Alvy, Lisa M; Hughes, Tonda L; Kristjanson, Arlinda F; Wilsnack, Sharon C
Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.
Williamson, J M; Borduin, C M; Howe, B A
This study examined the individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Dyads were divided into 4 demographically similar groups: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and nonmaltreatment control. Results show that adolescent neglect was primarily associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation. Adolescent physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child developmental skills, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. In contrast, adolescent sexual abuse was related to maternal emotional problems and adolescent internalizing behaviors. In general, each group of maltreated adolescents experienced lower levels of family cohesion, more attention problems, and more daily stress than did their nonmaltreated counterparts. Findings are consistent with an ecological model of adolescent maltreatment.
Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.
This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and/or neglect in childhood were associated with increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 85), sexually abused (N = 72), and neglected (N = 429) children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 who were matched with non-maltreated children (N = 415) and followed into adulthood. At approximately age 40, participants (483 women and 461 men) were asked about romantic cohabitation and sexual partners, in the context of in-person interviews covering a range of topics. Group (abuse/neglect versus control) differences were assessed with cross-tabulations and logistic regression. A total of 8% of the overall sample reported any same-sex relationship (cohabitation or sexual partners). Childhood physical abuse and neglect were not significantly associated with same-sex cohabitation or sexual partners. Individuals with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report ever having had same-sex sexual partners (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.16-6.80, p < or = .05); however, only men with histories of childhood sexual abuse were significantly more likely than controls to report same-sex sexual partners (OR = 6.75, 95% CI = 1.53-29.86, p < or = .01). These prospective findings provide tentative evidence of a link between childhood sexual abuse and same-sex sexual partnerships among men, although further research is needed to explore this relationship and to examine potential underlying mechanisms.
Williamson, Jeffrey M.; And Others
Examined individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Adolescent neglect was associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation; physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child development, and adolescent…
Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A
Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.
... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...
Ney, P G; Fung, T; Wickett, A R
We have studied the impact of various kinds of abuse and neglect on the child's perception of himself and his future. We found, when considering physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, that less than 5% of these mistreatments occurred in isolation. Since the vast majority of mistreated children are subject to more than one kind of abuse or neglect, it was important to delineate which combinations have the greatest effect. We found that a combination of physical neglect, physical abuse, and verbal abuse had the greatest impact on children, affecting such things as their enjoyment of living and hopes for the future. An early age of onset for verbal abuse and emotional neglect was significantly associated with greater severity and frequency of mistreatment. Neglect appears to be a precursor to abuse in many cases.
... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...
Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A; Gorbien, Martin
This study aims to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in an urban Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed in a major urban medical center in NanJing, China. A total of 412 participants completed the survey and 145 (35%) participants screened positive for elder abuse and neglect. The mean age of the victims was 69 years and 59% were male. Caregiver neglect was the most common form of abuse, followed by financial exploitation, psychological abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and abandonment. Thirty-six percent of the victims suffered multiple forms of abuse and neglect. In the logistical regression analyses of the data, female gender, lower education and lower income were demographic risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect. A better understanding of these and additional risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect in older Chinese people is needed.
India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.
Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W
This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.
... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...
Halphen, John M; Varas, Grace M; Sadowsky, June M
Elder abuse (physical, sexual, or psychological) and neglect (by caretakers or self-neglect) are major public health problems. Most cases are not identified by clinicians and reported to the appropriate government agencies. There are some barriers to clinician identification and reporting of cases of elder abuse or neglect. These barriers mainly result from a lack of clinician education and comfort regarding this topic. We propose that clinician understanding of the phenomenon of elder mistreatment, familiarity with a simple approach to screening and identification of cases, awareness of risk factors and warning signs, and awareness of appropriate interventions will help to eliminate these barriers and result in clinicians properly fulfilling their duty to help protect their most vulnerable elderly patients.
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006
Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…
Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph
Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…
COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.
SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID
... bruises, while behavioral indicators are ways victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Some of the indicators listed below can be explained by other causes (e.g. inappropriate or unusual behavior may signal dementia or drug interactions) and no single indicator can be taken ...
Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind
Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...
Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.
Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…
... hard to please, aggressiveness Trouble sleeping Vague physical complaints CHILD NEGLECT These are examples of child neglect: ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...
Tonella, A; Zuppinger, K
Pediatricians form part of children's and young people's most important extra-familial relations. They are thus especially well placed: first, to discover abuse of any kind, and second to put in motion the first years of measures of assistance for the children and their families. The first years of life are decisive for effective prevention of abuse and neglect, and for the development of a healthy personality. In this part of life, pediatricians are virtually the only "social outposts". Nevertheless, in Swiss pediatrics the concept of child protection is still in the initial stages. While we should warmly welcome the fact this problem was at last the main theme of an annual meeting, it must be remembered that this was only the first time. For a long time now no one has doubted that in our, thus far socially privileged country, a frighteningly large number of children and adolescents are victims of abuse. Since the publication of the report "Mauvais traitements des enfants en Suisse" (1992) a representative questionnaire to parents has shown that in this country and now, as before, over a third of parents use corporal punishment on their children. It has been calculated that e.g. 21,800 babies aged between 0 and 2.5 years are beaten, 4800 of them even with implements. There are no data on psychological and sexual maltreatment. Despite this shocking incidence of abuse, only a total of 72 cases (6% of all recorded cases) were reported over one year by pediatric practitioners in the "1989 prospective study". We cannot accept that this reflects a lack of social concern. Many other shortcomings appear to be involved: lack of briefing on the problems of child abuse during medical training, post-graduate and continuing studies, inadequate arrangements for interdisciplinary work, discouragement and early delegation to pseudo-experts, distrust of the efficacy of available aids (but sometimes overestimation of one's own possibilities) and last but not least, a still highly
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
Fischler, Ronald S.
Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…
Recognition of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Each year, millions of elderly persons suffer as the result of abuse and neglect. Their quality of life is severely jeopardized in the form of worsened functional status and progressive dependency, poorly rated self-health, feelings of helplessness, and from the vicious cycle of social isolation, stress and further psychologic decline. Other medical implications of abuse and neglect include higher health systems use in the form of frequent ER visits, higher hospitalization, and higher nursing home placement; most importantly, it is an independent predictor for higher mortality. Physicians are well situated in detecting and reporting suspected cases and taking care of the frail elders who are victims of abuse and neglect, but there are barriers on the individual level, and there is a broader need for system change. Through education, training, and reinforcement, there are strategies to get health care professionals more involved and provide effective management protocols and guidelines for us to advocate for our patients in the current epidemic of elder abuse and neglect.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel
Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.
Krugman, Richard D; Bross, Donald C
Neurosurgeons that see children and care for those with traumatic injury are highly likely to see cases of child abuse and neglect. That fact makes it inevitable that they will encounter the legal system. It is hoped that this article has demystified the legal process and systems that one encounters in day-to-day practice. Avoiding the diagnosis of abuse because of lack of knowledge or phobia of the legal system is hazardous to the health and well-being of children.
Mejiuni, Clara Olutoyin
This paper posits that maltreatment of children in Nigeria finds support in Nigerian cultures that permit and encourage such acts. The paper discusses sexual abuse; emotional abuse; child labor; variabilities within subcultures, social classes, and rural/urban settings; sociocultural factors precipitating abuse and neglect; and the role of adult…
Tower, Cynthia Crosson
The book provides information to teachers and other school personnel regarding the detection and reporting of child abuse. Eleven chapters address the following topics: (1) "How to Recognize Physical and Emotional Abuse and Neglect"; (2) "How to Recognize Sexual Abuse"; (3) "The Reporting Process" (state reporting laws, school reporting policy,…
This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…
A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…
Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.
This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…
Venters, Maurine; ten Bensel, Robert
A structured graduate interdisciplinary course on child abuse and neglect is offered to students in various types of professional training at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. It also encourages communication among students from law, medicine, social work, education, and other fields. (Author/LBH)
DC Action for Children, 2011
The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…
Dubowitz, Howard; Bennett, Susan
Child maltreatment includes physical abuse and neglect, and happens in all countries and cultures. Child maltreatment usually results from interactions between several risk factors (such as parental depression, stress, and social isolation). Physicians can incorporate methods to screen for risk factors into their usual appointments with the family. Detection of physical abuse is dependent on the doctor's ability to recognise suspicious injuries, such as bruising, bite marks, burns, bone fractures, or trauma to the head or abdomen. Neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the USA. It can be caused by insufficient parental knowledge; intentional negligence is rare. Suspected cases of child abuse should be well documented and reported to the appropriate public agency which should assess the situation and help to protect the child.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; DuMont, Kimberly A
The literature has been contradictory regarding whether parents who were abused as children have a greater tendency to abuse their own children. A prospective 30-year follow-up study interviewed individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched comparisons and a subset of their children. The study assessed maltreatment based on child protective service (CPS) agency records and reports by parents, nonparents, and offspring. The extent of the intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect depended in large part on the source of the information used. Individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect have higher rates of being reported to CPS for child maltreatment but do not self-report more physical and sexual abuse than matched comparisons. Offspring of parents with histories of childhood abuse and neglect are more likely to report sexual abuse and neglect and that CPS was concerned about them at some point in their lives. The strongest evidence for the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment indicates that offspring are at risk for childhood neglect and sexual abuse, but detection or surveillance bias may account for the greater likelihood of CPS reports.
Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P < 0.001). Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P < 0.005), leading to longer hospitalization (P = 0.042) and a higher Injury Severity Score (P = 0.043). There were more skin injuries in neglect (P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.49% (n = 9). The CPMSDC could enhance the ability, alertness, and inclination of professionals to identify suspected cases of child abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...
Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.
The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…
Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…
Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.
Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results: Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. Conclusion: It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural. PMID:26816425
Heim, Christine; Shugart, Margaret; Craighead, W Edward; Nemeroff, Charles B
The effects of early-life trauma and its consequences for the treatment of depression are reviewed. The prevalence and clinical sequelae of early sexual and physical abuse, neglect and parental loss are described. An overview of preclinical studies that help guide clinical research and practice is presented. Human clinical studies on the neurobiological consequences of early trauma are summarized. Moderating factors, such as genetic variation and sex differences, are discussed. The few current treatment outcome studies relevant to this research area are described. Guidance for the management of patients with depression and a history of child abuse and neglect are provided. Most patients who have experienced early traumatic experiences are likely best treated with a combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. This review is dedicated to the memory of Seymour Levine who pioneered the field of early experience research and to a considerable extent inspired the clinical studies described in this review.
... Abuse: Research, Treatment, & Program Innovations for Victims, Survivors, & Offenders, 14(4), 1-24. doi: 10.1300/J070v14n04_ ... 1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal ...
Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante
To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children
In all 50 states, physicians and dentists are required to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect and the role of physicians and dentists in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may be suspicious for child abuse or neglect. Physicians receive minimal training in oral health and dental injury and disease and, thus, may not detect dental aspects of abuse or neglect as readily as they do child abuse and neglect involving other areas of the body. Therefore, physicians and dentists are encouraged to collaborate to increase the prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions.
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.
Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron
Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.
Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina
Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.
Wanlass, Janine; Moreno, J. Kelly; Thomson, Hannah M.
Although group therapy for abused and neglected youth is a viable and efficacious treatment option, facilitation is challenging. Group leaders must contain intense affect, manage multiple transferences, and advocate for their clients within the larger social welfare system. Using a case study of a group for sexually abused girls, this paper…
Godkin, Michael A.; And Others
Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49
Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Boyacıoğlu, Nur Elçin; Sertçelik, Elmas
The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the neglect and abuse that older people were exposed to by their primary caregivers and the experiences of caregivers' burden and abuse by their charges. This descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted with 186 individuals over the age of 65 and 136 caregivers. The data were collected using questionnaires to determine neglect and abuse experienced by both older people and caregivers, and the Zarit Burden Scale. Abuse rate of the older people and their caregivers is both high and similar. This study is to make psychiatric nursing professionals aware of the problem of elder abuse and neglect. For researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers in the fields of aging, health, and mental health this study provides important data about elder abuse and neglect.
National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY.
The manual was written by the National Council of Jewish Women to provide guidelines for volunteer legislative action and community service for individuals in the area of child abuse and neglect. After an overview which details some of the causes of child abuse, information on child abuse and neglect legislation in each state is presented.…
Almuneef, Maha A.; Alghamdi, Linah A.; Saleheen, Hassan N.
Objectives: To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients’ files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. Results: The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (<6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. Conclusions: The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors. PMID:27464866
DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.
Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.
DuMont, Kimberly A.; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.
Purpose: This paper examines individual, family, and neighborhood level predictors of resilience in adolescence and young adulthood and describes changes in resilience over time from adolescence to young adulthood in abused and neglected children grown up. Method: We use documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (n = 676)…
Thompson, Heather; Priest, Ronnie
Elder abuse and neglect are prevalent throughout the U.S. and are often unrecognized and untreated. It is projected that by the year 2030, the number of older adults (age 60 and older) will double, thereby increasing the likelihood that mental health practitioners will encounter instances of elder abuse and neglect. The authors address the…
Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.
Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…
Baurley, Marion E.; Street, Matthew H.
Designed to provide the reader with general background information in the area of American Indian child abuse and neglect law and to present a framework in which individual abuse or neglect cases may be analyzed, this report is divided into four sections. The first section describes features of the jurisdictional conflicts encountered in American…
Herner and Co., Arlington, VA.
The booklet describes careers and requirements in various fields concerned with child abuse and neglect. Each full or half page section includes a description of the field's relation to child abuse and neglect, types of responsibilities involved, and personal/academic qualifications. The following fields are considered: social services, medicine,…
DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Homeier, Diana C; Wilber, Kathleen H
Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, were recruited and trained to interview a sample of Latino adults aged 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; financial exploitation; and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of elderly Latino adults had experienced some form of abuse or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% physical assault, 9% sexual abuse, and 16.7% financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with greater risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the United States was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elderly adults, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community.
Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Rosen, Tony; Clark, Sunday; Nash, Denis; Mielenz, Thelma J
We utilized the National Ombudsman Reporting System (NORS) to describe national trends in reporting of abuse and neglect in nursing facilities to long term care ombudsmen (LTCO) from 2006 to 2013. We investigated complaints made against facility staff or residents with the following codes: physical abuse, verbal/mental abuse, sexual abuse, financial exploitation, gross neglect, and resident to resident physical or sexual abuse. Nationally, LTCO received an annual average of 11,749 abuse and neglect-related complaints in nursing homes from 2006 to 2013. These complaints trended down significantly, from 7.5 to 5.6 reports per 1000 beds (P < 0.0001). Physical abuse by a non-resident was the most frequently reported, representing an average of 28% of total abuse/neglect complaints. Improved understanding of the reasons for declines in reporting, increased training on other types of abuse and neglect, and expansion of the NORS database to allow for more comprehensive analysis are needed.
LoFaso, Veronica M; Rosen, Tony
Elder abuse and neglect are highly prevalent but woefully underdetected and underreported. The presentation is rarely clear and requires the piecing together of clues that create a mosaic of the full picture. More research needed to better characterize findings that, when identified, can contribute to certainty in cases of suspected abuse. Medical and laboratory data can be helpful in the successful determination of abuse and neglect.
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter
Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…
Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel
Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age). Data were collected among a large systematically selected sample of adult male inmates (N=1261). Based on LCA, three unique classes of CAN were distinguished, including a 'low abuse' group (43.4% of the sample), a 'high physical and emotional abuse' group (51.3%), and a 'poly-victimized' group (5.3%). The analysis revealed that the CAN classes were differentially associated with affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, personal self-esteem, prison self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, and violent offending. Findings highlight the unique nature of CAN constellations among criminal justice involved participants. The significance of the present results is discussed in relation to past and future research. Potential contributions to treatment strategies are also presented.
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed.
O'Brien, James G
Twenty-five years of involvement with elder abuse and neglect has yielded mixed results. The contribution by physicians to elder abuse, in contrast with child abuse, has been very limited. Physicians, despite being in an advantaged position to intervene, lag behind other professionals in reporting. Potential remedies include identification of abuse as a syndrome to allow for reimbursement, increased education and research funding, and a greater advocacy role by physician organizations.
Lowenstein, Ariela; Doron, Israel
The present paper addresses the advancement of research, policies, legislation, and practice experiences designed to deal with the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in Israel in times of transition. The paper presents a short overview of the demographic scene, reflecting population characteristics and needs that impact care giving as well as elder abuse and neglect. The developments of scientific knowledge and its accumulation, especially the empirical data from the first national survey on elder abuse and neglect are discussed. Further, legislative developments relating to four generational laws and the advancement of policies and innovative practice experiences are described and analyzed. Finally, future challenges in the field are identified.
The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…
Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit
It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K
This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.
This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined.
Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina
The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.
... Use alcohol or drugs Engage in high-risk sexual behaviors Get poor grades in school Have a lot ... Sexual Abuse. https://www.childwelfare.gov/can/identifying/sex_abuse.cfm. Accessed November 21, 2014.
Dube, Shanta R.; Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Croft, Janet B.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Giles, Wayne H.
A study involving 8,629 adults examined the association between parental alcohol abuse and child abuse, neglect, and other household dysfunction. Compared to households without alcohol abuse, the adjusted odds ratio for each category of adverse childhood experience was 2 to 13 times higher if parents abused alcohol. (Contains references.) (CR)
Subramanian, E M G; Subhagya, B; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N
Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher
The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.
Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003-2004 (N 1/4 807). Results indicate that adults with documented histories of childhood abuse and/or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings, and fewer assets as adults, compared to matched control children. There is a 14% gap between individuals with histories of abuse/neglect and controls in the probability of employment in middle age, controlling for background characteristics. Maltreatment appears to affect men and women differently, with larger effects for women than men. These new findings demonstrate that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences.
Rencken, Robert H.
This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…
Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad
Background: Child abuse is an issue that has many physical and psychological consequences. Objectives: This study was designed and conducted to investigate the current situation regarding child abuse, which can be used as a guideline for planning future interventions. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, analytic cross-sectional study on 700 Yazd secondary school students in 2013, using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS v.19 software and appropriate statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Overall, 700 students (43%) were boys. Child abuse frequency was 93.5% (92.2% of boys and 94.4% of girls). The most common domains of child abuse among all students were neglect (83.8%), psychological (76.1%), physical (36.1%) and sexual (28.8 %), respectively. The most common domains of child abuse among female students were neglect (84.9%), psychological (82.3%), physical (32.5%) and sexual (31.5 %), and among male students, these were neglect (82.3%), psychological (67.9%), physical (41%) and sexual (25.3%). Demographic variables included substance abuse of parents, father’s education, parents living status and having other jobs, which were significantly related variables to child abuse and neglect (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study is the first investigation performed on patients with LCH and its possible association with EBV in Iran. Considering the P = 0.004, which is statistically significant, the findings do support the hypothesis of a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of LCH. These results are in accordance with several previous investigations, with positive findings. PMID:26834803
Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol
Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians.
Pierce, Lois; Bozalek, Vivienne
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore which of 17 categories of child maltreatment South Africans evaluated as most serious and to determine if those working with abuse and neglect evaluated abuse and neglect differently from those who did not. Method: A revised version of Giovannoni and Becerra's [Giovannoni, J., & Becerra, R.…
McElroy, Linda Provus
This paper reviews factors in the professional neglect of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as recent diagnostic developments in childhood dissociative disorders. The identification of subtle dissociative symptomatology in children is illustrated, and two case examples are presented. (Author)
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…
Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M
The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental education. Participants were 702 adolescents from Jammu in the age range of 13-17 years (41.5% female). We found acceptance for a four-factor intercorrelated model for the CTQ with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (5 emotional neglect and 2 physical neglect items) factors following a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Forty-one to sixty-one percent of adolescents reported maltreatment which is higher in comparison with CTQ based studies from the West. Analysis of CFA with covariates (MIMIC model) indicated that males, and adolescents of less educated mothers' and from joint families reported higher abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse, respectively, while fathers' education level was not associated with abuse or neglect. Implications of these findings are highlighted.
da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu
Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support.
Childhood sexual abuse affects at least 18% of British women but the true figure may be far higher. Repressed memories may resurface at childbirth. Midwives need to be aware of certain behavioural tendencies which may indicate childhood sexual abuse. There are four recognised labour styles which may be adopted by abuse survivors. Extra sensitivity should be used by midwives when caring for a possible abuse survivor. Disclosure of abuse must always come from the client.
Bentley, Tyrone; Widom, Cathy S
Childhood maltreatment has been implicated as a risk factor for adult obesity. We describe the first prospective assessment of adult obesity in individuals with documented histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group in a 30-year follow-up. Using a prospective cohort design, children with court substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11 years) from a Midwest county during 1967-1971 (n=410) were matched with children without histories of abuse or neglect on age, sex, race/ethnicity and approximate family social class (n=303) and followed up and assessed at mean age 41. Outcome measures include BMI and obesity assessed in 2003-2004 as part of a medical status examination and interview. Childhood physical abuse predicted significantly higher BMI scores in adulthood (beta=0.14, P<0.05), even controlling for demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (beta=0.16, P<0.01). Childhood sexual abuse (beta=0.07, not significant) and neglect (beta=0.02, not significant) were not significant predictors of adult BMI scores. These results demonstrate the long-term impact of childhood physical abuse on weight into adulthood and suggest that physically abused children may be at risk for other adverse health outcomes associated with increased weight. Health professionals need to understand this risk for physically abused children and researchers should identify and evaluate strategies for effective interventions.
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…
Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated.
O'Brien, James G; Riain, Ailis Ni; Collins, Claire; Long, V; O'Neill, Desmond
The objective of this study was to survey general practitioners (GPs) in Ireland regarding their experience with elder abuse. A random sample of 800 GPs were mailed a survey in March 2010, with a reminder in May 2010, yielding a 24% response rate. The majority, 64.5%, had encountered elder abuse, with 35.5% encountering a case in the previous year. Most were detected during a home visit. Psychological abuse and self-neglect were most common. Most GPs in Ireland have encountered cases of elder abuse, most were willing to get involved beyond medical treatment, and 76% cited a need for more education.
Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz
To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ.
Jordan, Ante; Welbury, Richard R; Tiljak, Mirjana Kujundzic; Cukovic-Bagic, Ivana
The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational experiences of a group of Croatian dental students and to assess their knowledge about child abuse and neglect. In the study, 544 respondents (153 male and 391 female) from all six years at the University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine completed questionnaires, with a response rate of 74.9 percent. A chi-square test was applied to test the differences among students' answers. Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Out of the total number of respondents, 33.6 percent had encountered the topic of child abuse and neglect during their lectures. The results show a lack of knowledge of the signs pointing to physical and sexual abuse of children. Students from more senior teaching years showed a greater amount of knowledge related to child abuse and neglect in contrast to students from more junior teaching years. In conclusion, dental students should be better educated and prepared for the important role of helping protect children from abuse and neglect.
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim
This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…
Jargin, Sergei V
Violence in families and elder abuse can take many forms, which his sometimes difficult to recognize. In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in professional literature and mass media. A border between elder abuse and parricide can be indistinct. Borderline cases can include involvement of older people in binge drinking, denial of help, and manipulation towards suicide. Three example cases are discussed in this report. A concluding point is that for prevention of parricide, it should be kept devoid of its reputation as an extraordinary crime, committed mainly by mentally ill individuals. The perpetrators can be mentally healthy or have a personality disorder. Parricide can have trivial appearance, not always recognized as such by victims and social environment.
Sari Gokten, Emel; Saday Duman, Nagihan; Soylu, Nusret; Uzun, Mehmet Erdem
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared. Abuse Assessment Questionnaire was applied to children after approval of the families was received. It was determined that the children diagnosed with ADHD were exposed to more physical (96.2%) and emotional abuse (87.5%) in a statistically significant way compared to controls (46.2%; 34.6%), they were exposed to physical and emotional neglect (5.8%) at a lower rate compared to healthy children (24.0%), and there was no difference between them and healthy children in terms of witnessing family violence (56.7%; 47.1%) and being exposed to sexual abuse (5.8%; 1.9%). The children diagnosed with ADHD were exposed to physical and emotional abuse at a higher rate; further studies should emphasize the role of parents in this topic and how parental education and treatment programs change the results.
Browne, Dorothy Howze
Examines data from clients reported and treated for child abuse and neglect to determine the role of stress in the commission of subsequent acts of abuse and neglect. Results indicate that stressful events and seriousness of the initial abusive incident had significant effects on commission of subsequent abusive and neglectful acts. (BB)
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…
Alexander, Randell A.
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…
Schilling, Christoph; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Häuser, Winfried; Pöhlmann, Karin
Background Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a) to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b) to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c) to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d) to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set. Methods In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2). Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment. Results Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2) and anxiety (GAD-2). Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress. Conclusion The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in
Argent, A. C.; And Others
The presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 96 children, ages 23 months to 14 years, in Cape Town, South Africa, was linked to sexual abuse in 67 percent of patients. It is recommended that symptomatic prepubertal children with STDs should be investigated for sexual abuse. (Author/SW)
Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali
Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Findings Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5%) boys and 488 (47.5%) girls 679 (66.05%) cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%), 360 (35%) and 394 (38.3%) respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence. Conclusion Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended. PMID:23724176
This clinical report serves to update the statement titled "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children," which was first published in 1991 and revised in 1999. The medical assessment of suspected sexual abuse is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate laboratory data. The role of the physician may include determining the need to report sexual abuse; assessment of the physical, emotional, and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse; and coordination with other professionals to provide comprehensive treatment and follow-up of victims.
Wood, Stacey; Stephens, Mary
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making abilities of residents in assisted living regarding abuse and neglect. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven residents in assisted living facilities were recruited for this descriptive study. Participants were administered an interview to assess baseline knowledge of support…
Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn
School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…
Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Pelton, Leroy H.
The article argues that the widespread belief that child abuse and neglect are unrelated to socioeconomic class is not supported by the evidence, and that it consequently serves to divert attention from the true nature of the problem involved. (Author/DLS)
... interventions. Table of Contents Introduction How many children die each year from child abuse or neglect? What groups of children are most vulnerable? How do these deaths occur? Who are the perpetrators? How do communities respond to child fatalities? How can these fatalities be prevented? ...
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…
Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin
A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…
McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola
Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…
Spann, Marisa N; Mayes, Linda C; Kalmar, Jessica H; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12-17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with nonperseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with nonperseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction.
Camacho, Rosie Lee
Consisting of three units, the course model aims to prepare students to address the problem of abuse and/or neglect in the Mexican American community. Unit one focuses on the two major parts of the informal helping system in the Mexican American community, the barrio and the family. Unit two concentrates on the traditional child welfare system and…
Ballew, Julius R.
Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
The six-page information sheet addresses the elements in Indian history, culture, psycho-dynamics, and socio-economics that have an impact on Indian child abuse and neglect. Discussion is presented on two myths that Whites have developed in time about Indians: racial superiority which has caused difficulty for the Indian and the necessity for…
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
In 1978 the Indian Child Welfare Act was passed which implemented new regulations regarding the removal of Indian children from their parents and their placement in residential and foster care or adoptive families or institutions. The 7-page information sheet provides guidelines in prevention of institutional child abuse and neglect of American…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0–11) with cases processed during 1967–1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are from in-person interviews at approximate age 29 and arrest records through 1994. Structural Equation Modeling tested path models. Results indicated that victims of child abuse and neglect were at increased risk for all problem behaviors, except drug use. In the full model, only early sexual initiation remained significant as a mediator in the pathway from child abuse and neglect to prostitution. Findings were generally consistent for physical and sexual abuse and neglect. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem behaviors among maltreated children may also reduce their risk for prostitution later in life. PMID:20186260
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines five potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0-11) with cases processed during 1967-1971 were matched with non-abused, non-neglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are from in-person interviews at approximate age 29 and arrest records through 1994. Structural Equation Modeling tested path models. Results indicated that victims of child abuse and neglect were at increased risk for all problem behaviors, except drug use. In the full model, only early sexual initiation remained significant as a mediator in the pathway from child abuse and neglect to prostitution. Findings were generally consistent for physical and sexual abuse and neglect. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem behaviors among maltreated children may also reduce their risk for prostitution later in life.
Teicher, Martin H; Parigger, Angelika
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional
... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...
... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...
Johnson, C F; Oral, R; Gullberg, L
A 7-year-old, female with mental retardation and seizure disorder was admitted with burns. Reportedly, her brother who was 12 years old was cooking dinner for himself. A towel caught fire. He threw the towel over his head, and the patient's diaper ignited. She had partial thickness second-degree burns over her right elbow, upper abdomen, both inner thighs, and buttocks with multiple blistering, which was estimated to be 7% of the total body surface. The child abuse team took a diaper similar to the one the child was wearing at the time of injury and found that it easily ignited and melted in several seconds. This is the first medically reported burn case due to a disposable diaper.
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.
This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…
Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.
Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…
Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…
Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.
Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne
This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…
... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation AGENCY... Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under section 2021, Subtitle H--Elder... establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as directed by section...
Albarracin, Dolores; And Others
A study of 101 Argentinean mothers of children who were hospitalized or attended an outpatient medical clinic examined the social support functions, sources, and temporal contexts of the mothers in relation to child abuse and neglect. Low-abuse/neglect mothers were found to have a stronger kin network than high-abuse/neglect mothers. (CR)
Childhood sexual abuse can have big implications for a woman both physically and psychologically during childbearing. There are aspects of midwifery practice such as vaginal examinations which can have devastating effects for survivors of childhood abuse because of their similarities to sexual abuse. There are steps which can be taken by student midwives and midwives alike to not only prevent the re-traumatisation of the survivors of childhood sexual abuse but empower them through their pregnancy and birthing experience. This article is based on a presentation to fellow students in which Stephanie Marriott examined the issues.
Putnam, Frank W.; And Others
This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages…
ten Bensel, R W; King, K J
The dentist's role primarily involves awareness of the problem of maltreatment, a method of approach to identify and report suspected cases, the documentation of the injuries or neglect which have been observed, and follow-up of any orofacial injuries. Orofacial trauma is present in up to one half of the reported cases of child abuse and consists of bruises, burns, lacerations, and fractures of teeth and jaws. Further studies in the dental field are needed to delineate the types and incidences of orofacial injuries and their relationship to child abuse. Dentists and all professionals must work together, if adequate services are to be provided to protect children and rehabilitate families.
Loos, Mary Elizabeth; Alexander, Pamela C.
Assesses the long-term effects of parental physical abuse, verbal abuse, and emotional neglect in a sample of 247 female and 154 male college students. Results suggest that parental physical abuse and verbal abuse predicted current anger and that emotional neglect predicted loneliness and social isolation. Paternal maltreatment predicted negative…
Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637
Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M
Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.
Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.
Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817
Alexander, Randell A
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.
Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John
Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646
McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.
Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y
Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.
Herner and Co., Washington, DC.
The monograph examines the rationale and scope of multidisciplinary teams in child abuse and neglect cases; and reviews operation of hospital-based, interagency, and state-mandated multidisciplinary team programs. The bulk of the document is composed of two appendixes: a directory of child abuse and neglect programs which use a multidisciplinary…
Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin
Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation.
Bernbaum, Barbara Susan
This document describes a practicum designed to address the needs of the parents of children who have experienced extrafamilial sexual abuse. It notes that, in cases of extrafamilial child sexual abuse, services are directed toward the child and that the neglect of the parents may exacerbate the child's stress. The practicum is aimed at: (1)…
Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David
Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)
van der Kolk, B A; Fisler, R E
Secure attachments with caregivers play a critical role in helping children develop a capacity to modulate physiological arousal. Loss of ability to regulate the intensity of feelings and impulses is possibly the most far-reaching effect of trauma and neglect. It has been shown that most abused and neglected children develop disorganized attachment patterns. The inability to modulate emotions gives rise to a range of behaviors that are best understood as attempts at self-regulation. These include aggression against others, self-destructive behavior, eating disorders, and substance abuse. The capacity to regulate internal states affects both self-definition and one's attitude toward one's surroundings. Abused children often fail to develop the capacity to express specific and differentiated emotions: Their difficulty putting feelings into words interferes with flexible response strategies and promotes acting out. Usually, these behaviors coexist, which further complicates diagnosis and treatment. Affective dysregulation can be mitigated by safe attachments, secure meaning schemes, and pharmacological interventions that enhance the predictability of somatic responses to stress. The ability to create symbolic representations of terrifying experiences promotes taming of terror and desomatization of traumatic memories.
Mosqueda, Laura; Dong, XinQi
Elder mistreatment encompasses a range of behaviors including emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. This article discusses the range of elder mistreatment in community-living older adults, associated factors, and consequences. Although self-neglect is not considered a type of abuse in many research definitions, it is the most commonly reported form of elder mistreatment and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The case on which this article is based describes a 70-year-old woman who neglects herself and dies despite multiple contacts with the medical community. Despite significant gaps in research, enough is known to guide clinical practice. This article presents the practical approaches a health care professional can take when a reasonable suspicion of elder mistreatment arises. Public health and interdisciplinary team approaches are needed to manage what is becoming an increasing problem as the number of older adults around the world increases.
Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.
This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…
Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.
A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)
Alaska State Library, Juneau.
Alaska law requires that medical and health personnel report known and suspected child abuse and neglect. No one is more likely to see indicators of abuse and neglect than medical and other health-related personnel. Such indicators can include broken bones, bruises, malnutrition and other effects of neglect, infections, and other signs of sexual…
... physical and emotional neglect, such as withholding affection; sexual and physical abuse; emotional abuse; and witnessing partner abuse. Then they examined the associations of child neglect and abuse with adult job absenteeism, unemployment, ...
Proctor, Janet; Hwalek, Melanie
This guidebook provides information for caseworkers who investigate allegations of abuse, neglect, financial exploitation and who also provide ongoing case management and follow-up with victims of abuse. The program focuses on caseworkers' attitudes and their knowledge and skills in dealing with abusers, particularly abusers who are chemically…
Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova
This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.
Stein, Karen F.
This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…
Mapes, Bruce E.
Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…
Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…
This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Whisnant, Roberta Ann
Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…
Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P
Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached.
The last two decades have heralded an increased community and professional awareness of the phenomenon of elder abuse and the challenges it poses to the enjoyment of the human rights of some older people. The contemporary Australian legal system provides many of the components of a framework required to assist in the promotion of the rights of the elderly and in the prevention and remedy of elder abuse. This framework acts in concert with health and community services dedicated to the advancement of health and wellbeing into old age. In the future, the acknowledgment and adoption of international legal principles which are directed to the needs of the elderly, the reform of existing domestic legislation and the development of new elder-specific statutes may all impact upon the incidence and consequences of elder abuse. To date, no Australian jurisdiction has adopted a legislative regime targeted specifically at the issues confronting older Australians who may be vulnerable to abuse and neglect. This column looks at some of the options for legal reform in this area.
Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.
Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts.
Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M
Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored.
Samson, Alana; And Others
This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…
Halle, Paulin M.; And Others
The prevalence of sexual abuse by male batterers has been estimated to be between 34% and 59%, although there are few studies examining the effects of this sexual abuse on the female victims. Further, the relationship between other forms of abuse and sexual abuse by a battering partner has not been systematically examined. The purpose of this…
Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.
Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo
Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning.
Horan, Jacqueline M.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors—sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior—mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning. PMID:25104419
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold
A survey of 825 female undergraduates found 62 percent participated in a "good touch-bad touch" sexual abuse prevention program in school. Eight percent who reported ever having had a prevention program also reported having been subsequently sexually abused, compared to 14 percent who did not ever have a prevention program. (Contains references.)…
Draucker, C B
Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse
The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention.
The aim of the present study was to investigate dental fear in women who have been exposed to different kinds of sexual abuse. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, 99 sexually abused women were divided into three groups: one group who reported having been exposed to sexual touching (ST); one group who reported intercourse (IC); and one group who reported sexual abuse involving oral penetration (OP). The mean score on dental fear assessments was significantly higher for all groups than for Norwegian women in general. Women in the OP group scored significantly higher than women in other groups on dental fear. The majority of the women reported that they had experienced problems in relation to dental treatment situations. About half of the women in the OP group and one-third in the other groups reported that they had never considered that there was a relationship between the abuse and their problems with dental treatment situations. Significantly more women in the OP group reported that they had not been aware of the relationship, possibly because the abuse had been repressed. The majority of the women with extreme dental fear had never informed a dentist that they had been sexually abused.
YILDIRIM, Feride; KÜÇÜKGÖNCÜ, Suat; BEŞTEPE, Engin Emrem; YILDIRIM, Murat Serkan
Introduction Unipolar depression is an important psychiatric disorder that leads to an increased risk of suicide. However, not all depression patients attempt suicide. This reflects the presence of other factors that may be related to suicide other than the sole presence of psychopathology. Drawing upon the clinical evidence linking childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide; this study aimed at investigating the relationship of childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide attempts in patients with unipolar depression. Method One hundred six unipolar depressed patients between the ages of 18 and 65 were included in the study. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, neurological disorders, alcohol-substance abuse problems, and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of <17 were excluded from the study. The BDI, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) were administered to all patients. Suicidal and non-suicidal cases were determined according to clinic interviews and the patients’ responses in the SBQ. Results Sixty-four patients have previously attempted suicide. Although there was no significant difference between unipolar depression patients with a history of suicide attempts and patients with no history of suicide attempts in terms of average age, education and marital status, however, female/male ratio in the former group was determined to be significantly higher. BDI, STAXI continuous anger and outward anger average scores, and average CTQ-28 emotional abuse, physical abuse and total scores were significantly higher in the group with a history of suicide attempts. The predictors of suicide attempts were higher BDI and CTQ-28 physical abuse scores and female gender. The predictors for average SBQ scores were determined as higher BDI, CTQ-28 sexual abuse, and STAXI outward anger and continuous anger scores. Conclusion Childhood physical and
Kingston, Paul; Penhale, Bridget
Issues related to elder abuse and neglect should be systematically addressed in nursing curricula, including ways to identify abuse at the macro, mezzo, and micro levels and the inclusion of the views of elders in the educational process. (SK)
Eisikovits, Zvi; Koren, Chaya; Band-Winterstein, Tova
The interaction and inter-penetrability overlap of abuse and neglect has been previously described. Therefore, the question is not whether a distinction can be made between the two, but how specific events are constructed into abuse and/or neglect based on how each of the protagonists involved (researchers, professional workers, family members, and the older persons themselves) make sense of abuse and neglect. The purpose of this paper is to explore the social and psychological construction of elder abuse and neglect and illustrate the theoretical constructs using case material and its application to the field.
Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice
Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.
This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Kotake, Chie; Fauth, Rebecca; Easterbrooks, M Ann
A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children. We found that when mothers had at least one report of childhood maltreatment (substantiated or not), the odds that they maltreated their children increased by 72% (OR=2.52), compared to mothers who are not maltreated, but the odds were considerably lower when we limited analysis to substantiated reports. Both a maternal history of substantiated neglect and multiple type maltreatment (neglect and physical or sexual abuse) were associated with increased risk of child maltreatment, yet the likelihood of children experiencing multiple maltreatment perpetrated with their mothers identified as perpetrators increased over 300% when mothers had a childhood history of multiple maltreatment.
Blass, Rosanne J.; And Others
The legal obligation of Ohio school employees to report situations of suspected child abuse and neglect has generated a need for school districts to adopt a written policy together with guidelines and procedures to assure school personnel are aware of the mandate to report and have a structural procedure to do so. The written policy should: (1)…
Lowenstein, Ariela; Eisikovits, Zvi; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Enosh, Guy
This article discusses findings from the First National Survey on Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel, conducted during 2004-2005 under the sponsorship of The Association for Planning and Development of Services for the Aged in Israel (ESHEL) and the National Insurance Institute. The goals were to examine the prevalence and severity of various forms of abuse and neglect from the victims' perspective, to examine correlates and predictors, and to develop profiles of elders at risk. Data were collected through personal interviews from a national representative sample of community urban dwellers age 65 and older, using cluster sampling techniques and sampling proportionately both Arab and Jewish elders. The sample was composed of 392 males and 650 females, 89% were Jews and 11% were non-Jews. The instrument included sociodemographic data, health and activities of daily living (ADL), a measure of safety, and a battery to examine seven types of abuse (physical, emotional, verbal, limitation of freedom, financial exploitation, sexual, and neglect). Findings indicate that 18.4% of the respondents were exposed to at least one type of abuse during the 12 months preceding the interview, the highest form being verbal abuse followed by financial exploitation. The rates were quite similar between Jews and Arabs. Women were more exposed to physical violence and Arab women were the most vulnerable. Physical, emotional, verbal, limitation of freedom, and sexual abuse occurred mostly among partners. The rates of physical, sexual, and limitation of freedom abuse, however, were relatively low. Financial exploitation was mostly inflicted by adult children. Partners as perpetrators had more chronic health problems and physical and mental disabilities. Children as perpetrators were unemployed, had various mental health problems, and were substance abusers, often in a process of separation or divorce and tended to live with the victims. Neglect in answering primary needs was found among 20
Harbison, Joan; Coughlan, Stephen; Beaulieu, Marie; Karabanow, Jeff; Vanderplaat, Madine; Wildeman, Sheila; Wexler, Ezra
This article provides an overview of the ways in which the mistreatment and neglect of older people have come to be understood as a social problem, one which is underpinned by a variety of substantive and theoretical assumptions. It connects the process of conceptualizing elder abuse and neglect to political-economic and social evolution. The authors draw on a review of the literature, government sources, interest group websites, and their own research to provide a critical commentary illustrating how these understandings have become manifest in legislation, policies, and programs pertaining to "elder abuse and neglect" in Canada. Suggestions are provided for changes in direction for policies, programs, and research.
Klopfer, U; Berger, C; Lennertz, I; Breuer, B; Deget, F; Wolke, A; Fegert, J M; Lehmkuhl, G; Lehmkuhl, U; Lüderitz, A; Walter, M
This article describes experiences of parents of sexual abused children and their evaluations of institutional interventions on sexual child abuse. Results are presented of a study investigating 'individual and institutional reactions on sexual child abuse'. The number of contacted institutions, personnel experiences with these institutions and resulting requirements are described. The results are based on a sample of 47 (82.5%) girls and 10 (17.5%) boys (range 6-18 years) and interviews with their 'non-abusing' parents. 28 (49.1%) of these children were abused by a member of the family, 29 (50.9%) children by non-familiar persons. It could be shown that 70.2% of the children had contacted four or more different institutions soon after the sexual abuse had been revealed. In cases of sexual abuse by a family member the first contacted institution was the Youth-and-Health-Care-System whereas in cases of sexual abuse by non-familiar persons mostly the police was contacted. Nevertheless in most cases both judicial and supporting approach were chosen. Additionally to concrete advices and professional competences the interviewed parents reported that emotional warmth was a very helpful aspect of the professional intervention. Generally the perspective of the parents seems to give some interesting informations about 'consumer satisfaction'.
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.
Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F
We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.
Teicher, Martin H.; Samson, Jacqueline A.
Background and Scope Childhood maltreatment is the most important preventable cause of psychopathology accounting for about 45% of the population attributable risk for childhood onset psychiatric disorders. A key breakthrough has been the discovery that maltreatment alters trajectories of brain development. This review aims to synthesize neuroimaging findings in children who experienced caregiver neglect as well as from studies in children, adolescents and adults who experienced physical, sexual and emotional abuse. In doing so we provide preliminary answers to questions regarding the importance of type and timing of exposure, gender differences, reversibility and the relationship between brain changes and psychopathology. We also discuss whether these changes represent adaptive modifications or stress-induced damage. Findings Parental verbal abuse, witnessing domestic violence and sexual abuse appear to specifically target brain regions (auditory, visual and somatosensory cortex) and pathways that process and convey the aversive experience. Maltreatment is associated with reliable morphological alterations in anterior cingulate, dorsal lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, corpus callosum and adult hippocampus, and with enhanced amygdala response to emotional faces and diminished striatal response to anticipated rewards. Evidence is emerging that these regions and interconnecting pathways have sensitive exposure periods when they are most vulnerable. Early deprivation and later abuse may have opposite effects on amygdala volume. Structural and functional abnormalities initially attributed to psychiatric illness may be a more direct consequence of abuse. Conclusion Childhood maltreatment exerts a prepotent influence on brain development and has been an unrecognized confound in almost all psychiatric neuroimaging studies. These brain changes may be best understood as adaptive responses to facilitate survival and reproduction in the face of adversity. Their
Fogler, Jason M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical model of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse for future research. The model conceptualizes clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse as the convergence of interactive processes between the clergy-perpetrator, the parishioner-survivor, and the religious community.
Tice, L; Hall, R C; Beresford, T P; Quinones, J; Hall, A K
The incidence of sexual abuse in eating disorder patients appears significant. Fifty percent of both our anorectic and bulimic patients reported a history of sexual abuse while only 28% of a non-anorexic, non-bulimic control population reported similar problems (p less than 0.01). Several patterns of behavior seemed related to previous sexual assault. In one, the eating disorder was used to change the body image of the patient and therefore to provide a defense to future abuse. Other behaviors which occurred more specifically in bulimic women dealt with a projection of repressed anger toward male authority figures. Forty six percent of the bulimic women seen in our study exhibited some promiscuous behavior, using sex either as a gauge of their own self worth or as a means of punishing men. It is essential that sexual issues be addressed early in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Disclosure is often difficult particularly in outpatient situations where the patient lives at home with her family. It usually does not occur in such cases until the later stages of therapy, or until the patient is hospitalized. Rape is the exception since our data suggests that it is usually revealed early in the course of treatment (p less than 0.001). Once disclosure occurs, a dramatic change is usually seen in the patient and treatment becomes more effective. As the patient deals with the issues of sexual abuse, they no longer need to deny their sexuality or punish themselves or others. Issues of guilt, depression, repressed anger, low self-esteem, social isolation and inadequacy are important and need to be addressed during the course of therapy with sexually abused patients.
Chane, Samson; Adamek, Margaret E
As the proportion of elders in developing nations increases and the ability of families to meet their needs is stretched thin, the risk of elder abuse will grow. This study examined the types and nature of abuse and neglect from the perspective of elders in Ethiopia who experienced abuse in noninstitutional settings. A qualitative design guided by hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of abuse and neglect of 15 Ethiopian elders. Nine women and six men ranging in age from 64 to 93 years were interviewed. Most were victims of multiple forms of abuse, especially financial exploitation, emotional abuse, and neglect. Economic vulnerability was a clear underlying factor contributing to elders' risk for encountering abuse. Effective prevention efforts must address the societal level factors that ultimately contribute to elder abuse while also holding individuals responsible for their harmful behaviors against elders.
Osei, Anthony D
Elder abuse and neglect is a complex phenomenon with no clear markers identified as both reliable and valid in the dental operatory. Applying the concepts and definition of abuse and attention to risk factors for abuse could lead the clinician, as the head of the care team to situations where abuse of an elder could be suspected. Once abuse is suspected, direct questioning and comprehensive assessment of an elders' physical, emotional, and emotional state could be recorded as part of social history in their dental records. A multidisciplinary team approach is encouraged to combat elder abuse. In Texas, state statutes on suspected abuse mandate reporting to appropriate Adult Protective Services within your region with stipulated penalties for failure to report suspected abuse or neglect. Elder abuse hotlines are (800) 252-5400 or (512) 834-3784 (elder abuse domestic or community).
Douglass, Richard L.
Reviews six studies of neglect and abuse of elderly persons in their homes. All of these investigations agree that a substantial but undocumented problem of domestic neglect and abuse exists; variety and severity of mistreatment ranges from reasonably benign to very severe, and causal theories are numerous. (WAS)
Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc
Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…
Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.
Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…
de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia
This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…
Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…
Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.
Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…
The article considers challenges faced in undertaking research work that examines issues of abuse and neglect, with young people acting in the role of co-inquirer. Based on a research process devised to support a qualitative study exploring why young people think they are frequently not believed when they report abuse and neglect, consideration is…
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.
This booklet, first of a three-volume series, presents an overview of the problems of child abuse and neglect. Discussions focus on child maltreatment from various perspectives, including characteristics of the parents and children, effects of abuse and neglect, a phychiatrist's view of the problem, and a discussion of state reporting laws. The…
Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert
This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…
Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…
Broadhurst, Diane D.
The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.
This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…
Objective: To develop further the understanding of emotional abuse and neglect. Methods: Building on previous work, this paper describes the further development of a conceptual framework for the recognition and management of emotional abuse and neglect. Training in this framework is currently being evaluated. The paper also briefly reviews more…
Garrett, Linda H
Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin K
Chronic childhood illnesses have been demonstrated to negatively impact family functioning by introducing new or additive stress on all members of the family system, as well as by increasing financial burden and social isolation. Although these factors have not necessarily been shown to have a direct causal effect on increased rates of abuse in children with chronic illnesses, these children have nonetheless been demonstrated to be at greater risk for neglect and physical and sexual abuse. Children with chronic health care needs are increasingly likely to be referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Thorough assessment of maltreatment would be a valuable addition to all neuropsychological evaluations of children presenting with chronic health conditions.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha
Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…
Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.
Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)
Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay
Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.
Giles, Laura; Brewer, E Thomas; Kullman, Mary Ellen; Prevratil, Joseph F
The Archstone Foundation is a private grantmaking organization whose mission is to contribute toward the preparation of society in meeting the needs of an aging population. In 2006, the Archstone Foundation launched a 5-year $8 million Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative (Initiative) with the goal of improving the quality and coordination of elder abuse and neglect services in the state of California. Lessons learned through the Initiative may serve to inform the field of elder abuse and the larger philanthropic community.
Vyssoki, David; Schürmann-Emanuely, Alexander
Violence is what the victims experience as violence. Only they are able to measure what oppression, injury, pain or sexual violence can cause. Violence starts where human beings are constrained, humiliated, abjected and injured in their self-determination by other human beings. The experienced violence causes a trauma in most cases and in many cases also a PTSD. As a lot of epidemiological studies have affirmed, the highest lifetime-prevalence of PTSD appears after one respectively after a repeated act of sexual violence.It is important to define the circumstances of the action, by defining three fields of violence: domestic sexual violence, sexual violence in civil everyday life respectively violence, that occurs not inside families and sexual violence in wartime.Victims of all fields of violence can be found in Western Europe, the last mentioned form of violence predominant among refugees, but also among survivors of the last world war.
Regehr, C; Glancy, G
In two recent litigation cases, adult survivors of sexual abuse claimed that their current symptomology was linked to the failure of mental health professionals to provide appropriate treatment. If mental health practitioners are to be held accountable for providing acceptable standards of treatment, these standards must be based on empirical evidence of the efficacy of treatment methodologies. This article provides a review of the professional literature and determines that with the exception of time-limited group treatment, which appears to reduce symptoms in some survivors of sexual abuse, there is an absence of clear evidence of treatment efficacy. Other data point to low consumer satisfaction with treatment, the absence of evidence for a consistent symptom presentation in survivors of sexual abuse that confounds standardizing treatment approaches, and iatrogenic effects of some forms of treatment. The authors conclude that, at this time, there is little empirical data to support the development of standards of practice for treating women who have been sexually abused as children.
Socolar, Rebecca R. S.
A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…
Myers, John E. B.
Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…
Martone, Mary; And Others
This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…
Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…
Lindsay, D. Stephen
This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…
Summarizes a study of 225 cases between 1990 and 1994 involving sexual abuse or harassment complaints against teachers. Interviews revealed how districts respond to complaints and the most effective preventive policies and procedures. School districts with rare occurrences screen prospective employees, have strong and clear policies, educate staff…
David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…
Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…
Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim
A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…
Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others
Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)
Tishelman, Amy C; Fontes, Lisa A
Religion is an under-studied factor affecting children's sexual victimization and their willingness to discuss such experiences. In this qualitative study, 39 child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center (CAC) directors in the United States discussed religious influences on children's sexual abuse experiences, their relationships to CACs, and their disclosures in the forensic setting. Participants reported both harmonious and dissonant interactions between religiously observant children and families on one hand and child advocacy centers on the other. Themes emerged related to abuse in religious contexts and religious justifications for abuse; clergy and religious supports for disclosures as well as suppression of disclosures; and the ways CACS accommodate religious diversity and forge collaborations with clergy. Participants discussed a wide range of religions. Recommendations for practice and research are included.
Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Longo, Robert E.
This article promotes the use of an integrated (holistic) approach to treating juvenile sexual offenders. An integrated model takes into account the fact that: (a) youth are resilient, (b) youth progress through various stages of development, (c) these stages are often arrested as a result of trauma, child abuse and neglect, and attachment…
Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung
This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…
Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.
Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…
Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.
Koenen, Karestan C; Widom, Cathy Spatz
In the general population, women's lifetime risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is twice that of men's. However, evidence is contradictory as to whether this sex difference is present among child abuse/neglect victims. The authors examined sex differences in PTSD among a sample of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/neglect histories assessed for PTSD in adulthood. Across all types of abuse/neglect, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men. The sex difference was greatest among sexual abuse victims. Female victims' greater revictimization explained a substantial proportion (39%) of the sex differences in PTSD risk. Future research should identify mechanisms that make female victims particularly vulnerable to revictimization and the development of PTSD.
Teicher, Martin H.; Parigger, Angelika
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen’s Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several
Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David
This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors.
Markovic, Nina; Muratbegovic, Amra Arslanagic; Kobaslija, Sedin; Bajric, Elmedin; Selimovic-Dragas, Mediha; Huseinbegovic, Amina; Cuković-Bagic, Ivana
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) regarding signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect (CAN), reporting procedure and level of education. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administrated structured questionnaire adopted and modified from previous studies. It was administrated to 300 dentists out of which a total number of 210 subjects were in final sample for statistical analyses. Response rate was seventy percent. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to analyze statistical differences in responses. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Dentists in BH are very rarely provided (80%) with training related to recognition and reporting of CAN. Sixty six percent of dentists had never suspected CAN in their practice. Only nine percent of dentists would report suspicious of CAN. Prevailing reasons for not reporting suspected case of CAN was lack of knowledge of the reporting procedure (43%), and combination of indicated answers that never had a case and lack of knowledge about the procedure (31%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that dentists need an effective education to increase their knowledge and awareness of all aspects of CAN. PMID:26889093
Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia
The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based.
Sarwer, David B.; And Others
A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)
Trudell, B; Whatley, M H
In view of the recent proliferation of school sexual abuse prevention programs and materials, this article critically examines current assumptions about the role of elementary school personnel in prevention and possible unintended consequences of such assumptions. These unintended consequences include emphasizing a simple solution to a complex social problem and contributing to victim blaming. Some dilemmas that arise for classroom teachers around predeveloped curricular materials and mandatory reporting are also explored. Teacher use of predeveloped materials may mean a diminishing of wider teaching skills and reduction of complex concepts to brief, noncontroversial interventions that may serve to mystify sexuality and unduly frighten students. Mandatory reporting, as it is frequently presented to teachers, can create further dilemmas by obscuring the ethical decisions inherent in the process, assuming consistently positive outcomes after reporting, and neglecting the context in which teachers work. The authors suggest that educators should be aware of these possible unintended consequences and dilemmas in order to maintain a broad perspective on child sexual abuse and to focus their efforts more effectively within a larger network addressing the problem.
Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.
This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study. Nonabusing parents or caregivers and offspring were also assessed. Descriptive results indicate that offspring born to mothers with histories of sexual abuse were more likely to be born preterm, have a teenage mother, and be involved in protective services. Abused mothers were more likely to be high-school dropouts, be obese, and have experienced psychiatric problems, substance dependence, and domestic violence. Results provide evidence for the advantages of intervention and prevention programs for victims of childhood maltreatment and their families. Primary prevention/intervention efforts extending throughout development and focusing on the cumulative risk to offspring will likely improve victim outcomes and curtail intergenerational transmission of adversity. PMID:18451100
Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro
According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is “every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”. The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management. PMID:26330943
Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury
According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is "every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power". The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management.
Ferreira, Monica; Lindgren, Pat
The problem of elder abuse and neglect in South Africa is widespread, but the definition of abuse remains problematic. An expanded typology is needed to classify certain types of abuse reported commonly, such as marginalization, disrespect, exploitation and violence. The history of elder abuse and responses is traced, relevant legislation and selected intervention programs are reviewed, and research and the status of elder abuse are evaluated. Interventions to address sociostructural factors that impact elders' settings, increase their vulnerability, and diminish their ability to realize human rights can contribute to an improvement in their condition and a reduction in abuse and rights violations in the long-term.
Morris, Janet R
Bet Tzedek, Hebrew for the "House of Justice," provides free legal assistance to older adults in Los Angeles County. Their civil attorneys work alongside prosecutors and service providers for the elderly as members of multidisciplinary teams to assist older adults with complicated elder abuse and neglect cases. Case examples demonstrate how civil attorneys collaborate with the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center to address financial abuse, real estate fraud, and self-neglect issues. Cooperation among the courts, Bet Tzedek, and other county agencies has resulted in more user-friendly processes to expedite filing of conservatorships and elder abuse restraining orders.
Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.
Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…
Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.
This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…
Gibson, Rebecca L.; Hartshorne, Timothy S.
Data regarding history of sexual abuse, loneliness, and network orientation were gathered from 231 female university students, 24 of whom indicated a history of abuse, and from 26 female clients at 2 treatment centers. Victims of sexual abuse, especially those in treatment, were more lonely and less likely to utilize their social support system…
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
Hirst, Sandra P; Penney, Tasha; McNeill, Susan; Boscart, Veronique M; Podnieks, Elizabeth; Sinha, Samir K
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000-April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed.
Prino, C T; Peyrot, M
This study investigated aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behavior in physically abused (N = 21), nonabused-neglected (N = 26), and nonabused-nonneglected (N = 21) children aged 5 to 8 years. Multiple assessment techniques were used, specifically the Human Figure and Kinetic Group Drawings, children's verbal stories, and teacher ratings on the Pittsburgh Adjustment Survey Scales. All measurement techniques were able to discriminate among the three groups. Physically abused children displayed significantly more aggressive behavior than the neglected and nonmaltreated; neglected children were significantly more withdrawn than the physically abused and nonmaltreated; nonmaltreated children exhibited significantly more prosocial behavior than the abused and neglected. No single dimension adequately discriminated each of the three groups. Full discrimination was achieved only when aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behavior were combined in a multivariate analysis, indicating that effects of maltreatment must be viewed as multidimensional.
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…
Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.
In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…
Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N
There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse.
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose.
Singh, HSS Amar; And Others
A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A; Odwazny, Richard; Gorbien, Martin
Our recent survey of an elderly cohort in mainland China suggests that elder abuse and neglect are common. Unfortunately, there is minimal knowledge about the risk factors for elder abuse and neglect among this population. We aimed to examine depression as a risk factor for elder abuse and neglect among Chinese elderly. A cross-sectional study was performed in a major urban medical center in NanJing, China. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and direct questions were asked regarding abuse and neglect experienced by the elderly since the age of 60; 412 patients completed the survey. The mean age of the participants was 70 and 34% were female. Depression was found in 12% of the participants and elder abuse and neglect was found in 35% of the participants. After multiple logistical regression, feeling of dissatisfaction with life (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.68, p < 0.001), often being bored (OR, 2.91; CI, 1.53-5.55, p < 0.001), often feeling helpless (OR, 2.79; CI, 1.35-5.76, p < 0.001), and feeling worthless (OR, 2.16; CI, 1.10-4.22, p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of elder abuse and neglect. Multiple logistic regression modeling showed that depression is independently associated with elder abuse and neglect (OR, 3.26; CI, 1.49-7.10, p < 0.003). These findings suggest that depression is a significant risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect among Chinese elderly.
Bezerra-Flanders, Wilson; Clark, Jennifer C.
In a sample of 70 Brazilian participants (46 females and 24 males) who responded to the cross-cultural survey on family violence and abuse, nearly half of the participants provided no examples of extreme, moderate, or mild elder abuse. In the sample of responses that were provided, the most commonly cited form of abuse overall was psychological…
Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine
Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…
If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…
David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.
Akaza, Kayoko; Bunai, Yasuo; Tsujinaka, Masatake; Nakamura, Isao; Nagai, Atsushi; Tsukata, Yukiyoshi; Ohya, Isao
This study examined the elder abuse cases that occurred in Gifu Prefecture, Japan between 1990 and 2000. We conducted a retrospective study of all the cases in which the victim was 65 years or older and autopsied in the Department of Legal Medicine, Gifu University School of Medicine. Fifteen victims were classified as elder abuse victims: five men and ten women. The victims ranged in age from 66 to 87 years (mean age, 74.5 years). The types of abuse were as follows: physical abuse, 13 cases; emotional abuse, five cases; neglect, four cases; and financial abuse, three cases. In eight cases, the victims were subjected to two or more types of abuse. The cause of death of the victims varied with the type of abuse. In the physical abuse cases, subdural hemorrhage was the most common cause, followed by other violence-related deaths and hypothermia. In the neglect cases, the victims died of either starvation or suffocation after the aspiration of food into the airway. In the domestic abuse cases, one of the victim's sons was the most common perpetrator, and little or no income was considered to be a risk factor for perpetrators. In the neglect cases, dementia and difficulty in performing activities of daily living were considered to be risk factors for victims, in addition to living in social isolation.
Feeney, Tawn R.
The paper examines the nature of child abuse and neglect, considers its effects on the emotional well being of the child, and describes treatment approaches. Emotional neglect is differentiated from emotional disturbance. Long-term effects of child maltreatment include irreversible physical damage to the central nervous system, emotional damage,…
Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.
Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…
Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.
Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560
Torres, Angelina Moreno
The 26 papers focus on child abuse issues affecting the Mexican American family. The keynote address notes various issues in child abuse and neglect among Mexican Americans. Three papers discuss Mexican American families in transition, adjustment of the family into the Mexican American barrio and vice versa, and the effects of sexual assault on…
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine
This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…
Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.
This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of…
Wolf, Rosalie S.; And Others
Three projects on Elderly Abuse were established in 1980 to demonstrate improved mechanisms for reporting, investigating, treating, and preventing abuse and neglect of the elderly. A common framework for evaluation was created which allowed for comparisons and contrasts among the three projects. The evaluation objectives were: (1) to determine the…
Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.
By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…
Jones, David P. H.
This editorial reviews and comments on three recent studies: two on assessment issues or areas of diagnostic difficulty for pediatricians concerned with child abuse and neglect, and one on the long-term effects of childhood abuse and experiences of early attachment. (DB)
Moon, Ailee; Lawson, Kerianne; Carpiac, Maria; Spaziano, Eleanor
This study examined the prevalence, types, and intervention outcomes of elder abuse/neglect among a veteran population. A review of medical records of 575 veterans who had received services from the Veteran's Affairs Geriatric Outpatient Clinic in Los Angeles during a three-year period found 31 veterans (5.4%) who had an elder abuse report filed on their behalf. Prevalence of elder abuse/neglect was higher among older (80+) and Caucasian and African American veterans. Eight of 31 victims suffered from more than one type of elder abuse including self-neglect. Financial abuse and self-neglect were the most commonly reported types. Family members were perpetrators in the majority of the cases, excluding self-neglect. However, three-quarters of financial abuse cases were committed by non-family members. Almost one-half of the victims had dementia and eight were clinically depressed. The most common intervention was to move victims from their unsafe home into a nursing home or board and care facility, followed by conservatorship arrangement. These interventions were most frequently used for victims with dementia, and conservatorship was often arranged with another type of intervention, such as a move to a nursing home. Victims who remained at home received conservatorship or outside supportive services or a combination of both. This study calls for more comprehensive and systematic research on elder abuse/neglect at multi-settings in order to generate useful information for prevention and detection of, and effective intervention in elder abuse and neglect in the veteran population.
Sinanan, Allison N
This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports of child sexual abuse recurrence by type of reporter. Survival analysis was conducted using the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System data set of 2002-2004. Child disability, being a prior victim, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, family financial problems, and receiving family supportive services increased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse by mandated reporters. Being Hispanic, having a disability, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, financial problems, and receiving family preservation services statistically decreased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; de Leon, Carlos Mendes; Fulmer, Terry; Beck, Todd; Hebert, Liesi; Dyer, Carmel; Paveza, Gregory; Evans, Denis
Context Both elder self-neglect and abuse have become increasingly prominent public health issues. The association of either elder self-neglect or abuse with mortality remains unclear. Objective To examine the relationship of elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies with all-cause mortality among a community-dwelling elderly population. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based cohort study (conducted from 1993 to 2005) of residents living in a geographically defined community of 3 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois, who were participating in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP; a longitudinal, population-based, epidemiological study of residents aged ≥65 years). A subset of these participants had suspected elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies. Main Outcome Measures Mortality ascertained during follow-up and by use of the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent associations of self-neglect or elder abuse reporting with the risk of all-cause mortality using time-varying covariate analyses. Results Of 9318 CHAP participants, 1544 participants were reported for elder self-neglect and 113 participants were reported for elder abuse from 1993 to 2005. All CHAP participants were followed up for a median of 6.9 years (interquartile range, 7.4 years), during which 4306 deaths occurred. In multivariable analyses, reported elder self-neglect was associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.20–6.51). Mortality risk was lower but still elevated after 1 year (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.67–2.14). Reported elder abuse also was associated with significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.84). Confirmed elder self-neglect or abuse also was associated with mortality. Increased mortality risks associated with either elder self-neglect or
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to as the Sexual Violence Study, yielded a subsample of 48 women and 47 men who had experienced childhood sexual abuse. During semistructured, open-ended interviews, they were asked to describe their experiences with healing from childhood sexual abuse and other victimization throughout their lives. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used with these data to develop constructs and hypotheses about healing. For the Sexual Violence Study, frameworks were developed to describe the participants' life patterns, parenting experiences, disclosures about sexual violence, spirituality, and altruism. Several analytic techniques were used to synthesize the findings of these frameworks to develop an overarching theoretical model that describes healing from childhood sexual abuse. The model includes four stages of healing, five domains of functioning, and six enabling factors that facilitate movement from one stage to the next. The findings indicate that healing is a complex and dynamic trajectory. The model can be used to alert clinicians to a variety of processes and enabling factors that facilitate healing in several domains and to guide discussions on important issues related to healing from childhood sexual abuse.
Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva
Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field.
Rudnick, John D; Teaster, Pamela B
This article explores the research question: What is the perceived level of elder abuse and neglect awareness and knowledge among Protestant clergy members in Kentucky? Of the 300 clergy contacted, 160 participated, for a response rate of 53.3%. Pearson Chi-Square analyses were used to determine statistical significance, and phi coefficient correlations examined the strength of the associations between variables. Findings indicate that approximately 44% of clergy members in this study report some "awareness" of elder abuse and neglect. However, 56% of clergy respondents do not know that Kentucky is an "any person" mandatory reporting state. Specifically, participating clergy appear poorly informed about legal requirements for reporting elder abuse and neglect and perceive types of abuse differently. Untrained clergy with little formal training indicate a willingness to provide therapy to victims despite reporting that they do not feel qualified to do so.
Taylor, Brian J; Killick, Campbell; O'Brien, Marita; Begley, Emer; Carter-Anand, Janet
This qualitative study used data from eight focus groups involving 58 people aged over 65 years in both urban and rural settings across Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Following training, four older people assisted in facilitation and analysis as peer researchers. Increasing lack of respect within society was experienced as abusive. The vulnerability of older people to abuse was perceived as relating to the need for help and support, where standing up for themselves might have repercussions for the person's health or safety. Emotional abusiveness was viewed as underpinning all forms of abuse, and as influencing its experienced severity. Respondents' views as to whether an action was abusive required an understanding of intent: some actions that professionals might view as abusive were regarded as acceptable if they were in the older person's best interests. Preventing abuse requires a wide-ranging approach including rebuilding respect for older people within society. Procedures to prevent elder abuse need to take into account the emotional impact of family relationships and intent, not just a description of behaviors that have occurred.
... What Is Happening en español Cómo manejar el abuso Grown-ups are usually there to help and ... to understand the different types of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical ...
Increased interest in pursuing criminal and civil actions against alleged perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect has revealed that efforts to assist victims and hold perpetrators accountable are often hampered by the lack of knowledge about the detection and diagnosis of elder abuse and neglect and by the lack of resources for development of research and assistance in these matters. This report sets forth recommendations for the elder abuse, health, and justice fields about medical forensic issues related to elder abuse and neglect. The recommendations were developed by a "working group" of experts representing an array of disciplines that address the problem of elder abuse and neglect pursuant to a grant project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research, development, and evaluation agency of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). The project was conducted by the American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging, with the assistance of the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine. This was the final project report submitted to NIJ; it has been updated to include information about the availability of reports and products from other grant projects that are discussed in the report.
Gül, Hesna; Yürümez, Esra; Yaylalı, Fatma Hülya; Gül, Ahmet
Child abuse is one of the most severe forms of childhood trauma which has pervasive and long-lasting effects on children, their families, and the society. These effects, impairing the development of the victims, extend far beyond childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Pediatricians are the most common group of clinicians who encounter abused children immediately. Therefore, it is important for a pediatrician to be aware of the symptoms of abuse and neglect, and to feel sufficient about reporting in order to release and prevent the trauma. We aimed to assess awareness and self-efficacy about recognizing, diagnosing and reporting. Pediatricians completed the questionnaire created by the researchers. There were differences about pediatricians' perception of self-efficacy and approach to abuse. Pediatricians experience difficulties about the diagnosis of child abuse and neglect through the process from examination to reporting.
Paris, B E; Meier, D E; Goldstein, T; Weiss, M; Fein, E D
Elder mistreatment, whether abuse or neglect, can be classified as physical, psychological, or financial/material. Several types of mistreatment may occur simultaneously. Abuse occurs across all socioeconomic, racial, and religious lines. Risk factors include a history of mental illness or alcohol/drug abuse, a family history of violence, isolation of the victim, and recent stressful events in the life of the victim or abuser. For the physician the patient workup includes a careful history and physical exam, including cognitive evaluation. Ask about living arrangements, financial status, social supports, and emotional stressors. If possible, observe the interaction between the patient and family member or caregiver. Helpful resources include your state's Office of Protective Services and the American Medical Association's recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of elder abuse and neglect.
California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.
This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…
Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves.
Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W
Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality.
Wilkerson, Tracy Kay
Research literature pertaining to revictimization as a sequela to childhood sexual abuse of females is reviewed and the methodology critiqued. Inconsistent definitions of the variables and a variety of possible intervening factors make the attribution of direct causality between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent revictimization in adulthood…
Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…
Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen
Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…
Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Miller, Paul M.
Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are at particular risk for HIV because of difficulties with affect regulation and dysfunctional thinking that are thought to be sequelae of the abuse. These difficulties can lead to impulsivity and failure to assertively set limits in sexual situations. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has frequently been…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…
Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese
There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…
Cooper, Sharon W.
Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Sexual Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...
Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.
This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…
Muram, David; And Others
This study evaluated child sexual abuse statistics since introduction of a child sexual abuse program in 1985 in Shelby County, Tennessee. Findings suggest a highly fluctuating validation rate, higher validation rates for girls than boys, possible underreporting of male victims, and 78 percent of the perpetrators being known to their victims.…
Viviani, Anna Michele
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…
Finkelhor, David; And Others
Described in this executive summary is a study attempting to identify and analyze all cases of sexual abuse in day care settings that were reported in the United States from January 1983 through December 1985. The study described the problem of sexual abuse in day care in terms of its incidence, perpetrators, victims, dynamics, disclosure, impact…
Addresses three issues: (1) how children respond to the medical evaluation for sexual abuse; (2) how the trauma of the evaluation experienced by some children can be minimized and the benefits maximized; and (3) how children's responses to the medical evaluation for sexual abuse can be interpreted. (DB)
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452
HORAN, JACQUELINE M.; WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ
This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning. PMID:25196178
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning.
Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Showalter, Kathryn
Relations between parents within a neighborhood have the potential to provide a supportive environment for healthy and positive parenting. Neighborhood social cohesion, or the mutual trust and support among neighbors, is one process through which parenting may be improved. The current study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion and abuse and neglect, as well as specific types of abuse and neglect. The sample for the study is comprised of 896 parents in one urban Midwestern County in the United States. Participants were recruited from Women, Infants, and Children clinics. Negative binomial regression is used to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and child maltreatment behaviors, as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent-to-Child Version (Straus et al., 1998). In this sample of families, neighborhood social cohesion is associated with child neglect, but not abuse. In examining the relationship with specific types of abuse and neglect, it was found that neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective role in some acts of neglect, such as meeting a child's basic needs, but not potentially more complex needs like parental substance abuse.
Bond, Michael C; Butler, Kenneth H
Elder abuse and neglect is estimated to affect approximately 700,000 to 1.2 million elderly people a year with an estimated annual cost of tens of billions of dollars. Despite the large population at risk, its significant morbidity and mortality, and substantial cost to society, elder abuse continues to be underrecognized and underreported. This article aims to increase the awareness of elder abuse by reviewing the demographics, epidemiology, and risk factors of elder abuse, followed by a discussion of screening tools and ways to increase awareness and reporting.
Few empirical facts exist regarding the actual costs of child abuse in the United States. Consistent data is not available for national or even statewide analysis. Clearly there is a need for such accounting in order to fully understand the damage created by child abuse and neglect. Policy makers and social welfare planners should take child abuse costs into consideration when determining expenditures for prevention and intervention programs. The real savings may far outweigh the costs of such programs when both direct and indirect costs of child abuse and neglect enter into the analysis. This paper offers a model in which the actual costs of child abuse and neglect, based on direct, indirect, and opportunity costs associated with each case. Direct costs are those associated with the treatment of abused and neglected children as well as the costs of family intervention programs or foster care. Indirect costs are costs to society created by the negative effects of child abuse and neglect evinced by individuals who suffer such abuse and then as teens or adults engage in criminal behavior. Indirect costs also derive from the long term and ongoing health care needs required by victims of abuse, for both physical and mental health disorders. With the existence of this model, the author hopes to stimulate the discussion and desire for better data collection and analysis. In order to demonstrate the utility of the model, the author has included some cost estimates from the Connecticut State Department of Children and Families and the works of other scholars looking into the question of costs for child abuse and neglect. This data represents the best available at this time. As a result, the model appearing here is specific to Connecticut. Even so, once more valid data becomes available, the model's structure and theoretical framework should adapt to the needs of other states to facilitate better measurement of relevant costs and provide a clearer picture of the utility of
Kawsar, M; Long, S; Srivastava, O P
Joint examination by doctors with complementary skills and screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recommended in children who may have been sexually abused or have been found to have an STI. Our study showed that criminal proceedings were more likely to be brought in cases with physical signs of sexual abuse. It could be difficult to prove whether sexual abuse had taken place or not with microbiological evidence alone, in the absence of other evidence. Significance of viral STIs in the context of sexual abuse should be evaluated carefully. The review of our practice re-enforced the importance of joint examination of children with suspected STIs.
Brookhouser, P E; Sullivan, P; Scanlan, J M; Garbarino, J
As a primary physician for most deaf children, the otolaryngologist must be able to identify signs and symptoms of sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse is a topic of national concern as epidemiologic data indicate more than 100,000 American children become victims annually. This paper provides an overview of the incidence, demographic characteristics, risk factors, and dynamics of child sexual abuse within both the general handicapped and, specifically, the hearing imparied populations. Strategies for identifying the sexually abused hearing impaired child are delineated including the physical appearance and behavioral manifestations of child victims, as well as the characteristics of abusive caretakers and perpetrators. Case summaries are presented which illustrate these characteristics. A national center specializing in the evaluation and treatment of abused handicapped children is described.
Gironda, Melanie W; Lefever, Karen H; Anderson, Elizabeth A
Dentists are in a unique position to detect elder abuse and neglect. Approximately 75 percent of all physical domestic violence results in injuries to the head, neck, and/or mouth area, clearly visible to the dental team during examinations and treatment. The goal of this project was to gather a comprehensive understanding of predoctoral dental students' perceptions of the culture of abuse and neglect and their level of fluency regarding their rights and responsibilities as mandated reporters. This article aims to inform dental educators of dental students' level of awareness of elder abuse and neglect in order to highlight content areas to be addressed in dental school curricula and clinical training. A twenty-four-item survey was administered to 291 predoctoral dental students at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry. The results are organized into three general areas: prior training and education; perceptions of the culture of abuse and neglect; and knowledge of mandated reporter legal responsibilities and protections. Overall, this study found that most students do not feel adequately trained to report a case of elder abuse. Data from this study suggest that dental students need education on the psychosocial aspects of older adulthood, as well as training in detecting and reporting elder abuse.
Responds to previous article by Fincham, Beach, Moore, and Diener (this issue) on child sexual abuse. Focuses on importance of recognizing that attempts to reduce probability of false claims of child abuse would result in increasing probability of missing true claims of child abuse. Offers hypothesis-testing framework as useful heuristic for…
Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.
Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…
Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of knowledge about those who sexually abuse children while working in organizations. Here, we adopt a case study approach to examine this problem. We focus on eight adult males who had been imprisoned for abusing a total of 35 children while working in educational and voluntary settings. We provide a detailed account of abusers'…
Jargin, Sergei V
In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill.
... clothing for the weather should draw your attention. Financial abuse: Unusual patterns of spending or withdrawals from an older adult’s account; frequent purchases of inappropriate items; bank account withdrawals ...
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are at the forefront of providing care to children and families. The PNP is in a unique position to educate patients and families regarding sexual abuse and dispel common myths associated with sexual abuse. One such myth is that a normal ano-genital examination is synonymous with the absence of sexual abuse. This article will provide primary care providers, including PNPs, with a framework for understanding why a normal ano-genital examination does not negate the possibility of sexual abuse/assault. Normal ano-genital anatomy, changes that occur with puberty, and physical properties related to the genitalia and anus will be discussed. Photos will provide visualization of both normal variants of the pre-pubertal hymen and genitalia as well as changes that occur with puberty. Implications for practice for PNPs will be discussed.
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as one of containing the secret of child sexual abuse. Three key dynamics were identified: the active withholding of the secret on the part of the child, the experience of a 'pressure cooker effect' reflecting a conflict between the wish to tell and the wish to keep the secret, and the confiding itself which often occurs in the context of an intimacy being shared. Children's experiences of disclosure were multidetermined and suggest the need for multifaceted and multisystemic approaches to prevention and intervention. The need for the secret to be contained, individually and interpersonally in appropriate safeguarding and therapeutic contexts needs to be respected in helping children tell.
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested.
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…
School staffs have a major role in the prevention, identification and referral of cases of child abuse and neglect. School administrators, teachers and school support staffs require knowledge about abuse and neglect, as well as a clear set of guidelines and procedures for dealing with it if they are to carry out these responsibilities effectively. The Toronto Board of Education has developed a program that has involved superintendents, principals, teachers, pupil personnel staff, caretakers, secretaries and community resources in an educational program oriented to the management of child abuse cases in their schools. The Board's Child Abuse Committee has developed a document which outlines employees' responsibilities under the legislation, provides assistance in the identification of child abuse and neglect cases, and outlines procedures for referral both internally and to the community. The document was used as the base for an extensive staff development program during the school year 1979-80, in which all of the system's 6,000 school based employees participated. The Toronto Board's Child Abuse Program incorporated the establishment of the position "Resource Person, Child Abuse" for the purpose of consultation with school staffs, as well as the ongoing provision of resource material and staff training. The paper outlines the development of the program, includes guidelines and procedures for school staffs, the legislation under which it operates, the content of the training program, and an evaluation of the program with suggestions for replication.
Jansson, Lauren M; Velez, Martha L; Butz, Arlene M
Barriers to breastfeeding in women with substance use disorders (SUDs) often exist. Neonatal abstinence syndrome-related feeding difficulties, maternal SUD-related maladaptive behaviors, and psychological comorbidities can adversely affect breastfeeding. A neglected barrier that frequently occurs in women with SUDs is a history of sexual abuse. It is important that nurses and providers understand each maternal and/or infant factor that can affect the breastfeeding course to assist effectively with lactation support for these frequently misunderstood dyads.
Wangmo, Tenzin; Nordström, Karin; Kressig, Reto W
This study explores how and why abuse and neglect occurs in geriatric institutions and presents practical prevention measures. Exploratory qualitative interviews were carried out with purposive sample of 23 nursing staff members. They were recruited from different institutions caring for older patients in the north-western region of Switzerland. These interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participating nursing staff members reported several factors pertaining to the care provider, the older patient, and the institution that precipitated abuse and neglect. They mentioned different solutions that could help them address their responsibilities in a reasonable manner. The solutions included, for example, ensuring proper education and training, better management nursing care provider's responsibilities and timely intervention to address abuse and neglect, as well as rotating care provider. Implementing these suggestions will allow geriatric institutions, its managers, and nursing care providers to improve quality of care and reduce such negative occurrences in these settings.
This article reviews developments in the field of elder abuse and neglect since the publication of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Canada (1991). The arguments made here are twofold: first, we have no idea of the size and nature of the problem of abuse and neglect in the community or in institutions; second, we do not know how to solve these problems or their attendant issues that have been masked by rhetoric and the recycling of information for the past 20 years. It is time to move forward from the "awareness phase". What we must tackle in the future is as obvious now as 20 years ago. Our knowledge is incomplete (i.e., our glass remains half full) because we lack the type of investigations we most urgently need: prevalence studies in the community and institutions, serious theory development, and random clinical trials to test our interventions both socially and legally.
Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Burnett, Jason; Flores, David V; Halphen, John M; Dyer, Carmel Bitondo
Self-neglect, the most common form of elder mistreatment seen by Adult Protective Service Agencies across the United States, is an often unrecognized geriatric syndrome characterized by squalor and unsafe living circumstances. It is a result of medical, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders coupled with lack of capacity for self-care and self-protection in the absence of necessary services or medical care, and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Clinicians should evaluate self-neglecters and plan interventions based on comprehensive geriatric assessment and capacity assessment. State and federal policies are needed to address the pressing needs of this vulnerable population of seniors.
Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin
Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.
Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals.
Neigh, Gretchen N; Gillespie, Charles F; Nemeroff, Charles B
Exposure to interpersonal violence or abuse affects the physical and emotional well-being of affected individuals. In particular, exposure to trauma during development increases the risk of psychiatric and other medical disorders beyond the risks associated with adult violence exposure. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major mediating pathway of the stress response, contribute to the long-standing effects of early life trauma. Although early life trauma elevates the risk of psychiatric and medical disease, not all exposed individuals demonstrate altered HPA axis physiology, suggesting that genetic variation influences the consequences of trauma exposure. In addition, the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. Recognition of the biological consequences and transgenerational impact of violence and abuse has critical importance for both disease research and public health policy.
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.
The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771
Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…
Plummer, Carol A.
This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…
Carvalho, Quitéria Clarice Magalhães; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão
Domestic violence affects all members in a family and children are considered the main victims. This qualitative study aimed to grasp the perception of mothers whose daughters were sexually abused. Data were collected between February and March 2007 in a governmental facility in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil through semi-structured interviews with ten mothers of sexually abused children. Data were submitted to the Collective Subject Discourse Technique from which three themes emerged: Guilt is rooted in the motherhood myth, unhealable pain and despair as a consequence of a feeling of powerlessness. Results evidenced that mothers experience a range of feelings in which pain, revulsion and powerlessness are highlighted. Society should be engaged in the subject and interested in understanding violence, its magnitude and the whole affected chain, otherwise, only good intentions will remain, lost in the void from the lack of action.
34to make her listen to me." Abuse also may be a pattern of behavior such as incest between parent and child extending over many years or parents...when his or her parents leave. "Today, I heard Jerry telling Sandy, ’Don’t cry, your mom will come back soon!’ I think that’s his way of assuring
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416
Fearing, Gwendolyn; Sheppard, Christine L; McDonald, Lynn; Beaulieu, Marie; Hitzig, Sander L
Elder abuse and neglect is a societal issue that requires prevention and intervention strategies at the practice and policy level. A systematic review on the efficacy of community-based elder abuse interventions was undertaken to advance the state of knowledge in the field. The peer-reviewed literature between 2009 and December 2015 were searched across four databases. Two raters independently reviewed all articles, assessed their methodological quality and used a modified Sackett Scale to assign levels of evidence. Four thousand nine hundred and five articles were identified; nine were selected for inclusion. Although there was Level-1 evidence for psychological interventions (n = 2), only one study on strategies for relatives (START) led to a reported decrease in elder abuse. There was Level-4 evidence for conservatorship, an elder abuse intervention/prevention program (ECARE), and a multidisciplinary intervention (n = 4), which all yielded significant decreases in elder abuse and/or neglect. The remaining three were classified as Level-5 evidence (n = 3) for elder mediation and multidisciplinary interventions. There are limited studies with high levels of evidence for interventions that decrease elder abuse and neglect. The scarcity of community-based interventions for older adults and caregivers highlights the need for further work to elevate the quality of studies.
Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozcelik, Basak; Oncu, Fatih
The prevalence of childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) histories and their associations with alexithymia among male substance-dependent inpatients were studied. Participants were 159 consecutively admitted male substance dependents (115 alcohol and 44 other drugs). Substance dependence was diagnosed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), Turkish version. Patients were investigated with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire. Among substance-dependent patients, 57.0% had at least one type of CAN and 45.3% were considered as alexithymic since they had a score greater than 60 on the TAS-20. Rate of unemployment, low educational status, emotional abuse and history of suicide attempts were higher in alexithymic substance dependent patients. Those who had histories of two or more types of childhood abuse or neglect had also higher mean score on TAS-20, particularly on the item "difficulty in identifying feelings-DIF." Also, the number of childhood trauma types was positively correlated with TAS-20 and DIF and the "difficulty in describing feelings-DDF" items of TAS-20. History of childhood emotional abuse was the only determinant for alexithymia. Childhood emotional abuse might be a risk factor for alexithymia among inpatient substance dependents.
Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…
Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.
This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…
Maynes, Lynn C.; Feinauer, Leslie L.
Examined relationship between effects of four sexual abuse variables (identity of perpetrator, frequency of abuse, duration of abuse experiences, and severity of sexual abuse) and survivor symptomatology of acute dissociation, chronic dissociation, and somatized anxiety. Data from 226 respondents showed that severity of sexual abuse experience was…
Meel, B L
Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested.
Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958
Görgen, T; Nägele, B
The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".
Kaufman, Bobbie; Wohl, Agnes
Recognizing the compelling language of imagery available in the drawings of children who have been sexually abused, this book focuses on the link between sexual abuse during the latency period and specific developmental problems. Chapter 1, "Paradigms of Trauma and Sexual Abuse," presents sexual abuse as an external event associated with…
Martone, M; Jaudes, P K; Cavins, M K
To describe the outcome of prosecuting alleged intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse, the authors evaluated charts for 1986-1988 at La Rabida Children's Hospital and Research Center in Chicago, plus police records for Area V, Chicago for 1986-1987. The state's attorney's office provided data on outcome of legal proceedings. Of 451 allegations, 324 (72%) were formally designated as probable sexual abuse cases, and 269 (83%) alleged perpetrators were identified. Complaints (77 felonies, 29 misdemeanors, and 30 juvenile charges) were initiated by the police for preliminary hearings against 136 (51%) persons. Of the felony charges, 66 (85.7%) resulted in indictments, and 11 (14.3%) in dismissal of charges by judge or grand jury. Thirty-two (48.5%) of those indicted pleaded guilty, 24 (36%) went to trial; 16 (67%) were found guilty, and 8 (12%) had charges dismissed. Therefore, of the 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 (62%) ended in convictions and 29 (38%) in dismissals or not-guilty verdicts. Only 24 (5%) of the original allegations resulted in trials. Although 30% of allegations and 51% of alleged perpetrators ended up in court, only 17% of the original 451 allegations were prosecuted for a felony. For felony indictments, 36% of victims appeared in court. Forty-three of 48 persons found guilty served time (mean sentencing time, 6.8 years). The mean time from initial hearing to final disposition was 321 days and was significantly longer if the accused either went to trial (501 vs. 236 days) or was found guilty or pleaded guilty (353 vs. 254 days for not-guilty verdicts). The authors conclude that very few children (5%) have to appear as witnesses in court, as most cases are resolved by plea bargaining, and that resolution by trial can take 12 to 16 months.
Nicolai, Melianthe P. J.; Keller, Josbert J.; de Vries, Lieke; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Nicolai, Jan J.; Hardwick, James C. H.; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Elzevier, Henk W.
Background Sexual abuse has been linked to strong effects on gastrointestinal health. Colonoscopy can provoke intense emotional reactions in patients with a sexual abuse history and may lead to avoidance of endoscopic procedures. Objective To determine whether care around colonoscopy needs adjustment for patients with sexual abuse experience, thereby exploring targets for the improvement of care around colonoscopic procedures. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to patients (n = 1419) from two centers within 11 months after colonoscopy. Differences in experience of the colonoscopy between patients with and without a sexual abuse history were assessed and patients' views regarding physicians' inquiry about sexual abuse and care around endoscopic procedures were obtained. Results A total of 768 questionnaires were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual abuse was 3.9% in male and 9.5% in female patients. Patients born in a non-western country reported more sexual abuse (14.9%) than those born in a western country (6.3%; p = 0.008). Discomfort during colonoscopy was indicated on a scale from 0 to 10, mean distress score of patients with sexual abuse was 4.8(±3.47) compared to 3.5(±3.11) in patients without a sexual abuse history (p = 0.007). Abdominal pain was a predictor for higher distress during colonoscopy (β = −0.019 (SE = 0.008); p = 0.02, as well as the number of complaints indicated as reason for colonoscopy (β = 0.738 (SE = 0.276); p = 0.008). Of patients with sexual abuse experience, 53.8% believed gastroenterologists should ask about it, 43.4% said deeper sedation during colonoscopy would diminish the distress. Conclusions Sexual abuse is prevalent in patients presenting for colonoscopy. Patients with a sexual abuse history experience more distress during the procedure and indicate that extra attention around and during colonoscopy may diminish this distress. PMID:24454784
The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a case of sexual abuse were to arise in their organization and their perceptions of the actual cases experienced in the sport organizations participating in this study. The results reveal several problems affecting the disclosure of sexual abuse in sport organizations.
Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer
This study examined a range of sexually abusive acts women with protective orders against violent partners experienced using three groups: (a) women who never experience stalking or rape by the violent partner; (b) women who experienced stalking but who had never been raped by the violent partner; and (c) women who were stalked and raped by the violent partner. Findings suggest that women in violent relationships experienced a wide range of sexually abusive experiences and that there is a significant association of partner stalking and partner sexual abuse beyond rape. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Weatherred, Jane Long
The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed.
Strean, Herbert S.
Reviews research on effects of childhood sexual abuse in adulthood. Describes individualizing assessment of adults who have been abused and aspects of treatment illustrated by case studies. Concludes social workers need to expand definition of childhood sexual abuse. (ABL)
Foerster, Frank; Spearly, James L.
Designed to assist attorneys, social workers, and other interested parties, this manual describes work with child abuse and neglect cases in Texas. After a brief overview of the child abuse and neglect issue in that state, as well as an examination of the role of the Texas Department of Human Resources, the manual discusses suits affecting the…
Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann
Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…
Krugman, Richard D.
In 1991, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect recommended the federal government begin phasing in a national, universal home visiting program for children during the neonatal period to help prevent child abuse and neglect. This article discusses the political and social factors affecting this recommendation, as well as the response…
Kouno, A; Johnson, C F
The coin-operated-locker baby is a type of child abuse that may be unique to Japan. The term refers to newborns who are placed, while alive or dead, in coin-operated lockers. This practice has been decreased by specific measures. It is likely that social and economic variables in Japan account for differences in the frequency and types of child abuse cases when compared to American or European societies as social conditions in Japan change the reported incidence of child abuse may increase in the future. Recently, the government of Osaka organized a group specifically designed to deal with the detection and protection of abused and neglected children. In 1993, they published a manual on how to deal with child abuse, but the Japanese judicial administration still uses old laws for abuse cases. The development of new laws is occurring in parts of the country now. This paper introduces the present status of coping with child abuse and neglect in Japan.
Broussard, S D; Wagner, W G
This study utilized written descriptions of sexual activity between an adult and a child to examine the impact of victim sex, perpetrator sex, respondent sex, and victim response (i.e., encouraging, passive, resisting) on the attribution of responsibility to the child and the adult perpetrator. A total of 360 college undergraduates (male = 180; female = 180) participated in the study. A main effect for victim response indicated that respondents attributed significantly more responsibility to the child and significantly less responsibility to the perpetrator when the child was described as encouraging the encounter. Children who remained passive were also held significantly more responsible than those who resisted, but there was not a significant difference between resisting and passive conditions in ratings of responsibility to the perpetrator. Several significant interactions affected ratings of responsibility to the perpetrator. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the need for educational programs to raise public awareness about the helplessness felt by sexual abuse victims and the needs of male victims in particular.
Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others
This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…
Andersen, Torbjørn Herlof
Traditionally, sexual abuse of males has not been an issue of priority among politicians or researchers. When addressed, focus is often on context or harmful effects of the abuse. This article is based on the idea of reality as socially constructed, examining possible ways for sexually abused males to come to terms with their experiences. The emphasis is on accessible discursive resources on "the abused male" and how cultural stereotypes of manliness influence and limit individual and societal constructions. An important key to reconstruction of abuse history and selfhood lies in acceptance of the idea of men as suppressed. Sexually abused males tend to feel marginalized and different. However, when given the opportunity, they offer alternative discourses of manliness with the potential for bringing sexually abused males out of the shadows, assisting them in better understanding, dealing with, and explaining their experiences to themselves and others. This article brings out the importance of a gender-sensitive approach to working politically as well as directly with men who have been sexually abused. The horizon of understanding in professional social work needs to include attention to stereotypical constructions of manliness that reject men's experiences of being "victims."
Cooper, Carolyn S.
Examination of the placement history of 172 abused and/or neglected children found that children had a more disrupted foster care placement history if they: (1) had severe behavior problems; (2) were very young when first removed from the natural home; or (3) had drug-addicted and/or alcoholic parents. (Author/DB)
Texas Migrant Council, Inc., Laredo.
Prepared as a tool for those who work with Mexican American migrants, this manual is based upon documents and verbal narrations provided by persons involved in the Texas Migrant Council's Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project (caseworkers and employers of migrants in Texas and in northern "user" states, Mexican American migrants,…
Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.
Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…
Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne
Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…
This article details two important reasons why supporting young children with disabilities who have experienced abuse and neglect and their families is the responsibility and obligation of the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children (DEC): (1) Although prevalent in their work, this population is overlooked; and (2)…
Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...
... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...
... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? 20.516 Section 20.516 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child...
Lavin, Paul; Park, Cynthia
This book examines why so many young people in foster care appear angry and show disrespect toward authority. Such antisocial behavior has its roots in the despair that children feel when they are abused, neglected, or abandoned by their parents or other caregivers. The book emphasizes and focuses upon the early recognition and treatment of this…
Littell, Julia H.; Girvin, Heather
Objective: To identify individual, family, and caseworker characteristics associated with problem recognition (PR) and intentions to change (ITC) in a sample of caregivers who received in-home child welfare services following substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. Methods: Caregivers were interviewed at 4 weeks, 16 weeks, and 1 year…
American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.
Presented are reports of individual site visits and results of questionnaires describing nine child abuse and child neglect health-based programs located in Chicago, Denver, El Paso, Honolulu, Iowa City, Los Angeles, New York, Pittsburgh, and St. Paul. Included is information on funding, patient statistics, composition of teams, patient flow, cost…
Hickey, Tom; And Others
Professionals (N=228) were interviewed about their case experiences with neglect and abuse of the elderly. It was suggested that environmental contexts and situational problems trigger such behavior, and that the behavior is primarily based on flawed development of the perpetrator and disordered family relationships. (Author)
Bruno, Holly Elissa
Caring adults may be unaware of how deeply healing their love for a child can be. A gentle smile, warming cuddle, or soothing lullaby can uplift a baby or toddler. Infants, who appear healthy on the outside, can suffer deeply within from "invisible wounds." "Young children are the most vulnerable to being abused or neglected. Statistically, the…
Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…
Swinger, Hershel K.
The Demonstration Resource Center was developed and funded for 3 years in Region IX of the United States (excluding Arizona) to establish a regional network for coordination and service delivery in child abuse and neglect. This final report states the purpose and lists the objectives of the center project, providing a brief overview of general…
Caulfield, Barbara A.
Child abuse and neglect is a problem of concern to local communities, state legislatures, state agencies and the federal government. In providing protective services, welfare departments encounter legal aspects concerning law enforcement officials, attorneys and the judicial system. This manual can provide practical guidance to those who are…
Imbody, Bethany; Vandsburger, Etty
With our communities rapidly aging, there is always a clear need for greater knowledge on how to serve elders. Professionals must be able to recognize cases of abuse and neglect and provide appropriate follow up services. Through reviewing recent literature, this paper surveys existing assessment tools and interventions, describes characteristics…
DuMont, Kimberly; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Greene, Rose; Lee, Eunju; Lowenfels, Ann; Rodriguez, Monica; Dorabawila, Vajeera
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a home visiting program modeled after Healthy Families America on parenting behaviors in the first 2 years of life. Methods: A sample of 1173 families at risk for child abuse and neglect who met the criteria for Healthy Families New York (HFNY) was randomly assigned to either an intervention group that was…
Friedman, Robert M.; And Others
The current status of child abuse and neglect research is reviewed from the four traditional perspectives of mental health, medicine, law, and social work. In the field of mental health, research methodology; characteristics of victims, perpetrators, families, and the situation; prediction; long-term effects; and theoretical approaches are…
Jones, David P. H.
This editorial discusses two studies in this journal issue that explore mediating functions of coping strategies and social support in long-term outcomes of child abuse and neglect. It is argued that these studies provide empirical evidence of interest to social workers and mental health practitioners by identifying specific factors and strategies…
Hurt, Maure, Jr.
This state-of-the-art report provides preliminary information on the status of child abuse and neglect research projects currently in progress or recently completed. Each chapter discusses a particular research problem area and outlines the relevant demonstration projects. Chapter I describes the background of our present perception of child abuse…
This study examines the experiences of loss among parents whose children were in child protective custody that resulted from false accusations of abuse or neglect. In practice, child protective service assessments more times than not clear parents of charges of wrongdoing, however the impact of these investigations on parents has not yet been…
Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.
Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…
Lauderdale, Michael L., Ed.; And Others
The report of the Second Annual National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect (1977) contains 58 papers dealing with contextual issues and government interventions. Papers in the first section address the general focus of the conference (the role of government in strengthening the family, family life preservation, child protective services, the…
Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.
The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…
Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise
Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…
Kilburn, Janice E.; Shapiro, Cheri J.
Strategic workforce training of organizations that provide services to families of young children with special needs can help strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, but few curriculua are available for this purpose. One professional development curriculum, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child…
Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca
This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…
Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.
Child welfare program standards based on current knowledge, children's developmental needs, and tested ways of meeting these needs most effectively provide benchmarks of excellence that can be used as goals to advance and guide contemporary practice. This book delineates standards for services for abused or neglected children and their families.…
Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha
Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…
Damashek, Amy; Nelson, Melanie McDiarmid; Bonner, Barbara L
This study examined victim, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics associated with fatal child maltreatment (FCM) in 685 cases identified by child welfare services in the state of Oklahoma over a 21-year period. Analyses also examined differences in child, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics of deaths from abuse versus neglect. Case information was drawn from child welfare investigation records for all FCM cases identified by the state Department of Human Services. Fatal neglect accounted for the majority (51%) of deaths. Children were primarily younger than age 5, and parents were most frequently the alleged perpetrators. Moreover, most victims had not been the subject of a child welfare report prior to their death. A greater number of children in the home and previous family involvement with child welfare increased children's likelihood of dying from neglect, rather than physical abuse. In addition, alleged perpetrators of neglect were more likely to be female and biologically related to the victim. These results indicate that there are unique family risk factors for death from neglect (versus physical abuse) that may be important to consider when selecting or developing prevention efforts.
Balogh, R; Bretherton, K; Whibley, S; Berney, T; Graham, S; Richold, P; Worsley, C; Firth, H
The present authors conducted a study of the occurrence of victimization and the perpetration of sexual abuse among 43 in-patients with intellectual disability aged between 9 and 21 years who were admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient department over a period of 5 years. A retrospective case-note review was employed that explored the nature and severity of abuse in relation to the age, gender and level of disability. The prevalence of abuse or abusive behaviour, i.e. 14% of 300 admissions, did not change over time. In 13 out of the 43 cases, the issue of sexual abuse was identified after admission. Victimization alone occurred in 21 cases, perpetration alone in six cases, and both victimization and perpetration in 16 cases. Fifty per cent of the victims had been abused by a member of their close or extended family. Most cases (62%) were adolescents. There was only one instance of a victim being abused by a female. However, there were five girls who were perpetrators, all of whom had previously been victims. By contrast, 11 out of the 17 male perpetrators had been victims. Despite difficulties of disclosure, it was possible to establish that severely disabled patients had suffered sexual abuse. The present data support theories which (1) recognize gender differences in sexual abuse patterns and (2) have a developmental perspective, incorporating the influence of adolescence.
Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L
Child abuse and neglect are tragic realities of American society. However, most U.S. dental schools do not provide students with adequate training to deal with the problem. This article proposes expanding the predoctoral dental curriculum with a problem-based learning model that can effectively stimulate critical thinking skills to assist graduates in screening and reporting suspected child abuse and neglect throughout their careers. The unique multicultural environment of dental school offers students an unprecedented opportunity to develop awareness about child abuse and domestic violence, while increased vigilance can potentially save innocent young lives. Educating students about proper protocol when they suspect child abuse or neglect is imperative, particularly for dental schools involving students in community sealant and other preventive programs in public schools. By expanding their curriculum to include recognition and intervention, dental schools can help break the cycle of violence and transform attitudes towards taking decisive action. Clinical curricula that have moved to private practice preceptor models are well suited to screen for child abuse. The goal is to motivate dental schools to deal with this critical issue, develop reporting protocols and procedures for appropriate response, and provide their students with consummate training.
Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A
Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.
Wells, Robert; McCann, John; Adams, Joyce; Voris, Joan; Dahl, Barbara
A study validated the use of a structured parent interview regarding emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms by comparing results among 22 sexually abused boys whose perpetrator confessed, 47 boys evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic but without a history of perpetrator confession, and 52 nonabused boys (ages 3-15). (Author/CR)
Dumaret, Annick Camille; Tursz, Anne
In the international scientific literature, data from birth cohorts clearly show the statistical relationships existing between abuse experienced in childhood and disorders in adulthood, in particular somatic, psychological (depression, suicide, anti-social behaviour, addiction, etc.), and cognitive problems, as well as difficulties in social integration. When abused children are cared for by Child Protective Services, the success or failure of placements is conditioned by a web of factors in which the severity of the initial trauma becomes intertwined with characteristics of the care given. Autonomy in adulthood is more likely to be achieved when placement is continuous and long-term, includes siblings and allows the creation of new bonds of attachment and identification with adult role models. Only these characteristics can attenuate the deleterious effects of the violence suffered in the past, one of the most disturbing consequences of which is the trans-generational transmission of violence. It is therefore important that physicians (general practitioners and paediatricians) who see foster children for vaccinations or childhood diseases are aware of their situation, enquire about the quality of care and know how to establish partnerships with those responsible for the education of these children (foster families, special educators).
Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)
This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.
Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…
Wells, Robert D.; And Others
Girls who had been sexually abused (n=68) or had alleged being sexually abused (n=68) exhibited sleep problems, fearfulness, emotional and behavioral changes, concentration problems, and sexual curiosity and knowledge. Girls known to have been abused were more self-conscious, fearful of being left alone, and had more nightmares than the allegedly…
Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana
Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals.
Rogers, D J; Roberts, R E
Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose. Images PMID:7750955
Sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sports are discussed in relation to how female athletes might improve their personal safety to guard against such practices. The origins of sport research on this theme are traced, and the processes of sexual harassment and abuse are identified. Risk factors for the coach, the athlete, and the sport are presented, and, finally, sources of prevention measures for coaches, athletes, parents, and clubs are provided.
Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne
Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.
Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…
Initial discussion of the definition, types, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect is followed by a description of a study of child abuse in Samaru Village of Nigeria and the effects of such abuse on the development of the child. (BG)
Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.
This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…
Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn
Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…
Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.
Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…
Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna
Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.
A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.
This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively. In bivariate and multivariable analyses, PhySexAbuse was significantly associated with more substance abuse consequences ( p < 0.001). For men, age ≤ 17 years at first PhySexAbuse was significantly associated with more substance abuse consequences than an older age at first abuse, or no abuse ( p = 0.048). For women, the association of PhySexAbuse with substance use consequences was similar across all ages ( p = 0.59). Future research should develop interventions to lessen the substance abuse consequences of physical and sexual abuse. PMID:12039614
Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381
Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard
To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse.
Kvist, Therese; Malmberg, Fredrik; Boovist, Anna-Karin; Larheden, Hanna; Dahllöf, Göran
Mandatory reporting to the social services is required by dental professionals when suspicion of child abuse or neglect occurs. The objective of this study was to analyze the recommendations previously made by the Ombudsman for Children in Sweden. The aim was to study the association between having guidelines and the inclination to report to the social services and also the association between management of multiple missed appointmens and reports to the social service. A web-based questionnaire was sent to the clinical department heads (CDH) of all PDS in Sweden, distributed and authorized by The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden. The response frequency was 95% and all county councils of Sweden were represented. The results showed regional differences regarding management of suspected child abuse, neglect and dental neglect. Clinical department heads that had reported to the social services more often had guidelines on child abuse and neglect (p < 0.000). Management of repeated missed appointments varied between clinics. Those who never had made a report to the social services more often stated that the reason for missed appointments was parental negligence (p = 0.004) and less often thought it was an actual maltreatment (p = 0.003), and they more often rescheduled when a child repeatedly missed an appointment (p = 0.013). Sixty-four percent of the clinical department heads requested additional support in this matter. In conclusion, public dental service clinics in Sweden are significantly more likely to report to the social services if guidelines regarding child abuse and neglect are available.
Cecil, Charlotte A M; Viding, Essi; Fearon, Pasco; Glaser, Danya; McCrory, Eamon J
It is unclear whether maltreatment types exert common or specific effects on mental health. In the current study, we aimed to systematically characterize the unique, shared and cumulative effects of maltreatment types on psychiatric symptoms, using data drawn from a community sample of high-risk youth (n=204, M=18.85). Analyses controlled for a range of potentially confounding variables, including socio-demographic variables, neighbourhood deprivation and levels of community violence exposure. Outcome measures included multi-informant reports of internalizing difficulties, as well as data on externalizing problems and trauma-related symptoms. We found that (i) consistent with previous studies, maltreatment types were highly interrelated and frequently co-occurred; (ii) symptom severity linearly increased with the number of maltreatment types experienced (more so for self-report vs informant ratings); and (iii) while most forms of maltreatment were significantly associated with mental health outcomes when examined individually, few unique effects were observed when modelling maltreatment types simultaneously, pointing to an important role of shared variance in driving maltreatment effects on mental health. Emotional abuse emerged as the main independent predictor of psychiatric symptomatology - over and above other maltreatment types - and this effect was comparable for males and females (i.e. no significant interaction with sex). Findings contribute to a better understanding of heterogeneity in individual responses to maltreatment.
Cosden, M; Cortez-Ison, E
Residential programs that provide safe environments and child care can attract perinatal women into treatment. Other factors, however, may prevent some women from benefiting from these programs. Attachment theory suggests that one's early history determines the effectiveness with which one can utilize available social supports. Lower levels of program retention were predicted for women who had been sexually abused and for those who had poor early bonding. Eighty-four women in residential substance abuse treatment programs were studied. Clients who reported sexual abuse also reported lower parental care. Parental care and overprotection were inversely related, and related, in predicted directions, to perceptions of social supports. Sexual abuse alone was associated with time in treatment and the likelihood of graduation. Implications for developing effective counseling programs for women in substance abuse treatment are discussed.
Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.
Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…
Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Total of 103 cases of child sexual abuse in which offenders confessed to some level of abuse were examined for purpose of determining extent to which children's statements contained three widely accepted clinical criteria of a true sexual abuse allegation. Criteria were information about context of the sexual abuse, description or demonstration of…
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
Nahum, David; Brewer, Marci Mandel
Although Multi-Family Group Therapy (MFGT) has been a researched intervention for nearly 40 years, clinicians working with sexually abusive youth and their families have only more recently begun to utilize the intervention. We believe MFGT for a sexual offense-specific treatment population is a sophisticated and powerful clinical intervention with…
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.
Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle
An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences.
O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.
This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…
Lippert, Tonya; Cross, Theodore P; Jones, Lisa; Walsh, Wendy
Increasing the number of suspects who give true confessions of sexual abuse serves justice and reduces the burden of the criminal justice process on child victims. With data from four communities, this study examined confession rates and predictors of confession of child sexual abuse over the course of criminal investigations (final N = 282). Overall, 30% of suspects confessed partially or fully to the crime. This rate was consistent across the communities and is very similar to the rates of suspect confession of child sexual abuse found by previous research, although lower than that from a study focused on a community with a vigorous practice of polygraph testing. In a multivariate analysis, confession was more likely when suspects were younger and when more evidence of abuse was available, particularly child disclosure and corroborative evidence. These results suggest the difficulty of obtaining confession but also the value of methods that facilitate child disclosure and seek corroborative evidence, for increasing the odds of confession.
Viola, Thiago Wendt; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
This multilevel meta-analysis examined the effects of geographical and economic factors on worldwide childhood maltreatment estimates measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) short-form. The primary outcome extracted was continuous scores on the CTQ subscales - emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect - and total score. Geographical, economical and methodological variables were extracted for use as covariates in meta-regression models. A literature search identified 288 studies suitable for the CTQ total score analysis (N=59,692) and 189 studies suitable for maltreatment subtype analysis (N=44,832). We found that Europe and Asia were associated with lower CTQ estimates while South America presented the highest estimates among continents. Specifically, studies from China, Netherlands and United Kingdom presented the lowest maltreatment estimates. Furthermore, high-income countries presented lower CTQ physical neglect estimates in comparison to low- or middle-income countries, while per-capita gross domestic product of countries was negatively associated with childhood physical neglect estimates. Despite the influence of methodological covariates, these findings indicate that geographical and economic factors could influence variations of childhood maltreatment estimates around the world, particularly when assessed by a structured standardized questionnaire.
ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial.
Huba, George J; Melchior, Lisa A; Philyaw, Meredith L; Northington, Kendra R
An independent evaluation of the Archstone Foundation Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative was conducted to identify major outcomes and lessons learned collectively by 20 funded projects, as well as to document innovative program models for dissemination. Data from the first three years of this initiative show these projects have been productive and have had a measurable impact on services for elder abuse and neglect. Major lessons learned address issues in recruiting, engaging, and maintaining active involvement of diverse stakeholders, as well as innovative and effective models of education, training, and direct services for elder abuse and neglect.
Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.
Morantz, Gillian; Cole, Donald; Vreeman, Rachel; Ayaya, Samuel; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula
Researchers and aid organizations have reported that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. This article is a review of qualitative studies that address experiences of maltreatment among orphaned children and youth living in extended families in SSA. It aims to inform policy and programming by providing a better understanding of the types of maltreatment encountered and the perceived risk factors. A literature search was carried out using Google, PubMed, Scholars Portal Search and Scopus. Searches of relevant bibliographies and publications of authors were also undertaken. Studies from peer-reviewed journals and the grey literature were reviewed for relevance and quality. Eligible studies had to include orphans living with extended family in SSA as participants, explore their maltreatment experiences and employ a sound qualitative methodology. Findings were coded, extracted, compared and synthesized. Twenty articles, representing 15 studies, were selected. These studies, from diverse SSAn countries, reported similar forms of maltreatment among orphaned children and youth: experiences of intra-household discrimination; material and educational neglect; excessive child labour; exploitation by family members and psychological, sexual and physical abuse. The perceived risk factors were poverty, living with a non-biological caregiver, stigma and alcohol abuse. The findings of the included studies suggest that awareness, prevention and intervention initiatives aimed to curb child abuse and neglect within communities in SSA are needed and should be coupled with efforts to promote education and reduce poverty and stigma. PMID:24563656
Morantz, Gillian; Cole, Donald; Vreeman, Rachel; Ayaya, Samuel; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula
Researchers and aid organizations have reported that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. This article is a review of qualitative studies that address experiences of maltreatment among orphaned children and youth living in extended families in SSA. It aims to inform policy and programming by providing a better understanding of the types of maltreatment encountered and the perceived risk factors. A literature search was carried out using Google, PubMed, Scholars Portal Search and Scopus. Searches of relevant bibliographies and publications of authors were also undertaken. Studies from peer-reviewed journals and the grey literature were reviewed for relevance and quality. Eligible studies had to include orphans living with extended family in SSA as participants, explore their maltreatment experiences and employ a sound qualitative methodology. Findings were coded, extracted, compared and synthesized. Twenty articles, representing 15 studies, were selected. These studies, from diverse SSAn countries, reported similar forms of maltreatment among orphaned children and youth: experiences of intra-household discrimination; material and educational neglect; excessive child labour; exploitation by family members and psychological, sexual and physical abuse. The perceived risk factors were poverty, living with a non-biological caregiver, stigma and alcohol abuse. The findings of the included studies suggest that awareness, prevention and intervention initiatives aimed to curb child abuse and neglect within communities in SSA are needed and should be coupled with efforts to promote education and reduce poverty and stigma.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009
Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…
Gelles, Richard J.; Conte, Jon R.
Reviews research on family violence and sexual abuse of children in the 1980s. Examines family violence rates, intergenerational transmission of violence, effects of violence on children and women, and effectiveness of interventions. Review of child sexual abuse examines defining sexual abuse, its prevalence, research on sexual offenders and risk…
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
This investigation compared rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms across sexually abused (N=29), physically abused (N=20), and nonabused (N=29) psychiatrically hospitalized children. Overall rates were not significantly different across groups, but significant differences were found with respect to specific symptoms, especially in…
Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Hulme, Polly A.; Agrawal, Sangeeta
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to cluster women who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) according to their shared patterns of CSA characteristics and (b) to examine differences across clusters on measures of other childhood abuse and adult health. Seven CSA characteristic variables were used for cluster analysis. The seven-cluster…
Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…
Friedrich, William N.; Jaworski, Theresa M.; Huxsahl, John E.; Bengtson, Brad S.
Evaluated children (N=350) to assess the degree to which dissociation and sexual behavior discriminated sexually abused children and adolescents from nonpsychiatric and psychiatric comparison groups. Results show that psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples differed in their reports of sexual concerns and dissociation, whereas psychiatric abused…
Rubenzahl, Samuel A.; Gilbert, Brenda O.
Surveys of agencies specializing in treating victims of child sexual abuse indicate that sexual education is covered in treatment with children of all ages, with male and female clients, and in both individual and group therapy. There was a statistically significant difference in the coverage of sexual education based on clients' age, but not…
Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra
The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…
Liebschutz, Jane M.; Finley, Erin P.; Braslins, Phillip G.; Christiansen, Demian; Horton, Nicholas J.; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Objectives We evaluated the prevalence of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) chlamydia and gonorrhea in clients at a methadone maintenance program and a residential detoxification program. Methods We collected urine specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing and assessed sexual, substance abuse and STI histories. Results Of 700 subject assessments, 490 occurred among detoxification clients and 210 in methadone maintenance. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 5/700 (0.9, 95% CI = 0.1–1.8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in none. All chlamydia infected subjects were recruited from the detoxification program. Subjects reported high risk sexual behavior: 17% reported commercial sex exchange, and 22% reported inconsistent condom use with multiple sexual partners during the prior 2 months. Conclusion Based on prevalence in Boston, MA, universal screening for STI in substance abuse treatments programs is not warranted. However, routine screening for younger substance abusers and in communities with high prevalence should be considered. PMID:12681529
Alon, Sara; Berg-Warman, Ayelet
Successful handling of elder abuse and neglect requires various interventions. This article presents findings from an evaluation study of a model for intervention implemented in three municipalities in Israel. Data from 558 older adults, exposed to abuse and treated through the program, and interviews with victims, abusers, and professionals revealed that improvement was achieved in 66% of the cases. In 20% of the cases, the abuse was stopped. The most widespread type of intervention consisted of individual counseling. Legal intervention yielded the highest rate of improvement (82%). Provision of supportive services for victims of neglect was found to be most effective (82% of improvement in the situation).
Selective primary prevention programs for child abuse and neglect depend on risk screening instruments that have the goal of systematically identifying families who can profit most from early help. Based on a systematic review of longitudinal studies, a set of established risk factors for early child abuse and neglect is presented. Nearly half of the items included in screening instruments can be seen as validated. Available studies indicate a high sensitivity of risk screening instruments. Positive predictive values, however, are low. Overall, the use of risk screening instruments in the area of primary prevention for families at risk represents a feasible method, as long as stigmatizing effects can be avoided and participating families also benefit beyond preventing endangerment.
This article is based on observations and thoughts during intensive psychotherapeutic work with 997 sexually abused children and their parents after they had been reported to the Confidential Doctor Center Kind in Nood of the VUB (between 1986 and 1994). Without denying the existence of sexual abuse of children, it is important not to exaggerate this phenomena, which can be described as the Child Sexual Abuse Panic Syndrome. Doing this only gives way to denial and indignation or scandalization and revenge, and certainly does not lead to a clear analysis of the problem. Accurate observation enables some existing myths to become unravelled: abusive fathers are seldom power robots, mothers are not always warm-hearted, innocent creatures and children are not black boxes without feeling and sexual desires. The underlying message is about the bitter fight against modernization of sexuality, which seems again experienced as dangerous. However it is fear for a free, adult sexuality that is at the core of sexual exploitation of children, which should encourage caution in professional answers to this delicate issue.
Severe stress during the sensitive periods of neurodevelopment, (which include the prenatal period, infancy, childhood and adolescence), has a long-lasting organizing effect on the brain and stress axes. Child abuse and neglect thus exert a cumulative harmful effect on neuroendocrinological development, which persists into adulthood. It is not merely the memory of the trauma which leaves a mark, but rather the effect on neurodevelopment which negatively influences the ability of adult survivors of childhood maltreatment to cope with current stressors. The victims of child abuse and neglect are likely to maltreat their own children and so perpetuate the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment. In this paper relevant normal brain development is first summarized. Child abuse/neglect is next discussed with detailed reference to the aberrant neuroendocrinological development that is known to occur. We specifically examine effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal and central noradrenergic-sympathoadrenomedullary stress axes and other neurotransmitter systems before turning to changes described in the cerebral volumes, corpus callosum and cortical hemispheres, prefrontal cortex and amygdalae, superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus as well as the cerebellar vermis.
Chaffin, Mark; And Others
Coping strategies used by 84 sexually abused children ages 7-12 were evaluated along with related symptoms and factors. Avoidance behavior was associated with fewer behavioral problems but greater sexual anxiety. Internalization was associated with increased guilt, and active/social coping was associated with no symptoms or benefits. Expressive…
Kaplow, Julie B.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Saxe, Glenn N.
Objective The goal of this research was to develop and test a prospective model of posttraumatic stress symptoms in sexually abused children that includes pretrauma, trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Method At time 1, several measures were used to assess pretrauma variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure for 156 sexually abused children ages 8 to 13 years. At the time 2 follow-up (7 to 36 months following the initial interview), the children were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Results A path analysis involving a series of hierarchically nested ordinary least squares multiple regression analyses indicated three direct paths to PTSD symptoms: avoidant coping, anxiety/arousal, and dissociation, all measured during or immediately after disclosure of sexual abuse. Additionally, age and gender predicted avoidant coping, while life stress and age at abuse onset predicted symptoms of anxiety/arousal. Taken together, these pathways accounted for approximately 57% of the variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms measured at the time of disclosure constitute direct, independent pathways by which sexually abused children are likely to develop later PTSD symptoms. These findings speak to the importance of assessing children during the disclosure of abuse in order to identify those at greatest risk for later PTSD symptoms. PMID:15994713
Nathanson, D L
Competence in treating the victims of sexual abuse and exploitation requires an understanding of shame, the complex and multilayered emotion triggered when we have been exposed or when our self-esteem has been reduced. The experience of shame is initially physiologic, involving a cortical shock momentarily halting higher cognitive function, but followed immediately by a host of associations to previous experiences of shame. Acutely, the affect itself impels hiding, while defenses against it include anger, humor, silence, and a wide range of behaviors. In our culture, all sexuality involves an interplay between exposure and privacy, between control and release. The sexual abuse of adults and the sexual exploitation of children must produce shame, study of the interaction between abuser and abused suggests that shame conflict figures prominently in the genesis of such activity. To the extent that psychotherapy itself involves exposure, it must trigger shame; thus, it is likely that the therapist unskilled in the recognition of shame in all its disguises will overlook or misunderstand many of the issues that should form the core of our treatment of those whose sexual selves have been abused or exploited.
Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Background This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events was evaluated among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated school-aged children. Results Abused children’s memories were more overgeneral and contained more negative self-representations than did those of the nonmaltreated children. Negative self-representations and depression were significantly related to overgeneral memory, but did not mediate the relation between abuse and overgeneral memory. Conclusions The meaning of these findings for models of memory and for the development of overgenerality is emphasized. Moreover, the clinical implications of the current research are discussed. PMID:19490313
Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael
This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p < .02 for all types of maltreatment). In the simultaneous model, only emotional abuse remained significantly associated (p = .002). In addition, increasing numbers of maltreatment were associated with becoming homeless during youth (p < .0001). These results highlight the unique associations between childhood maltreatment types and becoming homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.
Steine, Iris M; Krystal, John H; Nordhus, Inger H; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Harvey, Allison G; Eid, Jarle; Grønli, Janne; Milde, Anne M; Pallesen, Ståle
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics, insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Results show that higher levels of perceived social support were related to lower scores on all symptom outcome measures. Abuse involving oral, genital, or anal penetration was related to more insomnia symptoms. Longer duration of abuse and threatening conducted by the perpetrator were related to higher nightmare frequency, while threats and abuse involving penetration were related to higher degrees of distress associated with nightmares. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary data indicating that perceived social support may affect the nature of sleep difficulties in sexual abuse victims. Also, more severe forms of sexual abuse are related to higher levels of sleep difficulties.
Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert
Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.