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Sample records for abuse liability profile

  1. Abuse Liability Profile of Three Substituted Tryptamines

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Michael J.; Janowsky, Aaron; Eshleman, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The abuse liability profile of three synthetic hallucinogens, N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DIPT), 5-N,N-diethyl-5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-DET), and 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), was tested in rats trained to discriminate hallucinogenic and psychostimulant compounds, including cocaine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), (−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Because abused hallucinogens act at 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) and 5-HT2A receptors, and abused psychostimulants act at monoamine transporters, binding and functional activities of DIPT, 5-MeO-DET, and 5-MeO-AMT at these sites were also tested. DIPT fully substituted in rats trained to discriminate DMT (ED50 = 1.71 mg/kg) and DOM (ED50 = 1.94 mg/kg), but produced only 68% LSD-appropriate responding. 5-MeO-DET fully substituted for DMT (ED50 = 0.41 mg/kg) and produced 59% MDMA-appropriate responding. 5-MeO-AMT did not fully substitute for any of the training drugs, but produced 67% LSD-appropriate responding. None of the compounds produced substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine or methamphetamine. All three compounds showed activity at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors as well as blockade of reuptake by the serotonin transporter. In addition, 5-MeO-AMT produced low levels of serotonin release and low potency blockade of dopamine uptake. DIPT, 5-MeO-DET, and 5-MeO-AMT produced behavioral and receptor effects similar to those of abused hallucinogens, but were not similar to those of psychostimulants. DIPT and 5-MeO-DET may have abuse liability similar to known hallucinogens and may be hazardous because high doses produced activity and lethality. PMID:21474568

  2. Pharmacodynamic effects of oral oxymorphone: Abuse liability, analgesic profile and direct physiological effects in humans

    PubMed Central

    Babalonis, Shanna; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxymorphone is a semisynthetic μ-opioid agonist, marketed as a prescription analgesic purported to be twice as potent as oxycodone for pain relief. Oral formulations of oxymorphone were re-introduced in the United States in 2006 and reports of abuse ensued; however, there are limited data available on its pharmacodynamic effects. The current study aimed to examine the direct physiological effects, relative abuse liability, analgesic profile, and overall pharmacodynamic potency of oxymorphone in comparison to identical doses of oxycodone. Healthy, non-dependent opioid abusers (n=9) were enrolled in this within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week inpatient study. Seven experimental sessions (6.5 hr) were conducted, during which an oral dose of immediate-release formulations of oxymorphone (10, 20, 40 mg), oxycodone (10, 20, 40 mg) or placebo was administered. An array of physiological, abuse liability and experimental pain measures was collected. At identical doses, oxymorphone produced approximately two-fold less potent effects on miosis, compared to oxycodone. Oxymorphone also produced lesser magnitude effects on measures of respiratory depression, two experimental pain models, and observer-rated agonist effects. However, 40 mg of oxymorphone was similar to 40 mg of oxycodone on several abuse-related subjective ratings. Formal relative potency analyses were largely invalid due to the substantially greater effects of oxycodone. Overall, oxymorphone is less potent on most pharmacodynamic measures, although at higher doses, its abuse liability is similar to oxycodone. These data suggest that the published clinical equianalgesic estimates may not be consistent with the observed direct physiological effects of opioids, results of experimental pain models or abuse liability measures, as assessed in the human laboratory. PMID:25130052

  3. Comparative abuse liability of GHB and ethanol in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; sodium oxybate) is approved for narcolepsy symptom treatment, and it is also abused. This study compared the participant-rated, observer-rated effects, motor/cognitive, physiological, and reinforcing effects of GHB and ethanol in participants with histories of sedative (including alcohol) abuse. Fourteen participants lived on a residential unit for ∼1 month. Sessions were conducted Monday through Friday. Measures were taken before and repeatedly up to 24 hours after drug administration. Participants were administered GHB (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/70 kg), ethanol (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 g/70 kg), or placebo in a double-blind, within-subjects design. For safety, GHB and ethanol were administered in an ascending dose sequence, with placebos and both drugs intermixed across sessions. The sequence for each drug was stopped if significant impairment or intolerable effects occurred. Only 9 and 10 participants received the full dose range for GHB and ethanol, respectively. The highest doses of GHB and ethanol showed onset within 30 minutes, with peak effects at 60 minutes. GHB effects dissipated between 4 and 6 hours, whereas ethanol effects dissipated between 6 and 8 hours. Dose-related effects were observed for both drugs on a variety of measures assessing sedative drug effects, abuse liability, performance impairment, and physiological effects. Within-session measures of abuse liability were similar between the two drugs. However, postsession measures of abuse liability, including a direct preference test between the highest tolerated doses of each drug, suggested somewhat greater abuse liability for GHB, most likely as a result of the delayed aversive ethanol effects (e.g., headache).

  4. Comparative abuse liability of GHB and ethanol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; sodium oxybate) is approved for narcolepsy symptom treatment, and it is also abused. This study compared the participant-rated, observer-rated effects, motor/cognitive, physiological, and reinforcing effects of GHB and ethanol in participants with histories of sedative (including alcohol) abuse. Fourteen participants lived on a residential unit for ~1 month. Sessions were conducted Monday through Friday. Measures were taken before, and repeatedly up to 24 hours after drug administration. Participants were administered GHB (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/70kg), ethanol (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 g/70kg), or placebo in a double-blind, within-subjects design. For safety, GHB and ethanol were administered in an ascending dose sequence, with placebos and both drugs intermixed across sessions. The sequence for each drug was stopped if significant impairment or intolerable effects occurred. Only 9 and 10 participants received the full dose range for GHB and ethanol, respectively. The highest doses of GHB and ethanol showed onset within 30 minutes, with peak effects at 60 minutes. GHB effects dissipated between 4 and 6 hours, while ethanol effects dissipated between 6 and 8 hours. Dose-related effects were observed for both drugs on a variety of measures assessing sedative drug effects, abuse liability, performance impairment, and physiological effects. Within-session measures of abuse liability were similar between the two drugs. However, post-session measures of abuse liability, including a direct preference test between the highest tolerated doses of each drug, suggested somewhat greater abuse liability for GHB, due most likely to the delayed aversive ethanol effects (e.g., headache). PMID:23421353

  5. Assessment of hepatotoxic liabilities by transcript profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Ruepp, Stefan . E-mail: stefan.ruepp@roche.com; Boess, Franziska; Suter, Laura; Vera, Maria Cristina de; Steiner, Guido; Steele, Thomas; Weiser, Thomas; Albertini, Silvio

    2005-09-01

    Male Wistar rats were treated with various model compounds or the appropriate vehicle controls in order to create a reference database for toxicogenomics assessment of novel compounds. Hepatotoxic compounds in the database were either known hepatotoxicants or showed hepatotoxicity during preclinical testing. Histopathology and clinical chemistry data were used to anchor the transcript profiles to an established endpoint (steatosis, cholestasis, direct acting, peroxisomal proliferation or nontoxic/control). These reference data were analyzed using a supervised learning method (support vector machines, SVM) to generate classification rules. This predictive model was subsequently used to assess compounds with regard to a potential hepatotoxic liability. A steatotic and a non-hepatotoxic 5HT{sub 6} receptor antagonist compound from the same series were successfully discriminated by this toxicogenomics model. Additionally, an example is shown where a hepatotoxic liability was correctly recognized in the absence of pathological findings. In vitro experiments and a dog study confirmed the correctness of the toxicogenomics alert. Another interesting observation was that transcript profiles indicate toxicologically relevant changes at an earlier timepoint than routinely used methods. Together, these results support the useful application of toxicogenomics in raising alerts for adverse effects and generating mechanistic hypotheses that can be followed up by confirmatory experiments.

  6. Assessment of substance abuse liability in rodents: self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Neil E

    2012-09-01

    Assessing abuse liability is a crucial step in the development of a novel chemical entity (NCE) with central nervous system (CNS) activity or with chemical or pharmacological properties in common with known abused substances. Rodent assessment of abuse liability is highly attractive due to its relatively low cost and high predictive validity. Described in this unit are three rodent assays commonly used to provide data on the potential for abuse liability based on the acute effects of NCEs: specifically, self-administration, drug discrimination, and locomotor sensitization. As these assays provide insight into the potential abuse liability of NCEs as well as in vivo pharmacological mechanism(s) of action, they should form a key part of the development process for novel therapeutics aimed at treating CNS disorders.

  7. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval.

  8. Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    dependence and abuse in both civilian and military populations (1, 2). Prescription drug use has risen especially rapidly in the military population (2). This...plans (3). In fact, Bray and colleagues found that pain medication is the most highly abused of all prescribed drugs in the military (4...1 Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0305 TITLE: Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain

  9. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  10. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): prevalence, user characteristics and abuse liability in a large global sample.

    PubMed

    Winstock, Adam R; Kaar, Stephen; Borschmann, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents original research on prevalence, user characteristics and effect profile of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a potent hallucinogenic which acts primarily through the serotonergic system. Data were obtained from the Global Drug Survey (an anonymous online survey of people, many of whom have used drugs) conducted between November and December 2012 with 22,289 responses. Lifetime prevalence of DMT use was 8.9% (n=1980) and past year prevalence use was 5.0% (n=1123). We explored the effect profile of DMT in 472 participants who identified DMT as the last new drug they had tried for the first time and compared it with ratings provided by other respondents on psilocybin (magic mushrooms), LSD and ketamine. DMT was most often smoked and offered a strong, intense, short-lived psychedelic high with relatively few negative effects or "come down". It had a larger proportion of new users compared with the other substances (24%), suggesting its popularity may increase. Overall, DMT seems to have a very desirable effect profile indicating a high abuse liability that maybe offset by a low urge to use more.

  11. A novel orvinol analog, BU08028, as a safe opioid analgesic without abuse liability in primates

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huiping; Czoty, Paul W.; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sukhtankar, Devki D.; Nader, Michael A.; Husbands, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the critical need, no previous research has substantiated safe opioid analgesics without abuse liability in primates. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry have led to the development of ligands with mixed mu opioid peptide (MOP)/nociceptin-orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor agonist activity to achieve this objective. BU08028 is a novel orvinol analog that displays a similar binding profile to buprenorphine with improved affinity and efficacy at NOP receptors. The aim of this preclinical study was to establish the functional profile of BU08028 in monkeys using clinically used MOP receptor agonists for side-by-side comparisons in various well-honed behavioral and physiological assays. Systemic BU08028 (0.001–0.01 mg/kg) produced potent long-lasting (i.e., >24 h) antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects, which were blocked by MOP or NOP receptor antagonists. More importantly, the reinforcing strength of BU08028 was significantly lower than that of cocaine, remifentanil, or buprenorphine in monkeys responding under a progressive-ratio schedule of drug self-administration. Unlike MOP receptor agonists, BU08028 at antinociceptive doses and ∼10- to 30-fold higher doses did not cause respiratory depression or cardiovascular adverse events as measured by telemetry devices. After repeated administration, the monkeys developed acute physical dependence on morphine, as manifested by precipitated withdrawal signs, such as increased respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure. In contrast, monkeys did not show physical dependence on BU08028. These in vivo findings in primates not only document the efficacy and tolerability profile of bifunctional MOP/NOP receptor agonists, but also provide a means of translating such ligands into therapies as safe and potentially abuse-free opioid analgesics. PMID:27573832

  12. The therapeutic potential of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists as analgesics without abuse liability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann P; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2013-02-20

    Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans.

  13. Comparative abuse liability of sertraline, alprazolam, and dextroamphetamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Zawertailo, L A; Busto, U; Kaplan, H L; Sellers, E M

    1995-04-01

    Sertraline is an effective antidepressant acting as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The subjective and behavioral effects of sertraline were studied and compared with the effects of alprazolam and dextroamphetamine in a within-subject, randomized, double-blind study in 20 volunteers aged 18 to 46 years. These subjects were experienced but nondependent users of central nervous system depressants who had the ability to reliably distinguish secobarbital, 150 mg, from placebo and to report positive subjective effects of secobarbital in an experimental setting. The following drug conditions were tested: sertraline, 100 and 200 mg; alprazolam, 1 mg; dextroamphetamine, 10 mg; and placebo. Drug effects were assessed with an objective test of psychomotor performance, subject-rated questionnaires, and observer-rated scales. Both alprazolam and dextroamphetamine were distinguishable from placebo on most measures, but sertraline produced effects discernable from placebo on only a few measures. At 1 hour postdrug administration, dextroamphetamine and alprazolam produced positive effects on several measures of elation, euphoria, and drug liking greater than placebo and both doses of sertraline. In contrast, sertraline produced higher scores on measures of dysphoria and physical unpleasantness than did the other drug conditions. Observer ratings of satisfaction with the drug and other pharmacologic effects were consistent with these findings. Results from this study indicate that sertraline, at the doses tested, does not possess the behavioral effects profile considered to be indicative of abuse potential when compared with alprazolam and dextroamphetamine.

  14. Selective vulnerability of cerebellar granule neuroblasts and their progeny to drugs with abuse liability

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Kurt F.; Khurdayan, Valeriya K.; Goody, Robin J.; Nath, Avindra; Saria, Alois; Pauly, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar development is shaped by the interplay of genetic and numerous environmental factors. Recent evidence suggests that cerebellar maturation is acutely sensitive to drugs with abuse liability including alcohol, opioids, and nicotine. Assuming substance abuse disrupts cerebellar maturation, a central question is to what are the basic mechanisms underlying potential drug-induced developmental defects. Evidence reviewed herein suggests that the maturation of granule neurons and their progeny are intrinsically affected by several classes of substances with abuse liability. Although drug abuse is also likely to target directly other cerebellar neuron and glial types, such as Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia, findings in isolated granule neurons suggest that they are often the principle target for drug actions. Developmental events that are selectively disrupted by drug abuse in granule neurons and/or their neuroblast precursors include proliferation, migration, differentiation (including neurite elaboration and synapse formation), and programmed cell death. Moreover, different classes of drugs act through distinct molecular mechanisms thereby disrupting unique aspects of development. For example, drug-induced perturbations in (i) neurotransmitter biogenesis, (ii) ligand and ion-gated receptor function and their coupling to intracellular effectors, (iii) neurotrophic factor biogenesis and signaling, and (iv) intercellular adhesion are all likely to have significant effects in shaping developmental outcome. In addition to identifying therapeutic strategies for drug abuse intervention, understanding the mechanisms by which drugs affect cellular maturation is likely to provide a better understanding of the neurochemical events that normally shape central nervous system development. PMID:14509568

  15. 76 FR 62419 - Science of Abuse Liability Assessment; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ..., November 10, 2011, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Location: The public workshop will be held at The Legacy Hotel and...-available basis at The Legacy Hotel and Meeting Centre (see Location). Registration: You are encouraged to... studies, challenges associated with human subject abuse potential studies, and adverse events that...

  16. Abuse liability of novel 'legal high' designer stimulants: evidence from animal models.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Lucas R; Watterson, Elizabeth; Olive, Michael Foster

    2013-09-01

    In the last few years, the variety and recreational use of 'legal high' designer stimulants has increased to unprecedented levels. Since their rapid emergence in drug markets, numerous adverse physical and psychological effects have been extensively reported. However, less is understood about the potential for compulsive use of and addiction to these drugs. Recently, a small collection of scientific studies assessing the abuse liability of these drugs has emerged. This new knowledge has been derived primarily from animal studies using behaviorally based procedures which include intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference, intracranial self-stimulation, and drug discrimination. In this review we present a brief history of the recent rise in designer stimulant use followed by a short methodological description of the aforementioned procedures. We then review neurochemical and abuse liability studies on designer stimulants that have been examined to date. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of these collective findings, our current understanding of the abuse liability of these drugs in relation to each other and the illicit drugs they are designed to mimic, and recommend future research directions.

  17. Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Henningfield, Jack E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use.

  18. Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    Tort liability covers most injurious, civil, wrongful acts that occur between individuals. For tort liability to exist, four elements must be present: a duty to use due care, a breach of that duty, a direct causal relationship between the conduct complained of and the injury suffered, and proof of actual injury. Recent court cases involving tort…

  19. Conference on Abuse Liability and Appeal of Tobacco Products: Conclusions and Recommendations*

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness (“abuse liability”) or by enticing product designs (“product appeal”) alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence “product appeal”. A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer products marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. PMID:21376479

  20. Mu/Kappa Opioid Interactions in Rhesus Monkeys: Implications for Analgesia and Abuse Liability

    PubMed Central

    Negus, S. Stevens; Katrina Schrode, KA; Stevenson, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    Mu opioid receptor agonists are clinically valuable as analgesics; however, their use is limited by high abuse liability. Kappa opioid agonists also produce antinociception, but they do not produce mu agonist-like abuse-related effects, suggesting that they may enhance the antinociceptive effects and/or attenuate the abuse-related effects of mu agonists. To evaluate this hypothesis, the present study examined interactions between the mu agonist fentanyl and the kappa agonist U69,593 in three behavioral assays in rhesus monkeys. In an assay of schedule-controlled responding, monkeys responded under a fixed-ratio 30 (FR 30) schedule of food presentation. Fentanyl and U69,593 each produced rate-decreasing effects when administered alone, and mixtures of 0.22:1, 0.65:1 and 1.96:1 U69,593/fentanyl usually produced subadditive effects. In an assay of thermal nociception, tail withdrawal latencies were measured from water heated to 50°C. Fentanyl and U69,593 each produced dose-dependent antinociception, and effects were additive for all mixtures. In an assay of drug self-administration, rhesus monkeys responded for i.v. drug injection, and both dose and FR values were manipulated. Fentanyl maintained self-administration, whereas U69,593 did not. Addition of U69,593 to fentanyl produced a proportion-dependent decrease in both rates of fentanyl self-administration and behavioral economic measures of the reinforcing efficacy of fentanyl. Taken together, these results suggest that simultaneous activation of mu and kappa receptors, either with a mixture of selective drugs or with a single drug that targets both receptors, may reduce abuse liability without reducing analgesic effects relative to selective mu agonists administered alone. PMID:18837635

  1. Research design strategies to evaluate the impact of formulations on abuse liability.

    PubMed

    McColl, Shelley; Sellers, Edward M

    2006-06-01

    Scheduling of a chemical drug substance under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) includes an evaluation of preclinical and clinical safety, and experimental abuse liability studies, as well as information on diversion and overdose. Formulations that mitigate abuse liability, dependence potential and public health risks (e.g., altered absorption rate and tamperability, long half-life, pro-drugs and combination products) are amenable to preclinical and clinical studies to compare their abuse potential to reference compounds. For new formulations (NF) as marketed agents, direct comparison to the immediate release (IR) formulation of the reference compound is typically needed across the full range of potential studies. While the public health advantage of formulation changes in the marketplace can be conceptualized in behavioral economic terms, generating persuasive data is challenging. Study complexity increases because of additional conditions (e.g., placebo, 2-3 doses of the IR formulation, 2-3 doses of the new formulation, and 2-3 doses of the unscheduled or negative control drug), larger sample sizes (study power driven by the comparison of the new formulation versus the IR or placebo), and associated increases in study duration. However, the use of single maximal doses of well-characterized controls can reduce the number of study arms, and using incomplete block designs can reduce study duration. Less typical experimental approaches may also be useful, such as human choice or discrimination procedures, or pre-marketing consumer studies among experienced drug tamperers. New formulations that demonstrate a substantial difference from marketed or reference products have a potential marketing advantage and should require less onerous risk management. Post-marketing epidemiological data demonstrating the lack of abuse will carry the most weight from a public health and physician perspective.

  2. Sexual Abuse of Students: Actual Notice and Deliberate Indifference; The Supreme Court's Title IX Standard for School District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the recent Supreme Court Decision ("Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District") on the liability standard Title IX imposes on school districts for the sexual abuse of a student by a teacher. Because the standard of actual knowledge and deliberate indifference by a school official is too high, the student is denied access…

  3. School District and Official Liability for Teacher Sexual Abuse of Students under 42 U.S.C. Section 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses theories of constitutional tort liability of school districts and supervisors under the federal Civil Rights Act of 1871, based upon sexual misconduct of supervised teachers with students, on the ground that such abuse amounts to a deprivation of the student's constitutional right to bodily security. (MLF)

  4. The Liability of Colleges and Universities for Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federally Funded Grants and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The federal government's war on fraud, waste, and abuse in expenditure of federal funds has reached college campuses. Institutions that fail to heed this development are vulnerable to harsh sanctions. They must tighten accounting practices and recognize their liability for fraudulent practices of faculty and students. Internal investigations and…

  5. The abuse liability of the NMDA receptor antagonist-benzodiazepine (tiletamine-zolazepam) combination: evidence from clinical case reports and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combination is an anaesthetic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is an equal amount combination of tiletamine, a dissociative anaesthetic pharmacologically classified as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and zolazepam, a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. There are concerns regarding the safety profile of this drug combination due to incidents of human misuse/abuse. In this paper, we discuss the abuse liability of this drug combination based on currently available scientific evidence. We performed an in-depth search of medical and scientific literature and found seven reported cases of human abuse of the TZ combination, two of which resulted in fatal outcomes. In most of these cases, drug administration was intentional indicating that the TZ combination was abused by humans. This finding is bolstered by the results of preclinical studies showing that the TZ combination produces rewarding effects in rats, although manifested only in pretreated subjects. Further studies revealed that the addictive effects of the TZ combination are influenced by pre-exposure to other psychoactive drugs. Pre-exposure to ketamine, diazepam, propofol, or ethanol facilitated the expression of the rewarding effects of the TZ combination. These findings support the hypothesis that the TZ combination was and can be used as a substitute or replacement drug. Altogether, the compiled evidence indicates that the TZ combination can potentially be abused by humans. Thus, careful use, dispensation, and monitoring of the TZ combination and associated substances are strongly advocated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies.

  7. Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Weaver, Michael F; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aims To provide an initial abuse liability assessment of an electronic cigarette (EC) in current tobacco cigarette smokers. Design The first of four, within-subject sessions was an EC sampling session that involved six, 10-puff bouts (30s interpuff interval) with each bout separated by 30-mins. In the remaining three sessions participants made choices between 10 EC puffs and varying amounts of money, 10 EC puffs and a varying number of own brand cigarette (OB) puffs, or 10 OB puffs and varying amounts of money using the multiple-choice procedure (MCP). The MCP was completed six times at 30-min intervals, and one choice was randomly reinforced at each trial. Setting Clinical laboratory. Participants Twenty current tobacco cigarette smokers. Measurements Sampling session outcome measures included plasma nicotine, cardiovascular response, and subjective effects. Choice session outcome was the crossover value on the MCP. Findings: EC use resulted in significant nicotine delivery, tobacco abstinence symptom suppression, and increased product acceptability ratings. On the MCP, participants chose to receive 10 EC puffs over an average of $1.06 or 3 OB puffs and chose 10 OB puffs over an average of $1.50 (p<.003). Conclusions Electronic cigarettes can deliver clinically significant amounts of nicotine and reduce cigarette abstinence symptoms and appear to have lower potential for abuse relative to traditional tobacco cigarettes, at least under certain laboratory conditions. PMID:22229871

  8. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781

  9. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  10. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  11. Do formulation differences alter abuse liability of methylphenidate? A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study in recreational drug users.

    PubMed

    Parasrampuria, Dolly A; Schoedel, Kerri A; Schuller, Reinhard; Silber, Steven A; Ciccone, Patrick E; Gu, Joan; Sellers, Edward M

    2007-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if the abuse liability of methylphenidate is governed by formulation differences that affect rates of drug delivery. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, subjects with a history of recreational drug use received single oral doses of placebo, 60 mg of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR) and 108 mg of extended-release methylphenidate (osmotic release oral system [OROS]). Over 24 hours after dosing, blood was collected to determine plasma concentrations of methylphenidate, and subjects completed subjective assessments of abuse liability (Addiction Research Center Inventory, Drug Rating Questionnaire-Subject, and Subjective Drug Value). The abuse-related subjective effects of IR and OROS methylphenidate were statistically significantly different from placebo, confirming the overall validity of the study. Although a higher dose of OROS methylphenidate was used compared with IR methylphenidate (108 mg vs 60 mg), subjective effects were consistently lower for OROS compared with IR methylphenidate (statistically significant for 3 of 6 measures of positive effects), particularly at early time points. In general, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters were correlated from a poor to modest degree, with greater correlations observed for IR methylphenidate. In addition, a post hoc "qualification" method was developed, which demonstrated that pharmacological qualification might improve the assessment of subjective effects. Although requiring epidemiological confirmation, the results suggest that OROS methylphenidate, with its characteristic slow ascending plasma concentration profile, may have lower abuse potential. This conclusion is reflected by lower subjective responses during early hours as compared with the IR formulation with its rapid drug delivery and accompanying greater subjective effects.

  12. Within-subject comparison of the psychopharmacological profiles of oral oxycodone and oral morphine in non-drug-abusing volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lichtor, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is a significant problem in the USA. Little attention has been paid to assessing the relative psychopharmacological profile (including abuse liability-related effects) of specific prescription opioids. Objectives The aim of this study is to directly compare the psychopharmacological profile of two oral opioids within the same subject. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was done in which 20 non-drug-abusing volunteers ingested 10 and 20 mg of oxycodone, 30 and 60 mg of morphine, and placebo in separate sessions. Drug doses were equated on an objective measure of opiate effects: miosis. Subjective, psychomotor, reinforcing, and physiological effects of the opioids were assessed. Results In general, the two opioids at equimiotic doses produced similar prototypic opiate-like effects and psychomotor impairment of similar magnitude. However, several effects were found only with 20 mg oxycodone. Both drugs produced abuse liability-related subjective effects but also dysphoric effects, particularly with 60 mg morphine. Neither drug at either dose functioned as a reinforcer, as measured by the Multiple Choice Procedure. Relative potency ratios indicated an average oxycodone:morphine ratio of 1:3. Conclusions The psychopharmacological profile of oxycodone and morphine at equimiotic doses had many similarities; however, differences were found in producing abuse liability-related and dysphoric effects. In the medical community, it is commonly accepted that oral oxycodone is 1.5 to 2 times as potent as oral morphine in producing analgesia; using this ratio, although patients may experience similar degrees of pain relief, those receiving oxycodone may be experiencing stronger and potentially different psychopharmacological effects. PMID:17899018

  13. A Review on Renal Toxicity Profile of Common Abusive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Parkash; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. PMID:23946695

  14. Dopamine transporter-dependent and -independent striatal binding of the benztropine analog JHW 007, a cocaine antagonist with low abuse liability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benztropine analog JHW 007 displays high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), but unlike typical DAT ligands, has relatively low abuse liability and blocks effects of cocaine,including its self-administration. To determine sites responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW 007, ...

  15. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for drugs with abuse liability: public interest, special interest, conflicts of interest, and the industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Wright, Curtis; Schnoll, Sidney; Bernstein, David

    2008-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) formerly known as Risk Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) are a regulatory technique for dealing with anticipated risks of new medications and are especially important for new drugs with abuse potential. This paper describes the origin and history of risk-management plans for drugs that might be abused, the proper use of these plans in minimizing the risk to the public, and the special difficulties inherent in managing risks for drugs with abuse potential. Drugs with abuse liability are distinctive since the risks inherent in manufacture and distribution include not only risks to patients prescribed the medications, but also risks to the general public including subgroups in the population not intended to get the drug and who receive no medical benefit from the medication. The crafting of risk-management plans intended to protect nonpatient populations is unique for these products. The content, extent, and level of intensity of these plans affect areas of medical ethics, civil liability, and criminal prosecution. The need for risk-management plans for drugs with abuse liability can potentially act as a deterrent to investment and is a factor in decisions concerning the development of new medications for the treatments of pain, ADHD, anxiety disorders, and addictions. This paper provides a framework for moving the process of REMS development forward and criteria for evaluating the probity and adequacy of such programs.

  16. Support and Profiles of Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Hebert, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure may be a crucial factor in children's recovery. A person-centered approach was used to examine how profiles of nonoffending mothers could better describe their ability to support their children after disclosure. Cluster analyses based on a total of 226 nonoffending mothers…

  17. Animal models to assess the abuse liability of tobacco products: effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on intracranial self-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Tally, Laura; Schmidt, Clare E.; Muelken, Peter; Stepanov, Irina; Saha, Subhrakanti; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preclinical models are needed to inform regulation of tobacco products by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Typically, animal models of tobacco addiction involve exposure to nicotine alone or nicotine combined with isolated tobacco constituents (e.g., minor alkaloids). The goal of this study was to develop a model using extracts derived from tobacco products that contain a range of tobacco constituents to more closely model product exposure in humans. Methods This study compared the addiction-related effects of nicotine alone and nicotine dose-equivalent concentrations of aqueous smokeless tobacco extracts on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. Extracts were prepared from Kodiak Wintergreen, a conventional product, or Camel Snus, a potential “modified risk tobacco product”. Binding affinities of nicotine alone and extracts at various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes were also compared. Results Kodiak and Camel Snus extracts contained levels of minor alkaloids within the range of those shown to enhance nicotine’s behavioral effects when studied in isolation. Nonetheless, acute injection of both extracts produced reinforcement-enhancing (ICSS threshold-decreasing) effects similar to those of nicotine alone at low to moderate nicotine doses, as well as similar reinforcement-attenuating/aversive (ICSS threshold-increasing) effects at high nicotine doses. Extracts and nicotine alone also had similar binding affinity at all nAChRs studied. Conclusions Relative nicotine content is the primary pharmacological determinant of the abuse liability of Kodiak and Camel Snus as measured using ICSS. These models may be useful to compare the relative abuse liability of other tobacco products and to model FDA-mandated changes in product performance standards. PMID:25561387

  18. Abuse liability of flupirtine revisited: implications of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Early studies suggested that the centrally acting non-opioid and non-steroidal analgesic flupirtine (FLP) has no potential for abuse. However, FLP's agonistic effects at the GABAA receptor might prime addictive behaviors, and literature provides some anecdotal reports on FLP abuse/dependence. To shed more light on this topic we acquired and evaluated data obtained from a national German pharmacovigilance database. We analyzed all reports of FLP abuse/dependence that were recorded in the database of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). A total of n = 48 reports of FLP abuse/dependence could be identified (mean age 45 years, 62.5% female). First reports were submitted to BfArM in 1991 with increasing numbers of annual reports from the year 2006 on. Mean daily FLP dosage was 805 mg (range 200-3,000 mg). Current or previous substance abuse/dependence was reported in 21% and 17%, respectively. Mean duration of FLP abuse/dependence until report to BfArM was 23 months (range 1-84 months). Withdrawal syndromes after discontinuation of FLP were reported in n = 9 (19%). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that FLP features a potential to cause addictive behaviors. Female sex, age >40 years, and long-term FLP-treatment may be possible risk factors for the development of FLP abuse/dependence.

  19. Relationship between anorectic and reinforcing properties of appetite suppressant drugs: implications for assessment of abuse liability.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, R R; Brady, J V; Snell, J D

    1978-04-01

    A quantitative ratio measure was developed which permitted comparisons between the reinforcing and anorectic potency of eight phenylethylamine anorectics and cocaine in laboratory baboons. The ordering of these compounds based upon this ratio bears a reasonable correspondence to clinical drug evaluations. The measure may provide information for preclinical evaluation of relative abuse potential of anorectic drugs.

  20. State Liability for Abuse in Primary Schools: Systemic Failure and "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Conor

    2009-01-01

    Due to the historical arrangement between Church and State, the Irish State has always discharged its duty to provide for free primary education exclusively through the provision of funding to privately owned and managed schools. Consequently, in "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey," where a woman sued the State in respect of sex abuse she…

  1. Parents of minors who have sexually abused: legal liability and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Oz, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are legally liable when their minor children commit offenses. Since parents are essential to the successful rehabilitation of minors who have sexually offended, the impact of legal liability on parental engagement in therapy must be examined. This article will explore the conflicting issues of age, legal responsibility, parental responsibility, and therapeutic effectiveness in the Israeli context and propose a means for resolution.

  2. Binding profiles and physical dependence liabilities of selected benzodiazepine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Richards, J G; Martin, J R

    1998-01-01

    In vitro binding profiles were determined for selected benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) ligands by quantitative radioautography in rat brain. The ligands represent subtype-selective agonists (zolpidem) or nonselective BZR agonists (diazepam), as well as BZR partial agonists (bretazenil, Ro 43-9624, and Ro 19-8022). In addition, these compounds were evaluated in a precipitated withdrawal paradigm in monkeys. The physical dependence liability was not clearly related to the in vitro brain BZR binding profiles of these compounds. Therefore, diazepam, bretazenil, Ro 19-8022, and Ro 43-9624 had regional affinities for the 13 selected rat brain regions that were close to the mean values across regions, despite the clearly greater physical dependence potential of diazepam. Zolpidem, on the other hand, had regional affinities for the 13 rat brain regions that diverged significantly from the mean value across regions and exhibited a lower physical dependence potential than diazepam. These results raise the possibility that a combination of BZR subtype selectivity with partial agonism could yield a marked reduction of physical dependence liability.

  3. Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-05-01

    Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth.

  4. A Profile of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villas, Paul

    A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…

  5. The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, D. Andrew; Smith, Michael T.; Bigelow, George E.; Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, S.L. Vatem; Strain, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli following repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH following repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model. Methods Double-blind intramuscular (IM) injections of a short-acting opioid, (alfentanil 15 mcg/kg; N=8) were compared to active placebo (diphenhydramine 25 mg; N=3) on cold and pressure pain testing and standard abuse liability measures in eight 10-hour sessions (1 injection/session) over 4–5 weeks in healthy pain-free males. Decreases from session baseline pain threshold (PThr) and tolerance (PTol) were calculated to represent hyperalgesia, and were assessed both within and across sessions. Results Mean decreases in cold PTol were seen in the alfentanil group at 180 minutes (−3.8 seconds, +/−26.5) and 480 minutes (−1.63 seconds, +/−31.5) after drug administration. There was a trend for differences between conditions on cold PThr hyperalgesia but not for pressure PThr. Alfentanil participants had greater mean ratings on LIKING and HIGH visual analog scales at peak effects (30 minutes), but these scores did not change across sessions. Discussion Repeated alfentanil exposures over 4–5 weeks resulted in within session decreases in cold pain tolerance from baseline but these differences were not substantially different from diphenhydramine controls. The results did not support the phenomenon of OIH in this model, although definitive conclusions regarding the existence of OIH in humans likely requires a larger sample size or an alternative model. PMID:23446076

  6. Abuse and dependence liability analysis of methylphenidate in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yeni; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2013-04-01

    Methylphenidate is the most prescribed stimulant medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the well documented clinical benefits of the drug, several questions remain unanswered concerning the effects of extended methylphenidate use (e.g. can methylphenidate be abused by ADHD patients? does repeated methylphenidate treatment produce addiction?). Preclinical studies can help address the long-term safety of clinical treatments, moreover animal studies provide valuable information on the details of drug actions. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), bred from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rat strain, is considered as the best validated and the most widely used animal model of ADHD. We reviewed the findings of research reports that investigated the abuse and dependence liability of methylphenidate in SHR. In particular, we surveyed the studies which investigated the effects of methylphenidate pretreatment on subsequent methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference or self-administration for they may give insights into the abuse or dependence liability of long-term methylphenidate treatment in ADHD.

  7. Psycho-social Profile of Abused Children in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Aparajita; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the child abuse cases in India under categories based on different forms of child abuse, marital issues involved, parent child interactions, social and psychological characteristics, trends associated with the abused children, and remedial measures. Concludes with an emphasis on the need for empirical data on the extent and nature of child…

  8. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha A.; Alghamdi, Linah A.; Saleheen, Hassan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients’ files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. Results: The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (<6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. Conclusions: The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors. PMID:27464866

  9. Psychological profile of male and female animal abusers.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rebecca L; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L

    2012-03-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who reported two or more incidents of animal abuse; controls were 29 college students matched on age and gender. Participants completed self-report measures of criminal thinking, illegal behaviors, bullying, empathy, and the five-factor personality traits. Results indicated animal abusers had more previous criminal behaviors, were more likely to bully, and had the highest scores on the power orientation criminal thinking scale. Abuser by gender interactions were detected; female animal abusers scored significantly higher on several measures of criminal thinking, were found to be more likely to bully, and exhibited lower scores on measures of perspective taking and empathy compared to female controls.

  10. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  11. Profiles of pregabalin and gabapentin abuse by postmortem toxicology.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Vuori, Erkki; Kalso, Eija; Gergov, Merja; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-08-01

    Pregabalin (PRG) and gabapentin (GBP) are used in the treatment of neuropathic pain and epilepsy, and PRG also in generalized anxiety disorder. There is increasing evidence that PRG possesses considerable abuse potential. PRG may have a higher addiction potential than GBP due to its rapid absorption and faster onset of action. Our objective is to estimate the proportion of all PRG- and GBP-related fatalities attributable to PRG and GBP abuse. We investigated all medico-legal death cases in Finland in which PRG or GBP was found in postmortem toxicology during 2010-2011. PRG was found in 316 cases and GBP in 43 cases. Drug abuse was associated with 48.1% of the PRG and 18.6% of the GBP findings. PRG poisoning accounted for 10.1% of all PRG cases and GBP poisoning for 4.7% of all GBP cases. In the drug abuser cases, PRG poisoning represented 19.1%, and GBP poisoning 12.5%. The median blood concentration of PRG was 15 mg/L in the abuser group and 5.8 mg/L in the other cases. For GBP, these concentrations were 12 mg/L and 8.3mg/L, respectively. In the PRG abuser group, 91.4% of cases showed concomitant opioid use, while in the rest of these cases neither alcohol nor opioids were detected, but other central nervous system acting drugs were found in each abuser case. In the GBP abuser group, 87.5% of cases showed concomitant opioid use. PRG abuse with high doses is increasingly common and can be fatal when combined with opioids.

  12. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  13. Pregabalin's abuse potential: a mini review focusing on the pharmacological profile.

    PubMed

    Papazisis, Georgios; Tzachanis, Dimitrios

    2014-08-01

    Pregabalin, an analogue of the gamma-aminobutyric acid mammalian neurotransmitter and its structurally related compound gabapentin are known as α2δ ligands. They might act as inhibitory modulators of neuronal excitability that reduce ectopic neuronal activation of hyperexcited neurons while normal activation remains unchanged. However, the interaction with Ca²⁺ channel α2δ subunit is not sufficient to account for the broad clinical spectrum of pregabalin effects including the abuse potential. Pregabalin is approved for the treatment of partial epilepsy; generalized anxiety disorder; peripheral and central neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Its prescribing is rapidly increasing and total sales of the drug worldwide reached 4.6 billion US$ in 2012. Since entering widespread clinical use, reports of pregabalin abuse appeared more often, usually involving individuals with a history of abuse of other medications. The purpose of this mini review is to present available published data signaling pregabalin's abuse liability reflecting on the pharmacological characteristics that might enable this agent to trigger addictive behaviors.

  14. Distinctive Profiles of Gene Expression in the Human Nucleus Accumbens Associated with Cocaine and Heroin Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Dawn N; Schmidt, Carl J; Kapatos, Gregory; Bannon, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse is thought to induce long-term cellular and behavioral adaptations as a result of alterations in gene expression. Understanding the molecular consequences of addiction may contribute to the development of better treatment strategies. This study utilized highthroughput Affymetrix microarrays to identify gene expression changes in the post-mortem nucleus accumbens of chronic heroin abusers. These data were analyzed independently and in relation to our previously reported data involving human cocaine abusers, in order to determine which expression changes were drug specific and which may be common to the phenomenon of addiction. A significant decrease in the expression of numerous genes encoding proteins involved in presynaptic release of neurotransmitter was seen in heroin abusers, a finding not seen in the cocaine-abusing cohort. Conversely, the striking decrease in myelin-related genes observed in cocaine abusers was not evident in our cohort of heroin subjects. Overall, little overlap in gene expression profiles was seen between the two drug-abusing cohorts: out of the approximately 39 000 transcripts investigated, the abundance of only 25 was significantly changed in both cocaine and heroin abusers, with nearly one-half of these being altered in opposite directions. These data suggest that the profiles of nucleus accumbens gene expression associated with chronic heroin or cocaine abuse are largely unique, despite what are thought to be common effects of these drugs on dopamine neurotransmission in this brain region. A re-examination of our current assumptions about the commonality of molecular mechanisms associated with substance abuse seems warranted. PMID:16710320

  15. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Atul; Vaish, Supriya; Sharma, D. K.; Sushil, C. S.; Usman, Nashat; Sudarsanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN) inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21–30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior. PMID:26257481

  16. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  17. Posttraumatic symptom profiles among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Winje, Dagfinn; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne Marita; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Grønli, Janne; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-03-16

    In the present study, our aim was to examine longitudinal posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) trajectories in a Norwegian sample of adults who had experienced sexual abuse during childhood, and to identify predictors of PTSS-trajectory belongingness. The sample consisted of 138 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (96.4% women, mean age=42.9years, mean age at the first abuse=5.9 years), recruited from support centers for sexual abuse survivors. The majority (78.3%) reported penetrative abuse, and a large proportion of the sample reported that the perpetrator was a biological parent (38.4%) or someone they trusted (76.1%), reflecting a high severity level of the abusive experiences. Latent Profile Analyses revealed the best overall fit for a two PTSS-trajectories model; one trajectory characterized by sub-clinical and decreasing level of PTSS (54.9%), and the other by high and slightly decreasing level of PTSS (45.1%). Increased odds for belonging to the trajectory with clinical level symptoms was found among those who reported higher levels of exposure to other types of childhood maltreatment (OR=3.69, p=0.002), sexual abuse enforced by physical violence (OR=3.04, p=0.003) or threats (OR=2.56, p=0.014), very painful sexual abuse (OR=2.73, p=0.007), or who had experienced intense anxiety, helplessness or fear during the abuse (OR=2.97, p=0.044). Those in the trajectory with clinical level PTSS reported lower levels of perceived social support and more relational difficulties compared to those in the sub-clinical PTSS trajectory. In conclusion, different longitudinal PTSS trajectories can be found among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Significant predictors of PTSS-trajectory belongingness are discussed alongside their potential implications for preventive efforts and clinical interventions.

  18. Child abuse and neglect profiles and their psychosocial consequences in a large sample of incarcerated males.

    PubMed

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age). Data were collected among a large systematically selected sample of adult male inmates (N=1261). Based on LCA, three unique classes of CAN were distinguished, including a 'low abuse' group (43.4% of the sample), a 'high physical and emotional abuse' group (51.3%), and a 'poly-victimized' group (5.3%). The analysis revealed that the CAN classes were differentially associated with affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, personal self-esteem, prison self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, and violent offending. Findings highlight the unique nature of CAN constellations among criminal justice involved participants. The significance of the present results is discussed in relation to past and future research. Potential contributions to treatment strategies are also presented.

  19. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  20. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  1. Predicting the Abuse Liability of Entactogen-Class, New and Emerging Psychoactive Substances via Preclinical Models of Drug Self-administration.

    PubMed

    Aarde, Shawn M; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-12-02

    Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models. The prototypical entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") supports self-administration but not with the same consistency nor with the same efficacy as structurally related drugs amphetamine or methamphetamine. Consistent with these observations, MDMA use is more episodic in the majority of those who use it frequently. Nevertheless, substantial numbers of MDMA users will meet the criteria for substance dependence at some point in their use history. This review examines the currently available evidence from rodent self-administration studies of MDMA and two of the new and emerging psychoactive substances (NPS) that produce entactogen type neuropharmacological responses - mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; 4MMC; "meow meow") and methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone). Overall, the current evidence predicts that these NPS entactogens have enhanced abuse liability compared with MDMA.

  2. Profiles of Personal Resiliency in Youth Who Have Experienced Physical or Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; Runyon, Melissa K.; Steer, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether children and adolescents (7-17 years old) who had experienced physical, sexual, or both types of abuse reflected distinct profiles of personal resiliency, we administered the "Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents" (RSCA) to 250 youth. We performed cluster analyses with T scores for the RSCA Self-Mastery,…

  3. Involvement in High-Profile Child Sexual Abuse Controversies: Costs and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildred, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The costs and benefits associated with participation in conflicts around child sexual abuse are explored. Using qualitative data from interviews with 40 high-profile participants, findings suggest that professionals experience both positive and negative consequences as a result of their involvement. Costs identified include attacks and…

  4. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollins, S H; MacDonald, E K; Rush, C R

    2001-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays.

  5. Human opiorphin: the lack of physiological dependence, tolerance to antinociceptive effects and abuse liability in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Popik, Piotr; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kreczko, Joanna; Wróbel, Małgorzata

    2010-11-12

    Like other endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, human opiorphin peptide (QRFSR) attenuates catabolism of enkephalins and appears to be a promising therapeutic, displaying antinociceptive action in several pain models. However, its opioid-like side-effect profile is insufficiently characterized. In the present set of experiments, acute intraperitoneal administration of opiorphin produced an antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test in mice (0.3mg/kg) and this action was inhibited by opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (3mg/kg). Repeated treatment with opiorphin changed the antinociceptive response neither to itself nor to morphine, suggesting the lack of tolerance and morphine cross-tolerance, respectively. Repeated treatment with opiorphin (3mg/kg) also failed to produce opioid dependence. Opiorphin (0.3 or 1mg/kg) produced no rewarding effects in the conditioned place preference test. However, at the dose of 3mg/kg, the peptide produced antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test, and it did not affect locomotor activity. The present set of results confirms the beneficial effects of opiorphin in pain management, and suggests a lack of opioid-like side effects as well as the presence of antidepressant-like actions of this peptide.

  6. Mobile Abuse in University Students and profiles of victimization and aggression.

    PubMed

    Polo Del Río, Mª Isabel; Mendo Lázaro, Santiago; León Del Barco, Benito; Felipe Castaño, Elena

    2017-01-12

    The vast majority of young people have mobile phones. This has become a must-have item in their lives, with traditional socialization spaces displaced by virtual ones. They use their mobile phones for many hours a day, to the detriment of their psychological and social functioning, showing greater vulnerability to abusive or excessive use, and more likely to become problematic or addicted users. This paper aims to study the impact of mobile phone abuse in a sample of college students, assessing the social, personal, and communicational realms and deepening understanding of the different cyberbullying profiles, analyzing who has more personal and social problems using mobiles: victims or aggressors. Whether the number of hours of mobile phone use has an effect on these problems will also be explored. The sample (1,200 students) was selected by multistage cluster sampling among the faculties of the University of Extremadura. Data were obtained through Victimization (CYB-VIC) and Aggression (CYB-AGRES) through the mobile phone scales, and the Questionnaire of Experiences related to Mobile (CERM). The results show that mobile phone abuse generates conflicts in young people of both sexes, although girls have more communication and emotional problems than boys. In addition, age, field of knowledge, victim/aggressor profile, and hours of mobile phone use are crucial variables in the communication and emotional conflicts arising from the misuse of mobile.

  7. Substance Abuse Prevention: Maine's 1997 Data Report. County Profiles on Risk and Protection for Substance Abuse Prevention Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Augusta.

    This document presents uniformly collected data for the State of Maine and each of its counties on selected known risk factors for alcohol and drug abuse and the prevalence of substance abuse-related problems. A "Read Me First" section presents the state's approach to prevention. Information is provided on risk and protective factors,…

  8. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases.

  9. Abuse potential of dronabinol (Marinol).

    PubMed

    Calhoun, S R; Galloway, G P; Smith, D E

    1998-01-01

    Dronabinol is an oral form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol indicated for treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in individuals with AIDS, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. The authors reviewed the literature and conducted surveys and interviews among addiction medicine specialists, oncologists, researchers in cancer and HIV treatment, and law enforcement personnel to determine the abuse liability of dronabinol. There is no evidence of abuse or diversion of dronabinol. Available prescription tracking data indicates that use remains within the therapeutic dosage range over time. Healthcare professionals have detected no indication of "scrip-chasing" or "doctor-shopping" among the patients for whom they have prescribed dronabinol. Cannabis-dependent populations, such as those treated in our Clinic and seen by the addiction medicine specialists we interviewed, have demonstrated no interest in abuse of dronabinol. There is no street market for dronabinol, and no evidence of any diversion of dronabinol for sale as a street drug. Furthermore, dronabinol does not provide effects that are considered desirable in a drug of abuse. The onset of action is slow and gradual, it is at most only weakly reinforcing, and the overwhelming majority of reports of users indicate that its effects are dysphoric and unappealing. This profile of effects gives dronabinol a very low abuse potential.

  10. Premises liability.

    PubMed

    Buckner, F

    2001-01-01

    Premises liability is an often-overlooked legal consideration. Financially destructive cases brought against practices by patients or visitors can be avoided by creating a safe work environment and clearly labeling potentially harmful locales in and around the office in which you work. This article discusses clear ways any physician or office manager can avoid major legal problems by paying close attention to the needs and rights of office invitees. The focus of any physician considering insurance should include not only malpractice insurance but also premises liability insurance.

  11. Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Context With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended release capsules (MS-sNT) (EMBEDA®, King Pharmaceuticals® Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, in March 2011), a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients’ treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable optimization of pain-related outcomes, resulting in improved quality of life

  12. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed.

  13. Profiles of Women Who Have Mental Retardation with and without a Documented History of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six women with mental retardation were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they had a documented history of abuse during the preceding 5 years. The women with this history were more likely than the women with no documented history of abuse to be employing passive/avoidant decision-making strategies, reporting higher levels of…

  14. In the Name of God: A Profile of Religion-Related Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Bette L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines cases of religion-related child abuse reported to mental health professionals nationwide and statistically describes cases involving the withholding of medical care, the expulsion of evil in a child, and abuse by persons holding religious authority. The authors argue that society should protect children's rights and welfare whenever they…

  15. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  16. Gene expression profile of the nucleus accumbens of human cocaine abusers: evidence for dysregulation of myelin

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Dawn N.; Pruetz, Barb; Schmidt, Carl J.; Kuhn, Donald M.; Kapatos, Gregory; Bannon, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cocaine abuse induces long-term neural adaptations as a consequence of alterations in gene expression. This study was undertaken to identify those transcripts differentially regulated in the nucleus accumbens of human cocaine abusers. Affymetrix microarrays were used to measure transcript abundance in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 control subjects matched for age, race, sex, and brain pH. As expected, gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was increased in the nucleus accumbens of cocaine abusers. The most robust and consistent finding, however, was a decrease in the expression of a number of myelin-related genes, including myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic protein (MOBP). The differential expression seen by microarray for CART as well as MBP, MOBP, and PLP was verified by RT–PCR. In addition, immunohistochemical experiments revealed a decrease in the number of MBP-immunoreactive oligodendrocytes present in the nucleus accumbens and surrounding white matter of cocaine abusers. These findings suggest a dysregulation of myelin in human cocaine abusers. PMID:15009677

  17. Clinical biochemical and hormonal profiling in plasma: a promising strategy to predict growth hormone abuse in cattle.

    PubMed

    Doué, Mickael; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Cesbron, Nora; Stefani, Annalisa; Moro, Letizia; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) is widely used in some countries to increase milk production. Since 1994, both marketing and use of this substance have been prohibited within the European Union. In this context, the targeted plasma biochemical and hormonal profiling was assessed as a potential screening strategy to highlight rbST (ab)use in cattle. Twenty-one routinely measured clinical blood parameters, representative of main biological profiles (energetic, proteic, etc.), were measured in the plasma of six lactating cows before and after rbST treatment throughout a 23-day study period. Appropriate multivariate statistical analyses [principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square (OPLS)] enabled discriminating animal samples before and after treatment (days 0 vs. 2 to 9, P = 2.10(-9)) and highlighted the five most relevant blood parameters in this discrimination. Based on each five-analyte contribution, a simple mathematically weighted equation was suggested to predict the status of samples. A suspicious threshold was proposed, and the model was further tested with the status prediction of the supplementary samples from untreated (n = 20) and treated cows (n = 22). The calculated false-positive (10%) and false-negative (4.5%) rates were in accordance with the EU requirements for screening methods. Although the model needs to be further validated with additional samples, such targeted plasma biochemical and hormonal profiling already appears as a potential promising screening strategy to highlight rbST (ab)use in cattle.

  18. Using Neuropsychological Profiles to Classify Neglected Children with or without Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…

  19. [Perspectives in medical liability].

    PubMed

    Pizarro W, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transferring to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurance and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to professional liability.

  20. Differential drug-drug interactions of the synthetic Cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073: implications for drug abuse liability and pain therapy.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K; Zimmerman, Sarah M; Saffell, Amanda R; Prather, Paul L; Fantegrossi, William E

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana substitutes often contain blends of multiple psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), including the prevalent SCBs (1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-yl)-1-naphthalenyl-methanone (JWH-018) and (1-butyl-1H-indole-3-yl)-1-naphthalenyl-methanone (JWH-073). Because SCBs are frequently used in combinations, we hypothesized that coadministering multiple SCBs induces synergistic drug-drug interactions. Drug-drug interactions between JWH-018 and JWH-073 were investigated in vivo for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC)-like discriminative stimulus effects, analgesia, task disruption, and hypothermia. Combinations (JWH-018:JWH-073) of these drugs were administered to mice in assays of Δ(9)-THC discrimination, tail-immersion, and food-maintained responding, and rectal temperatures were measured. Synergism occurred in the Δ(9)-THC discrimination assay for two constant dose ratio combinations (1:3 and 1:1). A 1:1 and 2:3 dose ratio induced additivity and synergy, respectively, in the tail-immersion assay. Both 1:1 and 2:3 dose ratios were additive for hypothermia, whereas a 1:3 dose ratio induced subadditive suppression of food-maintained responding. In vitro drug-drug interactions were assessed using competition receptor-binding assays employing mouse brain homogenates and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R)-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity in Neuro2A wild-type cells. Interestingly, synergy occurred in the competition receptor-binding assay for two dose ratios (1:5 and 1:10), but not in the adenylyl cyclase activity assay (1:5). Altogether, these data indicate that drug-drug interactions between JWH-018 and JWH-073 are effect- and ratio-dependent and may increase the relative potency of marijuana substitutes for subjective Δ(9)-THC-like effects. Combinations may improve the therapeutic profile of cannabinoids, considering that analgesia but not hypothermia or task disruption was potentiated. Importantly, synergy in the competition receptor-binding assay

  1. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, L.S.; Nuzzo, P.A.; Lofwall, M.R.; Moody, D.E.; Walsh, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Sublingual buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are efficacious opioid dependence pharmacotherapies, but there are reports of their diversion and misuse by the intranasal route. The study objectives were to characterize and compare their intranasal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting An in-patient research unit at the University of Kentucky. Participants Healthy adults (n=10) abusing, but not physically dependent on, intranasal opioids. Measurements Six sessions (72 hours apart) tested five intranasal doses [0/0, crushed buprenorphine (2, 8 mg), crushed buprenorphine/naloxone (2/0.5, 8/2 mg)] and one intravenous dose (0.8 mg buprenorphine/0.2 mg naloxone for bioavailability assessment). Plasma samples, physiological, subject- and observer-rated measures were collected before and for up to 72 hours after drug administration. Findings Both formulations produced time- and dose-dependent increases on subjective and physiological mu-opioid agonist effects (e.g. ‘liking’, miosis). Subjects reported higher subjective ratings and street values for 8 mg compared to 8/2 mg, but these differences were not statistically significant. No significant formulation differences in peak plasma buprenorphine concentration or time-course were observed. Buprenorphine bioavailability was 38–44% and Tmax was 35–40 minutes after all intranasal doses. Naloxone bioavailability was 24% and 30% following 2/0.5 and 8/2 mg, respectively. Conclusions It is difficult to determine if observed differences in abuse potential between intranasal buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are clinically relevant at the doses tested. Greater bioavailability and faster onset of pharmacodynamic effects compared to sublingual administration suggests a motivation for intranasal misuse in non-dependent opioid abusers. However, significant naloxone absorption from intranasal buprenorphine

  2. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  3. Problem Severity Profiles of Substance Abusing Women in Therapeutic Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine specific substance use profiles among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrant and native-born women in Israeli therapeutic treatment facilities. Individuals were sampled at drug treatment facilities and assessed using the Addiction Severity Index. ASI scores suggest differences between the two groups. Among the findings…

  4. Liability of School Business Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig

    1983-01-01

    Citing the increasing litigation against school districts and officials, the author examines tort liability, damages, attorneys' fees, and liability insurance provisions under the Civil Rights Act of 1871. Additional attention is given to school officials' civil liability, "save harmless" provisions, proving liability, purchasing,…

  5. Understanding legacy liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ossi, G.J.

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  6. Psychiatric liability: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-07-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health setting. Part 1 discusses lawsuits common to this setting.

  7. Restructuring liability: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-05-01

    With recent cutbacks in staffing, clarifying orders, establish priorities, understanding accepted standards and providing experienced personnel is even more critical. "Restructuring Liability: Part 1" discusses cases that focus on basic nursing skills--assessment, monitoring and communication.

  8. Psychiatric liability: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-08-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health care setting. Part 2 continues discussion begun in the July issue of lawsuits common to this setting.

  9. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  10. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities.

  11. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  12. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  13. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  14. Liability for falls.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-03-01

    Reengineering of roles, inexperienced personnel and poor communications among departments has led to an increase in patient falls--a major source of liability. While health care facilities are not liable for all falls, they are expected to take precautions based on patients' deficits.

  15. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  16. Endogenous steroid profiling by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics for the detection of natural hormone abuse in cattle.

    PubMed

    Blokland, M H; Van Tricht, E F; Van Rossum, H J; Sterk, S S; Nielen, M W F

    2012-01-01

    For years it has been suspected that natural hormones are illegally used as growth promoters in cattle in the European Union. Unfortunately there is a lack of methods and criteria that can be used to detect the abuse of natural hormones and distinguish treated from non-treated animals. Pattern recognition of steroid profiles is a promising approach for tracing/detecting the abuse of natural hormones administered to cattle. Traditionally steroids are analysed in urine as free steroid after deconjugation of the glucuronide (and sulphate) conjugates. The disadvantage of this deconjugation is that valuable information about the steroid profile in the sample is lost. In this study we develop a method to analyse steroids at very low concentration levels (ng l(-1)) for the free steroid, glucuronide and sulphate conjugates in urine samples. This method was used to determine concentrations of natural (pro)hormones in a large population (n = 620) of samples from male and female bovine animals and from bovine animals treated with testosterone-cypionate, estradiol-benzoate, dihydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone. The data acquired were used to build a statistical model applying the multivariate technique 'Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy' (SIMCA). It is demonstrated that by using this model the results of the urine analysis can indicate which animal may have had illegal treatment with natural (pro)hormones.

  17. Oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to healthy men: alteration of the urinary androgen profile and consequences for the detection of abuse in sport by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dehennin, L; Ferry, M; Lafarge, P; Pérès, G; Lafarge, J P

    1998-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy as compensation for high age-related decline of DHEA and DHEA sulfate production is a matter of intense investigation, since many beneficial effects have been proven, or are suggested and expected. Therefore, DHEA abuse by athletes has been considered by the International Olympic Committee, which banned the substance recently. As DHEA for oral supplementation is easily available, we decided to investigate the effect on the urinary androgen profile of administration along this route of a single substitution dose of 50 mg. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring demonstrated that the drug was readily absorbed with 50 to 75% recovery of dosing after 24 h, and with glucuro- and sulfoconjugates of DHEA, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as the most abundant metabolites. In agreement with reported data found in blood, conversion of exogenous DHEA to the principal biologically active androgen, testosterone, was low but proven to be real by the administration of deuterium-labeled DHEA and the subsequent identification and quantification of deuterium-labeled testosterone. A concentration threshold of 300 micrograms/L of DHEA glucuronide is proposed for the screening of DHEA abuse in sport, but a single replacement dose can only be detected during 8 h. Such a short detection period is the consequence of considerable first-pass hepatic metabolism and also of the high interindividual variability of circulating and urinary DHEA and DHEA sulfate concentrations.

  18. A trans-theoretical approach to alcohol abuse profile in the general population of an islamic country - Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, V; Shojaee, P; Yaghmaei, A; Abbasi Shaye, Z

    2015-01-01

    Background:From a public health perspective, alcohol-related problems have enormous social and individual consequences. Objectives:The aim of the present study was to apply the TTM on the general population of Mashhad city to evaluate the change levels and possible relative factors regarding alcohol abuse. Methods:: In a cross-sectional design, a total number of 564 people from the General Population of Mashhad, Iran participated. Stages of change questionnaire based on trans-theoretical model (TTM) and the checklist including socio-demographic characteristics as well as possible related factors were used. SPSS 11.5 software was used for all statistical analyses. Results: Among 564 people who took part in this survey, 245 (43.43%) had the history of alcohol consumption or they were current alcohol users. The analysis showed that 19.2% of the participants were in pre-contemplation stage, 3.3% in contemplation, 1.2% in preparation, 2.9% in action, 2% in maintenance and 71.4% were in termination phase. Age, job, smoking, and hookah smoking were identified as predictors of pre-contemplation stage. Marital status, job, and smoking were predictors of termination phase. Conclusion: This picture is from an Islamic holy city where assumed religious beliefs have cramped drinking patterns. According to harm of alcohol abuse, it is necessary to tailor the intervention for target populations. Factors identified as predictors of alcohol abuse such as age, marital status and occupation, as well as being cigarette and hookah smokers should be taken into account in the design of future interventions.

  19. Profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription opioid abuse from a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre from India

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: There has been a limited focus on prescription drug abuse among women in the country. Choice of psychoactive substance, reasons for initiation and co-occurring disorders have been found to be different among men and women. The current study was aimed at studying the profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription drug use over a period of five years at a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre in India. Methods: Case records of all female patients admitted with substance use disorder at a national level drug dependence treatment centre in north India across five years (between January 2008 and December 2012) were reviewed retrospectively to study their socio-demographic and clinical profile. The information was gathered using a semi-structured proforma and detailed case records. Abstinence, relapse and retention rates were calculated. Results: Over the five years, 31 female patients were admitted with prescription drug abuse. Of them, 12 (39%) used prescription opioids and 11 (36%) used prescription opioid along with benzodiazepines. Commonest prescription opioid was pentazocine used by 87 per cent of the women. Twenty two (71%) women were introduced to opioid by medical practitioners and commonest reason for introduction was pain (among 48%). Common co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (26%), cluster B traits/disorder (19%) and somatoform disorder (13%). Eight women did not complete treatment and left against medical advice. Thirteen women were advised maintenance treatment, and 70 per cent of them were retained for at least six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings revealed a link between mental illness, pain and non-medical use of prescription opioids among women. Majority of these women received opioids as a legitimate prescription form physician. Therefore, these legitimate prescribers should be trained for pain management to facilitate proper treatment of pain and to

  20. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  1. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  2. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  3. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  4. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed.

  5. [Tort Liability and School Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Allyn J.

    School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…

  6. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  7. Emerging Issues in Special Education Tort Liability: Implications for Special Educators and Teacher Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Critical issues in tort liability that confront special educators and teacher trainers include malpractice (failure to learn), misdiagnosis, immunity, impact of a handicap on standard of care, confidentiality, access to emergency medical services, the use of aversive consequences, child abuse and corporal punishment, and school violence.…

  8. Parricide: A Window on Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mones, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Examines parricide, the killing of one's parents, and its relationship to a history of child abuse. Presents profiles of parricide, considers the secrecy of child abuse, describes the psychology of parricide, discusses psychological abuse and emotional death, and examines the "child's voice." Stresses need for effective programs to…

  9. Preclinical predictors that the orthosteric mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY3020371 will not engender ketamine-associated neurotoxic, motor, cognitive, subjective, or abuse-liability-related effects.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Monn, J A; Li, J; Johnson, B; McKinzie, D L; Wang, X-S; Heinz, B A; Li, R; Ornstein, P L; Smith, S C; Mitch, C H; Calligaro, D O; Swanson, S; Allen, D; Phillips, K; Gilmour, G

    2017-03-08

    3020371 possesses both the efficacy signatures of a rapidly-acting antidepressant and a safety profile enabling proof of concept studies in patients.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  11. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  12. Parents with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Abuse Conditions Involved in Child Protection Services: Clinical Profile and Treatment Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromwall, Layne K.; Larson, Nancy C.; Nieri, Tanya; Holley, Lynn C.; Topping, Diane; Castillo, Jason; Ashford, Jose B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings of an exploratory study of 71 parents with substance abuse conditions involved in a child dependency court. Over half (59%) of the parents had a co-occurring mental health condition. Parents with co-occurring conditions (PWCC) differed in several important ways from those with only substance abuse conditions. PWCC…

  13. The vesicular monoamine transporter-2: an important pharmacological target for the discovery of novel therapeutics to treat methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Justin R; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Vartak, Ashish; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse escalates, but no approved therapeutics are available to treat addicted individuals. Methamphetamine increases extracellular dopamine in reward-relevant pathways by interacting at vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) to inhibit dopamine uptake and promote dopamine release from synaptic vesicles, increasing cytosolic dopamine available for reverse transport by the dopamine transporter (DAT). VMAT2 is the target of our iterative drug discovery efforts to identify pharmacotherapeutics for methamphetamine addiction. Lobeline, the major alkaloid in Lobelia inflata, potently inhibited VMAT2, methamphetamine-evoked striatal dopamine release, and methamphetamine self-administration in rats but exhibited high affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Defunctionalized, unsaturated lobeline analog, meso-transdiene (MTD), exhibited lobeline-like in vitro pharmacology, lacked nAChR affinity, but exhibited high affinity for DAT, suggesting potential abuse liability. The 2,4-dicholorophenyl MTD analog, UKMH-106, exhibited selectivity for VMAT2 over DAT, inhibited methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, but required a difficult synthetic approach. Lobelane, a saturated, defunctionalized lobeline analog, inhibited the neurochemical and behavioral effects of methamphetamine; tolerance developed to the lobelane-induced decrease in methamphetamine self-administration. Improved drug-likeness was afforded by the incorporation of a chiral N-1,2-dihydroxypropyl moiety into lobelane to afford GZ-793A, which inhibited the neurochemical and behavioral effects of methamphetamine, without tolerance. From a series of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine analogs, AV-2-192 emerged as a lead, exhibiting high affinity for VMAT2 and inhibiting methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. Current results support the hypothesis that potent, selective VMAT2 inhibitors provide the requisite preclinical behavioral profile for evaluation as pharmacotherapeutics for

  14. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse.

  15. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  16. 77 FR 74121 - Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 110 Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) AGENCY: Federal Election... the treatment of limited liability partnerships (``LLPs'') for purposes of the Federal Election... Federal Election Commission, Attn.: Robert M. Knop, Assistant General Counsel, 999 E Street...

  17. 48 CFR 728.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.307-2 Liability. (a)-(b) (c) Automobile liability. In order to ensure that private automobiles used by contractor employees stationed overseas under...

  18. 48 CFR 728.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.307-2 Liability. (a)-(b) (c) Automobile liability. In order to ensure that private automobiles used by contractor employees stationed overseas under...

  19. 48 CFR 728.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.307-2 Liability. (a)-(b) (c) Automobile liability. In order to ensure that private automobiles used by contractor employees stationed overseas under...

  20. 48 CFR 728.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.307-2 Liability. (a)-(b) (c) Automobile liability. In order to ensure that private automobiles used by contractor employees stationed overseas under...

  1. 48 CFR 728.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 728.307-2 Liability. (a)-(b) (c) Automobile liability. In order to ensure that private automobiles used by contractor employees stationed overseas under...

  2. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, ... Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  3. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  4. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  5. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  6. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with...

  7. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... obtaining liability insurance as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(a)(1). (5) Financial test for liability coverage. An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by passing a financial test as... approved closure plan. (f) Financial test for Liability Coverage. An owner or operator that satisfies...

  8. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  9. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  10. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  11. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  12. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall require automobile liability insurance written on the comprehensive form of policy... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's... covered under the employer's liability section of the insurance policy, except when contract...

  13. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall require automobile liability insurance written on the comprehensive form of policy... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's... covered under the employer's liability section of the insurance policy, except when contract...

  14. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall require automobile liability insurance written on the comprehensive form of policy... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's... covered under the employer's liability section of the insurance policy, except when contract...

  15. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall require automobile liability insurance written on the comprehensive form of policy... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's... covered under the employer's liability section of the insurance policy, except when contract...

  16. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall require automobile liability insurance written on the comprehensive form of policy... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's... covered under the employer's liability section of the insurance policy, except when contract...

  17. Liability Implications of Forensics Program Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Philip A.; Ward, Courtney E.

    Forensics program administration raises a number of troubling liability concerns. The potential liability exposure of forensics administrators may vastly exceed the litigation risks that arise as a result of ordinary teaching duties. Potential liability exposure may result from the failure of program directors to act in accordance with college or…

  18. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a reduction in the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage provided by a financial... financial assurance for liability coverage under paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(7) of this section. (b)-(d... requirements of this paragraph (f) may demonstrate financial assurance for liability up to the amount...

  19. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  20. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  1. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  2. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  3. Liability for Malpractice in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loscalzo, Theresa E.

    1985-01-01

    Courts have not recognized claims of "educational malpractice," though they have held that such a claim could be formally pleaded with liability precluded by public policy considerations. A 1984 New York Court of Appeals decision in "Snow vs. State of New York" may be the initial breakdown to the barrier of public policy…

  4. Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Deborah, Ed.

    This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

  5. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  6. Trustee Liability Insurance Under ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertner, Marc

    1975-01-01

    Consideration of errors and omissions insurance under ERISA demands a brief review of pre-ERISA trustee liability insurance law in this symposium report for historical and practical perspective. Specific problems are discussed, and it is concluded that the purchase of insurance should not lull a fiduciary into a false sense of security.…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  8. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  9. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  10. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises, while behavioral indicators are ways victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Some of the indicators listed below can be explained by other causes (e.g. inappropriate or unusual behavior may signal dementia or drug interactions) and no single indicator can be taken ...

  11. 29 CFR 4219.16 - Imposition of liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... withdrawal liability as of the mass withdrawal valuation date, the plan sponsor shall establish new payment schedules for each element of mass withdrawal liability by amending the initial withdrawal liability payment... order to amortize the new amounts of liability being assessed, i.e., redetermination liability...

  12. Monoamine Transporter Inhibitors and Substrates as Treatments for Stimulant Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Leonard L.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters in general, and dopamine transporters in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability, and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use. PMID:24484977

  13. Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Negus, S Stevens

    2014-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters, in general, and dopamine transporters, in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination, and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use.

  14. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation.

    PubMed

    Budman, Simon H; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-05-29

    It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns.

  15. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation

    PubMed Central

    Budman, Simon H; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns. PMID:19480676

  16. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  3. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  6. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  7. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  8. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  9. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  10. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  11. Neurotoxic Profiles of HIV, Psychostimulant Drugs of Abuse, and their Concerted Effect on the Brain: Current Status of Dopamine System Vulnerability in NeuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2008-01-01

    There are roughly 30 to 40 million HIV infected individuals in the world as of December 2007, and drug abuse directly contributes to one-third of all HIV-infections in the United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the lifespan of HIV-seropositives, but CNS function often remains diminished, effectively decreasing quality of life. A modest proportion may develop HIV-associated dementia, the severity and progression of which is increased with drug abuse. HIV and drugs of abuse in the CNS target subcortical brain structures and DA systems in particular. This toxicity is mediated by a number of neurotoxic mechanisms, including but not limited to, aberrant immune response and oxidative stress. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies must be developed that can address a wide variety of disparate neurotoxic mechanisms and apoptotic cascades. This paper reviews the research pertaining to the where, what, and how of HIV and cocaine/methamphetamine toxicity in the CNS. Specifically, where these toxins most affect the brain, what aspects of the virus are neurotoxic, and how these toxins mediate neurotoxicity. PMID:18430470

  12. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  13. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    PubMed

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  14. Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina

    2002-09-01

    The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.

  15. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  16. College and University Liability under Superfund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderfeld, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 concerning responsibility for toxic waste disposal looks at college and university liability under the act, institutional defenses that could be raised under the act, and the settlement process. (MSE)

  17. 40 CFR 264.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or... the Certificate of Liability Insurance to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date... Administrator in writing within 30 days whenever: (i) A claim results in a reduction in the amount of...

  18. 31 CFR 100.7 - Treasury's liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury's liability. 100.7 Section 100.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Mutilated Paper Currency § 100.7 Treasury's liability. (a) Payment will be...

  19. 7 CFR 985.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 985.68 Section 985.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements....68 Personal liability. No member or alternative member of the Committee and no employee or agent...

  20. 5 CFR 2634.305 - Liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designate the category of value of the liabilities in accordance with § 2634.301(d) of this subpart, using... required to be reported under paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Personal liabilities owed to a spouse or... secured by a personal residence of the filer or his spouse; (3) Any loan secured by a personal...

  1. 7 CFR 1412.63 - Contract liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contract liability. 1412.63 Section 1412.63... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.63 Contract liability. All signatories to a DCP or ACRE program contract...

  2. Personal Liability of Trustees of Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, William C.

    1974-01-01

    Examines trustee liability in light of the Stern v. Sibley Memorial Hospital decision which contains "a thorough and well considered exposition on the liability of trustees of charitable corporations as well as useful guidelines to be followed, particularly in the area of conflicts of interests." (JT)

  3. Personal Liability of Trustees of Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porth, William C.

    1973-01-01

    Examines in light of writings and reported decisions, the potential basis for imposing personal liability on trustees of educational institutions for wrongdoing or negligence, alerting institutional counsel to responsibility for protection of trustees to include indemnification and liability insurance coverage. (JT)

  4. 12 CFR 229.56 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability. 229.56 Section 229.56 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.56 Liability. (a)...

  5. Statutory Protection for Principals: Tort Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan

    1986-01-01

    Due to increasing numbers of lawsuits, educators need protection against financial liability to persons claiming injury on school property or in school-related activities. This legal memorandum describes needed protections, discusses the National Association of Secondary School Principals' (NASSP) role in developing liability insurance, and…

  6. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  8. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse.

  9. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  10. Orphan drugs: the question of products liability.

    PubMed

    Scharf, S F

    1985-01-01

    Orphan drugs, essential for the treatment of persons with rare diseases, generally are unprofitable for manufacturers to develop and market. While congressional and administrative efforts to promote the development of orphan drugs have met with modest success, application of products liability doctrine to orphan drug sponsors could subvert those efforts. This Note describes the provisions of the Orphan Drug Act and analyzes products liability law with respect to orphan drug litigation. It argues that the goals of tort law support the imposition of liability for design defect, failure to warn and negligence in testing. Finally, the Note acknowledges that liability costs create disincentives for orphan drug development and suggests mechanisms for reducing manufacturers' liability concerns.

  11. An Examination of Immunity Statutes Regarding the Liability of Recreational Youth Sport Organizations for the Pedophilic Actions of Coaches, Administrators, and Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas A., III; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Zhang, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children in the United States participate in youth sports. The literature demonstrates that sexual abuse is a problem in sports. This study examined voluntary immunity statutes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia with the purpose of determining potential liability for recreational youth sport organizations for the pedophilic…

  12. Update to an evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse by Knefel & Lueger-Schuster (2013): a latent profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Knefel, Matthias; Garvert, Donn W.; Cloitre, Marylene; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), has proposed a trauma-related diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) separate and distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective To determine whether the symptoms endorsed by individuals who had experienced childhood institutional abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for ICD-11 CPTSD as distinct from PTSD. Methods A latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted on 229 adult survivors of institutional abuse using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the PTSD Checklist—Civilian Version to assess current psychopathological symptoms. Results The LPA revealed four classes of individuals: (1) a class with elevated symptoms of CPTSD (PTSD symptoms and disturbances in self-organization); (2) a class with elevated symptoms of PTSD and low disturbances in self-organization; (3) a class with elevated disturbances in self-organization symptoms and some elevated PTSD symptoms; and (4) a class with low symptoms. Conclusions The results support the existence of a distinct group in our sample, that could be described by the proposed diagnostic category termed CPTSD more precisely than by normal PTSD. In addition, there seems to be a group of persons that do not fulfill the criteria for a trauma-related disorder but yet suffer from psychopathological symptoms. PMID:25557561

  13. A translational pharmacology approach to understanding the predictive value of abuse potential assessments.

    PubMed

    Horton, David B; Potter, David M; Mead, Andy N

    2013-09-01

    Within the drug development industry the assessment of abuse potential for novel molecules involves the generation and review of data from multiple sources, ranging from in-vitro binding and functional assays through to in-vivo nonclinical models in mammals, as well as collection of information from studies in humans. This breadth of data aligns with current expectations from regulatory agencies in both the USA and Europe. To date, there have been a limited number of reviews on the predictive value of individual models within this sequence, but there has been no systematic review on how each of these models contributes to our overall understanding of abuse potential risk. To address this, we analyzed data from 100 small molecules to compare the predictive validity for drug scheduling status of a number of models that typically contribute to the abuse potential assessment package. These models range from the assessment of in-vitro binding and functional profiles at receptors or transporters typically associated with abuse through in-vivo models including locomotor activity, drug discrimination, and self-administration in rodents. Data from subjective report assessments in humans following acute dosing of compounds were also included. The predictive value of each model was then evaluated relative to the scheduling status of each drug in the USA. In recognition of the fact that drug scheduling can be influenced by factors other than the pharmacology of the drug, we also evaluated the predictive value of each assay for the outcome of the human subjective effects assessment. This approach provides an objective and statistical assessment of the predictive value of many of the models typically applied within the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate abuse potential risk. In addition, the impact of combining information from multiple models was examined. This analysis adds to our understanding of the predictive value of each model, allows us to critically evaluate the

  14. Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    The author notes that this chapter deals generally with torts in higher education cases. A tort is usually defined broadly to cover most wrongful civil acts, except breach of contract, that may occur between individuals. The remedy sought in a civil tort action is compensation to the injured party for the damages suffered. The areas discussed here…

  15. Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Edwards, George A

    2015-10-01

    Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice.

  16. Methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.

  17. 26 CFR 1.752-1 - Treatment of partnership liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... partnership on or after June 24, 2003. (b) Increase in partner's share of liabilities. Any increase in a partner's share of partnership liabilities, or any increase in a partner's individual liabilities by reason of the partner's assumption of partnership liabilities, is treated as a contribution of money...

  18. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  19. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  20. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  1. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  2. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  3. 46 CFR 4.23-1 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 4.23-1 Section 4.23-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Evidence of Criminal Liability § 4.23-1 Evidence of criminal liability. If, as a result of any investigation or other proceeding conducted hereunder, evidence of criminal liability...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1502-2 - Computation of tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computation of tax liability. 1.1502-2 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-2 Computation of tax liability. The tax liability of a group for a consolidated return year shall be determined by...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1502-2 - Computation of tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computation of tax liability. 1.1502-2 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-2 Computation of tax liability. The tax liability of a group for a consolidated return year shall be determined by...

  6. 26 CFR 1.752-1 - Treatment of partnership liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of partnership liabilities. 1.752-1... Code § 1.752-1 Treatment of partnership liabilities. (a) Definitions. For purposes of section 752, the following definitions apply: (1) Recourse liability defined. A partnership liability is a recourse...

  7. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  8. The novel N-substituted benztropine analog GA2-50 possesses pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles favorable for a candidate substitute medication for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmed A; Newman, Amy H; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-12-01

    GA2-50 is a novel N-substituted benztropine analog with improved potency and selectivity for the dopamine transporter. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of GA2-50 were characterized as a part of its preclinical evaluation as a substitute medication for cocaine abuse. In vitro transport and metabolism studies as well as pharmacokinetic studies in rats were conducted. Effect of GA2-50 on the extracelluar nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine levels and on cocaine's induced dopamine elevation was evaluated using intracerebral microdialysis. GA2-50 showed high transcellular permeability despite being a P-glycoprotein substrate. GA2-50 was a substrate of human CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, rat CYP2C11, CYP2D1, CYP3A1, and CYP1A2; with low intrinsic clearance values. In vivo, GA2-50 showed high brain uptake (R(i) approximately 10), large volume of distribution (V(ss) = 37 L/kg), and long elimination half-life (t((1/2)) = 19 h). GA2-50 resulted in 1.6- and 2.7-fold dopamine elevation at the 5 and 10 mg/kg i.v. doses. Dopamine elevation induced by GA2-50 was significantly reduced, slower and longer lasting than previously observed for cocaine. GA2-50 had no significant effect on cocaine's induced dopamine elevation upon simultaneous administration. Results from the present study indicate that GA2-50 possesses several attributes sought after for a substitute medication for cocaine abuse.

  9. Polydrug abuse: A review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews studies examining the pharmacological interactions and epidemiology of the combined use of opioids and benzodiazepines (BZD). A search of English language publications from 1970 - 2012 was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO®. Our search found approximately 200 articles appropriate for inclusion in this paper. While numerous reports indicate that the co-abuse of opioids and BZDs is ubiquitous around the world, the reasons for the co-abuse of these medications are not entirely clear. Though the possibility remains that opioid (ab)users are using BZDs therapeutically to self-medicate anxiety, mania or insomnia, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that BZD use is primarily recreational. For example, co-users report seeking BZD prescriptions for the purpose of enhancing opioid intoxication or “high,” and use doses that exceed the therapeutic range. Since there are few clinical studies investigating the pharmacological interaction and abuse liability of their combined use, this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated in clinical settings. As such, our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of BZD abuse among opioid users. The co-abuse of BZDs and opioids is substantial and has negative consequences for general health, overdose lethality, and treatment outcome. Physicians should address this important and underappreciated problem with more cautious prescribing practices, and increased vigilance for abusive patterns of use. PMID:22857878

  10. Liability exposure for surgical robotics instructors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu L; Kilic, Gokhan; Phelps, John Y

    2012-01-01

    Surgical robotics instructors provide an essential service in improving the competency of novice gynecologic surgeons learning robotic surgery and advancing surgical skills on behalf of patients. However, despite best intentions, robotics instructors and the gynecologists who use their services expose themselves to liability. The fear of litigation in the event of a surgical complication may reduce the availability and utility of robotics instructors. A better understanding of the principles of duty of care and the physician-patient relationship, and their potential applicability in a court of law likely will help to dismantle some concerns and uncertainties about liability. This commentary is not meant to discourage current and future surgical instructors but to raise awareness of liability issues among robotics instructors and their students and to recommend certain preventive measures to curb potential liability risks.

  11. Liability of physicians supervising nonphysician clinicians.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Barbara B; Waterhouse, Blake E; Paterick, Timothy E; Sanbar, Sandy S

    2014-01-01

    Physicians confront a variety of liability issues when supervising nonphysician clinicians (NPC) including: (1) direct liability resulting from a failure to meet the state-defined standards of supervision/collaboration with NPCs; (2) vicarious liability, arising from agency law, where physicians are held accountable for NPC clinical care that does not meet the national standard of care; and (3) responsibility for medical errors when the NPC and physician are co-employees of the corporate enterprise. Physician-NPC co-employee relationships are highlighted because they are new and becoming predominant in existing healthcare models. Because of their novelty, there is a paucity of judicial decisions determining liability for NPC errors in this setting. Knowledge of the existence of these risks will allow physicians to make informed decisions on what relationships they will enter with NPCs and how these relationships will be structured and monitored.

  12. Letter on Decontamination and First Responder Liability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Addresses liability of hazardous materials incident responders for spreading contamination while attempting to save lives, and the acceptable level of contamination that could enter the Chesapeake Bay without being considered a threat to the ecosystem.

  13. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Miscellaneous § 1212.85 Personal liability....

  19. Contaminated land liability issues: legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Fogleman, V M

    2000-09-01

    Until recently, companies that contaminated land faced little prospect of being prosecuted or having claims made against them for any personal injuries or property damage arising from the contamination. Most companies would have considered it to be inconceivable that they could be required to clean up contamination resulting from an historic disposal, particularly if the disposal had been neither negligent nor unlawful. Current environmental law differs significantly, however, from the law which existed even 10 years ago. This paper examines liabilities arising from contaminated land. First, it discusses the new contaminated land regime and a parallel regime to remediate sites that are contaminated with radioactive substances. Second, it discusses remediation liabilities for water pollution. Such liabilities may well involve the remediation of contaminated land when groundwater is polluted. Finally, the paper examines liabilities for property damage and personal injuries arising from contamination by radioactive substances.

  20. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  1. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  2. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  3. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  4. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  5. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed

    Hursh, S R

    1991-09-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives.

  6. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  7. Prescription drug abuse among prisoners in rural Southwestern Virginia.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Martha J; Nakamoto, Kent; Goswami, Anil; Schnoll, Sidney H

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription medications is on the rise across the U.S., particularly in rural areas. In this study of 233 prisoners and probationers in southwestern Virginia, we add to an emerging profile of individuals abusing prescription medications. In this retrospective review of 2000-2004 augmented Addiction Severity Index data, those abusing prescription medications reported increased illicit drug and alcohol abuse, poly-drug abuse, psychiatric problems, and arrests for property crimes. Forty percent reported abuse of OxyContin, a drug implicated in a number of deaths in this region. Compared to non-users, OxyContin users were younger, more likely to be female, and more likely to abuse benzodiazepines, methadone, cocaine, and heroin. Longevity of abuse of these other drugs belies suggestions that OxyContin was acting as a "gateway" drug leading naïve users into addiction and risk of death.

  8. Liability issues in managed care.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M S

    1997-05-01

    The explosive growth in Managed Care Organizations as a mechanism for providing health care in the United States has generated an equal explosion in litigation and new legislation related to problems within this delivery system. Abuses have included the "gagging" of physicians from providing full disclosure of medical options for their patients, inappropriate denial of care, denial of specialty referral, false claims data, insurer insolvency, economic credentialling, deselection, financial disincentives to render care, and lack of appeal or grievance mechanisms. These issues and others have resulted in injuries to patients and damage to the patient/physician relationship. This article discusses some of the more dramatic litigated cases and endeavors to alert both physicians and patients to potential legal matters that should be considered before becoming involved within this structure.

  9. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Happening en español Cómo manejar el abuso Grown-ups are usually there to help and ... to understand the different types of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical ...

  10. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else Taking a ... at higher doses or when taken with other medicines. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  13. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  14. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  15. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  16. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  17. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  18. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  19. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  20. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  1. 14 CFR 205.8 - Cargo liability disclosure statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.8 Cargo liability disclosure... clearly and conspicuously included on or attached to all of its rate sheets and airwaybills....

  2. Civil liability: characterization of the demand for lawsuits against dentists.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Alice Aquino; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-08-18

    In light of the fact that dentists may be held civilly liable for their practice, it is important to understand the current situation of lawsuits filed against these professionals by studying current legal decisions and the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze the case law of the Court of Justice of São Paulo, Brazil, relative to the profile of patients and professionals, the most commonly involved specialties, the amounts litigated and the court decisions pertaining to civil liability lawsuits against dentists. In an inductive approach, a single researcher screened and collected civil liability rulings by accessing the Court's website, and following a statistical-descriptive procedure and an indirect observation technique. The most frequently involved specialty was prosthodontics. However, oral and maxillofacial surgery was related to a higher incidence of damages awarded to settle claims and to higher damage amounts. The dentist was found guilty in 44.32% of the cases researched. Pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 485.50 and R$ 12,530.00, and non-pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 2,500.00 and R$ 70,000.00. Most lawsuits were filed by women against male dentists. An increase in the relative number of lawsuits against companies versus individuals was observed.

  3. Environmental liability and reducing corporate exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, S.T.; Meyer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    As public concern continues to focus on environmental safety, the government responds with an ever-expanding web of environmental regulation of business and industry. The federal, state, and local laws enacted to protect the environment impose numerous obligations on managers and directors. Failure to comply with these environmental regulatory schemes may result in harsh civil and criminal penalties. Liability is also associated with real property transactions. Past and present owners as well as other parties involved in real estate transactions may be liable for contamination and be required to pay tremendous cleanup costs. To protect themselves from such liability, companies must be familiar with the law and adopt a comprehensive and ongoing in-house environmental management program. This chapter will focus on potential liability and the use of environmental audits to meet the ever-increasing legal obligations.

  4. History and current perspectives on the use of drug formulations to decrease the abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Charles R

    2006-06-01

    This article is part of a supplemental issue of the journal devoted entirely to papers on how abuse liability of medications is affected by their formulation for medical use. This article reviews the history of abuse and addiction to medications in the United States and the legislation designed to control these problems. The provisions in legislation related specifically to formulations of medications designed to decrease their abuse potential will be noted. In addition, the role of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) as an organization initially founded to develop analgesic medications with less abuse potential than morphine is briefly reviewed. Examples of current approaches to the development of formulations of medications to decrease their abuse potential discussed in detail in the articles to follow are outlined. Finally, the use of behavioral economic analyses to better delineate the relative abuse potential of new medication formulations is discussed.

  5. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    PubMed

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.

  6. How meaningful are heritability estimates of liability?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that estimates of heritability from classical twin studies have many potential shortcomings. Despite this, in the post-GWAS era, these heritability estimates have come to be a continual source of interest and controversy. While the heritability estimates of a quantitative trait are subject to a number of biases, in this article we will argue that the standard statistical approach to estimating the heritability of a binary trait relies on some additional untestable assumptions which, if violated, can lead to badly biased estimates. The ACE liability threshold model assumes at its heart that each individual has an underlying liability or propensity to acquire the binary trait (e.g., disease), and that this unobservable liability is multivariate normally distributed. We investigated a number of different scenarios violating this assumption such as the existence of a single causal diallelic gene and the existence of a dichotomous exposure. For each scenario, we found that substantial asymptotic biases can occur, which no increase in sample size can remove. Asymptotic biases as much as four times larger than the true value were observed, and numerous cases also showed large negative biases. Additionally, regions of low bias occurred for specific parameter combinations. Using simulations, we also investigated the situation where all of the assumptions of the ACE liability model are met. We found that commonly used sample sizes can lead to biased heritability estimates. Thus, even if we are willing to accept the meaningfulness of the liability construct, heritability estimates under the ACE liability threshold model may not accurately reflect the heritability of this construct. The points made in this paper should be kept in mind when considering the meaningfulness of a reported heritability estimate for any specific disease. PMID:23867980

  7. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. 78 FR 19499 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Profile Screening and Predictive..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550,...

  9. Trends in liability affecting technical writers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskill, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    Liability of technical writers for defective products is explored. Documents generated during a product's life cycle (including design memos, design tests, clinical trials, trial use reports, letters, and proposals) become relevant because they are likely to become the only available means of showing that the product was not defectively designed. These documents become the evidence that the product underwent balanced and well considered planning, development, testing, quality control, and field testing. The predicted increased involvement of technical writers in the prevention and defense of product liability claims is cited in view of a greater number of cases turning on "failure to warn".

  10. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  11. 12 CFR 704.8 - Asset and liability management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Asset and liability management. 704.8 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.8 Asset and liability management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a written asset and liability management policy which addresses, at a minimum:...

  12. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  13. 12 CFR 704.8 - Asset and liability management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Asset and liability management. 704.8 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.8 Asset and liability management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a written asset and liability management policy which addresses, at a minimum:...

  14. 48 CFR 47.207-7 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liability for injury to persons or damage to property other than the freight being transported; (2) The contractor's liability for loss of and/or damage to the freight being transported; and (3) The amount of... damage to the freight being transported is not specified, the usual measure of liability as prescribed...

  15. 48 CFR 47.207-7 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liability for injury to persons or damage to property other than the freight being transported; (2) The contractor's liability for loss of and/or damage to the freight being transported; and (3) The amount of... damage to the freight being transported is not specified, the usual measure of liability as prescribed...

  16. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted...

  17. 31 CFR 50.90 - Cap on annual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap on annual liability. 50.90 Section 50.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.90 Cap on annual liability. Pursuant to Section 103 of the Act,...

  18. 31 CFR 50.90 - Cap on annual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap on annual liability. 50.90 Section 50.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.90 Cap on annual liability. Pursuant to Section 103 of the Act,...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1502-6 - Liability for tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liability for tax. 1.1502-6 Section 1.1502-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-6 Liability for tax. (a) Several...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1502-6 - Liability for tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for tax. 1.1502-6 Section 1.1502-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-6 Liability for tax. (a) Several...

  1. 48 CFR 252.217-7012 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liability and insurance... of Provisions And Clauses 252.217-7012 Liability and insurance. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Liability and Insurance (AUG 2003) (a) The Contractor shall exercise its best efforts...

  2. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  3. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  4. 48 CFR 252.247-7007 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liability and insurance... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7007 Liability and insurance. As prescribed in 247.270-4(g), use the following clause: Liability and Insurance (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall be— (1) Liable...

  5. 29 CFR 4207.8 - Liability for subsequent partial withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... immediately preceding the plan year in which the partial withdrawal occurs include a plan year during the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for subsequent partial withdrawals. 4207.8... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY §...

  6. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air... and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability coverage that meets the requirements of part...

  7. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air... and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability coverage that meets the requirements of part...

  8. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air... and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability coverage that meets the requirements of part...

  9. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air... and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability coverage that meets the requirements of part...

  10. 12 CFR 1270.10 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint and several liability. 1270.10 Section... Consolidated Obligations § 1270.10 Joint and several liability. (a) In general. (1) Each and every Bank..., the joint and several liability of all of the Banks on any consolidated obligation. (b)...

  11. 12 CFR 1270.10 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several liability. 1270.10 Section... Consolidated Obligations § 1270.10 Joint and several liability. (a) In general—(1) Each and every Bank..., the joint and several liability of all of the Banks on any consolidated obligation. (b)...

  12. 12 CFR 966.9 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint and several liability. 966.9 Section 966.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.9 Joint and several liability. (a) In general. (1) Each and every Bank, individually...

  13. 48 CFR 252.247-7007 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liability and insurance... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7007 Liability and insurance. As prescribed in 247.270-4(g), use the following clause: Liability and Insurance (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall be— (1) Liable...

  14. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  15. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  16. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies.

  17. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  18. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  19. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  20. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  1. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  2. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  3. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  4. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  5. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  6. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  7. 34 CFR 668.138 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Immigration-Status Confirmation § 668.138 Liability. (a) A student is liable for any LEAP, FSEOG, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, or... Perkins loan made to him or her if the student was ineligible for the Title IV, HEA assistance. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 265.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Each insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability... operator shall notify the Regional Administrator in writing within 30 days whenever: (i) A claim results in... specified in this paragraph. (i) Each insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous...

  9. Preventive Medicine: Safeguards against Virus Liability Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Colleges and universities that provide computer services have become vulnerable to potential lawsuits associated with contraction and spread of computer viruses. Bookstore, library, and computer classroom or laboratory are most susceptible. In addition to protection against legal liability, schools should take specific steps to prevent problems.…

  10. 30 CFR 875.19 - Limited liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... or Indian tribe shall be liable under any provision of Federal law for any costs or damages as a... abandoned mine reclamation plan. This section shall not preclude liability for costs or damages as a...

  11. 30 CFR 874.15 - Limited liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian tribe shall be liable under any provision of Federal law for any costs or damages as a result of... reclamation plan. This section shall not preclude liability for costs or damages as a result of...

  12. 30 CFR 874.15 - Limited liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian tribe shall be liable under any provision of Federal law for any costs or damages as a result of... reclamation plan. This section shall not preclude liability for costs or damages as a result of...

  13. 30 CFR 875.19 - Limited liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... or Indian tribe shall be liable under any provision of Federal law for any costs or damages as a... abandoned mine reclamation plan. This section shall not preclude liability for costs or damages as a...

  14. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

  20. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...

  1. 7 CFR 915.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 915.70 Section 915.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling...

  2. 7 CFR 959.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 959.90 Section 959.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling...

  3. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND...

  4. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling...

  5. 7 CFR 956.94 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 956.94 Section 956.94 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON...

  6. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...

  7. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  8. 7 CFR 924.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 924.70 Section 924.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PRUNES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN...

  9. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS...

  10. 7 CFR 987.77 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 987.77 Section 987.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 916.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 916.70 Section 916.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NECTARINES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling...

  12. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN...

  13. 7 CFR 958.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 958.86 Section 958.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR...

  14. 7 CFR 993.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 993.84 Section 993.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling...

  15. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

  16. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  17. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  18. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  19. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  20. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  1. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 1250.547 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1250.547 Section 1250.547 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1215.74 Section 1215.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  4. 7 CFR 63.502 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 63.502 Section 63.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  5. 7 CFR 993.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 993.84 Section 993.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  6. 7 CFR 1150.183 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Personal liability. 1150.183 Section 1150.183 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  7. 7 CFR 1217.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1217.85 Section 1217.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER...

  8. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.546 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1207.546 Section 1207.546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  10. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 63.502 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 63.502 Section 63.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  12. 7 CFR 927.75 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liability. 927.75 Section 927.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  13. 7 CFR 956.94 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 956.94 Section 956.94 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  15. 7 CFR 930.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 930.89 Section 930.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  16. 7 CFR 966.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 966.90 Section 966.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  17. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 959.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 959.90 Section 959.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS...

  19. 7 CFR 958.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 958.86 Section 958.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  20. 7 CFR 956.94 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 956.94 Section 956.94 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.214 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1260.214 Section 1260.214 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  2. 7 CFR 966.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 966.90 Section 966.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.87 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1230.87 Section 1230.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.87 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1230.87 Section 1230.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION,...

  6. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  7. 7 CFR 959.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 959.90 Section 959.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.547 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1250.547 Section 1250.547 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  9. 7 CFR 1217.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1217.85 Section 1217.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER...

  10. 7 CFR 959.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 959.90 Section 959.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS...

  11. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION,...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.87 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1230.87 Section 1230.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  13. 7 CFR 63.502 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 63.502 Section 63.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  14. 7 CFR 1215.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1215.74 Section 1215.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 927.75 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability. 927.75 Section 927.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  18. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION,...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  20. 7 CFR 1217.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1217.85 Section 1217.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.504 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Personal liability. 1160.504 Section 1160.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.214 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1260.214 Section 1260.214 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  4. 7 CFR 1214.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1214.85 Section 1214.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE...

  5. 7 CFR 985.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 985.68 Section 985.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING...

  6. 7 CFR 966.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 966.90 Section 966.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  7. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  8. 7 CFR 987.77 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 987.77 Section 987.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED...

  9. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  10. 7 CFR 1250.547 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1250.547 Section 1250.547 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.183 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1150.183 Section 1150.183 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  12. 7 CFR 1207.546 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1207.546 Section 1207.546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.546 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1207.546 Section 1207.546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.183 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1150.183 Section 1150.183 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  15. 7 CFR 958.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 958.86 Section 958.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  16. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 927.75 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability. 927.75 Section 927.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  18. 7 CFR 987.77 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 987.77 Section 987.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED...

  19. 7 CFR 924.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 924.70 Section 924.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PRUNES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 985.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 985.68 Section 985.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING...

  1. 7 CFR 916.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 916.70 Section 916.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NECTARINES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 958.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 958.86 Section 958.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  4. 7 CFR 915.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 915.70 Section 915.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  5. 7 CFR 915.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 915.70 Section 915.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  6. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  8. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  9. 7 CFR 985.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 985.68 Section 985.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING...

  10. 7 CFR 1280.229 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1280.229 Section 1280.229 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  11. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  12. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  13. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.183 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1150.183 Section 1150.183 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  15. 7 CFR 987.77 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 987.77 Section 987.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED...

  16. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 956.94 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 956.94 Section 956.94 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  18. 7 CFR 966.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 966.90 Section 966.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  19. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 930.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 930.89 Section 930.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.547 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1250.547 Section 1250.547 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  2. 7 CFR 1150.183 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Personal liability. 1150.183 Section 1150.183 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  3. 7 CFR 993.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 993.84 Section 993.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION,...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.547 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1250.547 Section 1250.547 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION...

  6. 7 CFR 927.75 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liability. 927.75 Section 927.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  7. 7 CFR 1160.504 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Personal liability. 1160.504 Section 1160.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.229 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1280.229 Section 1280.229 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  9. 7 CFR 1214.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1214.85 Section 1214.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE...

  10. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  11. 7 CFR 958.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 958.86 Section 958.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.504 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1160.504 Section 1160.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk...

  13. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 987.77 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 987.77 Section 987.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.546 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1207.546 Section 1207.546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  17. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.87 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1230.87 Section 1230.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.214 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1260.214 Section 1260.214 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  20. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  1. 7 CFR 63.502 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 63.502 Section 63.502 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.229 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1280.229 Section 1280.229 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  3. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.504 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1160.504 Section 1160.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION,...

  6. 7 CFR 1160.504 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1160.504 Section 1160.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk...

  7. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  8. 7 CFR 927.75 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability. 927.75 Section 927.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  9. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  11. 7 CFR 915.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 915.70 Section 915.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  12. 7 CFR 1214.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1214.85 Section 1214.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1215.74 Section 1215.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  14. 7 CFR 930.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 930.89 Section 930.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.87 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1230.87 Section 1230.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.214 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1260.214 Section 1260.214 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  17. 7 CFR 930.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 930.89 Section 930.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  18. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  19. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 985.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 985.68 Section 985.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING...

  1. 7 CFR 956.94 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 956.94 Section 956.94 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  2. 7 CFR 959.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 959.90 Section 959.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS...

  3. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 915.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 915.70 Section 915.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.229 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1280.229 Section 1280.229 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.546 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1207.546 Section 1207.546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND...

  7. 7 CFR 1215.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1215.74 Section 1215.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  8. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  9. 7 CFR 993.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 993.84 Section 993.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  10. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 1215.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1215.74 Section 1215.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  12. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 993.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 993.84 Section 993.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN...

  14. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  17. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  18. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  6. Auditing medical records helps reduce liability.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, G; Winfrey, S

    1990-10-01

    An internal audit of a hospital's medical records department compares the department to standards developed by the hospital and to benchmarks set by accrediting organizations. An auditor can review the department's economy and effectiveness through employee surveys, direct observation, and interviews. By uncovering deficiencies and making recommendations for their correction, an internal audit can help limit a hospital's liability exposure.

  7. 40 CFR 265.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 265.147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES..., or a group of such facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and... facility or group of facilities. The owner or operator must have and maintain liability coverage for...

  8. 40 CFR 261.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 261.147 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... group of such facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property... or group of facilities. The owner or operator must have and maintain liability coverage for...

  9. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  10. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  11. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  12. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  13. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  14. Law, liability, and public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Sharona; Goodman, Richard A; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-06-01

    According to many experts, a public health emergency arising from an influenza pandemic, bioterrorism attack, or natural disaster is likely to develop in the next few years. Meeting the public health and medical response needs created by such an emergency will likely involve volunteers, health care professionals, public and private hospitals and clinics, vaccine manufacturers, governmental authorities, and many others. Conducting response activities in emergency circumstances may give rise to numerous issues of liability, and medical professionals and other potential responders have expressed concern about liability exposure. Providers may face inadequate resources, an insufficient number of qualified personnel, overwhelming demand for services, and other barriers to providing optimal treatment, which could lead to injury or even death in some cases. This article describes the different theories of liability that may be used by plaintiffs and the sources of immunity that are available to public health emergency responders in the public sector, private sector, and as volunteers. It synthesizes the existing immunity landscape and analyzes its gaps. Finally, the authors suggest consideration of the option of a comprehensive immunity provision that addresses liability protection for all health care providers during public health emergencies and that, consequently, assists in improving community emergency response efforts.

  15. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 15 CFR 995.7 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability. 995.7 Section 995.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND...

  1. 15 CFR 995.7 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability. 995.7 Section 995.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND...

  2. 15 CFR 995.7 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liability. 995.7 Section 995.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND...

  3. 15 CFR 995.7 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability. 995.7 Section 995.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND...

  4. 15 CFR 995.7 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liability. 995.7 Section 995.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND...

  5. Trouble with Your Liability Insurance? Here's Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The insurance industry is in trouble, which means problems for colleges and universities--especially in the area of liability insurance. Some strategies for higher education are discussed, including risk-management programs, self-insurance, catastrophic or excess insurance, and risk-management consortia. (MLW)

  6. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 966.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 966.90 Section 966.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  12. Violence in the Workplace: Avoiding Institutional Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Ranaye J.; Hall, Bradley H.

    This document is intended to provide career and technical education faculty and administrators with information on institutional liability relating to workplace violence as documented in court cases. The major legislation regarding violence in schools is summarized. Seventeen warning signs of violence are presented along with simple steps…

  13. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  15. The Tort Liability of the Classroom Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripps, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the tort liabilities (both intentional and negligent torts) to which school and college teachers are exposed. Noting that the doctrine of sovereign immunity has protected the instructor and that litigation has increased in states which have waived their immunity, the author concludes that the likelihood of litigation is greater now than…

  16. 7 CFR 930.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 930.89 Section 930.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  17. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...