (P < 0.001), with increasing model fit based on preferred route of administration, from swallowing whole (pseudo R(2) = 0.06; P < 0.001) and best for those who preferred to inject (pseudo R(2) = 0.40; P < 0.001). Data from a cross-validation group of 16 counselors/proxies were used to calculate the OATS scores for the five rated drugs and revealed significant differences between the ADF and OxyContin (Purdue Pharma LP, Stamford, CT), Percocet (Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA), and Vicodin (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), but not Talwin NX (Sanofi-aventis, Bridgewater, NJ), which was identified in the prior study as a highly unattractive drug for recreational purposes. The OATS method shows promise for

  19. Military Dependents: Services Provide Limited Confidentiality in Family Abuse Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    regarding family abuse. To respond to this mandate, we determined (1) the extent of reported spousal and child abuse within the military, (2) the degree...violence and as emotional and financial maltreatment, including any actions that harm or limit the spouse’s freedom of choice. Child abuse includes...military services has established a Family Advocacy Program to provide family counseling and to help ensure the safety of alleged spousal and child abuse victims.

  20. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  1. Determining History of Victimization and Potential for Abusive Behavior in U.S. Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-20

    child abuse , spouse abuse, and sexual/physical aggression to provide a scientific basis for a study to survey Navy recruits for their history of and...been found to be associated with abusive behavior and to ascertain the reliability, validity, and appropriateness for use of relevant instruments. Child abuse , Spouse abuse, Sexual aggression, Sexual abuse.

  2. Comparison of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in patients with opioid abuse and non-abusers.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Reza; Zargar, Mohammad; Salavati, Mojgan; Kakavand, Ali Reza

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

  3. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  4. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  5. To Guard School Students against Narcotics and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakov, L.; Kolesov, D.

    1993-01-01

    Reports that a questionnaire of students and parents indicates most parents and teachers lack knowledge about drug use and abuse among Russian school students. Maintains that students in families with a history of alcoholism and substance abuse are at high risk of becoming drug abusers. Presents a series of classroom activities to help students…

  6. Advocacy Journey Promoting Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Monit; Leung, Carol A; Liu, Elaine Suk-Ching

    2017-01-01

    In a country without a mandatory child abuse reporting system, advocacy for child welfare law can be a tedious and difficult process. This article documents a 10-year advocacy journey based on the capacity-building concept in social sustainability theory which aims to: raise public awareness of child sexual abuse, provide an idea for branding an inquiry column, and connect advocacy efforts to law reforms. Over the past decade in Hong Kong, a total of 336 public inquiries were anonymously sent to Wu Miu Column and published in three local major newspapers. Among these inquiries, 131 inquiries involved child sexual abuse that the "affected individuals" were molested in school or at home and knew the abusers but did not report their cases to child protection services. Inquirers reported more male than female abusers. Proportionally and significantly, female abusers tended to abuse younger children, compared to male abusers who tended to abuse older children. Many abusers were minors who abused younger children, which explains people's reluctance to report the abuse to child protection services. The discovery of this underage phenomenon motivated child advocates to challenge the common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse. Social workers in this advocacy journey must sustain continuous efforts to prevent youth from becoming future perpetrators.

  7. Dissociation as a Mediator of Child Abuse across Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; Susman-Stillman, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Eleven mothers who were abused and maltreated their children were compared to 10 mothers who broke the cycle of abuse. The abusing mothers were rated higher on idealization, inconsistency, and escapism in their description of their childhood, and they scored higher on the Dissociative Experience Scale than the comparison mothers. (DB)

  8. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  9. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  10. Understanding Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postmus, Judy L.; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N. Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about…

  11. Secondary School Experiences of Male Recovering Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…

  12. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse. ...

  13. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  14. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse. ...

  15. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  16. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  17. 20 CFR 638.511 - Drug use and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse. ...

  18. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  19. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every...

  20. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every...

  1. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every...

  2. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every...

  3. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every...

  4. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every...

  5. Abused Elders: Victims of Villains or of Circumstances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; And Others

    Theorists have suggested that domestic abuse may be a result of psychopathology in the abuser or the result of severe stress. To determine whether the families of aged victims exhibit an inordinate number of stressful situations, 20 elderly abuse victims were interviewed about family relationships and problems, and completed a modified version of…

  6. Women as Child Abusers: Indicators, Treatment, and Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; And Others

    Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Policy concerning child abuse involves a criminal justice approach, a treatment approach, and a prevention approach. Prevention programs have focused on identifying and serving high-risk groups and on preventive education. A study was conducted to examine issues related to child abuse. Four…

  7. Methods of Reducing Sick Leave Abuse. An ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    A perennial concern to educational administrators is the abuse of sick leave by school employees. Numerous suggestions have been offered for reducing the abuse of sick leave both within education and industry. This publication reviews 12 research studies that evaluate plans for reducing sick leave abuse among various categories of employees. Also…

  8. Child Abuse: Principles and Implications of Current Pediatric Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Hyde, James N., Jr.

    This paper summarizes data and experience with child abuse pertinent to child health practice. It goal is to foster sound and rational medical management. Because of the complex origins of child abuse, however, and of the institutional and social changes which shall have to accompany excellent practice if child abuse is effectively to be treated…

  9. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Shared Community Concern. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this publication is to help the reader understand the problems of child abuse and neglect and become familiar with prevention and intervention efforts. Introductory pages define child abuse and neglect, suggest the scope of the problem, delineate reasons for its occurrence, and explain how to recognize abuse or neglect. This section…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  12. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  13. Under the Rug: Substance Abuse and the Mature Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report follows an extensive survey of primary care physicians (N=400) about the problem of substance abuse in women over the age of 59. Research has shown that an individual who reaches the age of 21 without smoking, using drugs, or abusing alcohol is virtually never at risk to abuse these substances. The only exception occurs with mature…

  14. Bridging the Gap of Teacher Education about Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    School personnel, particularly educators and school psychologists, are a first line of defense in protecting children from abuse. Teachers play an important role in the detection and reporting of child abuse. The relationship established between teachers and their students can facilitate the identification of child abuse. By virtue of their work,…

  15. Correlates of Male and Female Juvenile Offender Abuse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Childs, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of developing and evaluating a classification of 315 arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center from September 1, 1994 to January 31, 1998. Youth were characterized as physically or sexually abused if they reported abuse or if they had been referred to juvenile court for abuse.…

  16. The Abused and Neglected Child: Strategies for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBrezzo, Ro; Hughes, Honore M.

    1988-01-01

    Training teachers to recognize and assist abused and neglected children is important because a positive relationship with a teacher can help remediate some detrimental effects. Signs of abuse and neglect, areas of needed research, and actions for educators to take in abuse cases are set forth. (MT)

  17. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of child abuse and neglect on children's nonverbal behaviors. It was hypothesized that abused and neglected children would be less active nonverbally than would control group children. Eight abused and neglected children, aged one through three years, were videotaped interacting with their caregivers in…

  18. Depressive symptoms and suicidality in physically abused children.

    PubMed

    Finzi, R; Ram, A; Shnit, D; Har-Even, D; Tyano, S; Weizman, A

    2001-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and suicidality were assessed in 114 children 6-12 years old, of whom 41 had been physically abused, 38 neglected, and 35 neither abused nor neglected. The physically abused children manifested significantly higher levels of depressive symptomatology and suicidality than did the other two groups. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  19. Prevention of Child Abuse: Possibilities for Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Christine P.

    1987-01-01

    Educators' roles in identification of abused/neglected children, subsequent reporting, and techniques for interviewing suspected abused children are discussed. Educators' expanded role in abuse prevention, involving such activities as offering courses in parenting, child safety/protection, and human sexuality, is examined, followed by a…

  20. Practical Approaches for Identifying and Managing Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Nola T.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the exceptional challenges that abused and neglected children may pose for early-intervention providers, particularly speech-language pathologists. It focuses on practical strategies regarding reporting child abuse, effectively assessing the children who have been abused, and managing the bizarre behavior they may exhibit. (Author/CR)

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  3. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking... Academy as one of the organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC determined... the Academy as one of the organizations authorized to certify a substance abuse expert. The NRC...

  4. Patterns of Language Comprehension Deficit in Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Lynn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of the relationship between child abuse/neglect and language disability compared 30 abused, generally neglected, or severely neglected children, aged 3-8, to 10 nonabused controls. Results on language comprehension tests suggest that abused and severely neglected children show greater difficulty with language comprehension tasks than their…

  5. Typologies of Abuse among Afro-Trinidadian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Linda F.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    This study examines typologies of abusive behaviors among Afro-Trinidadian women. A total of 17 women participated in a 2-hour, face-to-face interview. The findings suggest that women experience multiple types of abuse including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and controlling behaviors. This article discusses the implications of the findings…

  6. Sexual, Physical, Verbal/Emotional Abuse and Unexplained Chest Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…

  7. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the...

  8. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  9. Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: A Health Maintenance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.

    Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…

  10. 78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... from fear. But for the millions of children who have experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse Prevention Month is a time to make their struggle our...

  11. Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…

  12. Abuses against Older Women: Prevalence and Health Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Zink, Therese; Regan, Saundra L.

    2011-01-01

    A clinical sample of 995 community dwelling women aged 55 and older were surveyed by telephone about their experience with psychological/emotional, control, threat, physical, and sexual abuse. Nearly half of the women experienced at least one type of abuse since turning 55. Sizable proportions were victims of repeated abuse, and many experienced…

  13. Unresolved Childhood Sexual Abuse: Are Older Adults Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…

  14. Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…

  15. Government Programs and Psychological Principles in Drug Abuse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Louise G.

    This paper is divided into two parts: (1) the drug abuse education activities being carried out by the various agencies that take responsibility in this area, and (2) an analysis of various kinds of efforts made in drug abuse education today and the resulting product. The definition of drug abuse education used by the author contains the following…

  16. The Prevention of Elder Abuse: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Deborah T.; Gwyther, Lisa P.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that research on elder abuse highlights importance of communication and conflict resolution in families of older people, and that few prevention programs are available for use with community groups. Reviews literature on elder abuse and describes an educational curriculum designed to prevent abuse and neglect in families of the elderly.…

  17. Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; O'Brien, James G.

    The final report describes the Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse project. The project conference had four major content areas, including: a general introduction to the problem of elder abuse; clinical symptoms of abuse; legal issues; and referral and case management techniques. Training techniques included lectures, group discussion,…

  18. Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    Elder abuse is recognized as an under-detected and under-reported social problem. Difficulties in detecting elder abuse are compounded by the lack of a standardized, psychometrically valid instrument for case finding. The development of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) followed a larger effort to identify indicators and…

  19. TFA Systems: A Unique Group Treatment of Spouse Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, Daniel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a group treatment model using Thought-Feeling-Action (TFA) Systems, an offense- and offender-specific group treatment for abusers. Describes use of TFA Systems in group of court-referred male spouse-abusers. Reviews evolution of TFA Systems, then focuses on TFA Systems treatment of spouse abusers. Notes that system can be adapted to other…

  20. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…