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Sample records for abuse liability profile

  1. Abuse liability profile of three substituted tryptamines.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Forster, Michael J; Janowsky, Aaron; Eshleman, Amy J

    2011-07-01

    The abuse liability profile of three synthetic hallucinogens, N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DIPT), 5-N,N-diethyl-5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-DET), and 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), was tested in rats trained to discriminate hallucinogenic and psychostimulant compounds, including cocaine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Because abused hallucinogens act at 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT(1A)) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, and abused psychostimulants act at monoamine transporters, binding and functional activities of DIPT, 5-MeO-DET, and 5-MeO-AMT at these sites were also tested. DIPT fully substituted in rats trained to discriminate DMT (ED(50) = 1.71 mg/kg) and DOM (ED(50) = 1.94 mg/kg), but produced only 68% LSD-appropriate responding. 5-MeO-DET fully substituted for DMT (ED(50) = 0.41 mg/kg) and produced 59% MDMA-appropriate responding. 5-MeO-AMT did not fully substitute for any of the training drugs, but produced 67% LSD-appropriate responding. None of the compounds produced substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine or methamphetamine. All three compounds showed activity at 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors as well as blockade of reuptake by the serotonin transporter. In addition, 5-MeO-AMT produced low levels of serotonin release and low potency blockade of dopamine uptake. DIPT, 5-MeO-DET, and 5-MeO-AMT produced behavioral and receptor effects similar to those of abused hallucinogens, but were not similar to those of psychostimulants. DIPT and 5-MeO-DET may have abuse liability similar to known hallucinogens and may be hazardous because high doses produced activity and lethality. PMID:21474568

  2. Abuse Liability Profile of Three Substituted Tryptamines

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Michael J.; Janowsky, Aaron; Eshleman, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The abuse liability profile of three synthetic hallucinogens, N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DIPT), 5-N,N-diethyl-5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-DET), and 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine (5-MeO-AMT), was tested in rats trained to discriminate hallucinogenic and psychostimulant compounds, including cocaine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), (−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Because abused hallucinogens act at 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) and 5-HT2A receptors, and abused psychostimulants act at monoamine transporters, binding and functional activities of DIPT, 5-MeO-DET, and 5-MeO-AMT at these sites were also tested. DIPT fully substituted in rats trained to discriminate DMT (ED50 = 1.71 mg/kg) and DOM (ED50 = 1.94 mg/kg), but produced only 68% LSD-appropriate responding. 5-MeO-DET fully substituted for DMT (ED50 = 0.41 mg/kg) and produced 59% MDMA-appropriate responding. 5-MeO-AMT did not fully substitute for any of the training drugs, but produced 67% LSD-appropriate responding. None of the compounds produced substitution in rats trained to discriminate cocaine or methamphetamine. All three compounds showed activity at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors as well as blockade of reuptake by the serotonin transporter. In addition, 5-MeO-AMT produced low levels of serotonin release and low potency blockade of dopamine uptake. DIPT, 5-MeO-DET, and 5-MeO-AMT produced behavioral and receptor effects similar to those of abused hallucinogens, but were not similar to those of psychostimulants. DIPT and 5-MeO-DET may have abuse liability similar to known hallucinogens and may be hazardous because high doses produced activity and lethality. PMID:21474568

  3. Abuse Liability of the Dietary Supplement Dimethylamylamine

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Sean B.; Gatch, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a component of many dietary supplements and has recently been associated with numerous adverse effects, prompting the US military and World Anti-Doping Agency to ban its use as a supplement. The current study aimed to elucidate the abuse liability profile of DMAA. Methods Dose-response studies of DMAA were performed with Swiss-Webster mice in locomotor and conditioned place-preference assays. The discriminative stimulus effects of DMAA were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate either cocaine or methamphetamine from saline. Results DMAA produced dose-dependent locomotor depression and fully substituted for cocaine and partially substituted for methamphetamine. In the conditioned place-preference assay, DMAA produced an inverted-U-shaped dose-response curve, with intermediate doses producing significant place preference. Conclusions The cocaine- and methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects and the conditioned place preference produced by DMAA suggest that is has potential for abuse. These findings in combination with reports of substantial adverse effects of DMAA in humans suggest that control of DMAA may warrant further consideration. PMID:25481853

  4. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  5. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159

  6. Liabilities of a physician confronted with child abuse.

    PubMed

    Vansweevelt, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    Several research questions raises when physicians are confronted with a possible case of child abuse. First, there is a problem of professional secrecy. In most European countries, physicians have the right to speak when confronted with a state of emergency. In other countries, physicians have a duty to speak and alert the police when the life or physical integrity of a person is at stake. A second topic to be discussed involves the possible liability of physicians who do not report child abuse. By not reporting a case of possible child abuse, the physician is respecting the family life of the parents, even though the child might continue to suffer damages. Third and essentially, I analyse the possible liability of physicians who do inform the prosecutor ofa suspected child abuse. Specific criteria are elaborated to establish negligence when physicians report child abuse to the prosecutor. PMID:23984493

  7. Comparative abuse liability of GHB and ethanol in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; sodium oxybate) is approved for narcolepsy symptom treatment, and it is also abused. This study compared the participant-rated, observer-rated effects, motor/cognitive, physiological, and reinforcing effects of GHB and ethanol in participants with histories of sedative (including alcohol) abuse. Fourteen participants lived on a residential unit for ∼1 month. Sessions were conducted Monday through Friday. Measures were taken before and repeatedly up to 24 hours after drug administration. Participants were administered GHB (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/70 kg), ethanol (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 g/70 kg), or placebo in a double-blind, within-subjects design. For safety, GHB and ethanol were administered in an ascending dose sequence, with placebos and both drugs intermixed across sessions. The sequence for each drug was stopped if significant impairment or intolerable effects occurred. Only 9 and 10 participants received the full dose range for GHB and ethanol, respectively. The highest doses of GHB and ethanol showed onset within 30 minutes, with peak effects at 60 minutes. GHB effects dissipated between 4 and 6 hours, whereas ethanol effects dissipated between 6 and 8 hours. Dose-related effects were observed for both drugs on a variety of measures assessing sedative drug effects, abuse liability, performance impairment, and physiological effects. Within-session measures of abuse liability were similar between the two drugs. However, postsession measures of abuse liability, including a direct preference test between the highest tolerated doses of each drug, suggested somewhat greater abuse liability for GHB, most likely as a result of the delayed aversive ethanol effects (e.g., headache). PMID:23421353

  8. Comparative abuse liability of GHB and ethanol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; sodium oxybate) is approved for narcolepsy symptom treatment, and it is also abused. This study compared the participant-rated, observer-rated effects, motor/cognitive, physiological, and reinforcing effects of GHB and ethanol in participants with histories of sedative (including alcohol) abuse. Fourteen participants lived on a residential unit for ~1 month. Sessions were conducted Monday through Friday. Measures were taken before, and repeatedly up to 24 hours after drug administration. Participants were administered GHB (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/70kg), ethanol (12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 g/70kg), or placebo in a double-blind, within-subjects design. For safety, GHB and ethanol were administered in an ascending dose sequence, with placebos and both drugs intermixed across sessions. The sequence for each drug was stopped if significant impairment or intolerable effects occurred. Only 9 and 10 participants received the full dose range for GHB and ethanol, respectively. The highest doses of GHB and ethanol showed onset within 30 minutes, with peak effects at 60 minutes. GHB effects dissipated between 4 and 6 hours, while ethanol effects dissipated between 6 and 8 hours. Dose-related effects were observed for both drugs on a variety of measures assessing sedative drug effects, abuse liability, performance impairment, and physiological effects. Within-session measures of abuse liability were similar between the two drugs. However, post-session measures of abuse liability, including a direct preference test between the highest tolerated doses of each drug, suggested somewhat greater abuse liability for GHB, due most likely to the delayed aversive ethanol effects (e.g., headache). PMID:23421353

  9. A proactive nonclinical drug abuse and dependence liability assessment strategy: a sponsor perspective.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines a strategy and process for proactive nonclinical assessment of drug abuse and dependence liability of new compounds intended for clinical use. Documentation of the potential for causing abuse and dependence liability is required for registration of a new drug; hence, proactive timing and planning of these studies allows for appropriate documentation of nonclinical as well as clinical data in time for registration. In cases for which an abuse and dependence liability label may not be acceptable, a proactive approach to abuse and dependence liability assessment allows for replacement of selected compounds at an early stage of development, thereby saving time and resources and avoiding late attrition. PMID:23907375

  10. Assessment of hepatotoxic liabilities by transcript profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Ruepp, Stefan . E-mail: stefan.ruepp@roche.com; Boess, Franziska; Suter, Laura; Vera, Maria Cristina de; Steiner, Guido; Steele, Thomas; Weiser, Thomas; Albertini, Silvio

    2005-09-01

    Male Wistar rats were treated with various model compounds or the appropriate vehicle controls in order to create a reference database for toxicogenomics assessment of novel compounds. Hepatotoxic compounds in the database were either known hepatotoxicants or showed hepatotoxicity during preclinical testing. Histopathology and clinical chemistry data were used to anchor the transcript profiles to an established endpoint (steatosis, cholestasis, direct acting, peroxisomal proliferation or nontoxic/control). These reference data were analyzed using a supervised learning method (support vector machines, SVM) to generate classification rules. This predictive model was subsequently used to assess compounds with regard to a potential hepatotoxic liability. A steatotic and a non-hepatotoxic 5HT{sub 6} receptor antagonist compound from the same series were successfully discriminated by this toxicogenomics model. Additionally, an example is shown where a hepatotoxic liability was correctly recognized in the absence of pathological findings. In vitro experiments and a dog study confirmed the correctness of the toxicogenomics alert. Another interesting observation was that transcript profiles indicate toxicologically relevant changes at an earlier timepoint than routinely used methods. Together, these results support the useful application of toxicogenomics in raising alerts for adverse effects and generating mechanistic hypotheses that can be followed up by confirmatory experiments.

  11. Effects of cold pressor pain on the abuse liability of intranasal oxycodone in male and female prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.9 million persons in the U.S. have prescription opioid use disorders often with concomitant bodily pain, but systematic data on the impact of pain on abuse liability of opioids is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pain alters the intranasal abuse liability of oxycodone, a commonly prescribed and abused analgesic, in males and females. Methods Sporadic prescription opioid abusers (10 females, 10 males) participated in this mixed (between and within-subject), randomized inpatient study. Experimental sessions (n=6) tested intranasal placebo, oxycodone 15 or 30 mg/70 kg during cold pressor testing (CPT) and a warm water control. Observer- and subject-rated drug effect measures, analgesia, physiologic and cognitive effects were assessed. Results The CPT significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, pain, stress, and “opiate desire” compared to the no-pain control but did not alter opioid liking, high or street value. Intranasal oxycodone produced effects within 10 minutes, significantly decreasing pain and significantly increasing subjective measures of abuse liability (e.g., high). Females had higher ratings of street value, high, and liking for one or both active doses. Conclusions The CPT was a reliably painful and stressful stimulus that did not diminish the abuse liability of intranasal Oxycodone®. Females were more sensitive to oxycodone on several abuse liability measures that warrant further follow-up. Snorting oxycodone rapidly produced psychoactive effects indicative of substantial abuse liability. PMID:22209386

  12. Principles of laboratory assessment of drug abuse liability and implications for clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Abuse liability testing plays an important role in informing drug development, regulatory processes, and clinical practice. This paper describes the current “gold standard” methodologies that are used for laboratory assessments of abuse liability in non-human and human subjects. Particular emphasis is given to procedures such as non-human drug discrimination, self-administration, and physical dependence testing, and human dose effect abuse liability studies that are commonly used in regulatory submissions to governmental agencies. The potential benefits and risks associated with the inclusion of measures of abuse liability in industry-sponsored clinical trials is discussed. Lastly, it is noted that many factors contribute to patterns of drug abuse and dependence outside of the laboratory setting and positive or negative signals in abuse liability studies do not always translate to high or low levels of actual abuse or dependence. Well-designed patient and physician education, pharmacovigilance, and postmarketing surveillance can reduce the diversion and misuse of drugs with abuse liability and can effectively foster the protection and promotion of public health. PMID:19443137

  13. A profile of abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Taitz, L S; King, J M

    1988-01-01

    Of 260 children considered to have been the victims of child abuse or neglect, or both, 149 suffered non-accidental injury, 71 had evidence of growth problems, 87 had developmental and speech delay, and 63 showed evidence of appreciable behaviour disturbance. While the overall prevalence of development and behaviour problems in the series was high there were particular associations noted between growth problems and developmental delay, between increasing age and behaviour disturbance, and between evidence of emotional deprivation and both behaviour disturbance and developmental delay. Children with non-accidental injury but without growth problems or emotional deprivation were least likely to show behaviour or developmental problems. PMID:2460032

  14. Relative abuse liability of prescription opioids compared to heroin in morphine-maintained heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D; Sullivan, Maria A; Whittington, Robert A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Kowalczyk, William J

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioid medications has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the past decade, as indicated by a variety of epidemiological sources. However, few studies have systematically examined the relative reinforcing effects of commonly abused opioid medications. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled inpatient study was designed to compare the effects of intravenously delivered fentanyl (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.187, and 0.250 mg/70 kg), oxycodone (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg), morphine (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg), buprenorphine (0, 0.125, 0.5, 2, and 8 mg/70 kg), and heroin (0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/70 kg) in morphine-maintained heroin abusers (N=8 completers maintained on 120 mg per day oral morphine in divided doses [30 mg q.i.d.]). All of the participants received all of the drugs tested; drugs and doses were administered in non-systematic order. All of the drugs produced statistically significant, dose-related increases in positive subjective ratings, such as “I feel a good drug effect” and “I like the drug.” In general, the order of potency in producing these effects, from most to least potent, was: fentanyl > buprenorphine ≥ heroin > morphine = oxycodone. In contrast, buprenorphine was the only drug that produced statistically significant increases in ratings of “I feel a bad drug effect” and it was the only drug that was not self-administered above placebo levels at any dose tested. These data suggest that the abuse liability of buprenorphine in heroin-dependent individuals may be low, despite the fact that it produces increases in positive subjective ratings. The abuse liabilities of fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, and heroin, however, appear to be similar under these experimental conditions. PMID:17581533

  15. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID

  16. Relative abuse liability of hypnotic drugs: a conceptual framework and algorithm for differentiating among compounds.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2005-01-01

    Hypnotic drugs, including benzodiazepine receptor ligands, barbiturates, antihistamines, and melatonin receptor ligands, are useful in treating insomnia, but clinicians should consider the relative abuse liability of these drugs when prescribing them. Two types of problematic hypnotic self-administration are distinguished. First, recreational abuse occurs when medications are used purposefully for the subjective "high." This type of abuse usually occurs in polydrug abusers, who are most often young and male. Second, chronic quasi-therapeutic abuse is a problematic use of hypnotic drugs in which patients continue long-term use despite medical recommendations to the contrary. Relative abuse liability is defined as an interaction between the relative reinforcing effects (i.e., the capacity to maintain drug self-administration behavior, thereby increasing the likelihood of nonmedical problematic use) and the relative toxicity (i.e., adverse effects having the capacity to harm the individual and/or society). An algorithm is provided that differentiates relative likelihood of abuse and relative toxicity of 19 hypnotic compounds: pentobarbital, methaqualone, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, also known as sodium oxybate), temazepam, zaleplon, eszopiclone, triazolam, zopiclone, flurazepam, zolpidem, oxazepam, estazolam, diphenhydramine, quazepam, tra-zodone, and ramelteon. Factors in the analysis include preclinical and clinical assessment of reinforcing effects, preclinical and clinical assessment of withdrawal, actual abuse, acute sedation/memory impairment, and overdose lethality. The analysis shows that both the likelihood of abuse and the toxicity vary from high to none across these compounds. The primary clinical implication of the range of differences in abuse liability is that concern about recreational abuse, inappropriate long-term use, or adverse effects should not deter physicians from prescribing hypnotics when clinically

  17. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): prevalence, user characteristics and abuse liability in a large global sample.

    PubMed

    Winstock, Adam R; Kaar, Stephen; Borschmann, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents original research on prevalence, user characteristics and effect profile of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a potent hallucinogenic which acts primarily through the serotonergic system. Data were obtained from the Global Drug Survey (an anonymous online survey of people, many of whom have used drugs) conducted between November and December 2012 with 22,289 responses. Lifetime prevalence of DMT use was 8.9% (n=1980) and past year prevalence use was 5.0% (n=1123). We explored the effect profile of DMT in 472 participants who identified DMT as the last new drug they had tried for the first time and compared it with ratings provided by other respondents on psilocybin (magic mushrooms), LSD and ketamine. DMT was most often smoked and offered a strong, intense, short-lived psychedelic high with relatively few negative effects or "come down". It had a larger proportion of new users compared with the other substances (24%), suggesting its popularity may increase. Overall, DMT seems to have a very desirable effect profile indicating a high abuse liability that maybe offset by a low urge to use more. PMID:24284475

  18. Preclinical assessment of abuse liability of biologics: In defense of current regulatory control policies.

    PubMed

    Gauvin, David V; Zimmermann, Zachary J; Baird, Theodore J

    2015-10-01

    Current regulatory policies of both the US Food and Drug Administration and Drug Enforcement Administration do not delineate automatic exceptions for biologics with respect to preclinical assessments for abuse liability of all new entities. As defined in current guidance documents and drug control policies, an exception may be given upon thorough review of available data, therapeutic target and in consultation with the Controlled Substances Staff within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research of the FDA, but a blanket exception for all biological entities is not currently available. We review the abuse liability testing of four known biologics with definitive positive abuse liability signals in the three core abuse liability assays, self-administration, drug discrimination, and dependence potential described in the FDA draft guidance document. Interestingly, while all four examplars have positive abuse liability signals in all three assays, two of these biologics are controlled under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act (CSA, 1970) and the other two are not currently controlled. Admittedly, these four biologics are small molecule entities. However, there is no reference to "molecular size" in the legally-binding statutory definition of biologics under the FD&C act or in the Controlled Substances Act. Neither of these drug control policy mandates have a bifurcated control status in which to make exceptions based solely on molecular size. With the current pharmaceutical focus on new technologies, such as "Trojan Horses", targeting the active transport of large molecule entities directly into the CNS, an argument to automatically exempt new molecular entities solely on molecular size is untenable. We argue that for the safety and health of general public the current regulatory control status be maintained until definitive criteria for exceptions can be identified and amended to both the FD&CA and CSA, if warranted. PMID:26107292

  19. Assessment of the Abuse Liability of Synthetic Cannabinoid Agonists JWH-030, JWH-175, and JWH-176

    PubMed Central

    Tampus, Reinholdgher; Yoon, Seong Shoon; de la Peña, June Bryan; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Kim, Hee Jin; Seo, Joung-Wook; Jeong, Eun Ju; Jang, Choon Gon; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and use of synthetic cannabinoids have greatly increased in recent years. These substances are easily dispensed over the internet and on the streets. Some synthetic cannabinoids were shown to have abuse liability and were subsequently regulated by authorities. However, there are compounds that are still not regulated probably due to the lack of abuse liability studies. In the present study, we assessed the abuse liability of three synthetic cannabinoids, namely JWH-030, JWH-175, and JWH-176. The abuse liability of these drugs was evaluated in two of the most widely used animal models for assessing the abuse potential of drugs, the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) test. In addition, the open-field test was utilized to assess the effects of repeated (7 days) treatment and abrupt cessation of these drugs on the psychomotor activity of animals. Results showed that JWH-175 (0.5 mg/kg), but not JWH-030 or JWH-176 at any dose, significantly decreased the locomotor activity of mice. This alteration in locomotor activity was only evident during acute exposure to the drug and was not observed during repeated treatment and abstinence. Similarly, only JWH-175 (0.1 mg/kg) produced significant CPP in rats. On the other hand, none of the drugs tested was self-administered by rats. Taken together, the present results indicate that JWH-175, but not JWH-030 and JWH-176, may have abuse potential. More importantly, our findings indicate the complex psychopharmacological effects of synthetic cannabinoids and the need to closely monitor the production, dispensation, and use of these substances. PMID:26535085

  20. 76 FR 62419 - Science of Abuse Liability Assessment; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Health; and the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) at the Temple University School of Medicine..., Twinbrook Station. Contact Person: Ellen B. Geller, CPDD, Temple University School of Medicine, 3400 North... abuse potential during clinical trials. The deadline for submitting comments about this public...

  1. Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    This chapter on liability covers a number of cases alleging negligence by colleges, universities, and university hospitals filed by patients and injured students. Liability issues are also part of defamation of character suits. Oral statements are known as slander, while written statements which defame are called libel. In certain situations,…

  2. Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Henningfield, Jack E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. PMID:21376479

  3. Abuse and Dependence Liability of Benzodiazepine-Type Drugs: GABAA Receptor Modulation and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Rowlett, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Benzodiazepine-type drugs (benzodiazepines and the newer non-benzodiazepines) are similar to older sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as the barbiturates, in that they act at the GABAA receptor (9, 188). Unfortunately, benzodiazepine-type drugs also retain the liability for abuse and dependence associated with the earlier anxiolytics (133, 208). Action at GABAA receptors likely plays a key role in both the therapeutic as well as abuse-related effects of this important class of drugs. While the extent to which therapeutic efficacy and abuse potential can be dissociated is not yet understood fully, the biochemical processes underlying these behavioral effects are even less understood. A more comprehensive understanding of the etiology of benzodiazepine-type drug-induced abuse and dependence is likely to provide information that can inform drug development strategies to help design anxiolytics and hypnotics that have maximum clinical benefit with reduced abuse potential. Thus, this review will explore issues related to the abuse and dependence potential of benzodiazepine-type drugs and the role that GABAA receptors play in this phenomenon. Further, this review will discuss putative intracellular events that may occur as a result of the interaction between benzodiazepine-type drugs and GABAA receptors, and how those events may ultimately give rise to the abuse-related behaviors associated with these drugs. PMID:18295321

  4. Conference on Abuse Liability and Appeal of Tobacco Products: Conclusions and Recommendations*

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness (“abuse liability”) or by enticing product designs (“product appeal”) alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence “product appeal”. A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer products marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. PMID:21376479

  5. Endomorphin analog analgesics with reduced abuse liability, respiratory depression, motor impairment, tolerance, and glial activation relative to morphine.

    PubMed

    Zadina, James E; Nilges, Mark R; Morgenweck, Jenny; Zhang, Xing; Hackler, Laszlo; Fasold, Melita B

    2016-06-01

    Opioids acting at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are the most effective analgesics, however adverse side effects severely limit their use. Of particular importance, abuse liability results in major medical, societal, and economic problems, respiratory depression is the cause of fatal overdoses, and tolerance complicates treatment and increases the risk of side effects. Motor and cognitive impairment are especially problematic for older adults. Despite the host of negative side effects, opioids such as morphine are commonly used for acute and chronic pain conditions. Separation of analgesia from unwanted effects has long been an unmet goal of opioid research. Novel MOR agonist structures may prove critical for greater success. Here we tested metabolically stable analogs of the endomorphins, endogenous opioids highly selective for the MOR. Compared to morphine, the analogs showed dramatically improved analgesia-to-side-effect ratios. At doses providing equal or greater antinociception than morphine in the rat, the analogs showed reduced a) respiratory depression, b) impairment of motor coordination, c) tolerance and hyperalgesia, d) glial p38/CGRP/P2X7 receptor signaling, and e) reward/abuse potential in both conditioned place preference and self-administration tests. Differential effects on glial activation indicate a mechanism for the relative lack of side effects by the analogs compared to morphine. The results suggest that endomorphin analogs described here could provide gold standard pain relief mediated by selective MOR activation, but with remarkably safer side effect profiles compared to opioids like morphine. PMID:26748051

  6. The Liability of Colleges and Universities for Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federally Funded Grants and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The federal government's war on fraud, waste, and abuse in expenditure of federal funds has reached college campuses. Institutions that fail to heed this development are vulnerable to harsh sanctions. They must tighten accounting practices and recognize their liability for fraudulent practices of faculty and students. Internal investigations and…

  7. Abuse liability measures for use in analgesic clinical trials in patients with pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Alec B; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Colucci, Robert; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Klein, Michael; O'Brien, Charles; Posner, Kelly; Rappaport, Bob A; Reisfield, Gary; Adams, Edgar H; Balster, Robert L; Bigelow, George E; Burke, Laurie B; Comer, Sandra D; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Denisco, Richard A; Farrar, John T; Foltin, Richard W; Haddox, J David; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W; Junor, Roderick; Kopecky, Ernest A; Leiderman, Deborah B; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Smith, Shannon M; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Walsh, Sharon L; Zacny, James P

    2013-11-01

    Assessing and mitigating the abuse liability (AL) of analgesics is an urgent clinical and societal problem. Analgesics have traditionally been assessed in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) designed to demonstrate analgesic efficacy relative to placebo or an active comparator. In these trials, rigorous, prospectively designed assessment for AL is generally not performed. The Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) convened a consensus meeting to review the available evidence and discuss methods for improving the assessment of the AL of analgesics in clinical trials in patients with pain. Recommendations for improved assessment include: (1) performing trials that include individuals with diverse risks of abuse; (2) improving the assessment of AL in clinical trials (eg, training study personnel in the principles of abuse and addiction behaviors, designing the trial to assess AL outcomes as primary or secondary outcome measures depending on the trial objectives); (3) performing standardized assessment of outcomes, including targeted observations by study personnel and using structured adverse events query forms that ask all subjects specifically for certain symptoms (such as euphoria and craving); and (4) collecting detailed information about events of potential concern (eg, unexpected urine drug testing results, loss of study medication, and dropping out of the trial). The authors also propose a research agenda for improving the assessment of AL in future trials. PMID:24148704

  8. The abuse liability of the NMDA receptor antagonist-benzodiazepine (tiletamine-zolazepam) combination: evidence from clinical case reports and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combination is an anaesthetic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is an equal amount combination of tiletamine, a dissociative anaesthetic pharmacologically classified as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and zolazepam, a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. There are concerns regarding the safety profile of this drug combination due to incidents of human misuse/abuse. In this paper, we discuss the abuse liability of this drug combination based on currently available scientific evidence. We performed an in-depth search of medical and scientific literature and found seven reported cases of human abuse of the TZ combination, two of which resulted in fatal outcomes. In most of these cases, drug administration was intentional indicating that the TZ combination was abused by humans. This finding is bolstered by the results of preclinical studies showing that the TZ combination produces rewarding effects in rats, although manifested only in pretreated subjects. Further studies revealed that the addictive effects of the TZ combination are influenced by pre-exposure to other psychoactive drugs. Pre-exposure to ketamine, diazepam, propofol, or ethanol facilitated the expression of the rewarding effects of the TZ combination. These findings support the hypothesis that the TZ combination was and can be used as a substitute or replacement drug. Altogether, the compiled evidence indicates that the TZ combination can potentially be abused by humans. Thus, careful use, dispensation, and monitoring of the TZ combination and associated substances are strongly advocated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27341080

  9. Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Weaver, Michael F; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aims To provide an initial abuse liability assessment of an electronic cigarette (EC) in current tobacco cigarette smokers. Design The first of four, within-subject sessions was an EC sampling session that involved six, 10-puff bouts (30s interpuff interval) with each bout separated by 30-mins. In the remaining three sessions participants made choices between 10 EC puffs and varying amounts of money, 10 EC puffs and a varying number of own brand cigarette (OB) puffs, or 10 OB puffs and varying amounts of money using the multiple-choice procedure (MCP). The MCP was completed six times at 30-min intervals, and one choice was randomly reinforced at each trial. Setting Clinical laboratory. Participants Twenty current tobacco cigarette smokers. Measurements Sampling session outcome measures included plasma nicotine, cardiovascular response, and subjective effects. Choice session outcome was the crossover value on the MCP. Findings: EC use resulted in significant nicotine delivery, tobacco abstinence symptom suppression, and increased product acceptability ratings. On the MCP, participants chose to receive 10 EC puffs over an average of $1.06 or 3 OB puffs and chose 10 OB puffs over an average of $1.50 (p<.003). Conclusions Electronic cigarettes can deliver clinically significant amounts of nicotine and reduce cigarette abstinence symptoms and appear to have lower potential for abuse relative to traditional tobacco cigarettes, at least under certain laboratory conditions. PMID:22229871

  10. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  11. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  12. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  13. Profile of narcotic abuse in peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; Haq, S

    1980-01-01

    Demographic and drug abuse characteristics of 3,484 new drug abuse contacts presenting to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are reported. The large majority were heroin inhalers. They were different from the traditional Eastern opium inhalers and similar to Western heroin injectors in that they were young, male, single, and frequently unemployed. These features and the relative underrepresentation of Chinese suggest that the Chinese of this study did not learn narcotic abuse from opium-smoking relatives. PMID:7446511

  14. A Review on Renal Toxicity Profile of Common Abusive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Parkash; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. PMID:23946695

  15. Profile of Children Abused by Burning

    PubMed Central

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Mathivanan, Y.; Sankar, J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In an analysis of paediatric burn admissions to a hospital in India during the years 1992-2007, 9.3% of burn injuries were found to be secondary to abuse. These had valid documented evidence and child neglect was excluded. This incidence of child abuse has been on the rise in the last seven years and was more evident due to careful investigation by a team comprising a plastic surgeon, a paediatrician, a legal expert, a psychologist, and a social worker. As with the incidence reported by many other researchers, most of the injuries were caused by scalding. PMID:21991189

  16. Medical treatment of joint prosthesis: indication, opportunities and liability profiles.

    PubMed

    Molfetta, L; Trompetto, C; Silvestri, E

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic specialists should completely and sequentially manage osteoarthritis, from the onset to the prosthesis, with no attitude of resignation, complying with national and international Guidelines (GLs) and abiding by the criteria of appropriateness of drugs, rehabilitation and orthopaedic device prescription, in line with the ethics of the medical profession. The GLs are a paper that rationalises the quantity of existing information for a disease, without abusing the decision of the doctor; a large volume of scientific knowledge is concentrated in a format that is easily accessible to doctors when carrying out their work. The use of drugs has taken on a connotation of a rational and multifactorial choice, rather than an accidental and incremental choice - inspired only by safety, rather than efficacy criteria. The Notes compiled by the Italian Medicines Agency - a legal instrument to define the reimbursability of medicines and, therefore, an instrument for managing pharmaceutical expenditure – are, in reality, a means to guarantee the appropriateness of the use of medicines, orienting the therapeutic choices according to established Guidelines. In the specific case of osteoarthritis, the knowledge of the GLs is the most appropriate and complete approach towards the disease, in the context of its pathogenetic complexity in its natural history. Moreover, pharmacological treatment of the subchondral osteometabolic damage becomes necessary when documented by magnetic resonance or a scintigraphy; the bone-related pain cannot be challenged through symptomatic analgesic treatment alone. PMID:26753668

  17. Revisiting the Derivation of Batterer Subtypes: Towards Profiling the Abuser.

    PubMed

    Brasfield, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Research directed toward profiling an abuser to develop effective treatment modalities should consider the framework for how batterer subtypes were developed. This article evaluates a seminal work in batterer typology for a review of its method and findings. Findings indicate that the formation of batterer subtypes rely on unstable theory and methods: (a) Variables were not held constant, (b) Theoretical constructs lack clarity, (c) There were unclear boundaries for subtypes. A re-evaluation of this particular line of typology research should address the utility and relevance of these batterer subtypes in an effort to address methodological implications that may help profile and treat abusers. PMID:25516132

  18. Dopamine transporter-dependent and -independent striatal binding of the benztropine analog JHW 007, a cocaine antagonist with low abuse liability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benztropine analog JHW 007 displays high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), but unlike typical DAT ligands, has relatively low abuse liability and blocks effects of cocaine,including its self-administration. To determine sites responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW 007, ...

  19. Support and Profiles of Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Hebert, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure may be a crucial factor in children's recovery. A person-centered approach was used to examine how profiles of nonoffending mothers could better describe their ability to support their children after disclosure. Cluster analyses based on a total of 226 nonoffending…

  20. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for drugs with abuse liability: public interest, special interest, conflicts of interest, and the industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Wright, Curtis; Schnoll, Sidney; Bernstein, David

    2008-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) formerly known as Risk Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) are a regulatory technique for dealing with anticipated risks of new medications and are especially important for new drugs with abuse potential. This paper describes the origin and history of risk-management plans for drugs that might be abused, the proper use of these plans in minimizing the risk to the public, and the special difficulties inherent in managing risks for drugs with abuse potential. Drugs with abuse liability are distinctive since the risks inherent in manufacture and distribution include not only risks to patients prescribed the medications, but also risks to the general public including subgroups in the population not intended to get the drug and who receive no medical benefit from the medication. The crafting of risk-management plans intended to protect nonpatient populations is unique for these products. The content, extent, and level of intensity of these plans affect areas of medical ethics, civil liability, and criminal prosecution. The need for risk-management plans for drugs with abuse liability can potentially act as a deterrent to investment and is a factor in decisions concerning the development of new medications for the treatments of pain, ADHD, anxiety disorders, and addictions. This paper provides a framework for moving the process of REMS development forward and criteria for evaluating the probity and adequacy of such programs. PMID:18991964

  1. Abuse liability of flupirtine revisited: implications of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Early studies suggested that the centrally acting non-opioid and non-steroidal analgesic flupirtine (FLP) has no potential for abuse. However, FLP's agonistic effects at the GABAA receptor might prime addictive behaviors, and literature provides some anecdotal reports on FLP abuse/dependence. To shed more light on this topic we acquired and evaluated data obtained from a national German pharmacovigilance database. We analyzed all reports of FLP abuse/dependence that were recorded in the database of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). A total of n = 48 reports of FLP abuse/dependence could be identified (mean age 45 years, 62.5% female). First reports were submitted to BfArM in 1991 with increasing numbers of annual reports from the year 2006 on. Mean daily FLP dosage was 805 mg (range 200-3,000 mg). Current or previous substance abuse/dependence was reported in 21% and 17%, respectively. Mean duration of FLP abuse/dependence until report to BfArM was 23 months (range 1-84 months). Withdrawal syndromes after discontinuation of FLP were reported in n = 9 (19%). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that FLP features a potential to cause addictive behaviors. Female sex, age >40 years, and long-term FLP-treatment may be possible risk factors for the development of FLP abuse/dependence. PMID:24037995

  2. Animal models to assess the abuse liability of tobacco products: effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on intracranial self-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Tally, Laura; Schmidt, Clare E.; Muelken, Peter; Stepanov, Irina; Saha, Subhrakanti; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preclinical models are needed to inform regulation of tobacco products by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Typically, animal models of tobacco addiction involve exposure to nicotine alone or nicotine combined with isolated tobacco constituents (e.g., minor alkaloids). The goal of this study was to develop a model using extracts derived from tobacco products that contain a range of tobacco constituents to more closely model product exposure in humans. Methods This study compared the addiction-related effects of nicotine alone and nicotine dose-equivalent concentrations of aqueous smokeless tobacco extracts on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. Extracts were prepared from Kodiak Wintergreen, a conventional product, or Camel Snus, a potential “modified risk tobacco product”. Binding affinities of nicotine alone and extracts at various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes were also compared. Results Kodiak and Camel Snus extracts contained levels of minor alkaloids within the range of those shown to enhance nicotine’s behavioral effects when studied in isolation. Nonetheless, acute injection of both extracts produced reinforcement-enhancing (ICSS threshold-decreasing) effects similar to those of nicotine alone at low to moderate nicotine doses, as well as similar reinforcement-attenuating/aversive (ICSS threshold-increasing) effects at high nicotine doses. Extracts and nicotine alone also had similar binding affinity at all nAChRs studied. Conclusions Relative nicotine content is the primary pharmacological determinant of the abuse liability of Kodiak and Camel Snus as measured using ICSS. These models may be useful to compare the relative abuse liability of other tobacco products and to model FDA-mandated changes in product performance standards. PMID:25561387

  3. Abuse liability of buprenorphine-naloxone tablets in untreated IV drug users.

    PubMed

    Alho, Hannu; Sinclair, David; Vuori, Erkki; Holopainen, Antti

    2007-04-17

    Buprenorphine (Subutex) is widely abused in Finland. A combination of buprenorphine plus naloxone (Suboxone) has been available since late 2004, permitting a comparison of the abuse of the two products among untreated intravenous (IV) users. A survey was distributed to attendees at a Helsinki needle exchange program over 2-weeks in April, 2005, At least 30% were returned anonymously. Survey variables included: years of prior IV opioid abuse, years of buprenorphine abuse, frequency, dosage, route of administration and reasons for use, concomitant IV abuse of other substances and amount paid on the street for both buprenorphine and buprenorphine+naloxone. Buprenorphine was the most frequently used IV drug for 73% of the respondents. More than 75% said they used IV buprenorphine to self-treat addiction or withdrawal. Most (68%) had tried the buprenorphine+naloxone combination IV, but 80% said they had a "bad" experience. Its street price was less than half that of buprenorphine alone. The buprenorphine+naloxone combination appears to be a feasible tool, along with easier access to addiction treatment, for decreasing IV abuse of buprenorphine. PMID:17055191

  4. The treatment of chronic insomnia: drug indications, chronic use and abuse liability. Summary of a 2001 New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit meeting symposium.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Wallace B; Roth, Thomas; Cassella, James; Roehrs, Timothy; Walsh, James K; Woods, James H; Buysse, Daniel J; Meyer, Roger E

    2004-02-01

    This paper summarizes a group of presentations and panel discussions on chronic insomnia at the 2001 NCDEU meeting. The presentations and discussions focused on the twin issues of efficacy and concerns of abuse liability with long-term hypnotic therapy. The panel concluded that insomnia may be an epidemiological marker for a variety of difficulties including accidents, increased health care utilization and subsequent development of major depression. Whether or not treatment of insomnia will prevent these long-term problems has not yet been determined. Since the mid-1980s there has been a rapid rise in the off-label use of antidepressants, particularly trazodone, for treating insomnia. Some participants expressed concern at the lack of data for this practice, particularly the absence of dose-response and tolerance information, and noted that the small amount of efficacy data available is not encouraging. Similarly, there are minimal data to support the use of antihistamines as sleep aids; moreover, their side effect profile and interactions with other drugs may be under appreciated. The limited data available on nightly long-term usage of the newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, primarily of six-months' duration, suggest an absence of tolerance, but more data for both nightly and non-nightly administration are needed. Insomniacs tend to show therapy-seeking, rather than drug-seeking behavior, and patients without histories of drug abuse are unlikely to self-escalate dosage of currently available hypnotics. There is fairly good agreement on the characteristics of an ideal hypnotic. All currently available agents, while effective and safe, do not achieve this ideal. The next few years are likely to see the appearance of a variety of agents with new and promising mechanisms of action. PMID:15062207

  5. State Liability for Abuse in Primary Schools: Systemic Failure and "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Conor

    2009-01-01

    Due to the historical arrangement between Church and State, the Irish State has always discharged its duty to provide for free primary education exclusively through the provision of funding to privately owned and managed schools. Consequently, in "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey," where a woman sued the State in respect of sex abuse she suffered when in…

  6. Parents of minors who have sexually abused: legal liability and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Oz, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are legally liable when their minor children commit offenses. Since parents are essential to the successful rehabilitation of minors who have sexually offended, the impact of legal liability on parental engagement in therapy must be examined. This article will explore the conflicting issues of age, legal responsibility, parental responsibility, and therapeutic effectiveness in the Israeli context and propose a means for resolution. PMID:23350541

  7. Parenting Profiles and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Attitudes and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-05-01

    Parenting behaviors such as monitoring and communications are known correlates of abusive outcomes in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study draws on separate parent (58 % female; 61 % White non-Hispanic, 12 % Black non-Hispanic, 7 % other non-Hispanic, and 20 % Hispanic) and youth (ages 12-18 years; 48 % female) surveys from the nationally representative Survey of Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence. Latent class analyses were applied to investigate whether there are distinguishable parenting profiles based on six measures of parent-youth relationship and interactions, with youth's attitudes about abusive dating behavior and both perpetration and victimization examined in a follow-up survey as distal outcomes (n = 1117 parent-youth dyads). A three-class model-a "Positive Parenting" class, a "Strict/Harsh Parenting" class, and a "Disengaged/Harsh Parenting" class-was selected to best represent the data. The selected latent class model was conditioned on parents' (anger trait, relationship quality, attitudes about domestic violence) and youth's (prior victimization and perpetration) covariates, controlling for parent's gender, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and youth's age and gender. Youth in the "Positive Parenting" class were significantly less likely 1 year later to be tolerant of violence against boyfriends under any conditions as well as less likely to perpetrate adolescent relationship abuse or to be a victim of adolescent relationship abuse. Parents' anger and relationship quality and youth's prior perpetration of adolescent relationship abuse as well as gender, age, and race/ethnicity predicted class membership, informing universal prevention program and message design, as well as indicated efforts to target communications and services for parents as well as for youth. PMID:26906058

  8. A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health. PMID:20635631

  9. The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, D. Andrew; Smith, Michael T.; Bigelow, George E.; Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, S.L. Vatem; Strain, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli following repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH following repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model. Methods Double-blind intramuscular (IM) injections of a short-acting opioid, (alfentanil 15 mcg/kg; N=8) were compared to active placebo (diphenhydramine 25 mg; N=3) on cold and pressure pain testing and standard abuse liability measures in eight 10-hour sessions (1 injection/session) over 4–5 weeks in healthy pain-free males. Decreases from session baseline pain threshold (PThr) and tolerance (PTol) were calculated to represent hyperalgesia, and were assessed both within and across sessions. Results Mean decreases in cold PTol were seen in the alfentanil group at 180 minutes (−3.8 seconds, +/−26.5) and 480 minutes (−1.63 seconds, +/−31.5) after drug administration. There was a trend for differences between conditions on cold PThr hyperalgesia but not for pressure PThr. Alfentanil participants had greater mean ratings on LIKING and HIGH visual analog scales at peak effects (30 minutes), but these scores did not change across sessions. Discussion Repeated alfentanil exposures over 4–5 weeks resulted in within session decreases in cold pain tolerance from baseline but these differences were not substantially different from diphenhydramine controls. The results did not support the phenomenon of OIH in this model, although definitive conclusions regarding the existence of OIH in humans likely requires a larger sample size or an alternative model. PMID:23446076

  10. Serum Proteomic Profiles In Subjects with Heavy Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Lai, Xianyin; Ringham, Heather N.; Crabb, David W.; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The abuse of alcohol is a major public health problem, and the diagnosis and care of patients with alcohol abuse and dependence is hindered by the lack of tests that can detect dangerous levels of drinking or relapse during therapy. Gastroenterologists and other healthcare providers find it very challenging to obtain an accurate alcohol drinking history. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on numerous systems may well be reflected in changes in quantity or qualities of constituent or novel plasma proteins or protein fragments. Organ/tissue-specific proteins may be released into the blood stream when cells are injured by alcohol, or when systemic changes are induced by alcohol, and such proteins would be detected using a proteomic approach. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if there are plasma proteome profiles that correlate with heavy alcohol use. Methods Paired serum samples, before and after intensive alcohol treatment, were obtained from subjects who attended an outpatient alcohol treatment program. Serum proteomic profiles using MALDI –OTOF Mass Spectrometry were compared between pre- and post treatment samples. Results Of 16 subjects who enrolled in the study, 8 were females. The mean age of the study subjects was 49 yrs. The baseline laboratory data showed elevated AST (54 ± 37 IU/L), ALT (37 ± 19 IU/L), and MCV (99 ± 5 fl). Self-reported pre-treatment drinking levels for these subjects averaged 17 ± 7drinks/day and 103 ± 37 drinks/week. Mass spectrometry analyses showed a novel 5.9 kDa protein, a fragment of alpha fibrinogen, isoform 1, that might be might be a new novel marker for abusive alcohol drinking. Conclusions We have shown in this pilot study that several potential protein markers have appeared in mass spectral profiles and that they may be useful clinically to determine the status of alcohol drinking by MALDI –OTOF mass spectrometry, especially a fragment of alpha fibrinogen, isoform 1. However, a

  11. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  12. Diagnostic Profiles of Offenders in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Grella, Christine E.; Greenwell, Lisa; Prendergast, Michael; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association of Axis I and Axis II disorders among offenders who were in prison-based substance abuse treatment in a national multi-site study. Participants (N = 280) received a psychosocial assessment and a structured diagnostic interview in two separate sessions. Logistic regression models examined the association between lifetime mood and anxiety disorders with two personality disorders, and the relationship of Axis I and Axis II disorders (alone and in combination) to pre-treatment psychosocial functioning. Over two-thirds of the sample met criteria for at least one mental disorder. Borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with having a lifetime mood disorder (odds ratio = 7.5) or lifetime anxiety disorder (odds ratio = 8.7). Individuals with only an Axis II disorder, or who had both Axis I and Axis II disorders, had more severe problems in psychosocial functioning than those without any disorder. Clinical treatment approaches need to address this heterogeneity in diagnostic profiles, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning. PMID:18683206

  13. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  14. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997

  15. Profile of solvent abusers (glue sniffers) in East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zabedah, M Y; Razak, M; Zakiah, I; Zuraidah, A B

    2001-12-01

    Solvent abuse is deliberate sniffing of an organic solvent for the intention of altering the physiological state of the individual. It is also commonly known as glue sniffing because glue is the most commonly abused substance. This form of substance abuse is widespread throughout the world and usually popular among secondary school children and young adults because of its easy availability and it is cheaper compared with most drugs of abuse. In Malaysia this problem has been recognized especially among the children in East Malaysia. In this study, 37 children and young adults from or around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah were referred to Bukit Padang Psychiatric Hospital by the Anti-drug Task force for suspected solvent abuse. These children were interviewed using questionaire and examined physically. Blood and urine were analysed for toluene and hippuric acid. 27 of the children, age ranging between 8 and 20 years, willingly admitted to sniffing glue for a period between a few months to 2 years. Most of them were children of Fillipino illegal immigrants in Kota Kinabalu. Biochemical parameters were found to be normal. Two of them were pale with low hemoglobin and 7 had eosinophilia. Haematuria and proteinuria were found in 21 children (78%). 16 blood samples with toluene levels ranging from 0.3 to 41 microg/ml and 10 urine samples have elevated urinary hippuric acid levels ranging from 1.2 to 7.4 mg/ml. Strong positive correlation was noted between mean blood toluene levels and duration of abuse. PMID:12166590

  16. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  17. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    PubMed

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  18. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  19. Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results and the predictive value of both are discussed. Overall, there was substantial agreement between animal and human data, with each having predictive value. Nonetheless, it is suggested that abuse-potential screening of new medications would benefit from an organized, integrated cross-species program. PMID:16497429

  20. A Profile of Students Engaged in Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, C. Van; And Others

    This study sought to find patterns among the relationship of the factors of substance abuse, home environment, employment during the school year, participation in school activities, and participation in activities outside of school and to confirm or deny that the patterns established for data collected and analyzed during the 1990-91 year would be…

  1. Profiles of Adolescent Substance Abstainers, Users, and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    Psychoactive drugs are widely available in the United States. Many, such as coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol, are used commonly and acceptably by adults. For children and adolescents sorting through the complex messages about both licit and illicit drugs is difficult. Previous research examined differences between substance users and abusers with…

  2. Involvement in High-Profile Child Sexual Abuse Controversies: Costs and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildred, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The costs and benefits associated with participation in conflicts around child sexual abuse are explored. Using qualitative data from interviews with 40 high-profile participants, findings suggest that professionals experience both positive and negative consequences as a result of their involvement. Costs identified include attacks and…

  3. Profiles of Personal Resiliency in Youth Who Have Experienced Physical or Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; Runyon, Melissa K.; Steer, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether children and adolescents (7-17 years old) who had experienced physical, sexual, or both types of abuse reflected distinct profiles of personal resiliency, we administered the "Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents" (RSCA) to 250 youth. We performed cluster analyses with T scores for the RSCA Self-Mastery,…

  4. Empirically-Derived MCMI-III Personality Profiles of Incarcerated Female Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabarek, Joanna K.; Bourke, Michael L.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory- III (MCMI-III) was administered to 210 female inmates in a jail-based substance abuse prevention program. Analyses resulted in the following three cluster profiles: "normal" (no significant elevations), narcissistic, and antisocial. Hypotheses regarding the personality structure of…

  5. Effects of the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 on the abuse liability of methadone in rhesus monkeys: a behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.; Roma, Peter G.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Delta-opioid agonists enhance the antinociceptive efficacy of methadone and other mu-opioid agonists. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which delta agonists might enhance the abuse-related effects of mu agonists. Objective This study used a behavioral economic approach to examine effects of the delta agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxy-benzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] on the reinforcing effects of methadone in a drug self-administration assay. Interactions between SNC80 and cocaine were also examined for comparison. Methods Rhesus monkeys (n=4), surgically implanted with indwelling intravenous catheters, were tested in two phases. In phase 1, drug self-administration dose-effect curves for methadone (0.0032–0.1 mg/kg/injection (inj)) and cocaine (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg/inj) alone were determined under a fixed-ratio 10 (FR 10) schedule of reinforcement. In phase 2, FR values were increased every 3 days (FR 1–FR 1800) during availability of methadone alone (0.032 mg/kg/inj) and in combination with varying proportions of SNC80 (0.1:1, 0.3:1, and 0.9:1 SNC80/methadone) or of cocaine alone (0.032 mg/kg/inj) and in combination with varying proportions of SNC80 (0.33:1, 1:1, and 3:1 SNC80/ cocaine). Demand curves related drug intake to FR price, and measures of reinforcement were derived. Results Methadone and cocaine alone each functioned as a reinforcer. SNC80 did not alter measures of reinforcement for either methadone or cocaine. Conclusions SNC80 at proportions previously shown to enhance methadone-induced antinociception did not enhance the abuse-related effects of methadone. These results support the proposition that delta agonists may selectively enhance mu agonist analgesic effects without enhancing mu agonist abuse liability. PMID:21369752

  6. Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model

    PubMed Central

    Lefever, Timothy W.; Marusich, Julie A.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2014-01-01

    Because Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a robust method suitable for substitution testing of other cannabinoids. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer WIN55,212-2 (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 3 schedule. Dose-effect curves for WIN55,212-2 were determined, followed by vehicle substitution and a dose-effect curve with THC. WIN55,212-2 self-administration was acquired; however, substitution with THC did not maintain responding above vehicle levels. Dose-dependent attenuation by rimonabant confirmed CB1 receptor mediation of WIN55,212-2’s reinforcing effects. Vehicle substitution resulted in a session-dependent decrease in responding (i.e., extinction). While this study provides systematic replication of previous studies, lack of substitution with THC is problematic and suggests that WIN55,212-2 self-administration may be of limited usefulness as a screening tool for detection of the reinforcing effects of potential cannabinoid medications. Clarification of underlying factors responsible for failure of THC to maintain self-administration in cannabinoid-trained rats is needed. PMID:24412835

  7. Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Antonazzo, Kateland R; Wiley, Jenny L

    2014-03-01

    Because Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, the evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a robust method suitable for substitution testing of other cannabinoids. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer WIN55,212-2 (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 3 schedule. Dose-effect curves for WIN55,212-2 were determined, followed by vehicle substitution and a dose-effect curve with THC. WIN55,212-2 self-administration was acquired; however, substitution with THC did not maintain responding above vehicle levels. Dose-dependent attenuation by rimonabant confirmed CB1 receptor mediation of WIN55,212-2's reinforcing effects. Vehicle substitution resulted in a session-dependent decrease in responding (i.e., extinction). While this study provides systematic replication of previous studies, lack of substitution with THC is problematic and suggests that WIN55,212-2 self-administration may be of limited usefulness as a screening tool for detection of the reinforcing effects of potential cannabinoid medications. Clarification of underlying factors responsible for failure of THC to maintain self-administration in cannabinoid-trained rats is needed. PMID:24412835

  8. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollins, S H; MacDonald, E K; Rush, C R

    2001-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays. PMID:11325419

  9. Transcriptional profiling in the human prefrontal cortex: evidence for two activational states associated with cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Lehrmann, E; Oyler, J; Vawter, M P; Hyde, T M; Kolachana, B; Kleinman, J E; Huestis, M A; Becker, K G; Freed, W J

    2003-01-01

    CNS-focused cDNA microarrays were used to examine gene expression profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, Area 46) from seven individual sets of age- and post-mortem interval-matched male cocaine abusers and controls. The presence of cocaine and related metabolites was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-five transcripts were differentially expressed, indicating alterations in energy metabolism, mitochondria and oligodendrocyte function, cytoskeleton and related signaling, and neuronal plasticity. There was evidence for two distinct states of transcriptional regulation, with increases in gene expression predominating in subjects testing positive for a metabolite indicative of recent 'crack' cocaine abuse and decreased expression profiles in the remaining cocaine subjects. This pattern was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for select transcripts. These data suggest that cocaine abuse targets a distinct subset of genes in the dlPFC, resulting in either a state of acute activation in which increased gene expression predominates, or a relatively destimulated, refractory phase. PMID:12629581

  10. Personality profile and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine-abusers.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Lubomski, M; Murray, S; King, K

    2001-09-01

    Little is known about the association between personality disorders and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine users. The aims of the present study were to (1) pinpoint the specific neuropsychological characteristics of chronic cocaine abusers, (2) analyze their personality profile, and (3) explore the association between personality traits and neuropsychological test performance. A sample of 42 drug-abusers (mean age = 34.15; SD = 6.73; mean educational level = 11.44; SD = 2.01) was selected from a state rehabilitation facility and was compared to a control group (mean age = 34.53; SD = 9.01; mean educational level = 12.29; SD = 1.31). The following information was collected for each subject: (1) A clinical history adapted from Horton (1996). (2) The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991). (3) A neuropsychological test battery including: Arithmetic and Digits subtests from the WAIS-R, California Verbal Learning Test, Trial Making Test, Verbal Fluency tests, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Stroop Neurological Screening Test and Hooper Visual Organization. Thirty-seven of the drug-dependent subjects obtained an abnormal score in at least one PAI scale. The personality profile of the drug-dependent subjects found via the PAI pointed to a Borderline/Antisocial personality, frequently associated with mania features. In six of the drug-abusers, a normal personality profile was observed. Neuropsychological test performance scores were within the low average or borderline range. The most abnormal scores were observed in attention, memory, and executive functioning tests. The results did not show any robust association between personality profile and neuropsychological test performance. PMID:11697211

  11. Stress profile of infant rib in the setting of child abuse: A finite element parametric study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andy; Coats, Brittany; Kleinman, Paul K

    2012-07-26

    The primary goal of this study is to advance our current understanding of infant rib injuries in the setting of child abuse. To this end, we employed finite element model simulations to determine the sensitivity of an infant rib's stress response to varying material properties and under varying degrees of anterior-posterior chest compression. Using high-resolution chest CT images obtained from a 6-day-old infant, we constructed a simplified geometric model consisting of bone and cartilage structures. To simulate the lateral gripping of an infant in child abuse, an anterior-posterior chest compression load was applied to cause increased stresses along the costovertebral articulation, a classic site for inflicted rib fractures. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of varying Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the bones and cartilages. In addition, we varied the amount of anterior-posterior chest displacement to assess the sensitivity of this parameter to the rib's stress profile. We found that varying Young's modulus of the bone and cartilage not only changed the magnitude but also the shape profile of the rib's stress response. In contrast, varying the degree of chest compression only changed the magnitude of the stress response and not the shape profile. We also discovered that by varying Poisson's ratio of the bone and cartilage, no appreciable change was seen in the magnitude or the shape profile of the rib's stress response. Finite element modeling shows promise as a tool to elucidate the mechanisms of rib fractures in abused infants. PMID:22727522

  12. Proteomic profiling of human sera for discovery of potential biomarkers to monitor abstinence from alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Li, Kaigang; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates have been discovered to detect levels of drinking and intervals of time after last drinking episode, only a few biomarkers have been applied to monitor abstinence in a longer interval (≥ 6 weeks) from alcohol abuse. Considering sample sources, sensitivity, and specificity, new biomarkers from blood with better accuracy are needed. To address this, serum proteomic profiles were compared between pre- and post- treatment samples from subjects seeking treatment for alcohol abuse and dependence in an intensive 6-week daily outpatient program using high-abundance plasma protein immunodepletion and LC-MS/MS techniques. Protein identification, quantification, candidate biomarker selection, and prioritization analyses were carried out. Among the 246 quantified serum proteins, abundance of 13 and 45 proteins in female and male subjects were significantly changed (p ≤ 0.05), respectively. Of these biomarker candidate proteins, 2 (female) and 8 (male) proteins were listed in category 1, with high area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and fold change. In summary, several new biomarker candidates have been identified to monitor abstinence from alcohol abuse. PMID:25475211

  13. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases. PMID:27561119

  14. International study of expert judgment on therapeutic use of benzodiazepines and other psychotherapeutic medications: IV. Therapeutic dose dependence and abuse liability of benzodiazepines in the long-term treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhuth, E H; Balter, M B; Ban, T A; Yang, K

    1999-12-01

    Despite decades of relevant basic and clinical research, active debate continues about the appropriate extent and duration of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders. The primary basis of the controversy seems to be concern among clinicians, regulators, and the public about the dependence potential and the abuse liability of benzodiazepines. This article reports systematically elicited judgments on these issues by a representative panel of 73 internationally recognized experts in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety and depressive disorders, a panel which was constituted by a multistage process of peer nomination. The criterion for inclusion at each stage was the nomination by at least two peers as one of the "professionally most respected physicians of the world with extensive experience and knowledge in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety and depressive disorders." Sixty-six respondents (90%) completed a comprehensive questionnaire covering a wide range of topics relevant to the therapeutic use of benzodiazepines and other medications that might be used for the same purposes. Overall, the expert panel judged that benzodiazepines pose a higher risk of dependence and abuse than most potential substitutes but a lower risk than older sedatives and recognized drugs of abuse. There was little consensus about the relative risk of dependence and abuse among the benzodiazepines. Differences between benzodiazepines with shorter and longer half-lives in inducing withdrawal symptoms are much less clear during tapered than during abrupt discontinuation. There was little agreement about the most important factors contributing to withdrawal symptoms and failure to discontinue benzodiazepines. The pharmacologic properties of the medication may be the most important contributors to withdrawal symptoms. In contrast, the clinical characteristics of the patient may be the most important contributors to failure to discontinue medication. The experts' judgment seems

  15. Involvement in high-profile child sexual abuse controversies: costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mildred, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The costs and benefits associated with participation in conflicts around child sexual abuse are explored. Using qualitative data from interviews with 40 high-profile participants, findings suggest that professionals experience both positive and negative consequences as a result of their involvement. Costs identified include attacks and misrepresentations, harm to health or emotional well-being, and career losses or changes. Benefits included personal growth, a sense of personal satisfaction, and career enhancement. Women were found to have experienced more impacts overall than men. Psychological theories about stress and coping and sociological theories about social movement participation are used to explore why people remain committed despite the risks associated with participation. Material rewards, commitment to change, the development of a highly salient identity, and the support of social networks may be contributing factors. PMID:15353379

  16. Tort Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    This chapter summarices and analyzes all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions involving the tort liability of school districts and school personnel. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. In his…

  17. Minimizing liability during internal investigations.

    PubMed

    Morris, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Today's security professional must appreciate the potential landmines in any investigative effort and work collaboratively with others to minimize liability risks, the author points out. In this article he examines six civil torts that commonly arise from unprofessionally planned or poorly executed internal investigations-defamation, false imprisonment. intentional infliction of emotional distress, assault and battery, invasion of privacy, and malicious prosecution and abuse of process. PMID:20873494

  18. Profiles of Women Who Have Mental Retardation with and without a Documented History of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six women with mental retardation were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they had a documented history of abuse during the preceding 5 years. The women with this history were more likely than the women with no documented history of abuse to be employing passive/avoidant decision-making strategies, reporting higher levels of…

  19. Profiles of women who have mental retardation with and without a documented history of abuse.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2008-03-01

    Thirty-six women with mental retardation were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they had a documented history of abuse during the preceding 5 years. The women with this history were more likely than the women with no documented history of abuse to be employing passive/avoidant decision-making strategies, reporting higher levels of stress, having dual diagnoses, be receiving counseling, and relying on others to go out into the community. We recommend that special attention be paid to designing interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of these women. PMID:18240874

  20. Using Neuropsychological Profiles to Classify Neglected Children with or without Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…

  1. A profile of suspected child abuse as a subgroup of major trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Ffion C; Coats, Timothy J; Fisher, Ross; Lawrence, Thomas; Lecky, Fiona E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children is an important cause of major injury. The Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) recently analysed data on the demographics of paediatric trauma and highlighted NAI as a major cause of death and severe injury in children. This paper examined TARN data to characterise accidental versus abusive cases of major injury. Methods The national trauma registry of England and Wales (TARN) database was interrogated for the classification of mechanism of injury in children by intent, from January 2004 to December 2013. Contributing hospitals’ submissions were classified into accidental injury (AI), suspected child abuse (SCA) or alleged assault (AA) to enable demographic and injury comparisons. Results In the study population of 14 845 children, 13 708 (92.3%, CI 91.9% to 92.8%) were classified as accidental injury, 368 as alleged assault (2.5%, CI 2.2% to 2.7%) and 769 as SCA (5.2%, CI 4.8% to 5.5%). Nearly all cases of severely injured children suffering trauma because of SCA occurred in the age group of 0–5 years (751 of 769, 97.7%), with 76.3% occurring in infants under the age of 1 year. Compared with accidental injury, suspected victims of abuse have higher overall injury severity scores, have a higher proportion of head injury and a threefold higher mortality rate of 7.6% (CI 5.51% to 9.68%) vs 2.6% (CI 2.3% to 2.9%). Conclusions This study highlights that major injury occurring as a result of SCA has a typical demographic pattern. These children tend to be under 12 months of age, with more severe injury. Understanding these demographics could help receiving hospitals identify children with major injuries resulting from abuse and ensure swift transfer to specialist care. PMID:26598630

  2. Clinical biochemical and hormonal profiling in plasma: a promising strategy to predict growth hormone abuse in cattle.

    PubMed

    Doué, Mickael; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Cesbron, Nora; Stefani, Annalisa; Moro, Letizia; Biancotto, Giancarlo; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotrophin (rbST) is widely used in some countries to increase milk production. Since 1994, both marketing and use of this substance have been prohibited within the European Union. In this context, the targeted plasma biochemical and hormonal profiling was assessed as a potential screening strategy to highlight rbST (ab)use in cattle. Twenty-one routinely measured clinical blood parameters, representative of main biological profiles (energetic, proteic, etc.), were measured in the plasma of six lactating cows before and after rbST treatment throughout a 23-day study period. Appropriate multivariate statistical analyses [principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square (OPLS)] enabled discriminating animal samples before and after treatment (days 0 vs. 2 to 9, P = 2.10(-9)) and highlighted the five most relevant blood parameters in this discrimination. Based on each five-analyte contribution, a simple mathematically weighted equation was suggested to predict the status of samples. A suspicious threshold was proposed, and the model was further tested with the status prediction of the supplementary samples from untreated (n = 20) and treated cows (n = 22). The calculated false-positive (10%) and false-negative (4.5%) rates were in accordance with the EU requirements for screening methods. Although the model needs to be further validated with additional samples, such targeted plasma biochemical and hormonal profiling already appears as a potential promising screening strategy to highlight rbST (ab)use in cattle. PMID:25716468

  3. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of intranasal crushed buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone tablets in opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, L.S.; Nuzzo, P.A.; Lofwall, M.R.; Moody, D.E.; Walsh, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Sublingual buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are efficacious opioid dependence pharmacotherapies, but there are reports of their diversion and misuse by the intranasal route. The study objectives were to characterize and compare their intranasal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Setting An in-patient research unit at the University of Kentucky. Participants Healthy adults (n=10) abusing, but not physically dependent on, intranasal opioids. Measurements Six sessions (72 hours apart) tested five intranasal doses [0/0, crushed buprenorphine (2, 8 mg), crushed buprenorphine/naloxone (2/0.5, 8/2 mg)] and one intravenous dose (0.8 mg buprenorphine/0.2 mg naloxone for bioavailability assessment). Plasma samples, physiological, subject- and observer-rated measures were collected before and for up to 72 hours after drug administration. Findings Both formulations produced time- and dose-dependent increases on subjective and physiological mu-opioid agonist effects (e.g. ‘liking’, miosis). Subjects reported higher subjective ratings and street values for 8 mg compared to 8/2 mg, but these differences were not statistically significant. No significant formulation differences in peak plasma buprenorphine concentration or time-course were observed. Buprenorphine bioavailability was 38–44% and Tmax was 35–40 minutes after all intranasal doses. Naloxone bioavailability was 24% and 30% following 2/0.5 and 8/2 mg, respectively. Conclusions It is difficult to determine if observed differences in abuse potential between intranasal buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone are clinically relevant at the doses tested. Greater bioavailability and faster onset of pharmacodynamic effects compared to sublingual administration suggests a motivation for intranasal misuse in non-dependent opioid abusers. However, significant naloxone absorption from intranasal buprenorphine

  4. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  5. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  6. Profile of Ritualistic and Religion-Related Abuse Allegations Reported to Clinical Psychologists in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Bette L.; And Others

    One of the most shocking claims about child abuse in recent years is that satanic, occult, or ritualistic abuse is occurring and on the rise. To date, no one has attempted to assess the prevalence of claims of such abuse, or to determine the range of cases and the nature of the typical case. This study is currently surveying approximately 41,000…

  7. Problem Severity Profiles of Substance Abusing Women in Therapeutic Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine specific substance use profiles among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrant and native-born women in Israeli therapeutic treatment facilities. Individuals were sampled at drug treatment facilities and assessed using the Addiction Severity Index. ASI scores suggest differences between the two groups. Among the findings…

  8. [Perspectives in medical liability].

    PubMed

    Pizarro W, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The progressive increase of medical negligence law suits requires an updated analysis of the current situation of medical liability in Chile. The application of a new criminal procedure will avoid criminal prosecution of doctors, transferring to the civil courts the pecuniary sanctions for malpractice. Medical negligence and damage inflicted by doctors that require compensation are explained. The most likely evolution of medical liability is proposed, through an increase in civil liability insurance and the necessary standardization of rules applicable to professional liability. PMID:18769798

  9. Socio-demographic and Clinical Profile of Substance Abusers Attending a Regional Drug De-addiction Centre in Chronic Conflict Area: Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Yasir Hassan; Bashir, Wiqar; Sheikh, Ajaz Ahmad; Amin, Marya; Zahgeer, Yasir Arafat

    2013-01-01

    Background: The menace of substance abuse is not only a socially unacceptable reality, but in its entirety is a disease and emerging as a major public health challenge. Objective: To study the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients attending the drug de-addiction centre. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken in a drug de-addiction centre at the Police Hospital in Srinagar, and all patients (198) who were admitted during this period were interviewed. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 26.8 years (SD 7.37), and over half (56%) belonged to the lower-middle social class. Poly-substance abuse was seen in 91.9%; medicinal opioids and cannabis were the most common substances abused. Most common age of initiation was 11–20 years (76.8%), with peer pressure and relief from a negative mood state being the most common reasons given for starting the drug(s). Prevalence of a co-morbid psychiatric disorder was high, on the order of 49.5%. A high rate of volatile substance use was observed among adolescents (54.5%). Conclusion: A pattern of poly-substance abuse was found to be quite common in patients, and use of volatile substances at a very young age emerged as a new trend. The dreadful repercussions of substance abuse justify the urgency to evolve a comprehensive strategy. PMID:23966822

  10. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  11. Stereoisomeric profiling of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in wastewaters of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Roig, Pablo; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    The enantiomeric and diastereomeric profiling of chiral pharmaceuticals (ephedrine, norephedrine, atenolol and venlafaxine) and illicit drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)) was undertaken over a period of fourteen consecutive days in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the city of Valencia, Spain. Degradation efficiency of WWTPs was found to be compound and enantiomer dependent. Selective enantiomer enrichment was observed for several target analytes. Amphetamine and MDMA were enriched with R(-)-enantiomers. 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine was found to be more readily degradable during activated sludge treatment than its diastereomer 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine. Atenolol underwent enrichment with either S(-)- or R(+)-enantiomer in different WWTPs. This unexpected enantiomeric variation in the stereoselective degradation of atenolol could be attributed to different processes utilized during activated sludge treatment. The application of (enantiomeric) profiling of wastewater revealed usage patterns of chiral drugs in the Valencia region. PMID:25029504

  12. Where Are They Now? An Update on Defendants. Part 3--High Profile Sexual Abuse in Child Care Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Following up on "Child Abuse Storm Scale--Part 1" ("Child Care Information Exchange," Jan-Feb 1999) and Part 2 (Mar-Apr 1999), this article shares the current status of prominent sexual abuse in child care cases. Cases include McMartin Preschool, Fells Acres Day Care, Wee Care Nursery School (the Kelly Michaels case), Little Rascals, and Breezy…

  13. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  14. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities. PMID:24094899

  15. [Basic features of medical liability].

    PubMed

    Niksić, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Medical liability is one of the most important parts of law that regulates health services. Although there are different types of liability in the field of medicine (criminal responsibility, disciplinary proceedings) civil law liability holds central position. Civil law liability in medicine (medical liability) is probably more important than criminal responsibility and disciplinary proceedings because of the number of cases in comparison to the criminal responsibility and impact of the consequences in comparison to the disciplinary proceedings. Medical liability is governed by a (general) tort law. Therefore medical liability exists only if conditions for civil law liability are met. When considering medical liability it is necessary to emphasize that tortfeasor will not be liable only because victim sustained the damage, but if all conditions for liability are met. Medical liability will arise if actions of physician are not conducted lege artis or in a breach of the duty of care. In some cases of medical liability legal sources are directly applicable (informed consent). General tort law is also applicable on decisions in the respect of the damages. PMID:19146185

  16. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

  17. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  18. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  19. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  20. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  1. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  2. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  3. Self Concept of Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)

  4. Becoming Heroes: Teachers Can Help Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Teachers can provide an effective counterbalance to the effects of an abusive home. They should not allow their skeptical attitudes, fear of liability, defensiveness about discipline, or religious and political affiliations to cloud their perceptions. Teachers can help hurting children by attending to their basic needs for warmth and security,…

  5. Oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to healthy men: alteration of the urinary androgen profile and consequences for the detection of abuse in sport by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dehennin, L; Ferry, M; Lafarge, P; Pérès, G; Lafarge, J P

    1998-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy as compensation for high age-related decline of DHEA and DHEA sulfate production is a matter of intense investigation, since many beneficial effects have been proven, or are suggested and expected. Therefore, DHEA abuse by athletes has been considered by the International Olympic Committee, which banned the substance recently. As DHEA for oral supplementation is easily available, we decided to investigate the effect on the urinary androgen profile of administration along this route of a single substitution dose of 50 mg. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring demonstrated that the drug was readily absorbed with 50 to 75% recovery of dosing after 24 h, and with glucuro- and sulfoconjugates of DHEA, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as the most abundant metabolites. In agreement with reported data found in blood, conversion of exogenous DHEA to the principal biologically active androgen, testosterone, was low but proven to be real by the administration of deuterium-labeled DHEA and the subsequent identification and quantification of deuterium-labeled testosterone. A concentration threshold of 300 micrograms/L of DHEA glucuronide is proposed for the screening of DHEA abuse in sport, but a single replacement dose can only be detected during 8 h. Such a short detection period is the consequence of considerable first-pass hepatic metabolism and also of the high interindividual variability of circulating and urinary DHEA and DHEA sulfate concentrations. PMID:9516717

  6. Profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription opioid abuse from a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre from India

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: There has been a limited focus on prescription drug abuse among women in the country. Choice of psychoactive substance, reasons for initiation and co-occurring disorders have been found to be different among men and women. The current study was aimed at studying the profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription drug use over a period of five years at a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre in India. Methods: Case records of all female patients admitted with substance use disorder at a national level drug dependence treatment centre in north India across five years (between January 2008 and December 2012) were reviewed retrospectively to study their socio-demographic and clinical profile. The information was gathered using a semi-structured proforma and detailed case records. Abstinence, relapse and retention rates were calculated. Results: Over the five years, 31 female patients were admitted with prescription drug abuse. Of them, 12 (39%) used prescription opioids and 11 (36%) used prescription opioid along with benzodiazepines. Commonest prescription opioid was pentazocine used by 87 per cent of the women. Twenty two (71%) women were introduced to opioid by medical practitioners and commonest reason for introduction was pain (among 48%). Common co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (26%), cluster B traits/disorder (19%) and somatoform disorder (13%). Eight women did not complete treatment and left against medical advice. Thirteen women were advised maintenance treatment, and 70 per cent of them were retained for at least six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings revealed a link between mental illness, pain and non-medical use of prescription opioids among women. Majority of these women received opioids as a legitimate prescription form physician. Therefore, these legitimate prescribers should be trained for pain management to facilitate proper treatment of pain and to

  7. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed. PMID:24848863

  8. A Study in Computer Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield Inst. of Technology (Australia).

    Computer abuse is examined as both a general issue and as a specific problem. A statistical profile of computer crime lists distribution by country of reported cases, by industry of occurrence, and by amount of monetary loss. The characteristics of computer abuse are described along with the important categories of such crimes. Factors inhibiting…

  9. [Tort Liability and School Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Allyn J.

    School districts, school employees, bus companies contracted by districts, and bus company employees could be involved in court litigation over student injury and student civil rights related to school bus transportation. Civil rights insurance should be added to general liability insurance and motor vehicle liability insurance. Students must be…

  10. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  11. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  12. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  13. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  14. Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…

  15. Emerging Issues in Special Education Tort Liability: Implications for Special Educators and Teacher Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Critical issues in tort liability that confront special educators and teacher trainers include malpractice (failure to learn), misdiagnosis, immunity, impact of a handicap on standard of care, confidentiality, access to emergency medical services, the use of aversive consequences, child abuse and corporal punishment, and school violence.…

  16. Does Living with a Substance Abusing Father Increase Substance Abuse Risk in Male Offspring? Impact on Individual, Family, School, and Peer Vulnerability Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Schultz, Katie; Kirisci, Levent; Dunn, Marija

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether risk of drug abuse in offspring of fathers with substance use disorders differs with respect to presence or absence of the father. Concluded increased risk for substance abuse in offspring of separated parents due to the combination of the transmission of more severe liability from the father, and fewer resources available to the…

  17. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obtaining liability insurance as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(a)(1). (5) Financial test for liability... 40 CFR 264.147(j). (2) Surety bond for liability coverage. An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond for liability coverage as specified in 40 CFR...

  18. Medical liability reform crisis 2008.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called "Doctors for Medical Liability Reform" to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  19. 26 CFR 1.752-1 - Treatment of partnership liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions apply: (1) Recourse liability defined. A partnership liability is a recourse liability to the extent that any partner or related person bears the economic risk of loss for that liability under § 1.752-2. (2) Nonrecourse liability defined. A partnership liability is a nonrecourse liability to...

  20. The malpractice liability crisis.

    PubMed

    Brenner, R James; Smith, John J

    2004-01-01

    Most medical malpractice cases are tried under the civil tort of negligence and are often triggered by adverse outcomes. These proceedings are aimed primarily at determining whether the conduct of a health care provider was reasonable. Such legal actions have mostly been subject to state jurisdiction. Increasingly, a number of factors are converging that are threatening the continued practice of medicine in some states and hence patients' access to care. These include higher amounts of monetary damages awarded to successful plaintiffs, consequent rising malpractice premiums, and the threatened economic insolvency of medical liability insurance carriers as a result of the broader economic downturn. The result is a serious public health dilemma. The national scope of the problem has been considered a crisis, which has prompted unprecedented federal legislative proposals directed toward providing new and preemptive parameters for capitated noneconomic damages, restrictions on certain civil procedures affecting lawsuit outcomes, and methods for attorney compensation, which some states have either not previously addressed or found unconstitutional. A survey of different states' problems and common issues should assist the reader in understanding the nature of the crisis and proposed solutions. PMID:17411514

  1. Sociodemographic profile and pattern of opioid abuse among patients presenting to a de-addiction centre in tertiary care Hospital of Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Samina; Hussain, Syed Sajad; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Hussain, Syed Karrar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The substances abuse has become one of the major public health problems of present society. Recently there has been an increase in the incidence of substance abuse including that of opioids throughout the world. The proper assessment of the current trends and pattern of opioid abuse can be helpful in more effective intervention of this menace. Materials and Methods: To find out various socio-demographic variables and pattern of opioid abuse, a predevised questionnaire was administered to 200 opioid patients who presented to de-addiction center for treatment. Results: Majority of the participants (75%) were of young age group (20–30 years) and the mean age of subjects was 27.6 years. More than half of participants (55%) were abusing the opioid substances for < 3 years followed by 30% of the abusers who were using the opioids for 4–6 years. Oral route was the most common route(35%)of substance administration followed by chasing(13%) and intravenous(11%) routes. Diverted pharmaceuticals emerged as one of the common substances of abuse, and peer pressure was found to be the main reason to start substance abuse. Conclusion: A comprehensive preventive program targeting young adults needs to be formulated and strict laws against sales of diverted pharmaceuticals to be implemented. PMID:26229346

  2. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  3. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  4. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  5. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:24275167

  6. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

  7. 7 CFR 1717.903 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for Supplemental Financing Required by 7 CFR 1710.110 § 1717.903 Liability. It is the intent of this... for lien accommodations or lien subordinations, shall not give rise to liability of any kind on...

  8. [Procedures for establishing professional liability].

    PubMed

    Budić, Nikolina

    2008-01-01

    All the greater exposure to the procedures for determining liability for the conduct of medical activity points to the need that members of the Croatian Medical Chamber know the basis for establishing liability. Therefore, it is necessary to expose the reasons why the doctors are professionals and what kind of responsibility can be determined, in which procedures it is implemented, and what are the types of possible sanctions. Croatian Medical Chamber has a special role is, as it at the same time protects the rights and represents the interests of doctors, and enforces disciplinary proceedings. PMID:19146187

  9. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  10. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large...

  11. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large...

  12. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large...

  13. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large...

  14. 14 CFR 254.4 - Carrier liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carrier liability. 254.4 Section 254.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.4 Carrier liability. On any flight segment using large...

  15. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 264.147(j). (2) Surety bond for liability coverage. An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond for liability coverage as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(i... section by obtaining a letter of credit for liability coverage as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(h)....

  16. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liability. 28.307-2 Section 28.307-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's liability. Contractors are required to...

  17. 48 CFR 28.307-2 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability. 28.307-2 Section 28.307-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.307-2 Liability. (a) Workers' compensation and employer's liability. Contractors are required to...

  18. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  19. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  20. 29 CFR 18.411 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liability insurance. 18.411 Section 18.411 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.411 Liability insurance... evidence of insurance against liability when offered for another purpose, such as proof of...

  1. 33 CFR 401.23 - Liability insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability insurance. 401.23....23 Liability insurance. (a) It is a condition of approval of an application for preclearance that the vessel is covered by liability insurance equal to or exceeding $100 per gross registered ton. (b)...

  2. Liability Management for Outdoor Experiential Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor experiential program providers must be aware of certain issues in order to reduce or eliminate liability claims against their organization and employees. These include liability insurance, liability education, risk control, and record keeping. Recommends that all outdoor program providers provide risk management training to employees and…

  3. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  4. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to watch or be part of sexual acts. Money Matters: Financial Abuse and Healthcare Fraud After Victor’s ... the past 6 months, Victor has been taking money from their account for his own use. He ...

  5. Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Deborah, Ed.

    This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

  6. University Liability for Sports Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)

  7. Schoolyard Ponds: Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2001-01-01

    Engaging, attractive schoolyard ponds provide habitat for wildlife and hold great educational promise. Reviews water safety and liability issues including mud, stagnant pond water that serves as mosquito breeding grounds, and drowning. Offers ideas for creatively addressing those issues through site planning, shallow water depth, signage and…

  8. School Liability for Student Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1996-01-01

    Schools and school personnel have moral and ethical responsibilities to take reasonable action to prevent suicides by students. Liability could be imposed if school personnel had knowledge of a student's suicidal intent and failed to take action based on that knowledge. (75 footnotes) (MLF)

  9. 77 FR 27384 - Demurrage Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ....Ct. 993 (2011) (mem.). \\13\\ Demurrage Liability, EP 707 (STB served Dec. 6, 2010), 75 FR 76,496 (Dec... rulemaking (NPRM), the Board is proposing a rule establishing that a person receiving rail cars from a rail carrier for loading or unloading who detains the cars beyond the ``free time'' provided in the...

  10. Endorsement liability: putting your good name at risk.

    PubMed

    Aicher, R H

    2001-07-01

    Endorsements designed to sell products are most effective when the endorser is a celebrity or an expert. If such endorsements contain misrepresentations, the endorser risks personal liability. For products related to health and safety, endorsements are subject to evaluation by reliable independent sources. In a number of high-profile cases, the Federal Trade Commission determined that endorsers must have a reasonable basis for their representations. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:373-374.). PMID:19331918

  11. THE LIABILITY FORMS OF THE MEDICAL PERSONNEL.

    PubMed

    Bărcan, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation, namely Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform in the medical malpractice domain stipulates that medical staff can be held accountable in the following forms: disciplinary liability, administrative liability, civil liability and criminal liability. Each form of legal liability presents its features, aspects that are found mainly in the procedural rules. However, the differences between the various legal forms of liability are not met only in the procedural rules but also in their effects and consequences. It is necessary to know what the procedure for disciplinary responsibility, administrative liability, civil liability, or criminal liability is. In addition to the differentiation determined by the consequences that may arise from the different forms of legal liability, it is important to know the competent authorities to investigate a case further and the solutions which various public institutions can take regarding the medical staff. Depending on the type of legal liability, authorities have a specialized authority. If the Disciplinary Committee is encountered at the College of Physicians, it may not intervene in cases before the monitoring and competence for malpractice cases Committee. The latter two committees cannot intervene directly in the legal assessment of civil or criminal cases, as no criminal investigation authorities cannot intervene in strictly civilian cases. Therefore, the importance of knowing the competent institutions is imperative. PMID:26978868

  12. Oxazepam for the Treatment of Substance Abuse and Depression: Is it Appropriate?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Distinguishing itself from other benzodiazepine drugs, oxazepam has an interesting pharmacological and clinical profile, including binding effects on the translocator protein (TSPO) and a relatively favorable safety and abuse liability profile. TSPO is found in the brain (where it is involved in neurosteroid synthesis), but is also expressed in the heart and other peripheral tissues. Oxazepam is potentially useful in the treatment of substance abuse, especially in conjunction with the cortisol synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, and can be considered an appropriate medication to use in the treatment of depression. The oxazepam/metyrapone combination has been piloted in cocaine-dependent patients and should be investigated in patients with depression. Expression of cardiac TSPO is altered by different stress conditions, and drugs binding to TSPO may have cardioprotective effects. The possibility of oxazepam, alone or together with antidepressant drugs, having a positive effect on cardiac function in patients with depression should also be studied. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 21-24.]. PMID:27135891

  13. Typology for Parents of Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Michael P.; Meier, John H.

    This paper reports an effort to classify parents of abused children according to existing and new typologies derived from parents' psychopathological personality profiles. Several previously reported typologies for abusive parents are reviewed and elaborated. In addition, reference is given to data and insights gained from an ongoing study of 50…

  14. The development of abused children.

    PubMed

    Oates, R K; Peacock, A; Forrest, D

    1984-10-01

    Thirty-nine children were reviewed who had suffered child abuse at an average of 5 1/2 years earlier. In comparison with a group matched for socio-economic status, the abused children performed significantly lower on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and were more delayed in language development and reading ability. Their teachers' assessments of behaviour showed significantly more abnormal profiles than in the comparison group. These differences could not be accounted for by the small proportion of known head-injuries in the abused group. Child abuse has long-term effects, so it is necessary that these children are thoroughly assessed at first presentation, and that they are followed with a specific programme aimed at preventing these sequelae. PMID:6510564

  15. [Expert advice in liability cases].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G

    2009-05-01

    Concerning cases of liability, dentists in the future will probably have to call on expert help or act as experts on behalf of a colleague with increasing frequency. Dentists who consider acting as experts in liability cases will have to develop their expertise especially in civil law and disciplinary law. Matters which in this respect should receive special attention are: the expert must act in conformity with the law on Medical Treatment Agreement; the expert's report must make clear what the legal basis is of the report's conclusions; the legal basis must be substantially supported by the facts, conditions and findings that are mentioned in the report; the expert must act independently and refrain from subjective judgments, assumptions and unprofessional and prejudicial qualifications. PMID:19507415

  16. [Liability of the expert witness].

    PubMed

    Jansen, C

    1996-11-01

    Regarding the liability of the expert witness, is has to be differentiated between the responsibility according to the civil law and the criminal law. Responsibility in the criminal law means the punishableness for the guilty and illegal fulfillment of a criminal offense in the legal sense, while responsibility in the civil law means compensation towards another citizen. Criminal prosecution occurs ex officio. Prerequisite for prosecution in the civil law is an action of the victim. PMID:9064937

  17. Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Negus, S Stevens

    2014-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters, in general, and dopamine transporters, in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination, and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use. PMID:24484977

  18. Monoamine Transporter Inhibitors and Substrates as Treatments for Stimulant Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Leonard L.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic effects of abused psychostimulants on monoamine transporters and associated neurobiology have encouraged development of candidate medications that target these transporters. Monoamine transporters in general, and dopamine transporters in particular, are critical molecular targets that mediate abuse-related effects of psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Moreover, chronic administration of psychostimulants can cause enduring changes in neurobiology reflected in dysregulation of monoamine neurochemistry and behavior. The current review will evaluate evidence for the efficacy of monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates to reduce abuse-related effects of stimulants in preclinical assays of stimulant self-administration, drug discrimination and reinstatement. In considering deployment of monoamine transport inhibitors and substrates as agonist-type medications to treat stimulant abuse, the safety and abuse liability of the medications are an obvious concern, and this will also be addressed. Future directions in drug discovery should identify novel medications that retain efficacy to decrease stimulant use but possess lower abuse liability, and evaluate the degree to which efficacious medications can attenuate or reverse neurobiological effects of chronic stimulant use. PMID:24484977

  19. Causes of the liability insurance crisis.

    PubMed

    Harrington, S; Litan, R E

    1988-02-12

    In this article the reasons for recent dramatic premium increases for liability insurance are explored by examination of available data on industry premiums, losses, and expenses. The suggestions that the premium increases were primarily caused by collusion among insurers, cyclical behavior, or systematic errors in forecasting losses are rejected. Instead, the evidence indicates that the jump in liability insurance premiums is most plausibly due to the growth in the discounted value of expected liability losses. PMID:3340855

  20. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.365 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1207.365 Personal liability. No member of...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.361 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Miscellaneous § 1210.361 Personal liability. No...

  10. Fertility rhymes with liability: medical liability in 'ART'.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Medical malpractice claims have been growing all over the world. Medical acts involving new technologies and complex scientific acknowledgements are especially at stake, since they look particularly threatening to patients and judges and are, effectively, potentially more risky. The reason is that, side by side with traditional medical faults, new sources of liability emerge, as for instance the exchange or misappropriation of genetic material or surplus embryos. The present study analyses some of those new medical faults with the aim of alerting health institutions and health professionals, enlightening them about the juridical consequences of those conducts and providing simple tips to avoid lawsuits and condemnations. PMID:26665349

  11. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  12. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  13. Neurotoxic Profiles of HIV, Psychostimulant Drugs of Abuse, and their Concerted Effect on the Brain: Current Status of Dopamine System Vulnerability in NeuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2008-01-01

    There are roughly 30 to 40 million HIV infected individuals in the world as of December 2007, and drug abuse directly contributes to one-third of all HIV-infections in the United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the lifespan of HIV-seropositives, but CNS function often remains diminished, effectively decreasing quality of life. A modest proportion may develop HIV-associated dementia, the severity and progression of which is increased with drug abuse. HIV and drugs of abuse in the CNS target subcortical brain structures and DA systems in particular. This toxicity is mediated by a number of neurotoxic mechanisms, including but not limited to, aberrant immune response and oxidative stress. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies must be developed that can address a wide variety of disparate neurotoxic mechanisms and apoptotic cascades. This paper reviews the research pertaining to the where, what, and how of HIV and cocaine/methamphetamine toxicity in the CNS. Specifically, where these toxins most affect the brain, what aspects of the virus are neurotoxic, and how these toxins mediate neurotoxicity. PMID:18430470

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies Enable Javascript to ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies is a disorder ...

  15. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  16. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  17. 34 CFR 668.138 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liability. 668.138 Section 668.138 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Immigration-Status Confirmation § 668.138 Liability. (a) A student is liable for any...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.63 - Contract liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contract liability. 1412.63 Section 1412.63... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Contract Violations and Reduction in Payments § 1412.63 Contract liability. All signatories to a DCP or ACRE program contract...

  19. College and University Liability under Superfund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderfeld, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 concerning responsibility for toxic waste disposal looks at college and university liability under the act, institutional defenses that could be raised under the act, and the settlement process. (MSE)

  20. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  1. 12 CFR 229.56 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability. 229.56 Section 229.56 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.56 Liability. (a)...

  2. 12 CFR 229.56 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liability. 229.56 Section 229.56 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.56 Liability. (a)...

  3. 12 CFR 229.56 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liability. 229.56 Section 229.56 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.56 Liability....

  4. 12 CFR 229.56 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability. 229.56 Section 229.56 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.56 Liability....

  5. 12 CFR 229.56 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability. 229.56 Section 229.56 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.56 Liability. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1205.347 Personal liability. No member or...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1205.347 Personal liability. No member or...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1205.347 Personal liability. No member or...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1205.347 Personal liability. No member or...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.347 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 1205.347 Section 1205.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1205.347 Personal liability. No member or...

  11. Liability Insurance in California Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    In the mid-1970s, an increased number of high-cost liability lawsuits combined with other financial difficulties insurance companies were experiencing to cause drastic increases in insurance rates for schools and a reluctance on the part of insurance carriers to provide liability coverage. Questionnaires returned by county and district school…

  12. 7 CFR 920.69 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 920.69 Section 920.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.69 Personal liability. No member or alternate member of the committee and...

  13. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    PubMed

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results. PMID:9894212

  14. Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    The author notes that this chapter deals generally with torts in higher education cases. A tort is usually defined broadly to cover most wrongful civil acts, except breach of contract, that may occur between individuals. The remedy sought in a civil tort action is compensation to the injured party for the damages suffered. The areas discussed here…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  16. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  17. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  18. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  19. Polydrug abuse: a review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra D

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews studies examining the pharmacological interactions and epidemiology of the combined use of opioids and benzodiazepines (BZDs). A search of English language publications from 1970 to 2012 was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO(®). Our search found approximately 200 articles appropriate for inclusion in this paper. While numerous reports indicate that the co-abuse of opioids and BZDs is ubiquitous around the world, the reasons for the co-abuse of these medications are not entirely clear. Though the possibility remains that opioid abusers are using BZDs therapeutically to self-medicate anxiety, mania or insomnia, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that BZD use is primarily recreational. For example, co-users report seeking BZD prescriptions for the purpose of enhancing opioid intoxication or "high," and use doses that exceed the therapeutic range. Since there are few clinical studies investigating the pharmacological interaction and abuse liability of their combined use, this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated in clinical settings. As such, our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of BZD abuse among opioid abusers. The co-abuse of BZDs and opioids is substantial and has negative consequences for general health, overdose lethality, and treatment outcome. Physicians should address this important and underappreciated problem with more cautious prescribing practices, and increased vigilance for abusive patterns of use. PMID:22857878

  20. An Examination of Immunity Statutes Regarding the Liability of Recreational Youth Sport Organizations for the Pedophilic Actions of Coaches, Administrators, and Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas A., III; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Zhang, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children in the United States participate in youth sports. The literature demonstrates that sexual abuse is a problem in sports. This study examined voluntary immunity statutes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia with the purpose of determining potential liability for recreational youth sport organizations for the pedophilic…

  1. Medicare fraud and abuse: implications for physicians.

    PubMed

    Thiel, D K; Friedman, R; Morriss, C H

    1988-01-01

    Since the inception of the Prospective Payment System, the physician fee freeze, and other cost-cutting measures, physicians have been approached with many income-generating opportunities relating to their practices. Unfortunately, many of these opportunities also present potential criminal and civil liability under federal Medicare anti-fraud and abuse provisions. The recent passage of the Medicare and Medicaid Program Patient Protection Act of 1987 has updated federal anti-fraud and abuse laws and expanded the sanctions which may be imposed on physicians. This article describes the types of activities prohibited by federal laws and discusses the operation of these laws in light of common joint venture, incentive, and contract arrangements frequently seen in medical practice. PMID:10302660

  2. Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Edwards, George A

    2015-10-01

    Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice. PMID:26344456

  3. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  4. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  5. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  6. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.172-13 - Product liability losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liability claims so as to become a product liability loss. (2) Product liability. (i) The term product... by section 172(b) (except subparagraph (1)(I) thereof) and the regulations thereunder. (2) Time and... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product liability losses. 1.172-13 Section...

  8. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  9. 46 CFR 4.23-1 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 4.23-1 Section 4.23-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Evidence of Criminal Liability § 4.23-1 Evidence of criminal liability. If, as a result of any investigation or other proceeding conducted hereunder, evidence of criminal liability...

  10. 46 CFR 4.23-1 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 4.23-1 Section 4.23-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Evidence of Criminal Liability § 4.23-1 Evidence of criminal liability. If, as a result of any investigation or other proceeding conducted hereunder, evidence of criminal liability...

  11. 46 CFR 4.23-1 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 4.23-1 Section 4.23-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Evidence of Criminal Liability § 4.23-1 Evidence of criminal liability. If, as a result of any investigation or other proceeding conducted hereunder, evidence of criminal liability...

  12. 26 CFR 1.752-1 - Treatment of partnership liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of partnership liabilities. 1.752-1... Code § 1.752-1 Treatment of partnership liabilities. (a) Definitions. For purposes of section 752, the following definitions apply: (1) Recourse liability defined. A partnership liability is a recourse...

  13. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  14. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  15. [The criminal liability of the hospital pharmacist vs the liability of the hospital].

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Margherita; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Petrelli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes an analysis of the boundaries of liability of the negligent hospital pharmacist, in relation with the liability of the hospital. The conditions of departure are: the knowledge that the pharmacist works within the limits of compliance programs adopted by the hospital; the finding that, in recent times, there has been an expansion in the objective sense of liability of the pharmacist. The laudable aim of protecting the patient is well accompanied by the violation of the principle of individual criminal liability (Art. 27 of the Constitution) and practical reason for discouraging the risky assets even useful. Through the analysis of the d. lgs. n. 231/2001 regarding the corporate liability for the crime and law n. 158/2012 regarding criminal liability limited to the gross negligence of the health care, it will arrive at the conclusion about the need to recognize a liability for the organization to hospitals, limiting the liability of the hospital pharmacist to cases of chargeability/criminal liability of negligent conduct. PMID:26901366

  16. Dementia and elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, Maria R; Chen, Elaine; Gorbien, Martin J

    2005-05-01

    Dementia and elder abuse are relatively common and under-diagnosed geriatric syndromes. A unique relationship is observed when the two entities coexist. Special issues can confound the care of the dementia patient suspected of being abused. Impaired language or motor abilities to communicate abusive situations to a third party, lack of decisional capacity to address the abusive situation, disinhibited behavior that contributes to a cycle of violence, and coincident depression of the abused elder complicate the diagnosis and management of elder abuse. Education of the caregiver and attention to caregiver stress, including depression, may prevent onset and perpetuation of abuse. PMID:15804553

  17. Liability of physicians supervising nonphysician clinicians.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Barbara B; Waterhouse, Blake E; Paterick, Timothy E; Sanbar, Sandy S

    2014-01-01

    Physicians confront a variety of liability issues when supervising nonphysician clinicians (NPC) including: (1) direct liability resulting from a failure to meet the state-defined standards of supervision/collaboration with NPCs; (2) vicarious liability, arising from agency law, where physicians are held accountable for NPC clinical care that does not meet the national standard of care; and (3) responsibility for medical errors when the NPC and physician are co-employees of the corporate enterprise. Physician-NPC co-employee relationships are highlighted because they are new and becoming predominant in existing healthcare models. Because of their novelty, there is a paucity of judicial decisions determining liability for NPC errors in this setting. Knowledge of the existence of these risks will allow physicians to make informed decisions on what relationships they will enter with NPCs and how these relationships will be structured and monitored. PMID:24873129

  18. 34 CFR 668.138 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Liability. (a) A student is liable for any LEAP, FSEOG, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, or... relied on— (1) An output document for that student indicating that the INS has confirmed that the...

  19. 34 CFR 668.138 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Liability. (a) A student is liable for any LEAP, FSEOG, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, or... relied on— (1) An output document for that student indicating that the INS has confirmed that the...

  20. 34 CFR 668.138 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Liability. (a) A student is liable for any LEAP, FSEOG, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, or... relied on— (1) An output document for that student indicating that the INS has confirmed that the...

  1. 34 CFR 668.138 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Liability. (a) A student is liable for any LEAP, FSEOG, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, or... relied on— (1) An output document for that student indicating that the INS has confirmed that the...

  2. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung Won; Kuntz, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Investigators from 4 pediatric hospitals in Canada analyzed the clinical presentation and electrophysiological data of 12 children with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), caused by PMP22 gene deletion. PMID:26933540

  3. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.253 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1220.253 Personal liability. No... Soybean Boards, acting pursuant to authority provided in this subpart, shall be held...

  8. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... liability. No member or alternate of the committee or any employee or agent thereof, shall be held... such member, alternate, agent, or employee, except for act of dishonesty, willful misconduct, or...

  9. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... liability. No member or alternate of the committee or any employee or agent thereof, shall be held... such member, alternate, agent, or employee, except for act of dishonesty, willful misconduct, or...

  10. Alcohol on Campus and Possible Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)

  11. Limited liability and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Teret, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Corporations, through their products and behaviors, exert a strong effect on the well-being of populations. Industries including firearms, motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol produce and market products negatively impact public health. All of these industries are composed of corporations, which are legal fictions designed to provide limited exposure to liability, through a variety of mechanisms, for their investors and directors. This means that when actions are taken on behalf of a corporate entity, the individuals responsible generally will not face personal liability for the negative results of those actions. To illustrate this point, this article considers corporate products or practices that have caused harm in varied settings, and analyzes the role that limited liability played in these cases. In addition, the article identifies ways to modify or eliminate some of the principles and practices that accompany limited liability. PMID:18076511

  12. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  13. 15 CFR 996.4 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES General § 996.4 Liability. The Government of the United...

  14. Polydrug abuse: A review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews studies examining the pharmacological interactions and epidemiology of the combined use of opioids and benzodiazepines (BZD). A search of English language publications from 1970 - 2012 was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO®. Our search found approximately 200 articles appropriate for inclusion in this paper. While numerous reports indicate that the co-abuse of opioids and BZDs is ubiquitous around the world, the reasons for the co-abuse of these medications are not entirely clear. Though the possibility remains that opioid (ab)users are using BZDs therapeutically to self-medicate anxiety, mania or insomnia, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that BZD use is primarily recreational. For example, co-users report seeking BZD prescriptions for the purpose of enhancing opioid intoxication or “high,” and use doses that exceed the therapeutic range. Since there are few clinical studies investigating the pharmacological interaction and abuse liability of their combined use, this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated in clinical settings. As such, our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of BZD abuse among opioid users. The co-abuse of BZDs and opioids is substantial and has negative consequences for general health, overdose lethality, and treatment outcome. Physicians should address this important and underappreciated problem with more cautious prescribing practices, and increased vigilance for abusive patterns of use. PMID:22857878

  15. Pathways to cannabis abuse: A multi-stage model from cannabis availability, cannabis initiation, and progression to abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2009-01-01

    Aims Although previous twin studies have modelled the association between drug initiation and abuse, none has included the obvious risk factor of drug availability. Our aim is to determine whether the genetic and environmental risk factors for cannabis availability also generate variation in cannabis initiation and/or progression to DSM-IV symptoms of abuse. Design We used multi-stage modelling, also known as causal-common-contingent (CCC) analysis, to partition the genetic and environmental factors into common and stage-specific components. Participants This report is based on data collected from 1767 adult males from the Mid Atlantic Twin Registry. Measurements The twins participated in two structured interviews which included clinical and non-clinical measures of cannabis abuse as well as retrospective assessments of perceived cannabis availability between ages 8 and 25. Findings Cannabis availability explained almost all of the shared environmental risks in cannabis initiation and abuse. The influence of availability on the symptoms of abuse was indirect and mediated entirely by cannabis initiatio Conclusion These findings have begun to elucidate the causal processes underlying the liability to drug use and abuse in terms of putative risk factors. Specifically, our results show that the latent shared environmental factors in cannabis initiation and abuse can be explained by measured aspects of the shared environment - those responsible for variation in cannabis availability. PMID:19207351

  16. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives. PMID:1955823

  17. Abuse potential of propofol used for sedation in gastric endoscopy and its correlation with subject characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja Hyun; Byun, Heewon

    2013-01-01

    Background Propofol has been widely used for an induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia, or for sedation for various procedures. Although it has many ideal aspects, there have been several cases of drug abuse and addiction. The authors investigated whether there are abuse liable groups among the general population. Methods We surveyed 169 patients after gastric endoscopic examination, which used propofol as a sedative, with the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) questionnaire. Other characteristics of the patients, such as past history, smoking habits, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse liability and sleep disturbance, were recorded by history taking and several questionnaires before the exam. Results Propofol had a high Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) score (representative value for euphoria) of 6.3, which is higher than marijuana, and a Pentobarbital-Chlorpromazine-Alcohol Group (PCAG) score (representative value of sedation) of 8.1, which is lower than most opioids. The MBG score showed no statistically significant correlation between any of the characteristics of the groups. In females, the PCAG score showed a correlation with age, and in males, it showed a correlation with a sleeping problem. Conclusions Propofol had relatively high euphoria and low residual sedative effects. It had a more potent sedative effect in the female group who were young, and in the male group who had a low sleep quality index. There were differences in the abuse liability from a single exposure to propofol in the general population. Further study is needed to evaluate the abuse liability of repeated exposure. PMID:24363842

  18. Vicarious liability: Is it an issue for your organization?

    PubMed

    West, John C

    2016-07-01

    Vicarious liability is a very real concern for hospitals and other health care entities. There are two forms of vicarious liability: respondeat superior (liability for an employee's actions) and agency (liability for nonemployees who appear to be the agent of the entity). Since an entity works through its employees, there is little that can be done, in most cases, to avoid respondeat superior liability. Entities need to be aware of the ways in which nonemployees can be perceived to be the entity's agent so that the appearance of agency can be prevented. There are methods to avoid vicarious liability and to deal with it should it occur. PMID:27400173

  19. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  20. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  1. Child Custody Decisions in Families Experiencing Woman Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature comparing risk that battered women and men who batter will physically abuse their children. Challenges several tenets of social work practice lore and cautions practitioners about use of psychological tests and profiles to judge child abuse potential and parenting ability. Discusses hazards of mediation and joint custody and…

  2. The White Bull effect: abusive coauthorship and publication parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, L

    2005-01-01

    Junior researchers can be abused and bullied by unscrupulous senior collaborators. This article describes the profile of a type of serial abuser, the White Bull, who uses his academic seniority to distort authorship credit and who disguises his parasitism with carefully premeditated deception. Further research into the personality traits of such perpetrators is warranted. PMID:16131560

  3. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  5. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  6. Abuse during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ...

  7. Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse. PMID:23946140

  8. Civil liability: characterization of the demand for lawsuits against dentists.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Alice Aquino; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-01-01

    In light of the fact that dentists may be held civilly liable for their practice, it is important to understand the current situation of lawsuits filed against these professionals by studying current legal decisions and the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze the case law of the Court of Justice of São Paulo, Brazil, relative to the profile of patients and professionals, the most commonly involved specialties, the amounts litigated and the court decisions pertaining to civil liability lawsuits against dentists. In an inductive approach, a single researcher screened and collected civil liability rulings by accessing the Court's website, and following a statistical-descriptive procedure and an indirect observation technique. The most frequently involved specialty was prosthodontics. However, oral and maxillofacial surgery was related to a higher incidence of damages awarded to settle claims and to higher damage amounts. The dentist was found guilty in 44.32% of the cases researched. Pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 485.50 and R$ 12,530.00, and non-pecuniary damages ranged between R$ 2,500.00 and R$ 70,000.00. Most lawsuits were filed by women against male dentists. An increase in the relative number of lawsuits against companies versus individuals was observed. PMID:27556556

  9. Long-tail liability law reform.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2007-10-01

    There is a need for the law to evolve so that corporations are obliged to make proper provision for liabilities to unascertained future creditors. However, implementation of long-tail liabilities is far from straightforward and has many repercussions for both corporations and personal injury law. In October 2005 the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasurer requested the Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee to consider a "referred proposal" designed to achieve comprehensive and principled law reform. Analysis of the referred proposal reveals many shortcomings, a number of which have been addressed by the Committee in its June 2007 Discussion Paper, Long-Tail Liabilities: The Treatment of Unascertained Future Personal Injury Claims. This editorial urges further and reflective analysis of the referred proposal and of the Committee's tentative suggestions in order to achieve a balance among the entitlements of unascertained future creditors, other known creditors, shareholders, corporations' financial viability, and the conceptual integrity of corporations law. PMID:18035836

  10. Liability for Not Using Computers in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Bruce L.; Bernstein, Jodi M.

    1988-01-01

    The traditional legal rule used to measure the adequacy of a provider's delivery of care is the custom of other providers in the defendant's locality. However, some courts have adopted the rule of “reasonable prudence” as the measure of what custom should be. These developments suggest that courts may impose liability on providers for patient injuries caused by the absence of medical computers even where the custom of most other providers would not have required computer use. Judicial recognition of liability despite custom will depend upon a balancing of such factors as availability, risk of harm to the patient, and cost. The authors suggest that injuries caused by drug interactions and side-effects are those most vulnerable for judicial findings of liability for failure to use computers.

  11. 78 FR 19499 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Profile Screening and Predictive..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550,...

  12. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  13. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  14. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  15. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  16. Process liability evaluation for EUVL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Tawarayama, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yuusuke; Kawamura, Daisuke; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Uno, Taiga; Kamo, Takashi; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Itani, Toshiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Yumi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Takai, Kosuke; Murano, Koji; Koshiba, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Kohji; Mori, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    This paper concerns the readiness of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) for high-volume manufacture based on accelerated development in critical areas and the construction of a process liability (PL) test site that integrates results in these areas. The overall lithography performance was determined from the performance of the exposure tool, the printability obtainable with the resist, mask fabrication with accurate critical dimension (CD) control, and correction technology for mask data preparation. The EUV1 exposure tool can carry out exposure over the full field (26 mm × 33 mm) at a resolution high enough for 32-nm line-and-space patterns when Selete Standard Resist 3 (SSR3) is used. Thus, the test site was designed for the full-field exposure of various pattern sizes [half-pitch (hp) 32-50 nm]. The CD variation of the mask was found to be as good as 2.8 nm (3σ) and only one printable defect was detected. The effect of flare on CD variation is a critical issue in EUVL; so flare was compensated for based on the point spread function for the projection optics of the EUV1 and aerial simulations that took resist blur into account. The accuracy obtained when an electronic design automation (EDA) tool was used for mask resizing was found to be very good (error <= +/-2 nm). Metal wiring patterns with a size of hp 32 nm were successfully formed by wafer processing. The production readiness of EUVL based on the integration of results in these areas was evaluated by electrical tests on low-resistance tungsten wiring. The yield for the electrically open test for hp 50 nm (32-nm logic node) and hp 40 nm (22-nm logic node) were found to be over 60% and around 50%, respectively; and the yield tended to decrease as patterns became smaller. We found the PL test site to be very useful for determining where further improvements need to be made and for evaluating the production readiness of EUVL.

  17. How meaningful are heritability estimates of liability?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that estimates of heritability from classical twin studies have many potential shortcomings. Despite this, in the post-GWAS era, these heritability estimates have come to be a continual source of interest and controversy. While the heritability estimates of a quantitative trait are subject to a number of biases, in this article we will argue that the standard statistical approach to estimating the heritability of a binary trait relies on some additional untestable assumptions which, if violated, can lead to badly biased estimates. The ACE liability threshold model assumes at its heart that each individual has an underlying liability or propensity to acquire the binary trait (e.g., disease), and that this unobservable liability is multivariate normally distributed. We investigated a number of different scenarios violating this assumption such as the existence of a single causal diallelic gene and the existence of a dichotomous exposure. For each scenario, we found that substantial asymptotic biases can occur, which no increase in sample size can remove. Asymptotic biases as much as four times larger than the true value were observed, and numerous cases also showed large negative biases. Additionally, regions of low bias occurred for specific parameter combinations. Using simulations, we also investigated the situation where all of the assumptions of the ACE liability model are met. We found that commonly used sample sizes can lead to biased heritability estimates. Thus, even if we are willing to accept the meaningfulness of the liability construct, heritability estimates under the ACE liability threshold model may not accurately reflect the heritability of this construct. The points made in this paper should be kept in mind when considering the meaningfulness of a reported heritability estimate for any specific disease. PMID:23867980

  18. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    PubMed

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors. PMID:13489519

  19. Search Engine Liability for Copyright Infringement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, B.; O'Brien, D.; Fitzgerald, A.

    The chapter provides a broad overview to the topic of search engine liability for copyright infringement. In doing so, the chapter examines some of the key copyright law principles and their application to search engines. The chapter also provides a discussion of some of the most important cases to be decided within the courts of the United States, Australia, China and Europe regarding the liability of search engines for copyright infringement. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some thoughts for reform, including how copyright law can be amended in order to accommodate and realise the great informative power which search engines have to offer society.

  20. Trends in liability affecting technical writers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskill, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    Liability of technical writers for defective products is explored. Documents generated during a product's life cycle (including design memos, design tests, clinical trials, trial use reports, letters, and proposals) become relevant because they are likely to become the only available means of showing that the product was not defectively designed. These documents become the evidence that the product underwent balanced and well considered planning, development, testing, quality control, and field testing. The predicted increased involvement of technical writers in the prevention and defense of product liability claims is cited in view of a greater number of cases turning on "failure to warn".

  1. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limitations of Liability Airline liability for death or personal injury may be limited by the Warsaw... valuable articles. See the notice with your tickets or consult your airline or travel agent for...

  2. 40 CFR 80.23 - Liability for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for violations. 80.23 Section 80.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Controls and Prohibitions § 80.23 Liability for violations. Liability for violations of paragraphs (a) and...

  3. 40 CFR 80.23 - Liability for violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liability for violations. 80.23 Section 80.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Controls and Prohibitions § 80.23 Liability for violations. Liability for violations of paragraphs (a) and...

  4. 24 CFR 330.45 - Limitation on GNMA liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on GNMA liability. 330... MULTICLASS SECURITIES § 330.45 Limitation on GNMA liability. Except for its guaranty, the Association undertakes no obligation and assumes no liability to any person with regard to or on account of the...

  5. 31 CFR 50.90 - Cap on annual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap on annual liability. 50.90 Section 50.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.90 Cap on annual liability. Pursuant to Section 103 of the Act,...

  6. 31 CFR 50.90 - Cap on annual liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap on annual liability. 50.90 Section 50.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.90 Cap on annual liability. Pursuant to Section 103 of the Act,...

  7. Cost vs. Risk: Determining the Correct Liability Insurance Limit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinksiek, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Presents a model for evaluating liability insurance limits and selecting the correct limit for an individual institution. Argues that many colleges and universities may be making overly conservative decisions that lead to the purchase of too much liability insurance. Also discusses the financial consequences of an uninsured large liability loss.…

  8. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air... and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability coverage that meets the requirements of part...

  9. 7 CFR 276.2 - State agency liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State agency liabilities. 276.2 Section 276.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS § 276.2 State agency liabilities. (a)...

  10. 26 CFR 1.461-2 - Contested liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an accrual method of accounting, in 1964 contests a $100 asserted liability. In 1967 the contested...) Taxable year of deduction. If— (i) The taxpayer contests an asserted liability, (ii) The taxpayer transfers money or other property to provide for the satisfaction of the asserted liability, (iii)...

  11. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.916 - Liability and risk of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability and risk of loss. 1274.916... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.916 Liability and risk of..., or indemnification of, developers of experimental aerospace vehicles. Liability and Risk of Loss...

  13. 24 CFR 1007.60 - Liability under guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liability under guarantee. 1007.60... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 184A LOAN GUARANTEES FOR NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING § 1007.60 Liability under guarantee. The liability under a guarantee provided under this section shall decrease or increase on a pro rata...

  14. 24 CFR 1007.60 - Liability under guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability under guarantee. 1007.60... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 184A LOAN GUARANTEES FOR NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING § 1007.60 Liability under guarantee. The liability under a guarantee provided under this section shall decrease or increase on a pro rata...

  15. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted...

  16. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted...

  17. 48 CFR 252.217-7012 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liability and insurance... of Provisions And Clauses 252.217-7012 Liability and insurance. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Liability and Insurance (AUG 2003) (a) The Contractor shall exercise its best efforts...

  18. 48 CFR 252.247-7007 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liability and insurance... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7007 Liability and insurance. As prescribed in 247.270-4(g), use the following clause: Liability and Insurance (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall be— (1) Liable...

  19. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  20. 48 CFR 3052.217-95 - Liability and insurance (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-95 Liability and insurance (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Liability and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability and...

  1. 12 CFR 1270.10 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint and several liability. 1270.10 Section... Consolidated Obligations § 1270.10 Joint and several liability. (a) In general—(1) Each and every Bank..., the joint and several liability of all of the Banks on any consolidated obligation. (b)...

  2. 12 CFR 1270.10 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint and several liability. 1270.10 Section... Consolidated Obligations § 1270.10 Joint and several liability. (a) In general. (1) Each and every Bank..., the joint and several liability of all of the Banks on any consolidated obligation. (b)...

  3. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air... and maintains in effect aircraft accident liability coverage that meets the requirements of part...

  4. 7 CFR 276.2 - State agency liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State agency liabilities. 276.2 Section 276.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS § 276.2 State agency liabilities. Link to...

  5. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  6. 19 CFR 141.2 - Liability for duties on reimportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liability for duties on reimportation. 141.2 Section 141.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Liability for Duties and Requirement To Enter Merchandise § 141.2 Liability for duties...

  7. 19 CFR 141.2 - Liability for duties on reimportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liability for duties on reimportation. 141.2 Section 141.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Liability for Duties and Requirement To Enter Merchandise § 141.2 Liability for duties...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  11. 37 CFR 10.78 - Limiting liability to client.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting liability to client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.78 Limiting liability to client. A practitioner shall not attempt to exonerate himself or herself from, or limit his or her liability to, a client for his or...

  12. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items, prior period adjustments, and contingent liabilities may...

  13. 7 CFR 1770.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 1770.25... BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.25 Unusual items and contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items, prior period adjustments and contingent liabilities shall be submitted to RUS for review before...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.916 - Liability and risk of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability and risk of loss. 1274.916... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.916 Liability and risk of..., or indemnification of, developers of experimental aerospace vehicles. Liability and Risk of Loss...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.916 - Liability and risk of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Liability and risk of loss. 1274.916 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.916 Liability and risk of loss..., or indemnification of, developers of experimental aerospace vehicles. Liability and Risk of Loss...

  16. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  17. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  18. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  19. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  20. Child Abuse: Differential Diagnosis, Differential Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Helen M.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the relationship between treatment intensity and rehabilitation of 89 child abusers whose MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) profiles revealed high levels of psychological distress. The relationship was positive and statistically significant. The client receiving intense weekly treatment for longer durations was assessed…

  1. [Liability, moral consciousness and psychopatology. International comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Vincenzo; Desimoni, Luis Maria; Ventura, Nicoletta

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the concepts of intentionality, judgment, desire, awareness and the relative scientific, psychological, psychiatric and neurophysiological studies, including the concept of "moral consciousness" and the evolution of moral standards, marked out by Piaget and Kolberg. There are several references to a psychopathology point of view, for which mental infirmity is independent from the verification of an organic substrate and classification in official nosology (it is said, then, that "it is true that mental infirmity can exist even in the absence of a typical disease of the mind, framed in the scientific classification of mental illness, it is still necessary that a defect in part descended from a morbid state, dependent on a pathological changes in clinically ascertained" (as Cass, Sec. I, n. 9739/1997). The concept of illness, then widens to include not only the organic psychoses, but psychic morbid disorders such as psychopathy, neuroses, disorders of affect too: under investigation, therefore, it is no longer the person-body, but the person-psyche. In psychiatry there are existing guidelines which assert an "integrated model" of mental illness, able to explain mental disorder based on different explanatory hypotheses of its nature and origin: essentially consisting of "an integrated vision that takes into account all the variables, biological, psychological, social, relational, that come into play in causing the disease", in such a manner developing from the monocausal etiology of mental illness vision, to a "multifactorial integrated" conception. PMID:23023119

  2. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations. 221.106 Section 221.106 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE... the following statement: Notice of Limited Liability for Baggage For most international...

  3. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations. 221.106 Section 221.106 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE... the following statement: Notice of Limited Liability for Baggage For most international...

  4. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations. 221.106 Section 221.106 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE... the following statement: Notice of Limited Liability for Baggage For most international...

  5. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations. 221.106 Section 221.106 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE... the following statement: Notice of Limited Liability for Baggage For most international...

  6. 7 CFR 966.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 966.90 Section 966.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.183 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Personal liability. 1150.183 Section 1150.183 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and...

  8. Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

  9. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 932.74 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 932.74 Section 932.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. Update on Liability for Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews six Supreme Court decisions on sexual harassment since 1992, three of which were education cases. Suggests content of school board policy to comply with Court's sexual-harassment decisions and thus limit liability under Title IX for offenses involving students and Title VII for acts involving school personnel. (PKP)

  15. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS...

  16. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  17. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS...

  18. 7 CFR 906.61 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 906.61 Section 906.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS...

  19. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  20. 7 CFR 905.88 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 905.88 Section 905.88 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  1. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  5. Violence in the Workplace: Avoiding Institutional Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Ranaye J.; Hall, Bradley H.

    This document is intended to provide career and technical education faculty and administrators with information on institutional liability relating to workplace violence as documented in court cases. The major legislation regarding violence in schools is summarized. Seventeen warning signs of violence are presented along with simple steps…

  6. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deadline for return under the U.C.C., Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) in connection with a... OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.38 Liability....

  7. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... deadline for return under the U.C.C., Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) in connection with a... OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.38 Liability....

  8. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds...

  9. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... deadline for return under the U.C.C., Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) in connection with a... OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.38 Liability....

  10. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of...

  11. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... deadline for return under the U.C.C., Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) in connection with a...) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.38 Liability....

  12. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds and Disclosure of...

  13. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... deadline for return under the U.C.C., Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or § 229.30(c) in connection with a...) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229.38 Liability....

  14. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Availability of Funds...

  15. 7 CFR 920.69 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 920.69 Section 920.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 920.69 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 920.69 Section 920.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 920.69 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 920.69 Section 920.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 920.69 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 920.69 Section 920.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  20. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  1. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  2. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  3. 7 CFR 925.68 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 925.68 Section 925.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  4. 7 CFR 923.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 923.70 Section 923.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  5. 15 CFR 400.46 - Grantee liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grantee liability. 400.46 Section 400.46 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Operation...

  6. 15 CFR 400.46 - Grantee liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grantee liability. 400.46 Section 400.46 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Operation...

  7. Preventive Medicine: Safeguards against Virus Liability Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Colleges and universities that provide computer services have become vulnerable to potential lawsuits associated with contraction and spread of computer viruses. Bookstore, library, and computer classroom or laboratory are most susceptible. In addition to protection against legal liability, schools should take specific steps to prevent problems.…

  8. Trouble with Your Liability Insurance? Here's Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The insurance industry is in trouble, which means problems for colleges and universities--especially in the area of liability insurance. Some strategies for higher education are discussed, including risk-management programs, self-insurance, catastrophic or excess insurance, and risk-management consortia. (MLW)

  9. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copy of the independent certified public accountant's unqualified opinion of the owner's or operator's... certified public accountant. An adverse opinion, disclaimer of opinion, or other qualified opinion will be... obtaining liability insurance as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(a)(1). (5) Financial test for...

  10. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copy of the independent certified public accountant's unqualified opinion of the owner's or operator's... certified public accountant. An adverse opinion, disclaimer of opinion, or other qualified opinion will be... obtaining liability insurance as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(a)(1). (5) Financial test for...

  11. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copy of the independent certified public accountant's unqualified opinion of the owner's or operator's... certified public accountant. An adverse opinion, disclaimer of opinion, or other qualified opinion will be... obtaining liability insurance as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(a)(1). (5) Financial test for...

  12. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 981.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 981.85 Section 981.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  17. Misrepresentation and the Liability of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katter, Norman

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on misrepresentation and the exposure of universities to legal liability for innocent, fraudulent or negligent statements by academics or administrative staff made to students or prospective students. A greater public awareness of consumer rights through media coverage of damage awards, speculative actions by lawyers, and a…

  18. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  20. The Tort Liability of the Classroom Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripps, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the tort liabilities (both intentional and negligent torts) to which school and college teachers are exposed. Noting that the doctrine of sovereign immunity has protected the instructor and that litigation has increased in states which have waived their immunity, the author concludes that the likelihood of litigation is greater now than…

  1. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  2. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  3. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  4. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  5. 7 CFR 1434.15 - Personal liability..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.15 Personal liability.. (a) When applying for an individual or joint loan or loan deficiency payment, each producer agrees: (1) When signing Form CCC-633 (Honey), Honey Loan Certification and...) Unauthorized removal of honey, which shall include, but is not limited to, the movement of any loan quantity...

  6. Institutional Liability for Student Activities and Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines higher education institutional liability in the following areas: (1) in tort, based on negligence, for physical harm to students; (2) in tort, for defamation flowing from student media; and (3) in contract, arising out of student organizations' business relationships with third parties. (222 references) (MLF)

  7. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  8. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  9. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 989.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 989.85 Section 989.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 984.84 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 984.84 Section 984.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  16. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  20. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  1. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  2. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  3. 7 CFR 929.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 929.75 Section 929.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  4. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  5. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  6. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  7. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  8. 27 CFR 479.40 - Partnership liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partnership liability. 479.40 Section 479.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  9. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  10. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  11. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  12. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  13. 7 CFR 922.70 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 922.70 Section 922.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  14. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  15. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by suppliers of durable medical equipment... 1834(j) of the Act) Medicare billing privileges. (b) No payment may be made for otherwise...

  16. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by suppliers of durable medical equipment... 1834(j) of the Act) Medicare billing privileges. (b) No payment may be made for otherwise...

  17. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by suppliers of durable medical equipment... 1834(j) of the Act) Medicare billing privileges. (b) No payment may be made for otherwise...

  18. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by suppliers of durable medical equipment... 1834(j) of the Act) Medicare billing privileges. (b) No payment may be made for otherwise...

  19. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by suppliers of durable medical equipment... 1834(j) of the Act) Medicare billing privileges. (b) No payment may be made for otherwise...

  20. Legal Liability of Individual School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverett, E. Freeman

    Federal court decisions and federal statutes have established a number of new rights for individuals in recent years, and the Supreme Court decided in 1975 that school board members have only limited immunity from liability for the possible denial of those rights by school board actions. These two developments have drastically increased the amount…

  1. School Official Liability: Wood v. Strickland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Larry L.

    In Wood v. Strickland, the Supreme Court held that a school board member is not immune from liability for damages if he knew, or reasonably should have known, that the action he took within his sphere of official responsibility would violate the constitutional rights of the student affected; or, if he took the action with the malicious intention…

  2. Working through the Maze of Liability Shields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jeff; Schmiesing, Ryan

    1998-01-01

    Liability shields that can be incorporated into an Extension risk management program include permission slips, informed consent forms, waivers and releases, and indemnification agreements. Risk identification should be part of youth program planning; communication with parents is essential; the best shields are most specific; and legal counsel…

  3. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  4. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  5. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  6. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  7. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  8. Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508

  9. Analysis of Your Professional Liability Insurance Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sadusk, Joseph F.; Hassard, Howard; Waterson, Rollen

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following: 1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field. 2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances. 3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage. 4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for “latent liability” claims as the years go along—certainly for his lifetime. 5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000. 6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service. 7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage. 8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice. 9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors. PMID:13489519

  10. MDMA ("ecstasy") abuse as an example of dopamine neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Susan

    2011-04-01

    A number of reviews have focused on the short- and long-term effects of MDMA and, in particular, on the persistent deficits in serotonin neurotransmission that accompany some exposure regimens. The mechanisms underlying the serotonin deficits and their relevance to various behavioral and cognitive consequences of MDMA use are still being debated. It has become clear, however, that some individuals develop compulsive and uncontrolled drug-taking that is consistent with abuse. For other drugs of abuse, this transition has been attributed to neuroadaptations in central dopamine mechanisms that occur as a function of repeated drug exposure. A question remains as to whether similar neuroadaptations occur as a function of exposure to MDMA and the impact of serotonin neurotoxicity in the transition from use to abuse. This review focuses specifically on this issue by first providing an overview of human studies and then reviewing the animal literature with specific emphasis on paradigms that measure subjective effects of drugs and self-administration as indices of abuse liability. It is suggested that serotonin deficits resulting from repeated exposure to MDMA self-administration lead to a sensitized dopaminergic response to the drug and that this sensitized response renders MDMA comparable to other drugs of abuse. PMID:21184779

  11. Imaging of Abusive Trauma.

    PubMed

    Shekdar, Karuna

    2016-06-01

    "Shaken baby syndrome" is a term often used by the physicians and public to describe abusive trauma inflicted on infants and young children. Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and the associated clinical spectrum of injury has lead us to modify our terminology and address it as "abusive trauma" (AT). Pediatric abusive head trauma is defined as an injury to the skull or intracranial contents of an infant or a young child (< 5 y age) due to inflicted blunt impact and/or violent shaking. This chapter focuses on the imaging aspects of childhood abusive trauma along with a brief description of the mechanism and pathophysiology of abusive injury. The diagnosis of AT is not always obvious, and abusive injuries in many infants may remain unrecognized. Pediatricians should be cognizant of AT since pediatricians play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management and prevention of AT. PMID:26882906

  12. Dimensions, Patterns, and Personality Correlates of Drug Abuse in an Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Terrill R.

    1978-01-01

    Drug abuse scores from prisoners resulted in two factors describing lifetime use of cannabis versus opiates. Analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles versus drug abuse patterns indicated moderate, unidimensional relationship between variables. MMPI profiles of opiate users were similar to those identified in research…

  13. Legal issues in environmental contractor liability

    SciTech Connect

    Slap, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Business is booming for environmental professionals. Increasingly, environmental consultants and engineers are called upon by property owners and government agencies to clean up contaminated sites, assess environmental risk for potential purchasers and lenders, and investigate the extent of contamination prior to a real estate purchase. But these activities are not risk-free for the environmental professional. To the contrary, there are many ways for a remediation or site assessment to go awry. Risks that the remediation contractor face include the possibility that activities on the site may actually cause or contribute to further releases of the hazardous substances sought to be remediated. Because environmental professionals many times face substantial risk in performing their jobs, it is necessary that they understand and appreciate the potential liabilities when something does go wrong, and how to best protect themselves. This article describes the types of legal theories that could be brought against environmental professionals and how to best protect yourself from such liability.

  14. Is liability possible for forensic psychiatrists?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R; Garrick, T

    1995-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists are not as vulnerable to liability as general psychiatrists. The absence of a traditional physician-patient relationship and judicial and quasijudicial immunity are all protective against malpractice actions. Although the absence of a doctor-patient relationship removes an essential element of malpractice, other types of liability such as defamation and ordinary negligence are possible and may not be covered by malpractice insurance. A model is proposed for forensic psychiatry of a partial secondary doctor-patient relationship out-weighted in most circumstances by duties to truth and/or the hiring attorney. Such a model seems most consistent with conflicting duties currently forced on all psychiatrists. This model has advantages of a duty, a violation of which is likely to be covered by malpractice insurance. Rather than deemphasizing partial secondary physician-patient responsibilities, it is advised to stress the important protection provided by judicial and quasijudicial immunity. PMID:8605402

  15. Finance, providers issue brief: insurer liability.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M; Stauffer, M

    2000-05-24

    When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those were questions 35 states considered in 1999, and at least 32 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves. PMID:11073416

  16. Finance, providers issue brief: insurer liability.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-07-01

    When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those are questions 29 states considered in 1998, and at least 35 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves. PMID:11073388

  17. Liability issues surrounding oil drilling mud sumps

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    This presentation examines liability issues surrounding oil drilling mud sumps and discusses them in relation to two recent cases that arose in Ventura County, California. Following a brief history of regulatory interest in oil drilling mud and its common hazardous substances, various cause of action arising from oil drilling mud deposits are enumerated, followed by defenses to these causes of action. Section 8002 (m) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is mentioned, as are constituents of oil and gas waste not inherent in petroleum and therefore not exempt from regulation under the petroleum exclusion in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act. Key legal words such as hazardous substance, release, public and private nuisance, trespass, responsible parties, joint and several liability, negligence, and strict liability are explained. The effects on liability of knowledge of the deposits, duty to restore land to its original condition, consent to the deposit of oil drilling mud, and noncompliance and compliance with permit conditions are analyzed. The state-of-the-art defense and research to establish this defense are mentioned. The newly created cause of action for fear of increased risk of cancer is discussed. Issues on transfer of property where oil drilling mud has been deposited are explored, such as knowledge of prior owners being imputed to later owners, claims of fraudulent concealment, and as is' clauses. The effects on the oil and gas industry of the California Court of Appeals for the Second District rulings in Dolan v. Humacid-MacLeod and Stevens v. McQueen are speculated.

  18. Office gossip: a surprising source of liability.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Rumors and gossip are inevitable ingredients of work life. Within limits, they may have some beneficial functions. Still, practitioners and managers must be aware of the dangers inherent in defamation of character and harassment. This article defines workplace comments and activities that should be avoided and the employer's legal liability when situations get out of hand. It also outlines the manager's responsibilities and lists privacy rights that are codified by state and federal laws. PMID:14596169

  19. Integrating legal liabilities in nanomanufacturing risk management.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mayank; Trump, Benjamin D; Bates, Matthew E; Monica, John C; Linkov, Igor

    2012-08-01

    Among other things, the wide-scale development and use of nanomaterials is expected to produce costly regulatory and civil liabilities for nanomanufacturers due to lingering uncertainties, unanticipated effects, and potential toxicity. The life-cycle environmental, health, and safety (EHS) risks of nanomaterials are currently being studied, but the corresponding legal risks have not been systematically addressed. With the aid of a systematic approach that holistically evaluates and accounts for uncertainties about the inherent properties of nanomaterials, it is possible to provide an order of magnitude estimate of liability risks from regulatory and litigious sources based on current knowledge. In this work, we present a conceptual framework for integrating estimated legal liabilities with EHS risks across nanomaterial life-cycle stages using empirical knowledge in the field, scientific and legal judgment, probabilistic risk assessment, and multicriteria decision analysis. Such estimates will provide investors and operators with a basis to compare different technologies and practices and will also inform regulatory and legislative bodies in determining standards that balance risks with technical advancement. We illustrate the framework through the hypothetical case of a manufacturer of nanoscale titanium dioxide and use the resulting expected legal costs to evaluate alternative risk-management actions. PMID:22717005

  20. Telecommunications, health care, and legal liability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Chris

    1990-06-01

    Regulation of health care telecommunications is fragmented in Canada. Further neither the legislative nor the administrative nor the judicial processes have managed to respond successfully to the impact of telecommunications technology. The result is a legal environment that is necessarily speculative for both telecommunications service providers and health care personnel and facilities. Critical issues include ensuring confidentiality for sensitive patient records and health information liability of telecommunications service providers for inaccurate transmission liability of health care providers for use or non-use of telecommunications services. Limitation of legal liability for both telecommunications and health care service providers is likely to be most effective when based on contract but the creation of the necessary contracts is potentially unduly cumbersome both legally and practically. 1. CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS Telecommunications systems that are empowered to operate or connect cross provincial or international boundaries are subject to federal regulation bu the scheme is incomplete in respect of a system set up as a provincial agency. Health care on the other hand is very much a matter of provincial rather than federal authority as a matter of strict law but the fiscal strength of the federal government enables it to provide money to the provinces for financing health care and to4 use this as a device for securing compliance with certain federal standards. Nevertheless the political willingness of the federal health authorities to impose standards on the provinces

  1. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...

  2. Supervised extensions of chemography approaches: case studies of chemical liabilities assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in modern drug discovery process. In silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Herein, we propose an approach combining several classification and chemography methods to be able to predict chemical liabilities and to interpret obtained results in the context of impact of structural changes of compounds on their pharmacological profile. To our knowledge for the first time, the supervised extension of Generative Topographic Mapping is proposed as an effective new chemography method. New approach for mapping new data using supervised Isomap without re-building models from the scratch has been proposed. Two approaches for estimation of model’s applicability domain are used in our study to our knowledge for the first time in chemoinformatics. The structural alerts responsible for the negative characteristics of pharmacological profile of chemical compounds has been found as a result of model interpretation. PMID:24868246

  3. Supervised extensions of chemography approaches: case studies of chemical liabilities assessment.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Bykov, Arseniy A; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu; Dyachkov, Evgeny P; Kireeva, Natalia V

    2014-01-01

    Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in modern drug discovery process. In silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Herein, we propose an approach combining several classification and chemography methods to be able to predict chemical liabilities and to interpret obtained results in the context of impact of structural changes of compounds on their pharmacological profile. To our knowledge for the first time, the supervised extension of Generative Topographic Mapping is proposed as an effective new chemography method. New approach for mapping new data using supervised Isomap without re-building models from the scratch has been proposed. Two approaches for estimation of model's applicability domain are used in our study to our knowledge for the first time in chemoinformatics. The structural alerts responsible for the negative characteristics of pharmacological profile of chemical compounds has been found as a result of model interpretation. PMID:24868246

  4. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  5. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  7. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  8. Antitussives and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  9. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  10. Medical information, health sciences librarians, and professional liability.

    PubMed

    Hafner, A W

    1990-01-01

    As a gatekeeper to medical literature and a critical link in the delivery of information to physicians, the librarian's role raises the issue of the librarian's professional liability. The paper suggests several ways in which liability may attach to the librarian or the librarian's employers. Although the librarian's personal risk is negligible, the physician's exposure due to ineffective library work is substantial since the courts have held that a physician must keep abreast of progress in his field. Librarians can also become associated with professional liability actions as part of a case against a physician or hospital through the legal doctrine of vicarious liability. The paper concludes by suggesting several proactive steps for health sciences librarians to pursue to insulate themselves from professional liability and to insulate physicians and institutions from vicarious liability. PMID:10107630

  11. IGF-I abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-09-01

    It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse. PMID:20443773

  12. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  13. Peer Abuse as Child Abuse and Indications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Jean B.

    2005-01-01

    Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be…

  14. Some Factors Influencing Abusers' Justification of Their Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Dorothee; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 73 abusive caretakers were analyzed to determine aspects of the caretakers' situation and the interaction with the abused child that contributed to their belief that the abuse was justified or not. Justification was related to defiance of the child and environmental stressors on the abuser. (Author/JDD)

  15. Abuse in Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Robert W.; Herman, Brian M.

    2006-01-01

    With the continued explosive growth of personalized websites, more and more public school administrators can expect to face situations in which inappropriate materials have been posted by a teacher, staff member or student. While failing to recognize employees' rights of free speech can result in legal liability, administrators also must be…

  16. 7 CFR 3431.19 - Payment and tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.19 Payment and tax liability. (a)...

  17. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Tanya; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Jackson, Allison M; Khademian, Zarir

    2015-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of child physical abuse that involves inflicted injury to the brain and its associated structures. Abusive Head Trauma, colloquially called Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the most common cause of serious or fatal brain injuries in children aged 2 years and younger. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the term Abusive Head Trauma, as opposed to Shaken Baby Syndrome, as the former term encompasses multiple forms of inflicted head injury (inertial, contact, and hypoxic-ischemic) and a range of clinical presentations and radiologic findings and their sequelae. Children diagnosed with AHT are 5 times more likely to die compared with accidentally head-injured children, yet signs and symptoms are not always obvious, and therefore the diagnosis can be overlooked. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics has tasked pediatricians with knowing how and when to begin an evaluation of children with signs and symptoms that could possibly be due to AHT. Overall, a detailed history of present illness and medical history, recognition of physical and radiological findings, and careful interpretation of retinal pathology are important aspects of formulating the differential diagnoses and increasing or decreasing the index of suspicion for AHT. PMID:25771265

  18. The McColgan Case: Increasing Public Awareness of Professional Responsibility for Protecting Children from Physical and Sexual Abuse in the Republic of Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sgroi, Suzanne M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the author's impressions of testifying as an expert witness in a civil liability suit, the first of its kind in the Republic of Ireland, in 1998. The suit was brought by four adults siblings against professionals who did not protect them from severe childhood physical and sexual abuse by their father. Litigation strategy, the outcome of…

  19. [Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence].

    PubMed

    Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Ferreira, Angela Maria Brito; Aragão, Ana Karla Ramalho; de Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida; Colares, Viviane

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies. PMID:20414607

  20. Abusive Behaviors of College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Steve B.; Johnson, DeWayne J.; Carroll, Pamela S.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of 126 college athletes and 216 nonathletes on a questionnaire concerning abusive behaviors found that athletes were more often involved in physical abuse of someone of the same sex or sexual abuse of someone of the opposite sex than nonathletes. Athletes reported a history of prior abuse (physical and/or sexual) associated with later…

  1. Educators, Schools, and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…

  2. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  3. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  4. 30 CFR 256.58 - Termination of the period of liability and cancellation of a bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agrees to assume all outstanding liabilities that accrued during the period of liability that was... supplemental bond agrees to assume that portion of the outstanding liabilities that accrued during the...

  5. Negligent Liability Issues Involving Colleges and Students: Does an Ethic of Caring Heighten Institutional Liability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph; Pearson, Douglas

    This paper--part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002--addresses the question of how and to what extent institutions of higher learning could be held liable for negligence involving students. The paper is, mainly, a review of recent case law related to the liability of…

  6. Mania following ketamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, has multiple clinical uses. On the other hand, ketamine abuse or recreational use has been gaining increasing attention. Induction of mania and psychotic symptoms has been reported in a patient receiving IV ketamine therapy for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We here report a 26 year-old man who abused ketamine by inhalation for 12 months and developed manic-like symptoms after ketamine use. This case suggests a possible relationship between manic symptoms and ketamine abuse. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first report regarding mania after recreational use of ketamine. PMID:26869791

  7. Intrapartum fetal monitoring: liability and documentation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Litigation in obstetrics is common, and evidence suggests that a disturbingly high number of poor outcomes are preventable. Risk management related to fetal monitoring must include both the creation of systems to provide safer care and the mitigation of liability exposure through the use of protocols and documentation strategies that are designed to provide evidence of clinicians' attentive and appropriate care. A simplified approach to documentation is reviewed, along with suggestions for frequency of documentation, standardization of common abbreviations, and samples of concise but inclusive progress notes. PMID:21278501

  8. [Liability in Anaesthesiology: theory of disproportionate damage].

    PubMed

    Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

    2013-10-01

    An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. PMID:23528691

  9. Prevalence of childhood physical abuse in adult male veteran alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, M R; Sobieraj, K; Hollyfield, R L

    1988-01-01

    Although past research has identified psychological and behavioral consequences for adults who were abused as children, few studies have examined the incidence and consequences of childhood physical abuse among adult alcoholics. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of a childhood history of physical abuse in adult male alcoholics and to determine what differences may exist in the psychological profile and patterns of alcohol abuse in abused and nonabused alcoholics. The study sample was comprised of 100 male alcoholic inpatients from the alcoholism treatment unit at a metropolitan Veterans Administration hospital. Subjects were administered a self-report devised by the authors to assess a history of childhood physical abuse, the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Findings indicated that approximately one-third of the alcoholics were physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than their nonabused counterparts, although they did not differ on the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. PMID:3260808

  10. Profiling Bad Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Many school administrators want to develop profiling procedures to identify violence-prone students before bullets start flying. Warning signs (chronic depression, anger, abusive home conditions, violent history) are a staring point. Two FBI agents recommend visiting classrooms, identifying troubled kids, and ensuring that they get help. (MLH)

  11. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  12. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was ... prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants. Every medicine has ...

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  16. Safety and abuse testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, G.

    1978-01-01

    A series of abuse tests on large lithium thionyl chloride cells was initiated. Performance data obtained in testing rectangular 2,000 and 10,000 ampere-hour cells are discussed and graphically presented.

  17. Grounding the Management of Liabilities in the Risk Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter W. B.; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Discussions of socioeconomic liability and compensation must necessarily start from an understanding of the socioeconomic, legal, and scientific basis for identifying, assessing, managing, and apportioning blame for hazards related to innovations. Public discussions about the nature of the liability challenge related to genetically modified (GM)…

  18. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  19. 14 CFR 291.22 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance... for All-Cargo Air Transportation § 291.22 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirement. No air carrier shall operate all-cargo aircraft or provide all-cargo air transportation unless such carrier...

  20. 12 CFR 1807.907 - Limitation on liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitation on liability. 1807.907 Section 1807.907 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.907 Limitation on liability. The...

  1. 12 CFR 1807.907 - Limitation on liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitation on liability. 1807.907 Section 1807.907 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.907 Limitation on liability. The...

  2. 12 CFR 1807.907 - Limitation on liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitation on liability. 1807.907 Section 1807.907 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.907 Limitation on liability. The...

  3. 12 CFR 1807.907 - Limitation on liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitation on liability. 1807.907 Section 1807.907 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.907 Limitation on liability. The...

  4. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit against barred... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.266 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of...

  5. 27 CFR 70.266 - Credit against barred liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit against barred... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.266 Credit against barred liability. Any credit against a liability in respect of any taxable year shall be void if the collection of...

  6. 42 CFR 455.202 - Limitation on contractor liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitation on contractor liability. 455.202 Section 455.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 455.202 Limitation on contractor liability. (a) A program contractor, a person, or an entity...

  7. 7 CFR 1767.19 - Liabilities and other credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liabilities and other credits. 1767.19 Section 1767.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.19 Liabilities and...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1001-2 - Discharge of liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discharge of liabilities. 1.1001-2 Section 1.1001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-2 Discharge of liabilities. (a) Inclusion...

  9. 29 CFR 4043.32 - Transfer of benefit liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer of benefit liabilities. 4043.32 Section 4043.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.32 Transfer of benefit liabilities....

  10. 50 CFR 13.50 - Acceptance of liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of liability. 13.50 Section 13.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Conditions § 13.50 Acceptance of liability. Except as otherwise limited in...

  11. 50 CFR 13.50 - Acceptance of liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance of liability. 13.50 Section 13.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Conditions § 13.50 Acceptance of liability. Except as otherwise limited in...

  12. 47 CFR 32.4130 - Other current liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other current liabilities. 32.4130 Section 32... Other current liabilities. This account shall include: (a) The amount of advance billing creditable to... operation of sinking and redemption fund agreements. (c) The current portion of obligations applicable...

  13. 17 CFR 256.242 - Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Miscellaneous current and... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.242 Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities. This account shall include the amount of all other current...

  14. 47 CFR 32.4130 - Other current liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other current liabilities. 32.4130 Section 32... Other current liabilities. This account shall include: (a) The amount of advance billing creditable to... operation of sinking and redemption fund agreements. (c) The current portion of obligations applicable...

  15. 17 CFR 256.242 - Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous current and... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.242 Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities. This account shall include the amount of all other current...

  16. 47 CFR 32.4130 - Other current liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other current liabilities. 32.4130 Section 32... Other current liabilities. This account shall include: (a) The amount of advance billing creditable to... operation of sinking and redemption fund agreements. (c) The current portion of obligations applicable...

  17. 47 CFR 32.4130 - Other current liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other current liabilities. 32.4130 Section 32... Other current liabilities. This account shall include: (a) The amount of advance billing creditable to... operation of sinking and redemption fund agreements. (c) The current portion of obligations applicable...

  18. 47 CFR 32.4130 - Other current liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other current liabilities. 32.4130 Section 32... Other current liabilities. This account shall include: (a) The amount of advance billing creditable to... operation of sinking and redemption fund agreements. (c) The current portion of obligations applicable...

  19. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  20. Legal Liability of Community College Presidents and Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumer, D. H.

    This document describes the criminal and legal liability of community college presidents and board members in such areas as contracts,civil rights, and fiduciary responsibilities. Also described are the defenses which universities ordinarily build to protect their employees from these liabilities. These defenses include the sovereign or charitable…

  1. 26 CFR 1.357-1 - Assumption of liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business purpose. In such cases, the total amount of liabilities assumed or acquired pursuant to such... the $4,000 liability was to avoid tax on the exchange, or was not a bona fide business purpose, then... thereto was a purpose to avoid Federal income tax on the exchange or was not a bona fide business...

  2. 48 CFR 49.406 - Liquidation of liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquidation of liability. 49.406 Section 49.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 49.406 Liquidation of liability. The...

  3. 25 CFR 273.46 - Liability and motor vehicle insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability and motor vehicle insurance. 273.46 Section 273... Requirements § 273.46 Liability and motor vehicle insurance. (a) States, school districts and Indian... implication, the use of motor vehicles must contain a provision requiring the State, school district,...

  4. 25 CFR 273.46 - Liability and motor vehicle insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liability and motor vehicle insurance. 273.46 Section 273... Requirements § 273.46 Liability and motor vehicle insurance. (a) States, school districts and Indian... implication, the use of motor vehicles must contain a provision requiring the State, school district,...

  5. 25 CFR 273.46 - Liability and motor vehicle insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Liability and motor vehicle insurance. 273.46 Section 273... Requirements § 273.46 Liability and motor vehicle insurance. (a) States, school districts and Indian... implication, the use of motor vehicles must contain a provision requiring the State, school district,...

  6. 25 CFR 273.46 - Liability and motor vehicle insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liability and motor vehicle insurance. 273.46 Section 273... Requirements § 273.46 Liability and motor vehicle insurance. (a) States, school districts and Indian... implication, the use of motor vehicles must contain a provision requiring the State, school district,...

  7. 25 CFR 273.46 - Liability and motor vehicle insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability and motor vehicle insurance. 273.46 Section 273... Requirements § 273.46 Liability and motor vehicle insurance. (a) States, school districts and Indian... implication, the use of motor vehicles must contain a provision requiring the State, school district,...

  8. Liability Insurance: A Primer for College and University Counsel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ende, Howard; Anderson, Eugene R.; Crego, Susannah

    1997-01-01

    Because of the rise in litigation involving colleges and universities, basic information about liability insurance is provided. Administrators are warned that previously purchased liability insurance may not cover damages and losses incurred today, and that insurance companies often benefit from extended litigation. College counsel must understand…

  9. 48 CFR 245.7310-3 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability and insurance... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7310-3 Liability and insurance. When the work to be performed by the purchaser warrants,...

  10. 48 CFR 47.207-7 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability and insurance... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 47.207-7 Liability and insurance. (a) The contracting officer shall specify— (1) The...

  11. 48 CFR 1352.271-79 - Liability and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liability and insurance. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.110, insert the following clause: Liability and Insurance (APR 2010) (a) The contractor shall exercise reasonable care and use its best efforts to prevent... loss or damage the contractor by exercise of reasonable care was unable to prevent. However,...

  12. 16 CFR 432.6 - Liability for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liability for violation. 432.6 Section 432.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.6 Liability for violation. If the manufacturer or, in...

  13. 16 CFR 432.6 - Liability for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liability for violation. 432.6 Section 432.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.6 Liability for violation. If the manufacturer or, in...

  14. 16 CFR 432.6 - Liability for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liability for violation. 432.6 Section 432.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.6 Liability for violation. If the manufacturer or, in...

  15. 16 CFR 432.6 - Liability for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liability for violation. 432.6 Section 432.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.6 Liability for violation. If the manufacturer or, in...

  16. 16 CFR 432.6 - Liability for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liability for violation. 432.6 Section 432.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.6 Liability for violation. If the manufacturer or, in...

  17. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net deferred tax liability adjustments. 32.4341....4341 Net deferred tax liability adjustments. (a) This account shall include the portion of deferred income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net....

  18. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...This document contains proposed regulations relating to relief from joint and several tax liability under section 6015 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and relief from the Federal income tax liability resulting from the operation of state community property laws under section 66. The proposed regulations provide guidance to taxpayers on when and how to request relief under sections 66 and......

  19. 47 CFR 3.76 - Licensee's liability for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee's liability for payment. 3.76 Section... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.76 Licensee's liability for payment. The U.S. ship station licensee bears ultimate responsibility for final payment of...

  20. Warning! Slippery Road Ahead: Internet Access and District Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Joan M.

    1995-01-01

    As schools merge onto the information highway, districts must address their liability associated with Internet access. Schools need a practical policy supporting high access to global educational resources while limiting district liability. USENET provides easy access to controversial and pornographic materials. This article outlines federal…