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  1. NIDA's Clinical Trials Network: an opportunity for HIV research in community substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N C; Calsyn, Donald A; Metsch, Lisa R; Sorensen, James L; Shoptaw, Steven; Haynes, Louise; Woody, George E; Malow, Robert M; Brown, Lawrence S; Feaster, Daniel J; Booth, Robert E; Mandler, Raul N; Masson, Carmen; Holmes, Beverly W; Colfax, Grant; Brooks, Audrey J; Hien, Denise A; Schackman, Bruce R; Korthuis, P Todd; Miele, Gloria M

    2011-09-01

    HIV continues to be a significant problem among substance users and their sexual partners in the United States. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) offers a national platform for effectiveness trials of HIV interventions in community substance abuse treatment programs. This article presents the HIV activities of the CTN during its first 10 years. While emphasizing CTN HIV protocols, this article reviews the (1) HIV context for this work; (2) the collaborative process among providers, researchers, and National Institute on Drug Abuse CTN staff, on which CTN HIV work was based; (3) results of CTN HIV protocols and HIV secondary analyses in CTN non-HIV protocols; and (4) implications for future HIV intervention effectiveness research in community substance abuse treatment programs. While the feasibility of engaging frontline providers in this research is highlighted, the limitations of small to medium effect sizes and weak adoption and sustainability in everyday practice are also discussed.

  2. Sociodemographic and Substance Use Disorder Determinants of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior in Men and Women in Outpatient Drug Treatment in the NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Jeremy D; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-06-07

    Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials. Baseline assessments of male (N = 430) and female (N = 377) participants included demographic characteristics; past 3-month sexual activity; and a diagnostic assessment for alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, and opioid use disorders. Using mixed effects generalized linear modeling of the main outcome USO, two-way interactions of gender with age, race/ethnicity, and education were evaluated and adjusted by alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, or opioid use disorder. When adjusted for alcohol use disorder, the interaction of education and gender was significant. For men, a high school or greater education was significantly associated with more USO compared to men with less than high school. For women, greater than high school education was significantly associated with less USO compared to women with a high school education. None of the other interactions were significant when adjusted for cocaine/stimulant or opioid use disorder. Conclusions/Importance: This study demonstrates gender differences in the relationship of education, alcohol use disorder, and main-partner USO in individuals in substance abuse treatment. This underscores the importance of considering demographic and substance use factors in HIV sexual risk behavior and in crafting prevention messages for this population.

  3. Effectiveness of HIV/STD sexual risk reduction groups for women in substance abuse treatment programs: results of NIDA Clinical Trials Network Trial.

    PubMed

    Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N C; Cohen, Lisa R; Calsyn, Donald; Pavlicova, Martina; Miele, Gloria M; Hu, Mei-Chen; Haynes, Louise; Nugent, Nancy; Gan, Weijin; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Mandler, Raul; McLaughlin, Paul; El-Bassel, Nabila; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Nunes, Edward V

    2008-08-15

    Because drug-involved women are among the fastest growing groups with AIDS, sexual risk reduction intervention for them is a public health imperative. To test effectiveness of HIV/STD safer sex skills building (SSB) groups for women in community drug treatment. Randomized trial of SSB versus standard HIV/STD Education (HE); assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Women recruited from 12 methadone or psychosocial treatment programs in Clinical Trials Network of National Institute on Drug Abuse. Five hundred fifteen women with >or=1 unprotected vaginal or anal sex occasion (USO) with a male partner in the past 6 months were randomized. In SSB, five 90-minute groups used problem solving and skills rehearsal to increase HIV/STD risk awareness, condom use, and partner negotiation skills. In HE, one 60-minute group covered HIV/STD disease, testing, treatment, and prevention information. Number of USOs at follow-up. A significant difference in mean USOs was obtained between SSB and HE over time (F = 67.2, P < 0.0001). At 3 months, significant decrements were observed in both conditions. At 6 months, SSB maintained the decrease and HE returned to baseline (P < 0.0377). Women in SSB had 29% fewer USOs than those in HE. Skills building interventions can produce ongoing sexual risk reduction in women in community drug treatment.

  4. Effectiveness of HIV/STD Sexual Risk Reduction Groups for Women in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: Results of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Calsyn, Donald; Pavlicova, Martina; Miele, Gloria; Hu, Mei-Chen; Haynes, Louise; Nugent, Nancy; Gan, Weijin; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Mandler, Raul; McLaughlin, Paul; El-Bassel, Nabila; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Context Since drug-involved women are among the fastest growing groups with AIDS, sexual risk reduction intervention for them is a public health imperative. Objective Test effectiveness of HIV/STD safer sex skills building (SSB) groups for women in community drug treatment. Design Randomized trial of SSB versus standard HIV/STD Education (HE); assessments at baseline, 3- and 6- months Participants Women recruited from 12 methadone or psychosocial treatment programs in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. 515 women with ≥ one unprotected vaginal or anal sex occasion (USO) with a male partner in the past 6 months were randomized. Interventions In SSB, five 90-minute groups used problem-solving and skills rehearsal to increase HIV/STD risk awareness, condom use and partner negotiation skills. In HE, one 60-minute group covered HIV/STD disease, testing, treatment, and prevention information. Main Outcome Number of USOs at follow up. Results A significant difference in mean USOs was obtained between SSB and HE over time (F=67.2, p<.0001). At 3 months, significant decrements were observed in both conditions. At 6 months SSB maintained the decrease, HE returned to baseline (p<.0377). Women in SSB had 29% fewer USOs than those in HE. Conclusions Skills building interventions can produce ongoing sexual risk reduction in women in community drug treatment. PMID:18645513

  5. The NIDA Methamphetamine Clinical Trials Group: a strategy to increase clinical trials research capacity.

    PubMed

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Rawson, Richard A; Smith, Edwina; Pearce, Valerie; Flammino, Frank; Campbell, Jan; Donovick, Roger; Gorodetzky, Charles; Haning, William; Mawhinney, Joseph; McCann, Michael; Weis, Dennis; Williams, Lorie; Ling, Walter; Vocci, Frank

    2007-04-01

    In order to increase the number of investigative teams and sites conducting research on pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine use disorders, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) established an infrastructure of clinical sites in areas where methamphetamine addiction is prevalent. This multi-site infrastructure would serve to run multiple Phases II and III protocols effectively and expeditiously. NIDA collaborated with investigators from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) to set up the Methamphetamine Clinical Trials Group (MCTG). This paper describes the development process, as well as data from a test trial to assess the capability of research-naive sites to recruit research participants and conduct study procedures according to research protocol. Subsequent trials are also described. A total of 151 candidates signed consent; 65 individuals were enrolled and 35 (53.8%) completed the 12 weeks' behavioral trial. Self-reported substance use report (SUR) showed comparable use of methamphetamine across sites with the individual site means ranging from 59% (site 5) to 80% (site 3). Drug use as measured by urinalysis was greatly reduced at week 13 compared to the baseline measure; the average rate of methamphetamine-free urine samples across all participants in sites at week 13 was 53%. The highest percentage of methamphetamine-free samples was 85% at site 5; the lowest was at site 1 (40%). Addiction severity index (ASI) composite scores at baseline and protocol completion for all participants demonstrated improvement in all categories over time, except for the medical composite score. The largest composite score reduction in baseline-protocol completion was in the drug domain (0.23 versus 0.15). The changes in the ASI scores from baseline to week 13 were consistent across all five sites. Outcomes of the behavioral trial indicated that the MCTG recruited well; collected study data accurately and reliably; and created a vehicle that can

  6. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology: National Institute on Drug Abuse's clinical research agenda.

    PubMed

    Leshner, Alan I

    2002-08-01

    Studies of drugs and behavior are a core component of virtually every portfolio within the broad purview of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Moreover, psychopharmacological research is an important vehicle for advancing understanding of how drugs of abuse produce their effects, particularly including addiction. However, as with all major public health issues, simply understanding the issue is not enough. NIDA's psychopharmacology projects, therefore, span basic, clinical, and applied (e.g., medication development) research activities. These include the establishment of a nationwide clinical trials network designed to provide an infrastructure to test both behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments in a real-life practice setting with diverse patients.

  7. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse: Intervention Strategies. NIDA Research Monograph 47. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of papers begins with a presentation on the role of mass media campaigns in drug abuse prevention, emphasizing the need for skill development and family involvement. The next presentation addresses general and specific influences on health behavior including society, the family, peers, the school, and the individual. A…

  8. Common data elements for substance use disorders in electronic health records: the NIDA Clinical Trials Network experience.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Lindblad, Robert; Shide, David; Subramaniam, Geetha; Tai, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are essential in improving quality and enhancing efficiency of health-care delivery. By 2015, medical care receiving service reimbursement from US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) must show 'meaningful use' of EHRs. Substance use disorders (SUD) are grossly under-detected and under-treated in current US medical care settings. Hence, an urgent need exists for improved identification of and clinical intervention for SUD in medical settings. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) has leveraged its infrastructure and expertise and brought relevant stakeholders together to develop consensus on brief screening and initial assessment tools for SUD in general medical settings, with the objective of incorporation into US EHRs. Stakeholders were identified and queried for input and consensus on validated screening and assessment for SUD in general medical settings to develop common data elements to serve as shared resources for EHRs on screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT), with the intent of supporting interoperability and data exchange in a developing Nationwide Health Information Network. Through consensus of input from stakeholders, a validated screening and brief assessment instrument, supported by Clinical Decision Support tools, was chosen to be used at out-patient general medical settings. The creation and adoption of a core set of validated common data elements and the inclusion of such consensus-based data elements for general medical settings will enable the integration of SUD treatment within mainstream health care, and support the adoption and 'meaningful use' of the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)-certified EHRs, as well as CMS reimbursement. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Design and methodological considerations of an effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted intervention: an example from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V; Miele, Gloria M; Matthews, Abigail; Polsky, Daniel; Ghitza, Udi E; Turrigiano, Eva; Bailey, Genie L; VanVeldhuisen, Paul; Chapdelaine, Rita; Froias, Autumn; Stitzer, Maxine L; Carroll, Kathleen M; Winhusen, Theresa; Clingerman, Sara; Perez, Livangelie; McClure, Erin; Goldman, Bruce; Crowell, A Rebecca

    2012-03-01

    Computer-assisted interventions hold the promise of minimizing two problems that are ubiquitous in substance abuse treatment: the lack of ready access to treatment and the challenges to providing empirically-supported treatments. Reviews of research on computer-assisted treatments for mental health and substance abuse report promising findings, but study quality and methodological limitations remain an issue. In addition, relatively few computer-assisted treatments have been tested among illicit substance users. This manuscript describes the methodological considerations of a multi-site effectiveness trial conducted within the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). The study is evaluating a web-based version of the Community Reinforcement Approach, in addition to prize-based contingency management, among 500 participants enrolled in 10 outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. Several potential effectiveness trial designs were considered and the rationale for the choice of design in this study is described. The study uses a randomized controlled design (with independent treatment arm allocation), intention-to-treat primary outcome analysis, biological markers for the primary outcome of abstinence, long-term follow-up assessments, precise measurement of intervention dose, and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Input from community providers during protocol development highlighted potential concerns and helped to address issues of practicality and feasibility. Collaboration between providers and investigators supports the utility of infrastructures that enhance research partnerships to facilitate effectiveness trials and dissemination of promising, technologically innovative treatments. Outcomes from this study will further the empirical knowledge base on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted treatment in clinical treatment settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Design and Methodological Considerations of an Effectiveness Trial of a Computer-assisted Intervention: An Example from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Miele, Gloria M.; Matthews, Abigail; Polsky, Daniel; Ghitza, Udi E.; Turrigiano, Eva; Bailey, Genie L.; VanVeldhuisen, Paul; Chapdelaine, Rita; Froias, Autumn; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Winhusen, Theresa; Clingerman, Sara; Perez, Livangelie; McClure, Erin; Goldman, Bruce; Crowell, A. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted interventions hold the promise of minimizing two problems that are ubiquitous in substance abuse treatment: the lack of ready access to treatment and the challenges to providing empirically-supported treatments. Reviews of research on computer-assisted treatments for mental health and substance abuse report promising findings, but study quality and methodological limitations remain an issue. In addition, relatively few computer-assisted treatments have been tested among illicit substance users. This manuscript describes the methodological considerations of a multi-site effectiveness trial conducted within the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). The study is evaluating a web-based version of the Community Reinforcement Approach, in addition to prize-based contingency management, among 500 participants enrolled in 10 outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. Several potential effectiveness trial designs were considered and the rationale for the choice of design in this study is described. The study uses a randomized controlled design (with independent treatment arm allocation), intention-to-treat primary outcome analysis, biological markers for the primary outcome of abstinence, long-term follow-up assessments, precise measurement of intervention dose, and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Input from community providers during protocol development highlighted potential concerns and helped to address issues of practicality and feasibility. Collaboration between providers and investigators supports the utility of infrastructures that enhance research partnerships to facilitate effectiveness trials and dissemination of promising, technologically innovative treatments. Outcomes from this study will further the empirical knowledge base on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted treatment in clinical treatment settings. PMID:22085803

  11. Partnerships and Pathways of Dissemination: The NIDA-SAMHSA Blending Initiative in the Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve; Brigham, Gregory S.; Higgins, Christine; Gallon, Steve; Freese, Thomas E.; Albright, Lonnetta M.; Hulsey, Eric G.; Krom, Laurie; Storti, Susan A.; Perl, Harold; Nugent, Cathrine D.; Pintello, Denise; Condon, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2001, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has worked to put the results of its trials into the hands of community treatment programs, in large part through its participation in the National Institute on Drug Abuse - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative and its close involvement with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s Addiction Technology Transfer Centers. This article describes 1) the CTN’s integral role in the Blending Initiative, 2) key partnerships and dissemination pathways through which the results of CTN trials are developed into blending products and then transferred to community treatment programs, and 3) three blending initiatives involving buprenorphine, motivational incentives, and motivational interviewing. The Blending Initiative has resulted in high utilization of its products, preparation of over 200 regional trainers, widespread training of service providers in most U.S. States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and movement toward the development of web-based implementation supports and technical assistance. Implications for future directions of the Blending Initiative and opportunities for research are discussed. PMID:20307793

  12. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  13. Intimate partner violence outcomes in women with PTSD and substance use: a secondary analysis of NIDA Clinical Trials Network "Women and Trauma" Multi-site Study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa R; Field, Craig; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hien, Denise A

    2013-07-01

    Studies have shown strong associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Despite these linkages, research on the dual diagnosis of PTSD-SUD and its relationship to IPV is in an early stage, and little is known about how PTSD-SUD treatment might influence IPV outcomes. The current study is a secondary analysis of a larger NIDA Clinical Trials Network study exploring the effectiveness of two behavioral interventions for women with comorbid PTSD-SUD. Participants (n=288) were randomly assigned to Seeking Safety (SS), a cognitive-behavioral treatment that focuses on trauma and substance abuse symptoms, or to Women's Health Education, a psychoeducational group. Logistic regressions were used to examine how treatment condition, identified risk factors and their interactions were related to IPV. Results showed that participants who were abstinent at baseline were significantly less likely to experience IPV over the 12-month follow-up period, whereas participants living with someone with an alcohol problem were significantly more likely to experience IPV over follow-up. Findings also showed that at a trend level participants with recent interpersonal trauma at baseline and higher total of lifetime trauma exposures were more likely to report IPV during follow-up. Although there was no main effect for treatment condition, a significant interaction between treatment condition and baseline abstinence was found. Participants who were abstinent at baseline and in the SS condition were significantly less likely to report IPV over follow-up. These findings indicate that an integrated treatment for PTSD and SUD was associated with significantly better IPV outcomes for a subset of individuals. The possibility that women with PTSD-SUD may differentially benefit from SS has important clinical implications. Further research examining the intersection of PTSD, SUD and IPV, and the impact of treatment

  14. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…

  15. A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

  16. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Club Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on club drug research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1996 through 2002. Topics include the effects of ecstasy and methamphetamine on the brain and body,…

  17. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  18. Marihuana: A Conversation with NIDA's Robert L. DuPont.

    PubMed

    Maugh, T H

    1976-05-14

    Robert L. DuPont, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), made headlines recently when he became one of the first Administration officials publicly to recommend a liberalization of marihuana laws. The occasion was a press conference accompanying the release of Marihuana and Health, NIDA's fifth annual report to the Congress on marihuana research. Recently, Science talked with DuPont and asked him to elaborate on those views. DuPont, a 40-year-old Harvard M.D., served as Director of the District of Columbia's Narcotics Treatment Administration from 1970 to 1973, where he conducted a comprehensive program for treatment of heroin addiction. In June 1973, Richard Nixon appointed him director of the White House Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention. He held that position until the office was terminated on 30 June 1975. He has been director of NIDA since September 1973.

  19. Involving the pharmaceutical and biotech communities in medication development for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Gorodetzky, Charles W; Grudzinskas, Charles

    2005-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy as adjunctive treatment is an integral part of the strategy for treating substance abuse. Although there are several approved drugs for the treatment of opioid, alcohol, and nicotine dependence, the pharmaceutical industry, for a variety of reasons, has been reluctant to enter this area to develop medications for substance abuse indications. Therefore, in 1990, a Medication Development Program was established by NIDA to carry out and assist in stimulating development of new pharmacotherapies. It is vital for NIDA to provide clear leadership and establish a collaborative working relationship with the pharmaceutical industry, providing scientific, development, and financial assistance, depending on the size, resources, and expertise of the company. An important NIDA role in this effort is setting standards, such as establishing Target Product Profiles (TPPs), predictive decision trees for selection of clinical candidates, and animal models to evaluate safety and potential effectiveness prior to human studies. NIDA can further establish standards for clinical studies, including Proof of Concept (PoC), Phase 2 (or Learning) trials to establish initial proof of safety and effectiveness, and Phase 3 (or Confirming) trials to validate Phase 2 findings. NIDA and other government agencies need to work to improve industry incentives to participate in medication development for substance abuse. Specific incentives, such as market exclusivity and patent extension, as provided in BioShield and pediatric drug legislation, should be strongly considered. NIDA can further assist industry to navigate the regulatory and, if needed, controlled substance scheduling processes, by establishing a true Federal partnership between NIDA, FDA, and DEA.

  20. Female Condom Skill and Attitude: Results from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network Gender-specific HIV Risk Reduction Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-Chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Kenney, Jennifer; Nunes, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    The female condom is effective in reducing unprotected sexual acts; however it remains underutilized in the U.S. This study examined whether a 5-session HIV prevention intervention (Safer Sex Skills Building (SSB)), including presentation, discussion, and practice with female condoms, improved female condom skills and attitude among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test the effect of SSB on skills and attitude over 3- and 6-month post treatment among 515 randomized women. SSB was significantly associated with increases in skills and attitude, and the female condom demonstration session was primarily responsible for skills improvement. Attitude was a partial mediator of the intervention effect in reducing unprotected sex. Findings emphasize the utility of integrating female condom messages targeting proximal behavioral outcomes into HIV prevention. The study supports the use of female condom skill instruction via brief, hands-on exercises, as well as further research to enhance attitudinal change to reduce sexual risk. PMID:21861607

  1. Helping Alliance, Retention, and Treatment Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis From the NIDA Clinical Trials Network Women and Trauma Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruglass, Lesia M.; Miele, Gloria M.; Hien, Denise A.; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Caldeira, Nathilee; Jiang, Huiping; Litt, Lisa; Killeen, Therese; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Najavits, Lisa; Brown, Chanda; Robinson, James A.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between the therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes among 223 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders who participated in a multisite clinical trial of group treatments for trauma and addictions in the United States throughout 2004 and 2005. General linear models indicated that women who received Seeking Safety, a cognitive-behavioral treatment, had significantly higher alliance ratings than those in Women's Health Education, a control group. Alliance was related to significant decreases in PTSD symptoms and higher attendance in both interventions. Alliance was not related to substance use outcomes. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed. PMID:22475068

  2. Power of automated algorithms for combining time-line follow-back and urine drug screening test results in stimulant-abuse clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Oden, Neal L; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Wakim, Paul G; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Somoza, Eugene; Lewis, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    In clinical trials of treatment for stimulant abuse, researchers commonly record both Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) self-reports and urine drug screen (UDS) results. To compare the power of self-report, qualitative (use vs. no use) UDS assessment, and various algorithms to generate self-report-UDS composite measures to detect treatment differences via t-test in simulated clinical trial data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations patterned in part on real data to model self-report reliability, UDS errors, dropout, informatively missing UDS reports, incomplete adherence to a urine donation schedule, temporal correlation of drug use, number of days in the study period, number of patients per arm, and distribution of drug-use probabilities. Investigated algorithms include maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimates, self-report alone, UDS alone, and several simple modifications of self-report (referred to here as ELCON algorithms) which eliminate perceived contradictions between it and UDS. Among the algorithms investigated, simple ELCON algorithms gave rise to the most powerful t-tests to detect mean group differences in stimulant drug use. Further investigation is needed to determine if simple, naïve procedures such as the ELCON algorithms are optimal for comparing clinical study treatment arms. But researchers who currently require an automated algorithm in scenarios similar to those simulated for combining TLFB and UDS to test group differences in stimulant use should consider one of the ELCON algorithms. This analysis continues a line of inquiry which could determine how best to measure outpatient stimulant use in clinical trials (NIDA. NIDA Monograph-57: Self-Report Methods of Estimating Drug Abuse: Meeting Current Challenges to Validity. NTIS PB 88248083. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1985; NIDA. NIDA Research Monograph 73: Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NTIS PB 89151971. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1987; NIDA. NIDA Research

  3. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  4. Clinically speaking, psychological abuse matters.

    PubMed

    Começanha, Rita; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Maia, Ângela

    2017-02-01

    The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse. A total of 75% of men and 72% of women reported lifetime psychological victimization and no differences were found for sociodemographic factors, including gender. However, women reported significantly more instigations of psychological abusive acts (OR =5.41, 95% CI=1.88-15.55). Multivariate linear regression models revealed that post-traumatic stress symptoms-PTSS (β=.51; p<.001), depression (β=.34; p<.001) and anxiety (β=.22; p<.001)-were predicted by psychological IPV. The strongest relationship was established between psychological IPV and PTSS, and the final model accounts for 28.6% of the variance (F(6357)=23.86, p<.001). This article provides an empirical basis to recognize the unique and serious impact of psychological IPV on mental health, and recommends screening psychological IPV as part of the clinical routine, developing a gender-inclusive approach, and implementing evidence-based protocols tailored to the needs of these victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of Northern Plains American Indians seeking substance abuse treatment in an urban, non-tribal clinic: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Frankie; Somoza, Eugene; Lilleskov, Maurine; Moccasin, Mabel Granados-Bad; Moore, Michelle; Lewis, Daniel; Boetel, Brenda; Smith, Corey; Winhusen, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Because few data exist on substance abuse rates in American Indian (AI) communities, the Methamphetamine and Other Drug project was developed and implemented by five nodes within the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN). This article presents findings from AI clients in a Northern Plains urban non-Native substance abuse treatment setting. Alcohol and marijuana were used earlier, longer, and by more clients, followed by stimulants and prescription opioids. Most regularly smoked tobacco. Differences in substance use patterns were associated with age of onset and victimization. Age of onset was correlated with victimization, gender, cognitive impairment, and suicidal behavior. Despite considerable health and economic disparities, most clients found support for recovery in relationships and elements of Native culture.

  6. Cocaine Use in America: Epidemiologic and Clinical Perspectives. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Research Monograph Series 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozel, Nicholas J., Ed.; Adams, Edgar H., Ed.

    This monograph is based on papers presented at a technical review of patterns of cocaine use in the United States which was held in 1984. The foreword by Jerome H. Jaffe acknowledges that, over the past 10 years, cocaine has become a major public health threat in this country. Papers contained in this monograph include: (1) "Cocaine Use in…

  7. Blending research and practice: an evolving dissemination strategy in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Michel, Mary Ellen; Pintello, Denise A; Subramaniam, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. The mission of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is to lead the United States in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction. This charge has two critical components: (a) strategic support of research across a broad range of disciplines and (b) rapid, effective dissemination of research results that can improve prevention and treatment efforts, with potential to inform policy. The NIDA Clinical Trials Network and the Blending Initiative are critical elements of this strategy, and the social work field is poised to use these resources to expand its role in the dissemination and implementation of NIDA's mission.

  8. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  9. Do treatment improvements in PTSD severity affect substance use outcomes? A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial in NIDA's Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Hien, Denise A; Jiang, Huiping; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Miele, Gloria M; Cohen, Lisa R; Brigham, Gregory S; Capstick, Carrie; Kulaga, Agatha; Robinson, James; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Nunes, Edward V

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to examine the temporal course of improvement in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Participants were 353 women randomly assigned to 12 sessions of either trauma-focused or health education group treatment. PTSD and substance use assessments were conducted during treatment and posttreatment at 1 week and after 3, 6, and 12 months. A continuous Markov model was fit on four defined response categories (nonresponse, substance use response, PTSD response, or global response [improvement in both PTSD and substance use]) to investigate the temporal association between improvement in PTSD and substance use symptom severity during the study's treatment phase. A generalized linear model was applied to test this relationship over the follow-up period. Subjects exhibiting nonresponse, substance use response, or global response tended to maintain original classification; subjects exhibiting PTSD response were significantly more likely to transition to global response over time, indicating maintained PTSD improvement was associated with subsequent substance use improvement. Trauma-focused treatment was significantly more effective than health education in achieving substance use improvement, but only among those who were heavy substance users at baseline and had achieved significant PTSD reductions. PTSD severity reductions were more likely to be associated with substance use improvement, with minimal evidence of substance use symptom reduction improving PTSD symptoms. Results support the self-medication model of coping with PTSD symptoms and an empirical basis for integrated interventions for improved substance use outcomes in patients with severe symptoms.

  10. Mortality Rates among Substance Use Disorder Participants in Clinical Trials: Pooled Analysis of Twenty-two Clinical Trials within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Robert; Hu, Lian; Oden, Neal; Wakim, Paul; Rosa, Carmen; VanVeldhuisen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Most substance use disorders (SUD) treatment clinical trials are too short and small to reliably estimate the incidence of rare events like death. Objective The aim of this study is to estimate the overall mortality rates among a SUD treatment-seeking population by pooling participants from multiple clinical trials conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Participants Drug and or alcohol users (N=9,866) who sought treatment and participated in one of the twenty-two CTN trials. Measurements Data were collected through randomized clinical trials in national community treatment programs (CTPs) for SUD. Pooled analysis was performed to assess age- and gender-standardized mortality rate(s) (SM rate(s)), and mortality ratio(s) (SM ratio(s)) of CTN trial participants compared to the U.S. general population. We also assessed if there were differences in mortality rates across different types of substance of abuse. Results The age- and gender-SM rate among CTN trials participants was 1403 (95% CI: 862-2074) per 100,000 person years (PY) compared to 542 (95% CI: 541-543) per 100,000 PY among the U.S. general population in 2005. By gender, age-adjusted SM ratio for female CTN trial participants was over five times (SM ratio=5.35, 95% CI: 3.31-8.19)), and for male CTN trial participants was over three times (SM ratio=3.39, 95% CI: 2.25-4.90) higher than their gender comparable peers in the U.S. general population. Conclusions Age and gender-standardized mortality rates and ratios among NIDA CTN SUD treatment-seeking clinical trial participants are higher than the age and gender comparable U.S. general population. The overall mortality rates of CTN trial participants are similar to in-treatment mortality reported in large U.S. and non-U.S. cohorts of opioid users. Future analysis with additional CTN trial participants and risk times will improve the stability of estimates

  11. 75 FR 63491 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA Research Education and Science Education Program Review (R25... Panel, NIDA Basic Science Conference Grant (R13) Review. Date: October 27, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m...

  12. Clinical importance of caffeine dependence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2007-06-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. Caffeine has occasionally been considered a drug of abuse and the potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence or abuse, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition. The authors present two cases of abuse or dependence on the caffeine contained in 'eutrophic' (energy/nutritional) beverages or caffeine preparations, followed by a review of clinical studies demonstrating evidence that some people can manifest a clinical syndrome of caffeine dependence or abuse. The cases suggest that caffeine can produce a clinical dependence syndrome similar to those produced by other psychoactive substances and has a potential for abuse. In a recent study using a structured interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition criteria for substance dependence and abuse, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence or caffeine abuse. Therefore, the authors propose that companies or businesses manufacturing or marketing caffeine or products containing caffeine must meet the following guidelines: (i) clearly indicate the caffeine content of products containing comparatively higher quantities of caffeine; (ii) warn that such products should be avoided by infants and children wherever possible, and inform adult consumers about the precise quantity of caffeine that is considered safe for consumption; and (iii) clearly state that consuming large quantities of caffeine and the long-term use of caffeine carry health risks.

  13. Mortality Rates Among Substance Use Disorder Participants in Clinical Trials: Pooled Analysis of Twenty-Two Clinical Trials Within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Robert; Hu, Lian; Oden, Neal; Wakim, Paul; Rosa, Carmen; VanVeldhuisen, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Most substance use disorders (SUD) treatment clinical trials are too short and small to reliably estimate the incidence of rare events like death. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall mortality rates among a SUD treatment-seeking population by pooling participants from multiple clinical trials conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Drug and or alcohol users (N=9866) who sought treatment and participated in one of the twenty-two CTN trials. Data were collected through randomized clinical trials in national community treatment programs for SUD. Pooled analysis was performed to assess age- and gender-standardized mortality rate(s) (SM rate(s)), and mortality ratio(s) (SM ratio(s)) of CTN trial participants compared to the U.S. general population. The age- and gender-SM rate among CTN trials participants was 1403 (95% CI: 862-2074) per 100,000 person years (PY) compared to 542 (95% CI: 541-543) per 100,000 PY among the U.S. general population in 2005. By gender, age-adjusted SM ratio for female CTN trial participants was over five times (SM ratio=5.35, 95% CI: 3.31-8.19)), and for male CTN trial participants, it was over three times (SM ratio=3.39, 95% CI: 2.25-4.90) higher than their gender comparable peers in the U.S. general population. Age and gender-standardized mortality rates and ratios among NIDA CTN SUD treatment-seeking clinical trial participants are higher than the age and gender comparable U.S. general population. The overall mortality rates of CTN trial participants are similar to in-treatment mortality reported in large U.S. and non-U.S. cohorts of opioid users. Future analysis with additional CTN trial participants and risk times will improve the stability of estimates, especially within subgroups based on primary substance of abuse. These SUD mortality rates can be used to facilitate safety monitoring within SUD clinical trials. Copyright © 2016

  14. A longitudinal study of organizational formation, innovation adoption, and dissemination activities within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Paul M.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Knudsen, Hannah K.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) to conduct trials of promising substance abuse treatment interventions in diverse clinical settings and to disseminate results of these trials. This paper focuses on three dimensions of the CTN’s organizational functioning. First, a longitudinal dataset is used to examine the CTN’s formation as a network of inter-organizational interaction among treatment practitioners and researchers. Data indicate strong relationships of interaction and trust, but a decline in problem-centered inter-organizational interaction over time. Second, adoption of buprenorphine and motivational incentives among the CTN’s affiliated CTPs is identified over three waves of data. While adoption is found to increase with CTPs’ CTN participation, there is only modest evidence of widespread penetration and implementation. Third, CTPs’ pursuit of the CTN’s dissemination goals are examined, indicating that such organizational outreach activities are underway and likely to increase innovation diffusion in the future. PMID:20307795

  15. A centralized informatics infrastructure for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeng-Jong; Nahm, Meredith; Wakim, Paul; Cushing, Carol; Poole, Lori; Tai, Betty; Pieper, Carl F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical trial networks (CTNs) were created to provide a sustaining infrastructure for the conduct of multisite clinical trials. As such, they must withstand changes in membership. Centralization of infrastructure including knowledge management, portfolio management, information management, process automation, work policies, and procedures in clinical research networks facilitates consistency and ultimately research. In 2005, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) CTN transitioned from a distributed data management model to a centralized informatics infrastructure to support the network's trial activities and administration. We describe the centralized informatics infrastructure and discuss our challenges to inform others considering such an endeavor. During the migration of a clinical trial network from a decentralized to a centralized data center model, descriptive data were captured and are presented here to assess the impact of centralization. We present the framework for the informatics infrastructure and evaluative metrics. The network has decreased the time from last patient-last visit to database lock from an average of 7.6 months to 2.8 months. The average database error rate decreased from 0.8% to 0.2%, with a corresponding decrease in the interquartile range from 0.04%-1.0% before centralization to 0.01-0.27% after centralization. Centralization has provided the CTN with integrated trial status reporting and the first standards-based public data share. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis showed a 50% reduction in data management cost per study participant over the life of a trial. A single clinical trial network comprising addiction researchers and community treatment programs was assessed. The findings may not be applicable to other research settings. The identified informatics components provide the information and infrastructure needed for our clinical trial network. Post centralization data management operations are more efficient and less

  16. Clinical implications of drug abuse epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schulden, Jeffrey D; Lopez, Marsha F; Compton, Wilson M

    2012-06-01

    Research on the epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders provides continued critical insights into the distribution and determinants of drug use and drug use disorders in the United States. This research serves as a foundation for understanding the etiology of these disorders, helping to disentangle the complex interrelationship of developmental, genetic, and environmental risk and protective factors. Building on an understanding of this research in substance abuse epidemiology, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique trends in drug use in the overall communities that they serve and the unique risk factors for given individuals. The generally high prevalence of substance use disorders, along with their high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders and with the HIV epidemic, make prevention, evaluation, and referral for treatment for drug abuse an important part of routine clinical practice in a range of clinical settings, including primary care, psychiatric, and emergency department settings. Ongoing efforts to ensure insurance coverage parity for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders offer the promise of continued improvements in the integration and availability of such services in the broader US health care system.

  17. Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tocker, Lotem; Ben-Amitay, Galit; Horesh-Reinman, Netta; Lask, Michal; Toren, Paz

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics. Stepwise hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine how adolescent attributes predicted depression, anxiety, and dissociation beyond the prediction based on sexual abuse. A combination of self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and family cohesiveness made sexual abuse insignificant when predicting levels of depression, anxiety, and dissociation. This study contributes to characterizing the emotional, personal, and family attributes of adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. It also raises questions about the clinical outcomes usually associated with sexual abuse.

  18. Gender Research in the National Institute on Drug Abuse National Treatment Clinical Trials Network: A Summary of Findings

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Rosa, Carmen; Putnins, Susan I.; Green, Carla A.; Brooks, Audrey J.; Calsyn, Donald A.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Erickson, Sarah; Gordon, Susan M.; Haynes, Louise; Killeen, Therese; Miele, Gloria; Tross, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Background The NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established to foster translation of research into practice in substance abuse treatment settings. The CTN provides a unique opportunity to examine in multi-site, translational clinical trials, the outcomes of treatment interventions targeting vulnerable sub-groups of women; the comparative effectiveness of gender-specific protocols to reduce risk behaviors; and gender differences in clinical outcomes. Objectives To review gender-related findings from published CTN clinical trials and related studies from January, 2000 through March, 2010. Methods CTN studies were selected for review if they focused on treatment outcomes or services for special populations of women with substance use disorders (SUDs) including those with trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders and HIV risk behaviors; or implemented gender-specific protocols. Results The CTN has randomized 11,500 participants (41% women) across 200 clinics in 24 randomized clinical trials in community settings, of which 4 have been gender-specific. This paper summarizes gender-related findings from CTN clinical trials and related studies, focusing on trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders, and HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These published studies have expanded the evidence base regarding interventions for vulnerable groups of women with SUDs as well as gender-specific interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors in substance using men and women. The results also underscore the complexity of accounting for gender in the design of clinical trials and analysis of results. Scientific Relevance To fully understand the relevance of gender-specific moderators and mediators of outcome, it is essential that future translational studies adopt more sophisticated approaches to understanding and measuring gender-relevant factors and plan sample sizes that are

  19. The Appalachian Tri-State Node Experiences with the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Thomas M; Daley, Dennis C; Byrne, Mimmie; Demarzo, Larry; Smith, Doris; Madl, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored Clinical Trial Network (CTN) recently celebrated 10 years of conducting "real world" research into the treatment of addiction. This article reviews the history and results of the most recent CTN studies and describes the experiences of one of the 13 participating research affiliates, the Appalachian Tri-State (ATS) Node. We discuss our "bidirectional" collaboration with multiple community treatment programs (CTPs) on research and dissemination activities and include their experiences as a member of our ATS Node.Results of CTN clinical trials have found unexpectedly that treatment as usual (TAU) is often almost as good as evidence-based interventions such as Motivational Interviewing (MI), possibly due to the difficulty in implementing evidence-based practices most effectively among divergent treatment sites and heterogeneous clinical populations. Some expected findings from the reviewed research are that severity of addiction and comorbidity moderate treatment outcomes and must be accounted for in future CTN-sponsored studies. Notwithstanding these results, much has been learned and recommendations are suggested for changes in CTN research designs that will address methodological limitations and increase treatment effectiveness in future CTN studies.

  20. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J.; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality

  1. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity.

    PubMed

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Madigan, Margaret A; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L; Gold, Mark S

    The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x 2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x 2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x 2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x 2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x 2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality involves attending

  2. The ritual abuse of children: clinical features and diagnostic reasoning.

    PubMed

    Nurcombe, B; Unützer, J

    1991-03-01

    A case of alleged ritual sexual abuse is presented. Clinical recognition and diagnostic reasoning are discussed. After a brief account of modern satanism, it is concluded that, although the evidence for the occurrence of ritual abuse is sketchy, a high index of suspicion is appropriate.

  3. Sexual Abuse of Children: A Clinical Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn

    1978-01-01

    The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)

  4. NeuroAIDS, drug abuse, and inflammation: building collaborative research activities.

    PubMed

    Berman, Joan W; Carson, Monica J; Chang, Linda; Cox, Brian M; Fox, Howard S; Gonzalez, R Gilberto; Hanson, Glen R; Hauser, Kurt F; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Major, Eugene O; Maragos, William F; Masliah, Eliezer; McArthur, Justin C; Miller, Diane B; Nath, Avindra; O'Callaghan, James P; Persidsky, Yuri; Power, Christopher; Rogers, Thomas J; Royal, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Neurological complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are a public health problem despite the availability of active antiretroviral therapies. The neuropathogenesis of HIV infection revolves around a complex cascade of events that include viral infection and glial immune activation, monocyte-macrophage brain infiltration, and secretion of a host of viral and cellular inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules. Although there is evidence that HIV-infected drug abusers experience more severe neurological disease, the biological basis for this finding is unknown. A scientific workshop organized by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) was held on March 23-24, 2006 to address this question. The goal of the meeting was to bring together basic science and clinical researchers who are experts in NeuroAIDS, glial immunity, drugs of abuse, and/or pharmacology in order to find new approaches to understanding interactions between drug abuse and neuroAIDS. The format of the meeting was designed to stimulate open discussion and forge new multidisciplinary research collaborations. This report includes transcripts of active discussions and short presentations from invited participants. The presentations were separated into sections that included: Glial Biology, Inflammation, and HIV; Pharmacology, Neurotoxicology, and Neuroprotection; NeuroAIDS and Virology; and Virus-Drug and Immune-Drug Interactions. Research priorities were identified. Additional information about this meeting is available through links from the NIDA AIDS Research Program website ( http://www.nida.nih.gov/about/organization/arp/arp-websites.htm ).

  5. Quality assurance of research protocols conducted in the community: the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network experience.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carmen; Campbell, Aimee; Kleppinger, Cynthia; Sampson, Royce; Tyson, Clare; Mamay-Gentilin, Stephanie

    2009-04-01

    Quality assurance (QA) of clinical trials is essential to protect the welfare of trial participants and the integrity of the data collected. However, there is little detailed information available on specific procedures and outcomes of QA monitoring for clinical trials. This article describes the experience of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in devising and implementing a three-tiered QA model for rigorous multi-site randomized clinical trials implemented in community-based substance abuse treatment programs. The CTN QA model combined local and national resources and was developed to address the unique needs of clinical trial sites with limited research experience. The authors reviewed internal records maintained by the sponsor, a coordinating site (Lead Nodes), and a local site detailing procedural development, training sessions, protocol violation monitoring, and site visit reporting. Between January 2001 and September 2005, the CTN implemented 21 protocols, of which 18 were randomized clinical trials, one was a quality improvement study and two were surveys. Approximately 160 community-based treatment programs participated in the 19 studies that were monitored, with a total of 6560 participants randomized across the sites. During this time 1937 QA site visits were reported across the three tiers of monitoring and the cost depended on the location of the sites and the salaries of the staff involved. One study reported 109 protocol violations (M = 15.6). Examples are presented to highlight training, protocol violation monitoring, site visit frequency and intensity and cost considerations. : QA data from the entire network were not easily available for review as much of the data were not electronically accessible. The authors reviewed and discussed a representative sample of internal data from the studies and participating sites. The lessons learned from the CTN's experience include the need

  6. Quality assurance of research protocols conducted in the community: The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Carmen; Campbell, Aimee; Kleppinger, Cynthia; Sampson, Royce; Tyson, Clare; Mamay-Gentilin, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Quality assurance (QA) of clinical trials is essential to protect the welfare of trial participants and the integrity of the data collected. However, there is little detailed information available on specific procedures and outcomes of QA monitoring for clinical trials. Purpose: This article describes the experience of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in devising and implementing a three-tiered QA model for rigorous multi-site randomized clinical trials implemented in community-based substance abuse treatment programs. The CTN QA model combined local and national resources and was developed to address the unique needs of clinical trial sites with limited research experience. Methods: The authors reviewed internal records maintained by the sponsor, a coordinating site (Lead Nodes), and a local site detailing procedural development, training sessions, protocol violation monitoring, and site visit reporting. Results: Between January 2001 and September 2005, the CTN implemented 21 protocols, of which 18 were randomized clinical trials, one was a quality improvement study and two were surveys. Approximately 160 community-based treatment programs participated in the 19 studies that were monitored, with a total of 6560 participants randomized across the sites. During this time 1937 QA site visits were reported across the three tiers of monitoring and the cost depended on the location of the sites and the salaries of the staff involved. One study reported 109 protocol violations (M = 15.6). Examples are presented to highlight training, protocol violation monitoring, site visit frequency and intensity and cost considerations. Limitations: QA data from the entire network were not easily available for review as much of the data were not electronically accessible. The authors reviewed and discussed a representative sample of internal data from the studies and participating sites. Conclusions

  7. The Relationship Between the Clinical Orientation of Substance Abuse Professionals and Their Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toriello, Paul J.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substance abuse counseling processes…

  8. Clinical pharmacokinetics of non-opiate abused drugs.

    PubMed

    Busto, U; Bendayan, R; Sellers, E M

    1989-01-01

    The present review discusses the available data on the kinetic properties of non-opiate abused drugs including psychomotor stimulants, hallucinogens and CNS-depressants. Some of the drugs of abuse reviewed here are illicit drugs (e.g. cannabis, cocaine), while others are effective pharmacological agents but have the potential to be abused (e.g. benzodiazepines). Although some of the drugs mentioned in this review have been in use for centuries (e.g. caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, cannabis), knowledge of their kinetics and metabolism is very recent and in some cases still incomplete. This is partially due to the difficulties inherent in studying drugs of abuse in humans, and to the complex metabolism of some of these drugs (e.g. cannabis, caffeine) which has made it difficult to develop sensitive assays to determine biological pathways. Although drugs of abuse may have entirely different intrinsic pharmacological effects, the kinetic properties of such drugs are factors contributing to abuse and dependence. The pharmacokinetic properties that presumably contribute to self-administration and drug abuse include rapid delivery of the drug into the central nervous system and high free drug clearance. Kinetic characteristics also play an important role in the development of physical dependence and on the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome: the longer the half-life, the greater the likelihood of the development of physical dependence; the shorter the half-life, the earlier and more severe the withdrawal. The balance between these 2 factors, which has not yet been carefully studied, will also influence abuse patterns. The clinical significance of kinetic characteristics with respect to abuse is discussed where possible.

  9. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.

  10. Clinical characteristics of cough mixture abusers referred to three substance abuse clinics in Hong Kong: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tang, A K; Tang, W K; Liang, H J; Chan, F; Mak, S C; Ungvari, G S

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVES. Cough mixture is the third most commonly abused substance in patients attending the Prince of Wales Hospital Substance Abuse Clinic. The content of the local cough mixture is not well researched. Paranoid psychosis manifesting as persecutory delusions and derogatory hallucination, as well as mood symptoms, is common in these patients. The natural history and outcome of such psychoses associated with cough mixture abuse are not well known. This study aimed to address these questions. METHODS. This was a retrospective study of cough mixture abuse in Hong Kong. Case records of cough mixture abusers currently receiving treatment at the 3 substance abuse clinics at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, and the North District Hospital were retrieved for data collection. The patients' demographic data, duration and intake pattern of cough mixture, and use of any other drugs were documented. The presenting psychopathology, first urine toxicology results, diagnosis, treatment, number of hospitalizations, and course of the illness were also recorded. RESULTS. A total of 63 patients with the diagnosis of cough mixture abuse were identified in the database; 89% were male. The mean +/- SD age of the patients was 34.4 +/- 6.2 years; 67% were single and 83% were unemployed. The mean +/- SD age of onset of cough mixture abuse was 20 +/- 5 years. Psychiatric symptoms developed a mean +/- SD of 7.6 +/- 6.0 years after onset of abuse. According to the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders criteria, the top psychiatric diagnoses were substance-induced psychotic disorder (67%), schizophrenia (19%), depressive disorder (11%), and dysthymia (10%). The most common ingredients in the urine sample at first presentation were promethazine (75%), pseudoephedrine (67%), codeine (60%), ephedrine (57%), zopiclone (17%), and hydrocodone (16%). Additionally, 16% of patients were in the priority follow-up group. The mean +/- SD follow-up period was 6

  11. Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling Students' Characteristics and Career Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.; Sias, Shari M.

    2007-01-01

    Students from a master's program in Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling (SACC) at a midsize southeastern university were surveyed to determine personal characteristics and career goals. Sixty-two of the 68 students currently enrolled in the program volunteered to anonymously complete the questionnaire. The typical profile of the SACC student…

  12. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Raka; Verma, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care. PMID:26957863

  13. Clinical and forensic signs related to opioids abuse.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Felix; Moreira, Roxana; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Proenca, Jorge Brandao; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhaes, Teresa

    2012-12-01

    For a good performance in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology it is important to be aware of the biological and non-biological signs and symptoms related to xenobiotic exposure. This manuscript highlights and analyzes clinical and forensic imaging related to opioids abuse critically. Particularly, respiratory depression, track marks and hemorrhages, skin "popping", practices of phlebotomy, tissue necrosis and ulceration, dermatitis, tongue hyperpigmentation, "coma blisters", intra-arterial administration, candidiasis, wounds associated with anthrax or clostridium contaminated heroin, desomorphine related lesions and characteristic non-biological evidences are some commonly reported findings in opioids abuse, which will be discussed. For this purpose, clinical and forensic cases from our database (National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, North Branch, Portugal), in addition to literature data, are reviewed.

  14. [Child sexual abuse: clinical perspectives and ethico-legal dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Franco, Alvaro; Ramírez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In the review of the current literature, the main causing factors of the related conditions with child sexual abuse are the ethical dilemmas and legal implications. A review was conducted on the classic literature on this topic. In this articlesome difficult paradigmatic cases are presented in which the hypothetical dilemmas were solved. The main characteristics of child sexual abuse enable us to have a better argument to address these situations. Taking into account the literature reviewed and predictable courses of action, it is concluded that it is important to take into account each individual each case and its circumstances, and that prudence and clinical objectivity, as well as knowledge of the law, become essential requirements for proper action. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Middle School Students' Learning of the Impact of Methamphetamine Abuse on the Brain through Serious Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    In response to the solicitation of the National Institute on Drug Use (NIDA) (NIDA, 2006) for the "Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Teaching about the Impact of Drug Abuse on the Brain," a virtual brain exhibit was developed by the joint venture of Entertainment Science, Inc. and Virtual Heroes, Inc.. This exhibit included a…

  16. 76 FR 15328 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA's Science...; Development & Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products/Addiction Treatment (8899). Date: May 24, 2011. Time: 9 a...

  17. Comparison of MMPI Scores of Drug Abusers and Mayo Clinic Normative Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patalano, Frank

    1980-01-01

    Compared MMPIs of 80 male and 80 female drug abusers with MMPIs of 550 male and 695 female medical patients. Male drug abusers obtained significantly higher scores than male medical patients on all clinical scales. Female drug abusers obtained significantly higher scores than female medical patients on seven scales. (Author)

  18. MaNIDA: an operational infrastructure for shipborne data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario, Ana; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-Infrastruture to support discovery and re-use of data archived in a distributed network of data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI1.2 and session ESSI2.2). Because one of the primary focus of MaNIDA is the underway data acquired on board of German academic research vessels, we will be addressing various issues related to cruise-level metadata, shiptrack navigation, sampling events conducted during the cruise (event logs), standardization of device-related (type, name, parameters) and place-related (gazetteer) vocabularies, QA/QC procedures (near real time and post-cruise validation, corrections, quality flags) as well as ingestion and management of contextual information (e.g. various types of cruise-related reports and project-related information). One of MaNIDA's long-term goal is to be able to offer an integrative "one-stop-shop" framework for management and access of ship-related information based on international standards and interoperability. This access framework will be freely available and is intended for scientists, funding agencies and the public. The master "catalog" we are building currently contains information from 13 German academic research vessels and respective cruises (to date ~1900 cruises with expected growing rate of ~150 cruises annually). Moreover, MaNIDA's operational infrastructure will additionally provide a direct pipeline to SeaDataNet Cruise Summary Report Inventory, among others. In this presentation, we will focus on the extensions we are currently implementing to support automated acquisition and standardized transfer of various types of data from German research vessels to hosts on land. Our concept towards nationwide common QA/QC procedures for various types of underway data (including versioning concept) and common workflows will also be presented. The "linking" of cruise-related information with quality-controlled data

  19. [Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].

    PubMed

    Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

    2008-06-01

    This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.

  20. Poppers: epidemiology and clinical management of inhaled nitrite abuse.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M; Thornton, Alice C; Pomeroy, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "poppers," inhaled nitrites have a long history of abuse. Poppers are rapid-onset, short-acting potent vasodilators that produce a rush characterized by warm sensations and feelings of dizziness. Poppers sometimes are used to facilitate anal intercourse because of their actions on the anal sphincter. Epidemiologically, the frequent use of nitrites by men who have sex with men has led some experts to implicate these chemicals in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Controlled clinical trials to examine this potential correlation have not been conducted, and the use of nitrites simply may be a marker for other high-risk behaviors such as unprotected sex. Although regulated in the United States, many nitrite compounds and isomers are sold at various venues including bars, bookstores, and over the Internet. Adverse effects associated with these products vary from mild allergic reactions to life-threatening methemoglobinemia. The potential for drug-drug interactions and a propensity toward unsafe sex also exist. Clinicians should be familiar with the populations most likely to abuse these agents and with the clinical effects and management guidelines for acute ingestions.

  1. Implementing drug abuse treatment services in criminal justice settings: Introduction to the CJ-DATS study protocol series.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Wiley, Tisha R A

    2013-12-01

    Despite a growing pipeline of effective clinical treatments, there remains a persistent research-to-practice gap in drug abuse services. Delivery of effective treatment services is especially lacking in the U.S. criminal justice system, where half of all incarcerated persons meet the need for drug abuse or dependence, yet few receive needed care. Structural, financial, philosophical and other barriers slow the pace of adoption of available evidence-based practices. These challenges led to the development of a multi-site cooperative research endeavor known as the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS), funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). CJ-DATS engages university-based research teams, criminal justice agencies, and community-based treatment providers in implementation research studies to test strategies for enhancing treatment service delivery to offender populations. This Introduction reviews the mission of NIDA, the structure and goals of the CJ-DATS cooperative, and the implementation studies being conducted by the participating organizations. The component Study Protocols in this article collection are then described. CJ-DATS applies implementation science perspectives and methods to address a vexing problem - the need to link offender populations with effective treatment for drug abuse, HIV, and other related conditions for which they are at high risk. Applying these principles to the U.S. criminal justice system is an innovative extension of lessons that have been learned in mainstream healthcare settings. This collection is offered as both an introduction to NIDA's work in this area, as well as a window onto the challenges of conducting health services research in settings in which improving public health is not the organization's core mission.

  2. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  3. [Abuse of minors. Clinical considerations on physical abuse, sexual aggression and emotional deprivation].

    PubMed

    Loredo-Abdalá, A; Trejo-Hernández, J; Bustos-Valenzuela, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians and other health personnel dealing with the consequences of child abuse ought to have abroad understanding of the magnitude of this serious medical and social phenomenon. The three main patterns of child mistreatment as observed at a pediatric hospital are reviewed, with emphasis on its medical and juridical aspects. Various pathologic entities are to be taken into account for differential diagnoses when child abuse is suspected. Risk factors regarding the victims, the abusers and the psychosocial environment are noted.

  4. Self-reported verbal abuse in 1300+ older women within a private, tertiary women's health clinic.

    PubMed

    Sood, Richa; Novotny, Paul; Faubion, Stephanie S; Thielen, Jacqueline M; Shuster, Lynne T; Kuhle, Carol L; Kapoor, Ekta; Marnach, Mary; Barrette, Brigitte; Jatoi, Aminah

    2016-01-01

    Several studies describe "elder abuse" among residents of nursing homes, but this issue is less well studied among independently functioning, community-based women. The current study was undertaken to report rates of self-reported intimate partner violence - with a focus on verbal abuse - among older women within a private tertiary women's health clinic. This study focused on women who completed a questionnaire on domestic abuse. A total of 1389 women with a median age of 55 years (range: 50, 90) are the focus of this report. Most 1102 (79%) were married. Within this group, 100 (7%) women reported verbal abuse within the last year. Rates of physical and sexual abuse were much lower with 9 women (1%) and 2 (<1%), respectively. In univariate analyses, being divorced, being an alcoholic, and having suffered prior abuse were associated with reported verbal abuse. In multivariate analyses, self-reported alcoholism and physical abuse were independently associated with reported verbal abuse. This study found a notable rate of patient-reported verbal abuse in older women within a private, tertiary women's health clinic. This observation should prompt healthcare providers to ask about intimate partner violence - and specifically verbal abuse - regardless of healthcare setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Impact and Application of Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulations in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Han; Brown, Daniel L; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2017-11-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) represent one novel strategy for curbing the potential of opioid abuse. We aim to compare and contrast the characteristics and applications of current abuse-deterrent opioid products in clinical practice. Literature searches were conducted in databases (Pubmed Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Google Scholar) and official reports. Relevant data were screened and organized into: 1) epidemiology of opioid abuse, 2) mitigation strategies for reducing opioid abuse, 3) development of ADFs, and 4) clinical experience with these formulations. Increasing trends of opioid abuse and misuse have been reported globally. There are 5 types of abuse-deterrent opioid products: physical chemical barrier, combined agonist/antagonist, sequestered aversive agent, prodrug, and novel delivery system. The advantages and disadvantages of the 5 options are discussed in this review. A total of 9 products with abuse-deterrent labels have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The rates of abuse, diversion, and overdose deaths of these new products are also discussed. A framework for collecting in-time data on the efficacy, benefit and risk ratio, and cost-effectiveness of these new products is suggested to facilitate their optimal use. The present review did not utilize systematic review standards or meta-analytic techniques, given the large heterogeneity of data and outcomes reviewed. ADFs provide an option for inhibiting the abuse or misuse of oral opioid products by hindering extraction of the active ingredient, preventing alternative routes of administration, or causing aversion. Their relatively high costs, uncertain insurance policies, and limited data on pharmacoeconomics warrant collaborative monitoring and assessment by government agencies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and data analysis services to define their therapeutic role in the future. Opioid abuse, abuse-deterrent formulations, ADF, post-marketing, FDA

  6. 77 FR 27075 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel....D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA B/START Small Grant...

  7. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Blending..., Training and Special Projects Review Branch, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse... Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health...

  8. 75 FR 9606 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard... Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA CEBRA R21 Review. Date: March 17, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m...

  9. 78 FR 73866 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Center... Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...

  10. 75 FR 54348 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse.... [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA B/Start... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Blvd., Bethesda...

  11. 76 FR 11252 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Initial Review Group..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC 9550, 6001.... Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA-K Conflicts. Date...

  12. 75 FR 29354 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Blvd...

  13. Vision screening of abused and neglected children by the UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic.

    PubMed

    Yoo, R; Logani, S; Mahat, M; Wheeler, N C; Lee, D A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to present descriptive findings of ocular abnormalities in vision screening examinations of abused and neglected children. We compared the prevalence and the nature of eye diseases and refractive error between abused and neglected boys staying at the Hathaway Home, a residential facility for abused children, and boys from neighboring Boys and Girls clubs. The children in the study received vision screening examinations through the UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic following a standard format. Clinical data were analyzed by chi-square test. The children with a history of abuse demonstrated significantly higher prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, and external eye disorders. Our study suggests that children with a history of abuse may be at higher risk for visual impairment. These visual impairments may be the long-term sequelae of child abuse.

  14. Pay-for-performance in a community substance abuse clinic

    PubMed Central

    Vandrey, Ryan; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Acquavita, Shauna P.; Quinn-Stabile, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) strategies improve employee productivity and morale in business settings and are increasingly being implemented in medical care settings. This study investigated whether P4P could improve treatment utilization and retention at a community drug treatment clinic. Counselors had the opportunity to earn cash bonuses based on therapy attendance rates of individual clients as well as the quarterly retention rates of their caseload. Using a pre-post study design, average therapy sessions attended during the first month of treatment increased from 4.6 sessions prior to the intervention to 5.5 sessions per client during the intervention. The 90-day client retention rate increased from 40% to 53%. Additional analyses suggest that the improvement in 90-day retention was mediated by the increase in attendance during the first month of treatment. This project demonstrates that implementing a P4P incentive program in community drug abuse treatment clinics is feasible and effective at improving utilization and retention. PMID:21489739

  15. Clinical characteristic and risk factors of recurrent sexual abuse and delayed reported sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Huang, Go-Shine; Huang, Jing-Long; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chao, An-Shine; Lo, Fu-Sung; Wu, Han-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that affects children of all ages, and the evaluation of these victims by psychologic and gynecologic experts in pediatric emergency departments is an important issue. Few data are available on the characteristics of children admitted to pediatric emergency department with recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical features of, and risk factors for, recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The study retrospectively analyzed victims of CSA who were admitted to a pediatric emergency department. Chi-square tests and univariate analyses were performed to assess the risk factors of recurrent or delayed reported CSA. Of the 91 CSA cases, 32 (35.2%) were recurrent assaults. Of the 70 cases recorded the duration of the event, 22 (31.4%) were delayed report cases. Comparisons of the non-recurrent and recurrent CSA assault groups revealed a significant increase in comorbidities (odds ratio [OR]: 4.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54-12.93), acute psychiatric problems (OR: 3.18, CI: 1.26-8.06), attempted suicide (OR: 4.23, CI: 1.28-13.99), and the need for treatment with antipsychotic medications (OR: 5.57, CI: 1.37-22.65). Compared with non-delayed reported cases, the delay reported cases of CSA were significantly more likely to have anxiety (P < .05). The CSA victims in the present study exhibited acute medical and/or psychosocial problems, which indicate that pediatric emergency professionals have a responsibility to look for and recognize particular characteristics in these victims.

  16. Clinical characteristic and risk factors of recurrent sexual abuse and delayed reported sexual abuse in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Huang, Go-Shine; Huang, Jing-Long; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chao, An-Shine; Lo, Fu-Sung; Wu, Han-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that affects children of all ages, and the evaluation of these victims by psychologic and gynecologic experts in pediatric emergency departments is an important issue. Few data are available on the characteristics of children admitted to pediatric emergency department with recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical features of, and risk factors for, recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The study retrospectively analyzed victims of CSA who were admitted to a pediatric emergency department. Chi-square tests and univariate analyses were performed to assess the risk factors of recurrent or delayed reported CSA. Of the 91 CSA cases, 32 (35.2%) were recurrent assaults. Of the 70 cases recorded the duration of the event, 22 (31.4%) were delayed report cases. Comparisons of the non-recurrent and recurrent CSA assault groups revealed a significant increase in comorbidities (odds ratio [OR]: 4.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54–12.93), acute psychiatric problems (OR: 3.18, CI: 1.26–8.06), attempted suicide (OR: 4.23, CI: 1.28–13.99), and the need for treatment with antipsychotic medications (OR: 5.57, CI: 1.37–22.65). Compared with non-delayed reported cases, the delay reported cases of CSA were significantly more likely to have anxiety (P < .05). The CSA victims in the present study exhibited acute medical and/or psychosocial problems, which indicate that pediatric emergency professionals have a responsibility to look for and recognize particular characteristics in these victims. PMID:29620636

  17. Is monogamy or committed relationship status a marker for low sexual risk among men in substance abuse treatment? Clinical and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Campbell, Aimee N.; Tross, Susan; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention interventions often promote monogamy to reduce sexual risk. However, there is little consensus about how to define monogamy. Objective Determine the extent to which recent monogamy and/or being in a committed relationship serve as markers for low sexual risk among men in substance abuse treatment. Methods Participants were 360 men enrolled in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Real Men Are Safe” protocol who completed all assessments (baseline, 3 months, 6 months). Self- reported behaviors included: number of sexual partners; type of relationships; frequency of vaginal/anal intercourse; percentage of condom use. Results The rate of self-reported monogamy in the prior 90 days was stable across assessments (54.2%, 53.1%. 58.3%). However, at each assessment 7.5–10% of monogamous men identified their partner as a casual partner, and only 123 (34.2%) reported being monogamous at every assessment. Of these, 20 (5.6%) reported being monogamous with different partners across assessments. Men with both committed relationship and casual partners reported more condom use with their committed relationship partners than men with only a committed relationship partner. Conclusion Clinicians and researchers should consider individual relationship context and behavior, and avoid assuming that recent monogamy or being in a committed relationship denotes low risk. Scientific Significance This study provides evidence that, in male drug users, monogamy does not necessarily reflect low sexual risk. Rather, ‘monogamous’ men actually encompass various combinations of partner types and levels of risk behavior, that are unstable, even over brief time periods. Clinicians and researchers must take these variations into account. PMID:21854271

  18. Patients Reporting Ritual Abuse in Childhood: A Clinical Syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Walter C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…

  19. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  20. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  1. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical evaluation and use of urine screening for drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Saxon, A J; Calsyn, D A; Haver, V M; Delaney, C J

    1988-01-01

    Urine drug screening is indicated to evaluate patients who show mental status or behavioral changes and to monitor the abstinence of drug abusers. The appropriate timing for collecting urine specimens may vary depending on the suspected drug of abuse and on laboratory factors. Laboratories use a variety of techniques to do urine screens, and these must be understood by clinicians ordering the screens to interpret results correctly. In treating drug-abusing patients, clinicians must apply structured reinforcement in conjunction with urine screen results to aid patients in achieving abstinence. PMID:3176489

  3. Prescription opioid abuse, pain and addiction: clinical issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Hillhouse, Maureen

    2011-05-01

    Prescription opioid misuse in the USA has increased over threefold since 1990 to epidemic proportions, with substantial increases in prescription opioid use also reported in other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand. The broad availability of prescription pain medications, coupled with public misconceptions about their safety and addictive potential, have contributed to the recent surge in non-medical use of prescription opioids and corresponding increases in treatment admissions for problems related to opioid misuse. Given competing pressures faced by physicians to both diagnose and treat pain syndromes and identify individuals at risk for addictive disorders, the use of opioids in the treatment of pain poses a significant clinical challenge. This paper reviews the interaction between pain and opioid addiction with a focus on clinical management issues, including risk factors for opioid dependence in patients with chronic pain and the use of assessment tools to identify and monitor at-risk individuals. Treatment options for opioid dependence and pain are reviewed, including the use of the partial µ agonist buprenorphine in the management of concurrent pain and opioid addiction. Physicians should strive to find a reasonable balance between minimising potential adverse effects of opioid medications without diminishing legitimate access to opioids for analgesia. The article discusses the need to identify methods for minimising risks and negative consequences associated with opioid analgesics and poses research directions, including the development of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, genetic risk factors for opioid dependence and opioid-induced hyperalgesia as a potential target for medication therapy. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Prescription opioid abuse, pain and addiction: Clinical issues and implications

    PubMed Central

    LING, WALTER; MOONEY, LARISSA; HILLHOUSE, MAUREEN

    2014-01-01

    Issues Prescription opioid misuse in the USA has increased over threefold since 1990 to epidemic proportions, with substantial increases in prescription opioid use also reported in other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand. The broad availability of prescription pain medications, coupled with public misconceptions about their safety and addictive potential, have contributed to the recent surge in non-medical use of prescription opioids and corresponding increases in treatment admissions for problems related to opioid misuse. Given competing pressures faced by physicians to both diagnose and treat pain syndromes and identify individuals at risk for addictive disorders, the use of opioids in the treatment of pain poses a significant clinical challenge. Approach This paper reviews the interaction between pain and opioid addiction with a focus on clinical management issues, including risk factors for opioid dependence in patients with chronic pain and the use of assessment tools to identify and monitor at-risk individuals. Treatment options for opioid dependence and pain are reviewed, including the use of the partial μ agonist buprenorphine in the management of concurrent pain and opioid addiction. Implications Physicians should strive to find a reasonable balance between minimising potential adverse effects of opioid medications without diminishing legitimate access to opioids for analgesia. Conclusions The article discusses the need to identify methods for minimising risks and negative consequences associated with opioid analgesics and poses research directions, including the development of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, genetic risk factors for opioid dependence and opioid-induced hyperalgesia as a potential target for medication therapy. PMID:21545561

  5. Increasing ethnic minority participation in substance abuse clinical trials: lessons learned in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Burlew, Kathleen; Larios, Sandra; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Holmes, Beverly; Venner, Kamilla; Chavez, Roberta

    2011-10-01

    Underrepresentation in clinical trials limits the extent to which ethnic minorities benefit from advances in substance abuse treatment. The objective of this article is to share the knowledge gained within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN) of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other research on recruiting and retaining ethnic minorities into substance abuse clinical trials. The article includes a discussion of two broad areas for improving inclusion-community involvement and cultural adaptation. CTN case studies are included to illustrate three promising strategies for improving ethnic minority inclusion: respondent-driven sampling, community-based participatory research, and the cultural adaptation of the recruitment and retention procedures. The article concludes with two sections describing a number of methodological concerns in the current research base and our proposed research agenda for improving ethnic minority inclusion that builds on the CTN experience.

  6. Cycles of abuse nurtured by concealment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Wijma, Barbro; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Hammarström, Nevija Cah; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2007-09-01

    At present, health care staff do not seem to have sufficient knowledge about their patients' abusive experiences. The aim of the present study is to analyze and discuss what the implications might be for the encounter between patients and health care professionals, when experiences of abuse are concealed. The methodology of this article is varied: a personal narrative, medical records, sociological theoretical literature and empirical evidence. From the narrative we learn that concealment of abuse was devastating for the patient. She was "treated" in vain as a correct diagnosis was not made, while abuse by her father continued. Health care staff also violated her, which she told her therapist, but her protests were not acknowledged. Ten years of treatment thus made her even more sick. This case story focuses on the mechanisms which nurture concealment of a patient's history of abuse, such as structural and symbolic violence. We also suggest ways to break "cycles of abuse". Help the patient to stop concealing also means that she/he leaves a victim role, gets in charge of the situation and takes a first step towards empowerment. In this way, health care settings can become enabling and empowering environments.

  7. The influence of childhood abuse and adult attachment style on clinical relationships in breast cancer care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Louise; Beesley, Helen; Holcombe, Christopher; Salmon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In a previous report, breast cancer patients reporting a history of childhood abuse were less likely to feel fully supported in their relationships with clinical staff than were patients who did not report an abuse history. Our aims were to replicate this effect, to test whether surgeons' difficulties in these relationships mediated the relationship of abuse to patients feeling less supported, and to test whether patients' attachment style mediates the influence of abuse on patients' or surgeons' experience of the relationship. Women with primary breast cancer (N = 100) completed self-report questionnaires around the time of surgery to assess: emotional distress; adult attachment (models of self and other); sexual, physical and emotional abuse before age 16; and childhood parental care. After consultation three weeks post-operatively patients and surgeons completed self-report questionnaires to measure, respectively, patients' perceptions of support from the surgeon, and surgeons' perceptions of difficulty in their relationship with the patient. Patients recalling abuse were more than seven times more likely to feel incompletely supported by the surgeon than those not recalling abuse, after controlling for emotional distress. Surgeons reported greater difficulty in relationships with patients recalling abuse than with non-abused patients. Attachment (poor model of self) mediated the relationship of abuse with patient perceptions of incomplete support, but not the relationship with surgeon ratings of difficulty. The damaging effects of childhood abuse on adult relationships extend to relationships with surgeons in cancer care. While effects of abuse on attachment can explain the damage that patients experience, mediators of the difficulty that surgeons experience need further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Educational paper: Abusive Head Trauma part I. Clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Boos, Stephen; Spivack, Betty; Bilo, Rob A C; van Rijn, Rick R

    2012-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) refers to the combination of findings formerly described as shaken baby syndrome. Although these findings can be caused by shaking, it has become clear that in many cases there may have been impact trauma as well. Therefore a less specific term has been adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics. AHT is a relatively common cause of childhood neurotrauma with an estimated incidence of 14-40 cases per 100,000 children under the age of 1 year. About 15-23% of these children die within hours or days after the incident. Studies among AHT survivors demonstrate that approximately one-third of the children are severely disabled, one-third of them are moderately disabled and one-third have no or only mild symptoms. Other publications suggest that neurological problems can occur after a symptom-free interval and that half of these children have IQs below the 10th percentile. Clinical findings are depending on the definitions used, but AHT should be considered in all children with neurological signs and symptoms especially if no or only mild trauma is described. Subdural haematomas are the most reported finding. The only feature that has been identified discriminating AHT from accidental injury is apnoea. AHT should be approached with a structured approach, as in any other (potentially lethal) disease. The clinician can only establish this diagnosis if he/she has knowledge of the signs and symptoms of AHT, risk factors, the differential diagnosis and which additional investigations to perform, the more so since parents seldom will describe the true state of affairs spontaneously.

  9. [Clinical management of child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies in patients with substance abuse disorders].

    PubMed

    Coronel, Pablo A

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of substance abuse disorders in child and adolescent patients within its frequent psychiatric emergency setting. It describes the clinical features that defne the high complexity of these cases, the current state of knowledge regarding clinical management of child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies in patients with substance abuse disorders, and the available treatment strategies in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Finally, this article delves into the existence of a metropolitan addiction treatment network, its community outreach and the obstacles it has to conquer in order to attain the international standards for the treatment of substance abuse disorders.

  10. Principles of laboratory assessment of drug abuse liability and implications for clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Abuse liability testing plays an important role in informing drug development, regulatory processes, and clinical practice. This paper describes the current “gold standard” methodologies that are used for laboratory assessments of abuse liability in non-human and human subjects. Particular emphasis is given to procedures such as non-human drug discrimination, self-administration, and physical dependence testing, and human dose effect abuse liability studies that are commonly used in regulatory submissions to governmental agencies. The potential benefits and risks associated with the inclusion of measures of abuse liability in industry-sponsored clinical trials is discussed. Lastly, it is noted that many factors contribute to patterns of drug abuse and dependence outside of the laboratory setting and positive or negative signals in abuse liability studies do not always translate to high or low levels of actual abuse or dependence. Well-designed patient and physician education, pharmacovigilance, and postmarketing surveillance can reduce the diversion and misuse of drugs with abuse liability and can effectively foster the protection and promotion of public health. PMID:19443137

  11. [Clinical considerations about traumatic effects of sexual abuse in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Sexual abuse, even when it occurs during childhood, may manifest symptoms only in adolescence by the effect of the resignifcation of infantile sexuality, characteristic of that vital moment. In cases of child sexual abuse, in the face of the disruption of impulses and identifcations that occurs in adolescence, there can be trauma that limits the possibilities of processing the psychic apparatus, even in the course of a psychotherapeutic treatment. The acting out reveals itself in transference, it calls for the analyst to relocate the suffering of his patient.

  12. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p < 0.0005), with no difference in age, gender, duration in MMT, cannabis, opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical factors affecting physicians' management decisions in cases of female partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Ferris, L E; Norton, P; Dunn, E V; Gort, E H

    1999-06-01

    This study determined which clinical factors influence Canadian primary care physicians' management decisions in cases of female partner abuse. We used a cross-sectional survey design and randomly sampled (n = 2,014) English-speaking Canadian physicians with a primary interest in family or general practice who were practicing in any of the 12 provinces and territories in Canada and who were active in private practice and registered to prescribe. Respondents completed a questionnaire that required them to score management decision plans in response to case scenarios illustrating typical office-based situations that might involve domestic violence. The response rate was 50.7% (n = 1,022). Using forward stepwise regression analysis, the strongest predictor of whether a physician endorsed a management plan in response to violence was whether the woman acknowledged or revealed the abuse. Male physicians were more likely than females to endorse talking with the suspected abuser if he was known to them, regardless of the quality of this patient-physician relationship with the abuser. Decisions about whether to deal with the abuse or the selection of a management plan are not dependent on the severity of the physical abuse and the emotional consequences. Whether a woman acknowledges or reveals the abuse, as well as whether both the male and female patients are in the physician's practice, are predictive of whether a physician's response to a case scenario involves dealing with spousal abuse and how he/she will address it.

  14. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Client Motivation among Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Richard C.; Li, Li; Siegal, Harvey A.; DeLiberty, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of motivation in substance abusers' acceptance of treatment and its relation to treatment outcomes. Better motivation was consistently associated with severity of substance use. Motivation was not related to alcohol and drug use severity six months later. Severity associated with motivation at entry was not related to clients'…

  15. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbæk, Morten; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2007-01-01

    Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent) of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7) or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3). Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy. PMID:17996120

  16. Nurse turnover in substance abuse treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M; Studts, Jamie L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary nurse turnover, which is costly and disrupts patient care, has not been studied as an organizational phenomenon within substance abuse treatment organizations. In this exploratory study, we examined the frequency and correlates of nurse turnover within treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. During face-to-face interviews conducted in 2005-2006, 215 program administrators reported the number of nurses currently employed. Leaders of programs with nursing staff then described the number of nurses who had voluntarily quit in the past year, the degree to which filling vacant nursing positions was difficult, and the average number of days to fill a vacant position. About two thirds of these programs had at least one nurse on staff. In programs with nurses, the average rate of voluntary turnover was 15.0%. Turnover was significantly lower in hospital-based programs and programs offering adolescent treatment but higher in facilities offering residential treatment. Most of the administrators indicated that filling vacant nurse positions was difficult and took more than 2 months to complete. These findings suggest that nurse turnover is a significant issue facing many substance abuse treatment facilities. Efforts to improve retention of the addiction treatment workforce should be expanded to include nursing professionals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Cutting... Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug...

  18. Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling: Principles, Models, Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David J.

    A case is made for professionalism in clinical training as substance abuse counseling becomes a unique field. Part 1, "Principles," includes: (1) "A Historical Review of Supervision"; (2) "A Working Definition of Supervision"; (3) "Leadership Principles for Supervisors" and; (4) "Traits of an Effective Clinical Supervisor." Part 2, "Models,"…

  19. Allegations of children's involvement in ritual sexual abuse: clinical experience of 20 cases.

    PubMed

    Weir, I K; Wheatcroft, M S

    1995-04-01

    Twenty cases were evaluated in which allegations had been made of children being involved in ritual sexual abuse (RSA). A selection of case histories are presented together with a summary of the salient points in the other cases. Using a standard format developed for assessing the validity of allegations in sexual abuse cases, it was concluded that false allegations of ritual sexual abuse occurred in three-quarters of the cases and true allegations only in one-quarter. This high rate of false allegations is unlike the author's clinical experience in other cases of child sexual abuse where the rate of false allegations is much lower and similar to other published series. Reasons for the high rate of false allegations are discussed.

  20. User's Manual for the Naval Interactive Data Analysis System-Climatologies (NIDAS-C), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Clifton

    1996-01-01

    This technical note provides the user's manual for the NIDAS-C system developed for the naval oceanographic office. NIDAS-C operates using numerous oceanographic data categories stored in an installed version of the Naval Environmental Operational Nowcast System (NEONS), a relational database management system (rdbms) which employs the ORACLE proprietary rdbms engine. Data management, configuration, and control functions for the supporting rdbms are performed externally. NIDAS-C stores and retrieves data to/from the rdbms but exercises no direct internal control over the rdbms or its configuration. Data is also ingested into the rdbms, for use by NIDAS-C, by external data acquisition processes. The data categories employed by NIDAS-C are as follows: Bathymetry - ocean depth at

  1. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy.

  2. Interviewing guidelines for the clinical evaluation of adolescent substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Anglin, T M

    1987-04-01

    Pediatricians can learn to assess adolescent patients' use of drugs and alcohol. Their most important task is to determine whether use of chemicals is causing behavioral impairment. A general psychosocial assessment of an adolescent's functioning is the most important component of an evaluation for substance abuse. It provides the foundation for determining whether behavioral dysfunction exists. The pediatrician should address several topical areas: family relationships, school performance and attendance, peer relationships, legal difficulties, leisure activities and employment, and self-perception. The chemical use history helps the pediatrician in two ways. In general, it helps to provide focus to the pediatrician's educational counseling about the risks of chemical use. It also helps the pediatrician to determine whether substance abuse is the cause of any behavioral dysfunction that the pediatrician may have discovered during the general psychosocial assessment. Strategies to enhance more accurate disclosure of substance use by adolescents include postponing this section of the interview until rapport has been developed with the teenager, ordering questions so that illicit substances are addressed later, exploring peer involvement with chemicals as an antecedent to discussing the adolescent's personal use, and using an historical perspective, so that the teenager is asked to describe his or her initial experience with each substance class prior to addressing current use patterns. Dysfunctional consequences of chemical use may present an opportunity for adolescents and their families to accept intervention. If the pediatrician believes that an adolescent patient would benefit from a formal treatment program, the following steps help to ensure successful completion of the referral. The pediatrician should first summarize information learned during the evaluation that is relevant to the problem behaviors. Try to outline the dysfunctional behavior in the context of

  3. Maximizing Effectiveness Trials in PTSD and SUD Through Secondary Analysis: Benefits and Limitations Using the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network "Women and Trauma" Study as a Case Example.

    PubMed

    Hien, Denise A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Ruglass, Lesia M; Saavedra, Lissette; Mathews, Abigail G; Kiriakos, Grace; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Recent federal legislation and a renewed focus on integrative care models underscore the need for economical, effective, and science-based behavioral health care treatment. As such, maximizing the impact and reach of treatment research is of great concern. Behavioral health issues, including the frequent co-occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are often complex, with a myriad of factors contributing to the success of interventions. Although treatment guides for comorbid SUD/PTSD exist, most patients continue to suffer symptoms following the prescribed treatment course. Further, the study of efficacious treatments has been hampered by methodological challenges (e.g., overreliance on "superiority" designs (i.e., designs structured to test whether or not one treatment statistically surpasses another in terms of effect sizes) and short term interventions). Secondary analyses of randomized controlled clinical trials offer potential benefits to enhance understanding of findings and increase the personalization of treatment. This paper offers a description of the limits of randomized controlled trials as related to SUD/PTSD populations, highlights the benefits and potential pitfalls of secondary analytic techniques, and uses a case example of one of the largest effectiveness trials of behavioral treatment for co-occurring SUD/PTSD conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) and producing 19 publications. The paper concludes with implications of this secondary analytic approach to improve addiction researchers' ability to identify best practices for community-based treatment of these disorders. Innovative methods are needed to maximize the benefits of clinical studies and better support SUD/PTSD treatment options for both specialty and non-specialty healthcare settings. Moving forward, planning for and description of secondary analyses in randomized trials should be given equal

  4. Clinical supervision, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention: a study of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M

    2008-12-01

    An intriguing hypothesis is that clinical supervision may protect against counselor turnover. This idea has been mentioned in recent discussions of the substance abuse treatment workforce. To test this hypothesis, we extend our previous research on emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among counselors by estimating the associations between clinical supervision and these variables in a large sample (N = 823). An exploratory analysis reveals that clinical supervision was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Given our previous findings that emotional exhaustion and turnover intention were associated with job autonomy, procedural justice, and distributive justice, we estimate a structural equation model to examine whether these variables mediated clinical supervision's associations with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. These data support the fully mediated model. We found that the perceived quality of clinical supervision is strongly associated with counselors' perceptions of job autonomy, procedural justice, and distributive justice, which are, in turn, associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. These data offer support for the protective role of clinical supervision in substance abuse treatment counselors' turnover and occupational well-being.

  5. Selection and utilization of assessment instruments in substance abuse treatment trials: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network experience.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carmen; Ghitza, Udi; Tai, Betty

    2012-07-17

    Based on recommendations from a US Institute of Medicine report, the National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in 1999, to accelerate the translation of science-based addiction treatment research into community-based practice, and to improve the quality of addiction treatment, using science as the vehicle. One of the CTN's primary tasks is to serve as a platform to forge bi-directional communications and collaborations between providers and scientists, to enhance the relevance of research, which generates empirical results that impact practice. Among many obstacles in moving research into real-world settings, this commentary mainly describes challenges and iterative experiences in regard to how the CTN develops its research protocols, with focus on how the CTN study teams select and utilize assessment instruments, which can reasonably balance the interests of both research scientists and practicing providers when applied in CTN trials. This commentary also discusses the process by which the CTN further selects a core set of common assessment instruments that may be applied across all trials, to allow easier cross-study analyses of comparable data.

  6. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  7. Arab Parents' Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of Clinical Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Baker, Khawla

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses parents' reactions to sexual abuse cases in their families. The study analyzed the clinical records of individual and family therapy sessions with 35 cases of Arab Palestinian clients, citizens of Israel (27 individuals and 8 families). Families were categorized as either functional or dysfunctional. It was concluded that the…

  8. Evaluating Faculty Development and Clinical Training Programs in Substance Abuse: A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzner, Michael; Stewart, Kathryn

    Intended to provide an overview of program evaluation as it applies to the evaluation of faculty development and clinical training programs in substance abuse for health and mental health professional schools, this guide enables program developers and other faculty to work as partners with evaluators in the development of evaluation designs that…

  9. Site Matters: Multisite Randomized Trial of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in Community Drug Abuse Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Samuel A.; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Van Horn, Deborah; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Woody, George E.; Obert, Jeanne L.; Farentinos, Christiane; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in comparison with counseling as usual (CAU) for increasing retention and reducing substance use was evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Participants were 461 outpatients treated by 31 therapists within 1 of 5 outpatient substance abuse programs. There were no retention…

  10. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  11. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  12. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were…

  13. Drug Abuse: The Crack Cocaine Epidemic Health Consequences and Treatment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    addicts . Buackground Once considered to be nonaddictive, recent studies show that cocaine is one of the most potent drugs of abuse. Cocaine is a...responsibility for addiction prevention and treatment programs. The agencies we contacted include NIDA, the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration...heroin addicts for Treating Crack are being used to treat many crack addicts . Meanwhile, drug treatment Addicts researchers are experimenting with new

  14. Inhalant abuse: a study from a tertiary care de-addiction clinic.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Balhara, Y P S; Deshpande, S N

    2011-12-01

    Inhalant use has been considered one of the most dangerous forms of substance abuse leading even to serious accidents and death. The current study explored the correlates of inhalant abuse in subjects from a drug de-addiction clinic. The study was conducted at a tertiary-level multi-specialty hospital in India, which entailed a chart review of patients with inhalant abuse / dependence presenting to the clinic over a 2-year period. All the treatment records of the de-addiction clinic were reviewed and information gathered regarding these patients. The study involved the records of 36 subjects, with a mean age of 16 years (standard deviation, 4; range, 11-26 years). Most subjects (86%) were adolescents; three-quarters of whom had no family history of substance abuse. The mean (standard deviation) age of initiation of inhalant use was 14 (4) years. The commonest cause of first use reported by the subjects was experimentation (94%), and 97% of them came to know of inhalant from their inhalant-using friends. These findings provide important information on a relatively under-researched area.

  15. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  16. Development of the NIDA-Funded Center on Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Kola, Lenore A.; Biegel, David E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes one school's effort to establish a social work research development center in the area of coexisting drug and mental disorders (dual disorders), within the context of the social work profession's efforts to compete more effectively for federal research grants. This center was funded as part of a successful application in…

  17. Rural Substance Abuse: State of Knowledge and Issues. NIDA Research Monograph 168.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Sloboda, Zili, Ed.; Boyd, Gayle M., Ed.; Beatty, Lula, Ed.; Kozel, Nicholas J., Ed.

    This research monograph is based on papers from a technical review meeting of the same name, held April 26-27, 1994. It provides information about the special nature or context of rural communities that might impact patterns of drug and alcohol consumption and delivery of prevention and treatment services; health, social, and economic consequences…

  18. Clinical pattern and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal toxicity in patients abusing ketamine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shirley Yuk Wah; Ng, Stephen Ka Kei; Tam, Yuk Him; Yee, Samuel Chi Hang; Lai, Franco Pui Tak; Hong, Cindy Yuek Lam; Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; Ng, Chi Fai

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of upper gastrointestinal toxicity from ketamine abuse are uncommon. This study investigated the clinical pattern of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients inhaling ketamine. In a cross-sectional study of 611 consecutive patients who were seeking treatment for ketamine uropathy in a tertiary hospital setting between August 2008 and June 2016, their clinical pattern of upper gastrointestinal symptoms was evaluated and compared with a control population of 804 non-users. A total of 168 (27.5%) patients abusing ketamine (mean age 26.3 years, 58.9% female) reported the presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms were significantly more prevalent in patients inhaling ketamine than in those who were not (27.5% vs 5.2%, P < 0.001). Their mean duration of ketamine abuse before symptom presentation was 5.0 ± 3.1 years. The presenting symptoms included epigastric pain (n = 155, 25.4%), recurrent vomiting (n = 48, 7.9%), anemia (n = 36, 5.9%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 20, 3.3%). Uropathy symptoms were preceded by upper gastrointestinal symptoms for 4.4 ± 3.0 years in 141 (83.9%) patients. Logistic regression showed that elder age (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, P = 0.04), active abuser status (OR 1.60, P = 0.04) and longer duration of ketamine abuse (OR 1.00, P = 0.04) were independent factors associated with upper gastrointestinal toxicity. Although epigastric symptoms are unusual in the young population, upper gastrointestinal toxicity was highly prevalent in those inhaling ketamine. Enquiries about ketamine abuse are recommended when assessing young patients with epigastric symptoms. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Integration of physical abuse clinical decision support into the electronic health record at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Srinivasan; Saladino, Richard A; Fromkin, Janet; Heineman, Emily; McGinn, Tom; Richichi, Rudolph; Berger, Rachel P

    2018-04-12

    To evaluate the effect of a previously validated electronic health record-based child abuse trigger system on physician compliance with clinical guidelines for evaluation of physical abuse. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with comparison to a preintervention group was performed. RCT-experimental subjects' providers received alerts with a direct link to a physical abuse-specific order set. RCT-control subjects' providers had no alerts, but could manually search for the order set. Preintervention subjects' providers had neither alerts nor access to the order set. Compliance with clinical guidelines was calculated. Ninety-nine preintervention subjects and 130 RCT subjects (73 RCT-experimental and 57 RCT-control) met criteria to undergo a physical abuse evaluation. Full compliance with clinical guidelines was 84% pre-intervention, 86% in RCT-control group, and 89% in RCT-experimental group. The physical abuse order set was used 43 times during the 7-month RCT. When the abuse order set was used, full compliance was 100%. The proportion of cases in which there was partial compliance decreased from 10% to 3% once the order set became available (P = .04). Male gender, having >10 years of experience and completion of a pediatric emergency medicine fellowship were associated with increased compliance. A child abuse clinical decision support system comprised of a trigger system, alerts and a physical abuse order set was quickly accepted into clinical practice. Use of the physical abuse order set always resulted in full compliance with clinical guidelines. Given the high baseline compliance at our site, evaluation of this alert system in hospitals with lower baseline compliance rates will be more valuable in assessing the efficacy in adherence to clinical guidelines for the evaluation of suspected child abuse.

  20. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  1. Achieving cannabis cessation -- evaluating N-acetylcysteine treatment (ACCENT): design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M; Ghitza, Udi E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Matthews, Abigail G; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G; Levin, Frances R; Weiss, Roger D; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18-50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  3. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities with and without Substance Abuse Disorders in a Medicaid Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N = 9,484) were explored and…

  4. Improving substance abuse screening and intervention in a primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Neushotz, Lori A; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2008-04-01

    Despite recent efforts to educate primary care providers in the identification and management of patients presenting with substance abuse problems, many opportunities to identify and intervene with these patients are overlooked. This project was designed to identify factors that interfere with rates of screening and brief intervention (SBI) of substance abuse problems in a primary care clinic in a major academic medical center in New York City. Six informants representing the disciplines of medicine, nursing, and social work in the primary care clinic provided information regarding SBI. Analysis was focused on substantiation of the need for enhanced diffusion of knowledge related to screening for substance abuse problems to improve rates of SBI in primary care. Recommendations for improvement included continued promotion of SBI by influential role models and opinion leaders, improvement in primary care providers' perceptions of the perceived characteristics of SBI to improve rates of adoption, implementation of interdisciplinary educational initiatives toward the goal of improving rates of SBI in the primary care clinic, and initiation of translational research at the clinic supporting SBI in primary care.

  5. The first decade of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: bridging the gap between research and practice to improve drug abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Tai, Betty; Straus, Michele M; Liu, David; Sparenborg, Steven; Jackson, Ron; McCarty, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in 1999 to improve the quality of addiction treatment using science as the vehicle. The network brings providers from community-based drug abuse treatment programs and scientists from university-based research centers together in an alliance that fosters bidirectional communication and collaboration. Collaboration enhanced the relevance of research to practice and facilitated the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments in community practice settings. The CTN's 20 completed trials tested pharmacological, behavioral, and integrated treatment interventions for adolescents and adults; more than 11,000 individuals participated in the trials. This article reviews the rationale for the CTN, describes the translation of its guiding principles into research endeavors, and anticipates the future evolution of clinical research within the Network.

  6. The First Decade of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice to Improve Drug Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Betty; Straus, Michele M.; Liu, David; Sparenborg, Steven; Jackson, Ron; McCarty, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in 1999 to improve the quality of addiction treatment using science as the vehicle. The network brings providers from community-based drug abuse treatment programs and scientists from university-based research centers together in an alliance that fosters bi-directional communication and collaboration. Collaboration enhanced the relevance of research to practice and facilitated the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments in community practice settings. The CTN’s 20 completed trials tested pharmacological, behavioral, and integrated treatment interventions for adolescents and adults; more than 11,000 individuals participated in the trials. This paper reviews the rationale for the CTN, describes the translation of its guiding principles into research endeavors, and anticipates the future evolution of clinical research within the Network. PMID:20307794

  7. [Clinical forensic examination findings and legal outcome in cases of suspected physical child abuse].

    PubMed

    Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Meyer, Yvonne; Schroeder, Günter; Günther, Detlef; Debertin, Anette Solveig

    2011-01-01

    Clinical forensic examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School between 1999 and 2008 in cases of suspected physical abuse of children were analyzed retrospectively with special emphasis on the legal consequences. Altogether, 192 children (85 girls, 107 boys) with a median age of 4.4 years were examined. In 47 cases (24.5 %), the clinical forensic examination findings were interpreted as accidental injuries, birth traumas or unspecific findings. 29 victims (20.0 %) had suffered a shaken baby syndrome. Only part of the presented cases ended with conviction, which was more likely if the victims were aged between 7 and 11 years. Prison terms of 2 years and more were imposed only if the child suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries or if additional anogenital lesions were diagnosed indicating sexual child abuse.

  8. Attending to emotional cues for drug abuse: bridging the gap between clinic and home behaviors.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; O' Cleirigh, Conall M; Pollack, Mark H

    2007-04-01

    Classical conditioning models of addiction provide keys to understanding the vexing discrepancy between substance abuse patients' desire to abstain when they are in therapy sessions and their tendency to relapse. Experiments using these models demonstrate the power of environmental relapse cues and support clinical approaches, including active exposure, aimed at helping patients recognize and withstand them. Internal cues, including emotions and somatic states such as withdrawal, can trigger urges as powerfully as external cues such as people, places, and things associated with prior abuse. The authors describe a cognitive-behavioral therapy approach that focuses on identifying and actively inducing each patient's high-risk emotions, then helping him or her develop and practice healthy responses. Clinical trials support the approach for patients with panic disorder who have trouble discontinuing benzodiazepines, and early trials suggest it may be useful for patients addicted to other drugs as well.

  9. Clinical, biochemical, serological, histological and ultrastructural features of liver disease in drug abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, I V; Cohn, D; Sierralta, A; Mitcheson, M; Ross, M G; Montano, L; Scheuer, P; Thomas, H C

    1984-01-01

    Heroin abusers are frequently found to have abnormal liver function tests and hepatic histology. Hepatitis viruses A, B, and NANB, other drugs or drug contaminants and excessive alcohol consumption are factors thought to contribute. One hundred and sixteen heroin abusers attending a London treatment centre were studied. Sixty two (53%) had a raised aspartate transaminase. This was not explained by current infection with hepatitis A and B, cytomegalo or Epstein-Barr viruses, excessive alcohol consumption (greater than 80 g/day) or concomitant drug taking. Abnormal liver function tests were as frequent in those with markers of current or past HBV infection as those without and there was evidence that both HBV infection and the cause of the abnormal liver function tests were acquired in the first few years of intravenous drug abuse. Liver biopsies from eight patients showed chronic hepatitis with a mild lobular and portal inflammatory infiltrate, fatty change and prominent sinusoidal cells. Electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic trilaminar tubular structures and dense fused membranes in dilated endoplasmic reticulum. These clinical, biochemical, serological, and histological features would suggest a major role for NANB virus infection in the aetiology of hepatitis in heroin abusers. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6423458

  10. Demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities with and without substance abuse disorders in a Medicaid population.

    PubMed

    Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N=9,484) were explored and compared with people with intellectual disability but without substance abuse. Age- and/or gender-adjusted odds ratios were derived from logistic regression analyses to consider differences in demographic and clinical diagnoses. People with intellectual disability and substance abuse constituted 2.6% of all people with intellectual disability, most of whom had a diagnosis of mild or moderate intellectual disability. People with intellectual disability and substance abuse problems were, on average, 2 years older than the comparison group and less likely to be White. The sample was more likely than the comparison group to have serious mental illness or depression and substance abuse-related disorders were not prevalent. These data provide a comparison point for existing studies of mental health diagnoses as well as new information about substance abuse disorders. Implications relate to the identification of substance abuse among people with intellectual disabilities as well as the establishment of demographic and clinical correlates.

  11. Evaluating the abuse potential of opioids and abuse-deterrent -opioid formulations: A review of clinical study methodology.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Schoedel, Kerri A; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Shram, Megan; Pixton, Glenn C; Roland, Carl L

    With the development of opioid abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs), there is a need to conduct well-designed human abuse potential studies to evaluate the effectiveness of their deterrent properties. Although these types of studies have been conducted for many years, largely to evaluate inherent abuse potential of a molecule and inform drug scheduling, methodological approaches have varied across studies. The focus of this review is to describe current "best practices" and methodological adaptations required to assess abuse-deterrent opioid formulations for regulatory submissions. A literature search was conducted in PubMed® to review methodological approaches (study conduct and analysis) used in opioid human abuse potential studies. Search terms included a combination of "opioid," "opiate," "abuse potential," "abuse liability," "liking," AND "pharmacodynamic," and only studies that evaluated single doses of opioids in healthy, nondependent individuals with or without prior opioid experience were included. Seventy-one human abuse potential studies meeting the prespecified criteria were identified, of which 21 studies evaluated a purported opioid ADF. Based on these studies, key methodological considerations were reviewed and summarized according to participant demographics, study prequalification, comparator and dose selection, route of administration and drug manipulation, study blinding, outcome measures and training, safety, and statistical analyses. The authors recommend careful consideration of key elements (eg, a standardized definition of a "nondependent recreational user"), as applicable, and offer key principles and "best practices" when conducting human abuse potential studies for opioid ADFs. Careful selection of appropriate study conditions is dependent on the type of ADF technology being evaluated.

  12. Sex-gender differences in drug abuse: a shift in the burden of proof?

    PubMed

    Wetherington, Cora Lee

    2007-10-01

    In the early years of NIDA-supported drug abuse research, much of the research on women was treatment related and conducted out of concern for their pregnancy status. Since then, drug abuse research on women has expanded to include females of all ages, including infants, children, and adolescents, both human and animal. This expansion has also extended to the study of male-female differences. In the early years of the expansion, National Institutes of Health study sections demanded a heavy burden of proof from drug abuse researchers who proposed to study male-female differences. The need for such research appeared not to have face validity. The tide has now changed with the growing body of literature attesting to its scientific and clinical validity. This change is often reflected in concerns expressed in study sections reviewing drug abuse grant applications that an applicant does not propose to analyze the data for sex-gender differences when in fact the literature suggests that such differences would be observed. Although the change has been slow, it suggests that the burden of proof is shifting from having to defend why sex-gender differences should be studied to having to defend why they should not. (c) 2007 APA

  13. Technology-Based Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Abuse Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Villafranca, Steven W.; Levin, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the learning outcomes achieved by 166 practicing substance abuse counselors who were randomized to one of three conditions: (1) a Web-Based Training (WBT) module designed to familiarize practitioners with the "Coping with Craving" module from the NIDA treatment manual, "A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Treating Cocaine…

  14. Treatment Programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Wendt, William W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Miller, Michael; Forman, Robert; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Arfken, Cynthia; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Sindelar, Jody; Edmundson, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs and university-based research centers collaborate to test emerging therapies for alcohol and drug disorders in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Programs participating in the CTN completed organizational (n = 106 of 112; 95% response rate) and treatment unit surveys (n = 348 of 384; 91% response rate) to describe the levels of care, ancillary services, patient demographics, patient drug use and co-occurring conditions. Analyses describe the corporations participating in the CTN and provide an exploratory assessment of variation in treatment philosophies. A diversity of treatment centers participate in the CTN; not for profit organizations with a primary mission of treating alcohol and drug disorders dominate. Compared to N-SSATS (National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services), programs located in medical settings are over-represented and centers that are mental health clinics are under-represented. Outpatient, methadone, long-term residential and inpatient treatment units differed on patients served and services proved. Larger programs with higher counselor caseloads in residential settings reported more social model characteristics. Programs with higher social model scores were more likely to offer self-help meetings, vocational services and specialized services for women. Conversely, programs with accreditation had less social model influence. The CTN is an ambitious effort to engage community-based treatment organizations into research and more fully integrate research and practice. PMID:17875368

  15. Environmental factors that distinguish between clinical and healthy samples with childhood experiences of abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Giannone, Francesca; Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Lo Cascio, Maria; Parzer, Peter; Kaess, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with a wide range of problems in adulthood. However, specific environmental factors (either positive or negative) influence mental health outcomes in maltreated children. The present study investigated the effect of environmental factors by comparing a group of clinical participants with experiences of abuse/neglect with a healthy group with similar patterns of experiences. Environmental factors selected were: separation from parents, financial hardship, parental psychiatric disorders, and low social involvement. The study included 55 mixed clinical participants and 23 healthy participants. All participants were investigated using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) interview. The two groups were specifically matched with regard to patterns of childhood maltreatment. The findings indicated that psychopathological outcome was associated with a greater presence of negative environmental factors (p < 0.001). In particular, lack of social support seemed to be the only one predictor (OR = 27.86). This study is the first to investigate the influence of specific environmental factors in two groups with similar childhood experiences of abuse/neglect but different mental health outcomes. These findings suggest that efforts should be made to incorporate both familial and external sources of social support in promoting mental health for maltreated children. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Neonatal findings among children of substance-abusing women attending a special child welfare clinic in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Rosvold, Elin O; Lindbaek, Morten

    2009-09-01

    A special child welfare clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems to prevent the adverse effects of substances. The SCWC aims to give treatment without replacements. This article describes neonatal findings among children of substance-abusing women at the clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study including 62 children whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy. A comparison group with children of women with no substance abuse was included. Data were collected from medical records and by means of a questionnaire concerning neonatal data, health, and living conditions. SCWC mothers were divided into short-term users (substance use stopped within first trimester) and long-term users (continued moderate substance use throughout pregnancy). Average birthweight and head circumference were significantly lower in the substance-abusing groups: 3084 g and 34.0 cm in the short-term group, 3048 g and 33.9 cm in the long-term group, and 3496 g and 34.8 cm in the comparison group. There was no difference in Apgar score. Substance abuse and psychiatric illness were associated with low birthweight. Long-term users were more likely than comparisons to experience premature birth and have low-birthweight children. This difference was not found among short-term users. We found no difference in Caesarean sections and vacuum extractions. Substance abusers who stop their drug use early in pregnancy tend to have birth outcomes that are similar to those of mothers with no substance abuse. The study indicates that attendance at a voluntary, low-threshold initiative for pregnant substance abusers, with a focus on prenatal care and substance abuse treatment without replacements, may reduce the harmful effect of the abuse on the newborn.

  17. Determining the Primary Endpoint for a Stimulant Abuse Trial: Lessons Learned from STRIDE (CTN 0037)

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Greer, Tracy L.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Nunes, Edward V.; Rethorst, Chad; Warden, Diane; Ring, Kolette M.; Somoza, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Background No consensus is available for identifying the best primary outcome for substance abuse trials. While abstinence is the most desirable outcome for substance use interventions, a wide variety of other endpoints have been used to evaluate efficacy trials. Objectives This report provides a framework for determining an optimal primary endpoint and the relevant measurement approach for substance use disorder treatment trials. The framework was developed based on a trial for stimulant abuse using exercise as an augmentation treatment, delivered within the NIDA Clinical Trials Network. The use of a common primary endpoint across trials will facilitate comparisons of treatment efficacy. Methods Primary endpoint options in existing substance abuse studies were evaluated. This evaluation included surveys of the literature for endpoints and measurement approaches, followed by assessment of endpoint choices against study design issues, population characteristics, tests of sensitivity and tests of clinical meaningfulness. Conclusion We concluded that the best current choice for a primary endpoint is percent days abstinent, as measured by the Time Line Follow Back (TLFB) interview conducted three times a week with recall aided by a take-home Substance Use Diary. To further improve the accuracy of the self-reported drug use, an algorithm will be applied to reconcile the results from the TLFB with the results of qualitative urine drug screens. Scientific Significance There is a need for a standardized endpoint in this field to allow for comparison across treatment studies, and we suggest that the recommended endpoint be considered for use in this field. PMID:21854276

  18. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  19. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Cordova, David; Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-12-18

    Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as "S4E"). A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician-adolescent HIV/STI and drug use communication

  20. Partnerships and pathways of dissemination: the National Institute on Drug Abuse-Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative in the Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Martino, Steve; Brigham, Gregory S; Higgins, Christine; Gallon, Steve; Freese, Thomas E; Albright, Lonnetta M; Hulsey, Eric G; Krom, Laurie; Storti, Susan A; Perl, Harold; Nugent, Cathrine D; Pintello, Denise; Condon, Timothy P

    2010-06-01

    Since 2001, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has worked to put the results of its trials into the hands of community treatment programs, in large part through its participation in the National Institute on Drug Abuse-Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative and its close involvement with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's Addiction Technology Transfer Centers. This article describes (a) the CTN's integral role in the Blending Initiative, (b) key partnerships and dissemination pathways through which the results of CTN trials are developed into blending products and then transferred to community treatment programs, and (c) three blending initiatives involving buprenorphine, motivational incentives, and motivational interviewing. The Blending Initiative has resulted in high utilization of its products, preparation of more than 200 regional trainers, widespread training of service providers in most U.S. States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands and movement toward the development of Web-based implementation supports and technical assistance. Implications for future directions of the Blending Initiative and opportunities for research are discussed.

  1. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  2. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 1: Regulatory Context and Risk Management.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M

    2018-02-01

    This article brings to the attention of drug developers the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential and provides practical suggestions about compliance with the Guidance. The Guidance areas are reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk. The Guidance provides substantial new detail on what needs to be done at all stages of drug development for central nervous system-active drugs. However, because many psychopharmacologic agents have unique preclinical and clinical features, the plan for each agent needs to be not only carefully prepared but also reviewed and approved by the FDA. Examples are provided where assumptions about interpretation of the Guidance can delay development. If the expertise and experience needed for assessing abuse potential during drug development do not exist within a company, external preclinical and clinical expert should be involved. Consultation with the FDA is encouraged and important because the specific requirements for each drug will vary.

  3. Clinical correlates and repetition of self-harming behaviors among female adolescent victims of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Thériault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups according to level of self-mutilating behavior and then compared on symptom self-reports; 62.1% of the adolescents engaged in at least one self-mutilating behavior. A graded relation was observed between level of self-mutilating behavior and rate, and total number of clinical disorders. At nine month follow-up, one in four teenagers still reported a moderate or high level of self-harm. The need for systematic assessment and intervention of self-mutilating behaviors is discussed.

  4. The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) Questionnaire: An Examination of Clinical Utility and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; McKay, James R; Burke, Rebecca H

    2016-02-01

    Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator or mechanism of behavior change that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a 16-item measure developed to assess an individual's commitment to his/her stated treatment goal. The objectives of this study are to explore the research and clinical utility of the commitment construct as measured by the ASAGC. During sessions 3 and 9 of a 10-week SUD treatment, therapists completed the ASAGC for 170 13-18 year-old adolescents. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the ATAGC items. Concurrent validity with related constructs, self-efficacy and motivation for change, was examined as well. At both sessions, the factor analysis resulted in two scales--Commitment to Recovery and Commitment to Harm Reduction. The ASAGC scales were found to demonstrate a high level of internal consistency (alpha coefficients ranged from .92 to .96 over time). In contrast to the Commitment to Harm Reduction scale, the Commitment to Recovery scale consistently correlated with scales from the Situational Confidence Questionnaire assessing self-efficacy, evidencing concurrent validity. Similarly, the Commitment to Recovery scale was related to the Problem Recognition Questionnaire, providing further evidence of the validity of the ASAGC. The ASAGC is a reliable and valid clinical research instrument for the assessment of adolescents' commitment to their substance abuse treatment goal. Clinical researchers may take advantage of the clinical utility of the ASAGC including its ability to differentiate between commitment to abstinence versus commitment to harm reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention in the Clinical Setting: Perceptions and Barriers Faced by Primary Care Physicians in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study attempts to explore the definition, perceptions, practice experience, and barriers of primary care physicians (PCPs) in identifying and intervening in cases of elder abuse and neglect at the primary care level. Semistructured in-depth interview was conducted among 10 PCPs. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. In general, PCPs showed consistency in defining elder abuse and neglect. PCPs considered that they were optimally positioned to intervene in cases of elder abuse and neglect, but indicated the potential of overlooking such problems. The hurdles faced by PCPs in the identification and intervention of elder abuse were determined to be occurring at three levels: clinical, organizational, and policy. At the clinical level, PCPs recognize that they are lacking both the confidence and knowledge of elder abuse and neglect intervention. PCPs' conflicting personal and professional beliefs create barriers during the clinical practice. Time constraints, patients' other clinical problems, and, in addition, the preservation of a good doctor-patient relationship overshadow the importance of addressing and intervening in elder abuse and neglect issues during the consultation. This is further exacerbated by the barriers perceived by the patients: their nondisclosure and reluctance to accept outside intervention. At the organizational level, the lack of efficient interagency networks or support for the health system poses barriers. At the policy level, the absence of legislation specifically addressing elder abuse also creates considerable difficulties. However, PCPs gave differing responses when asked about a law concerning the elderly and mandatory reporting. Addressing these multilevel barriers is critical for ensuring that opportunities arising at the primary care level for elder maltreatment intervention are correctly utilized.

  6. Dissemination activities: a critical new role for substance abuse treatment organizations.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Blum, Terry C; Roman, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBPs) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations.

  7. Dissemination Activities: A Critical New Role for Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for integration of substance abuse treatment into medical care via medical homes and continuing specialty care. For this integration to occur in the substance abuse treatment field, substantial sharing and dissemination of information by treatment providers is required. This study explored the determinants of organizational activities directed at disseminating evidence-based practices (EBP) undertaken by 193 community treatment programs who are members of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Using factor analysis, the research identified two generic categories reflecting different motivations for dissemination activities, and explored both treatment center leadership and organizational characteristics as determinants of these different types of dissemination activities. Organizational characteristics predicting treatment center dissemination activities included size, previous involvement in research protocols, linkages with other providers, and having non-profit status. The treatment center leader's membership in professional organizations was also a significant determinant. Organization variables account for a larger portion of the variance in treatment center dissemination activities. The results suggest that the willingness of treatment providers to help disseminate EBPs within the industry may be heavily influenced through shared network connections with other treatment organizations. PMID:24722825

  8. NIDA Notes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... were more likely to misuse opioid analgesics. Why Marijuana Displeases Basic Science , Published March 2018 This study ...

  9. Direct Care Workers in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Characteristics, Opinions, and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret E.; Arfken, Cynthia; Miller, Michael; Nunes, Edward V.; Edmundson, Eldon; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Forman, Robert; Laws, Reesa; Magruder, Kathy M.; Oyama, Mark; Sindelar, Jody; Wendt, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. Methods Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses characterized the workforce. Analyses of covariance tested the effects of job category (counselors, medical staff, manager-supervisors, and support staff) on opinions about evidence-based practices and controlled for the effects of education, modality (outpatient or residential), race, and gender. Results Women made up two-thirds of the CTN workforce. One-third of the workforce had a master’s or doctoral degree. Responses from 1,757 counselors, 908 support staff, 522 managers-supervisors, and 511 medical staff (71% of eligible participants) suggested that the variables that most consistently influenced responses were job category (19 of 22 items) and education (20 of 22 items). Managers-supervisors were the most supportive of evidence-based therapies, and support staff were the least supportive. Generally, individuals with graduate degrees had more positive opinions about evidence-based therapies. Support for using medications and contingency management was modest across job categories. Conclusions The relatively traditional beliefs of support staff could inhibit the introduction of evidence-based practices. Programs initiating changes in therapeutic approaches may benefit from including all employees in change efforts. PMID:17287373

  10. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  11. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  12. A longitudinal study of organizational formation, innovation adoption, and dissemination activities within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Roman, Paul M; Abraham, Amanda J; Rothrauff, Tanja C; Knudsen, Hannah K

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) to conduct trials of promising substance abuse treatment interventions in diverse clinical settings and to disseminate results of these trials. This article focuses on three dimensions of CTN's organizational functioning. First, a longitudinal dataset is used to examine CTN's formation as a network of interorganizational interaction among treatment practitioners and researchers. Data indicate strong relationships of interaction and trust, but a decline in problem-centered interorganizational interaction over time. Second, adoption of buprenorphine and motivational incentives among CTN's affiliated community treatment programs (CTPs) is examined over three waves of data. Although adoption is found to increase with CTPs' CTN participation, there is only modest evidence of widespread penetration and implementation. Third, CTPs' pursuit of the CTN's dissemination goals are examined, indicating that such organizational outreach activities are underway and likely to increase innovation diffusion in the future.

  13. Site matters: multisite randomized trial of motivational enhancement therapy in community drug abuse clinics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L; Van Horn, Deborah; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Woody, George E; Obert, Jeanne L; Farentinos, Christiane; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2007-08-01

    The effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in comparison with counseling as usual (CAU) for increasing retention and reducing substance use was evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Participants were 461 outpatients treated by 31 therapists within 1 of 5 outpatient substance abuse programs. There were no retention differences between the 2 brief intervention conditions. Although both 3-session interventions resulted in reductions in substance use during the 4-week therapy phase, MET resulted in sustained reductions during the subsequent 12 weeks whereas CAU was associated with significant increases in substance use over this follow-up period. This finding was complicated by program site main effects and higher level interactions. MET resulted in more sustained substance use reductions than CAU among primary alcohol users, but no difference was found for primary drug users. An independent evaluation of session audiotapes indicated that MET and CAU were highly and comparably discriminable across sites.

  14. Site Matters: Multisite Randomized Trial of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in Community Drug Abuse Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Samuel A.; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Van Horn, Deborah; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Woody, George E.; Obert, Jeanne L.; Farentinos, Christiane; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in comparison with counseling as usual (CAU) for increasing retention and reducing substance use was evaluated in a multisite randomized clinical trial. Participants were 461 outpatients treated by 31 therapists within 1 of 5 outpatient substance abuse programs. There were no retention differences between the 2 brief intervention conditions. Although both 3-session interventions resulted in reductions in substance use during the 4-week therapy phase, MET resulted in sustained reductions during the subsequent 12 weeks whereas CAU was associated with significant increases in substance use over this follow-up period. This finding was complicated by program site main effects and higher level interactions. MET resulted in more sustained substance use reductions than CAU among primary alcohol users, but no difference was found for primary drug users. An independent evaluation of session audiotapes indicated that MET and CAU were highly and comparably discriminable across sites. PMID:17663610

  15. Schizophrenia clinical symptom differences in women vs. men with and without a history of childhood physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Deanna L; Rowland, Laura M; Patchan, Kathleen M; Sullivan, Kelli; Earl, Amber; Raley, Heather; Liu, Fang; Feldman, Stephanie; McMahon, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been implicated as an environmental factor that increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. A recent large population-based case-control study found that abuse may be a risk factor for schizophrenia in women, but not men. Given the sex differences in onset and clinical course of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that childhood abuse may cause phenotypic differences in the disorder between men and women. We examined the prevalence of childhood physical abuse in a cohort of men and women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Specifically, we examined differences in positive, negative, cognitive and depressive symptoms in men and women who reported a history of childhood physical abuse. We recruited 100 subjects for a single visit and assessed a history of childhood physical abuse using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and clinical symptoms and cognition using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the calgary depression scale (CDS) and the repeatable battery of the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) for cognition. Ninety-two subjects completed the full CTQ with abuse classified as definitely present, definitely absent or borderline. Twelve subjects who reported borderline abuse scores were excluded. Of the 80 subjects whose data was analyzed, 10 of 24 (41.6 %) women and 11 of 56 (19.6 %) men reported a history of childhood physical abuse (χ(2) = 4.21, df = 1, p = 0.04). Women who reported such trauma had significantly more psychotic (sex by abuse interaction; F = 4.03, df = 1.76, p = 0.048) and depressive (F = 4.23, df = 1.76, p = 0.04) symptoms compared to women who did not have a trauma history and men, regardless of trauma history. There were no differences in negative or cognitive symptoms. Women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder may represent a distinct phenotype or subgroup with distinct etiologies and may require different, individually tailored treatments.

  16. Measures That Identify Prescription Medication Misuse, Abuse, and Related Events in Clinical Trials: ACTTION Critique and Recommended Considerations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Jones, Judith K; Katz, Nathaniel P; Roland, Carl L; Setnik, Beatrice; Trudeau, Jeremiah J; Wright, Stephen; Burke, Laurie B; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard C; Dionne, Raymond; Haddox, J David; Jaffe, Jerome H; Kopecky, Ernest A; Martell, Bridget A; Montoya, Ivan D; Stanton, Marsha; Wasan, Ajay D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2017-11-01

    Accurate assessment of inappropriate medication use events (ie, misuse, abuse, and related events) occurring in clinical trials is an important component in evaluating a medication's abuse potential. A meeting was convened to review all instruments measuring such events in clinical trials according to previously published standardized terminology and definitions. Only 2 approaches have been reported that are specifically designed to identify and classify misuse, abuse, and related events occurring in clinical trials, rather than to measure an individual's risk of using a medication inappropriately: the Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion (SR-MAD) instrument and the Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion Drug Event Reporting System (MADDERS). The conceptual basis, strengths, and limitations of these methods are discussed. To our knowledge, MADDERS is the only system available to comprehensively evaluate inappropriate medication use events prospectively to determine the underlying intent. MADDERS can also be applied retrospectively to completed trial data. SR-MAD can be used prospectively; additional development may be required to standardize its implementation and fully appraise the intent of inappropriate use events. Additional research is needed to further demonstrate the validity and utility of MADDERS as well as SR-MAD. Identifying a medication's abuse potential requires assessing inappropriate medication use events in clinical trials on the basis of a standardized event classification system. The strengths and limitations of the 2 published methods designed to evaluate inappropriate medication use events are reviewed, with recommended considerations for further development and current implementation. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing Ethnic Minority Participation in Substance Abuse Clinical Trials: Lessons Learned in the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, Kathleen; Larios, Sandra; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Holmes, Beverly; Venner, Kamilla; Chavez, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation in clinical trials limits the extent to which ethnic minorities benefit from advances in substance abuse treatment. The objective of this article is to share the knowledge gained within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN) of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other research on recruiting and retaining ethnic minorities into substance abuse clinical trials. The article includes a discussion of two broad areas for improving inclusion— community involvement and cultural adaptation. CTN case studies are included to illustrate three promising strategies for improving ethnic minority inclusion: respondent-driven sampling, community-based participatory research, and the cultural adaptation of the recruitment and retention procedures. The article concludes with two sections describing a number of methodological concerns in the current research base and our proposed research agenda for improving ethnic minority inclusion that builds on the CTN experience. PMID:21988575

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  19. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  20. What Are Youth Asking About Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA) “Drug Facts Chat Day.” The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five queried drugs were marijuana (16.4%), alcohol (8.5%), tobacco (6%), cocaine (5.7), and pharmaceutical drugs (4.5%). The effects of drug use, experience of being high, the addictiveness of drugs, pharmacology, and drug sales were among the more common types of questions to emerge but varied depending on the substance. These findings show the types of information young people are seeking about drugs and have clear implications to inform youth drug education programs. PMID:26862133

  1. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbaek, Morten; Skogmo, Idar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2010-07-20

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III), Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, (3) executive function, (4) visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5) general intellectual ability No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester) had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4). Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy) had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1). All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3) executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation. Children raised by former substance abusing

  2. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III), Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, (3) executive function, (4) visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5) general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester) had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4). Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy) had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1). All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3) executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation. Conclusion Children

  3. Measures that identify prescription medication misuse, abuse, and related events in clinical trials: ACTTION critique and recommended considerations

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon M.; Jones, Judith K.; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Roland, Carl L.; Setnik, Beatrice; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Wright, Stephen; Burke, Laurie B.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard C.; Dionne, Raymond; Haddox, J. David; Jaffe, Jerome H.; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Martell, Bridget A.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Stanton, Marsha; Wasan, Ajay D.; Turk, Dennis C.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of inappropriate medication use events (i.e., misuse, abuse, and related events [MAREs]) occurring in clinical trials is an important component in evaluating a medication’s abuse potential. A meeting was convened to review all instruments measuring such events in clinical trials according to previously published standardized terminology and definitions [27]. Only 2 approaches have been reported that are specifically designed to identify and classify MAREs occurring in clinical trials, rather than to measure an individual’s risk of using a medication inappropriately: the Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion [SR-MAD] instrument and the Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion Drug Event Reporting System [MADDERS]. The conceptual basis, strengths, and limitations of these methods are discussed. To our knowledge, MADDERS is the only system available to comprehensively evaluate inappropriate medication use events prospectively in order to determine the underlying intent. MADDERS can also be applied retrospectively to completed trial data. SR-MAD can be used prospectively; additional development may be required to standardize its implementation and fully appraise the intent of inappropriate use events. Additional research is needed to further demonstrate the validity and utility of both MADDERS and SR-MAD. PMID:28479207

  4. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy a clinical trial to increase self-efficacy in abused the primary school children.

    PubMed

    Farina, Vahid; Salemi, Safora; Tatari, Faezeh; Abdoli, Nasrin; Jouybari, Touraj Ahmadi; Alikhani, Mostafa; Basanj, Behrad; Zakiei, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and violence toward children has become a complex phenomenon in nowadays societies leaving hurt children with numerous complications such as lowered self-efficacy. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effect of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) in physically abused children self-efficacy. This study was a randomized clinical trial. From this statistical population of all abused children aged 9-12 in Kermanshah in 2016-2017, 40 were divided into intervention and control groups randomly. Tools used in this study were Maurice self-efficacy questionnaire and child abuse questionnaire. Data analysis was done using Chi-square test, paired t -test, and independent t -test. It was revealed that the mean difference between two groups was not meaningful before intervention. After TF-CBT in intervention group, self-efficacy mean scores of social (17.95 vs. 24.20) and emotional (15.05 vs. 19.05) domains showed meaningful differences, whereas academic self-efficacy mean score did not change significantly (14.10 vs. 14.65) ( P < 0.086). In control group, social (16.20 vs. 15.55), emotional (13.90 vs. 14.35), and academic (13.40 vs. 13.90) mean self-efficacy scores were not of significant difference ( P > 0.001). TF-CBT can be used as an appropriate therapy intervention to improve social and emotional self-efficacy in abused children.

  5. Development of Standardized Clinical Training Cases for Diagnosis of Sexual Abuse using a Secure Telehealth Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Lori D.; Thraen, Ioana; Kaplan, Rich; Goede, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The training of physicians, nurse examiners, social workers and other health professional on the evidentiary findings of sexual abuse in children is challenging. Our objective was to develop peer reviewed training cases for medical examiners of child sexual abuse, using a secure web based telehealth application (TeleCAM). Methods:…

  6. Clinical Correlates of Alleged Satanic Abuse and Less Controversial Sexual Molestation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Frank

    1994-01-01

    This study found that 39 women alleging satanic ritual abuse and 47 women reporting less controversial forms of sexual trauma as children were characterized by high but nondiscriminating levels of psychiatric pathology. Patients alleging satanic ritual abuse reported higher levels of dissociation, in the range often exhibited by patients with…

  7. Instruments to Identify Prescription Medication Misuse, Abuse, and Related Events in Clinical Trials: An ACTTION Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Paillard, Florence; McKeown, Andrew; Burke, Laurie B; Edwards, Robert R; Katz, Nathaniel P; Papadopoulos, Elektra J; Rappaport, Bob A; Slagle, Ashley; Strain, Eric C; Wasan, Ajay D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2015-05-01

    Measurement of inappropriate medication use events (eg, abuse or misuse) in clinical trials is important in characterizing a medication's abuse potential. However, no gold standard assessment of inappropriate use events in clinical trials has been identified. In this systematic review, we examine the measurement properties (ie, content validity, cross-sectional reliability and construct validity, longitudinal construct validity, ability to detect change, and responder definitions) of instruments assessing inappropriate use of opioid and nonopioid prescription medications to identify any that meet U.S. and European regulatory agencies' rigorous standards for outcome measures in clinical trials. Sixteen published instruments were identified, most of which were not designed for the selected concept of interest and context of use. For this reason, many instruments were found to lack adequate content validity (or documentation of content validity) to evaluate current inappropriate medication use events; for example, evaluating inappropriate use across the life span rather than current use, including items that did not directly assess inappropriate use (eg, questions about anger), or failing to capture information pertinent to inappropriate use events (eg, intention and route of administration). In addition, the psychometric data across all instruments were generally limited in scope. A further limitation is the heterogeneous, nonstandardized use of inappropriate medication use terminology. These observations suggest that available instruments are not well suited for assessing current inappropriate medication use within the specific context of clinical trials. Further effort is needed to develop reliable and valid instruments to measure current inappropriate medication use events in clinical trials. This systematic review evaluates the measurement properties of inappropriate medication use (eg, abuse or misuse) instruments to determine whether any meet regulatory

  8. Primary psychosis with comorbid drug abuse and drug-induced psychosis: Diagnostic and clinical evolution at follow up.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M C; Di Pace, C; Reggiori, A; Paletta, S; Colasanti, A

    2017-10-01

    The study reports a follow-up assessment of 48 patients with concomitant drug abuse at the first admission for psychosis. We focused on the diagnostic distinction between primary psychosis with concomitant drug abuse and drug induced psychosis, to observe whether the diagnoses are stable over time and whether the clinical course significantly differs. The study examined 25 primary psychotic disorder with comorbid drug abuse and 23 drug-induced psychotic disorder patients. Diagnostic and psychopathological assessments were made at baseline and at follow-up. Mean follow-up period was 4.96 years. Patients with comorbid Drug Abuse exhibited higher scores in the item Unusual Content of Thought at baseline than drug-induced psychotic disorder patients: 5.48 vs 4.39 while the two patients groups did not differ in any of the BPRS items evaluated at follow-up. The primary psychosis with comorbid drug abuse and the substance induced psychosis groups were similar regarding diagnostic stability, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia at follow-up occurred similarly. There was no evidence that Drug Induced psychotic patients' symptoms tend to improve more after cessation of drug abuse. An earlier age of onset was found in primary psychotic patients, particularly for patients diagnosed as affected by schizophrenia at follow up. These results might reflect the uncertainty of the distinction between Primary and Drug Induced Psychosis and the difficulties in applying the DSM IV-TR criteria for diagnosing comorbid drug use disorders and psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Review of the Empirical and Clinical Support for Group Therapy Specific to Sexual Abusers.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jerry L; Deming, Adam

    2017-12-01

    This review compiles 48 empirical studies and 55 clinical/practice articles specific to group therapy with sex offenders. Historically, group therapy has always been the predominant modality in sex offender-specific treatment. In the first decades of the field, treatment applied a psychoanalytic methodology that, although not empirically supported, fully appreciated the primary therapeutic importance of the group modality. Conversely, since the early 1980s, treatment has applied a cognitive behavioral method, but the field has largely neglected the therapeutic value of interpersonal group dynamics. The past decade has seen a growing re-appreciation of general therapeutic processes and more holistic approaches in sex offender treatment, and there is an emerging body of empirical research which, although often indirectly concerned with group, has yielded three definitive conclusions. First, the therapeutic qualities of the group therapist-specifically warmth, empathy, encouragement, and guidance-can strongly affect outcomes. Second, the quality of group cohesion can profoundly affect the effectiveness of treatment. Third, confrontational approaches in group therapy are ineffective, if not counter-therapeutic, and overwhelmingly rated as not helpful by sex offenders themselves. Additional conclusions are less strongly supported, but include compelling evidence that sex offenders generally prefer group therapy over individual therapy, that group therapy appears equally effective to individual therapy, and that mixing or separating groups by offense type is not important to therapeutic climate. Other group techniques and approaches specific to sexual abuse treatment are also summarized.

  10. Human neuroscience at National Institute on Drug Abuse: Implications for genetics research

    SciT

    Gordon, H.W.

    It is becoming clear that there is a genetic component to drug abuse. Family studies, adoption studies, and critical twin studies have all pointed to some genetic vulnerability or risk factors for an individual to abuse psychoactive drugs depending on certain psychopathologies in the biological parents and/or parents` own drug use. The question for the next generation of research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is to apply the rapidly developing technology in molecular genetics in an effort to determine the candidate genes contributing to the risk. 19 refs.

  11. Evaluating the working conditions and exposure to abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel: characteristics and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat

    2009-02-01

    Filipino home care workers provide the majority of around-the-clock personal care to frail individuals in Israel. To date, the working conditions as well as exposure to work-related abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel have not been evaluated. A survey of 245 Filipino home care workers was conducted to evaluate their working conditions and exposure to abuse as well as their clinical correlates (e.g. burnout as measures by the Maslach Burnout Inventory). This was integrated with findings from interviews with Filipino home care workers, social workers, and family members of care recipients cared by Filipino home care workers. A majority of the workers (88%) reported paying large amounts of money in order to work in the country. Overall, 43% reported being asked to do more than was specified in their job description, 41% reported being verbally abused, and 40% reported not receiving adequate food. Almost half reported work-related injuries. The most consistent predictor of burnout (as measured by the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scales) was exposure to work-related abuse. Interview data identified system and societal barriers that prevent workers from using the legal system for their protection. The present study calls for further supervision of this caregiving arrangement. Psychoeducational programs directed towards all stakeholders (e.g. social workers, home care workers, care recipients, and family members of care recipients) are needed.

  12. NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network: An Opportunity for HIV Research in Community Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Calsyn, Donald A.; Metsch, Lisa R.; Sorensen, James L.; Shoptaw, Steven; Haynes, Louise; Woody, George E.; Malow, Robert M.; Brown, Lawrence S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Booth, Robert E.; Mandler, Raul N.; Masson, Carmen; Holmes, Beverly W.; Colfax, Grant; Brooks, Audrey J.; Hien, Denise A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Miele, Gloria M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives HIV continues to be a significant problem among substance users and their sexual partners in the United States. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) offers a national platform for effectiveness trials of HIV interventions in community substance abuse treatment programs. This article presents the HIV activities of the CTN during its first 10 years. Results While emphasizing CTN HIV protocols, this article reviews the (1) HIV context for this work; (2) the collaborative process among providers, researchers, and National Institute on Drug Abuse CTN staff, on which CTN HIV work was based; (3) results of CTN HIV protocols and HIV secondary analyses in CTN non-HIV protocols; and (4) implications for future HIV intervention effectiveness research in community substance abuse treatment programs. Conclusion/Significance While the feasibility of engaging frontline providers in this research is highlighted, the limitations of small to medium effect sizes and weak adoption and sustainability in everyday practice are also discussed. PMID:21854270

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  14. Clinical outcomes of traumatized youth in adolescent substance abuse treatment: a longitudinal multisite study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julie K; Smith, Douglas C; An, Hyonggin; Hall, James A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of outpatient substance abuse treatment for youth with high traumatic stress compared to youth without high traumatic stress in substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The data for this study were gathered using a longitudinal survey design with purposive sampling from nine drug treatment delivery systems across the United States participating in the cooperative grant Strengthening Communities for Youth (SCY) awarded by SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) between September 2002 and June 2006. Follow-up assessments were conducted with the youth at three,six, and 12 months following intake. Traumatized youth responded to outpatient treatment in a similar pattern when compared to nontraumatized youth, although the traumatized youth had consistently higher scores on substance use frequency and substance problems scales than nontraumatized youth throughout the study. Current empirically validated treatments for adolescent substance abuse do not prepare the practitioner for trauma-informed practice or specifically address trauma-informed recovery. Based on our results, we advocate for the development and integration of trauma-informed practice within substance abuse treatment for adolescents to help them recover from trauma and substance abuse issues.

  15. Gender research in the National Institute on Drug Abuse National Treatment Clinical Trials Network: a summary of findings.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Rosa, Carmen; Putnins, Susan I; Green, Carla A; Brooks, Audrey J; Calsyn, Donald A; Cohen, Lisa R; Erickson, Sarah; Gordon, Susan M; Haynes, Louise; Killeen, Therese; Miele, Gloria; Tross, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa

    2011-09-01

    The National Institute of Drug Abuse's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established to foster translation of research into practice in substance abuse treatment settings. The CTN provides a unique opportunity to examine in multi-site, translational clinical trials, the outcomes of treatment interventions targeting vulnerable subgroups of women; the comparative effectiveness of gender-specific protocols to reduce risk behaviors; and gender differences in clinical outcomes. To review gender-related findings from published CTN clinical trials and related studies from January 2000 to March 2010. CTN studies were selected for review if they focused on treatment outcomes or services for special populations of women with substance use disorders (SUDs) including those with trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders, and HIV risk behaviors; or implemented gender-specific protocols. The CTN has randomized 11,500 participants (41% women) across 200 clinics in 24 randomized controlled trials in community settings, of which 4 have been gender-specific. This article summarizes gender-related findings from CTN clinical trials and related studies, focusing on trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders, and HIV risk behaviors. These published studies have expanded the evidence base regarding interventions for vulnerable groups of women with SUDs as well as gender-specific interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors in substance-using men and women. The results also underscore the complexity of accounting for gender in the design of clinical trials and analysis of results. To fully understand the relevance of gender-specific moderators and mediators of outcome, it is essential that future translational studies adopt more sophisticated approaches to understanding and measuring gender-relevant factors and plan sample sizes that are adequate to support more nuanced analytic methods.

  16. Substance abuse treatment in an urban HIV clinic: who enrolls and what are the benefits?

    PubMed

    Pisu, Maria; Cloud, Gretchen; Austin, Shamly; Raper, James L; Stewart, Katharine E; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2010-03-01

    Substance abuse treatment (SAT) is important for HIV medical care. Characteristics of those who choose SAT and effects of SAT on HIV clinical outcomes are not understood. We compared patients who enrolled and did not enroll in a SAT program offered within an HIV clinic, and evaluated the effect of SAT on CD4 T-cell counts and HIV plasma viral load (VL). Subjects were assessed and invited to enroll in SAT. Enrollees chose to receive psychological and psychiatric treatment, or motivational enhancement and relapse prevention, or residential SAT. We used logistic regressions to determine factors associated with enrollment (age, race, sex, HIV transmission risk factors, CD4 T-cell counts, and VL at assessment). A two-period (assessment and six months after SAT) data analysis was used to analyze the effect of SAT on CD4 T-cell count and log VL controlling for changes in HIV therapy. We find that, compared to Decliners (N=76), Enrollees (N=78) were more likely to be females (29.5% vs. 6.6%, OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.61-17.6), and to report injection drug use (IDU) as the HIV transmission risk factor (23.1% vs. 9.2%, OR=3.92, CI 1.38-11.1). Age (37.2 vs. 38.4), CD4 T-cell count (377.3 vs. 409.2), and log VL (3.21 vs. 2.99) at assessment were similar across the two groups (p>0.05). After six months, Enrollees and Decliners' CD4 T-cell counts increased and log VL decreased. SAT did not affect the change in CD4 T-cell count (p=0.51) or log VL (p=0.73). Similar results were found for patients with CD4 T-cell count < or =350 at assessment. In this small sample of HIV-infected patients with a limited follow-up period, women were more likely to enroll in SAT than men, and SAT reached those who needed it, e.g., IDUs. We did not find an effect of SAT on HIV clinical outcomes.

  17. Multi-level assessment protocol (MAP) for adoption in multi-site clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Guydish, J.; Manser, S.T.; Jessup, M.; Tajima, B.; Sears, C.; Montini, T.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) is intended to test promising drug abuse treatment models in multi-site clinical trials, and to support adoption of new interventions into clinical practice. Using qualitative research methods we asked: How might the technology of multi-site clinical trials be modified to better support adoption of tested interventions? A total of 42 participants, representing 8 organizational levels ranging from clinic staff to clinical trial leaders, were interviewed about their role in the clinical trial, its interactions with clinics, and intervention adoption. Among eight clinics participating in the clinical trial, we found adoption of the tested intervention in one clinic only. In analysis of interview data we identified four conceptual themes which are likely to affect adoption and may be informative in future multi-site clinical trials. We offer the conclusion that planning for adoption in the early stages of protocol development will better serve the aim of integrating new interventions into practice. PMID:20890376

  18. Internet-delivered Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Multi-site Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Stitzer, Maxine; Miele, Gloria M.; Polsky, Daniel; Turrigiano, Eva; Walters, Scott; McClure, Erin A.; Kyle, Tiffany L.; Wahle, Aimee; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Goldman, Bruce; Babcock, Dean; Stabile, Patricia Quinn; Winhusen, Theresa; Ghitza, Udi E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Drug and alcohol abuse constitutes a major public health problem. Computer-delivered interventions have potential to improve access to quality care. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System, an internet-delivered behavioral intervention that includes motivational incentives, as a clinician-extender in the treatment of substance use disorders. Method Adult men and women (N=507) entering 10 outpatient addiction treatment programs were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of treatment-as-usual (n=252) or treatment-as-usual + Therapeutic Education System, whereby the intervention substituted for 2 hours of standard care per week (n=255). Therapeutic Education System consists of 62 computer-interactive modules covering skills for achieving and maintaining abstinence, plus prize-based motivational incentives contingent on abstinence and treatment adherence. Treatment-as-usual consisted of individual and group counseling at the participating programs. Primary outcomes were (1) abstinence from drugs and heavy drinking measured by twice weekly urine drug screens and self-report, and (2) time to drop-out from treatment. Results Compared to treatment-as-usual, those receiving Therapeutic Education System reduced dropout from treatment (Hazard Ratio=0.72 [95% CI, 0.57-0.92], P=.010), and increased abstinence (Odds Ratio=1.62 [95% CI: 1.12-2.35], P=.010), an effect that was more pronounced among patients with a positive urine drug and/or breath alcohol screen at the point of study entry (n=228) (Odds Ratio=2.18 [95% CI: 1.30-3.68], P=.003). Conclusion Internet-delivered interventions, such as Therapeutic Education System, have the potential to expand access and improve addiction treatment outcomes; additional research is needed to assess effectiveness in non-specialty clinical systems and to differentiate the effect of Community Reinforcement Approach and Contingency Management. PMID:24700332

  19. Fidelity Failures in Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Clinical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Hasler, Brant P

    2018-04-30

    As evidence-based family treatments for adolescent substance use and conduct problems gain traction, cutting edge research moves beyond randomized efficacy trials to address questions such as how these treatments work and how best to disseminate them to community settings. A key factor in effective dissemination is treatment fidelity, which refers to implementing an intervention in a manner consistent with an established manual. While most fidelity research is quantitative, this study offers a qualitative clinical analysis of fidelity failures in a large, multisite effectiveness trial of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, where BSFT developers trained community therapists to administer this intervention in their own agencies. Using case notes and video recordings of therapy sessions, an independent expert panel first rated 103 cases on quantitative fidelity scales grounded in the BSFT manual and the broader structural-strategic framework that informs BSFT intervention. Because fidelity was generally low, the panel reviewed all cases qualitatively to identify emergent types or categories of fidelity failure. Ten categories of failures emerged, characterized by therapist omissions (e.g., failure to engage key family members, failure to think in threes) and commissions (e.g., off-model, nonsystemic formulations/interventions). Of these, "failure to think in threes" appeared basic and particularly problematic, reflecting the central place of this idea in structural theory and therapy. Although subject to possible bias, our observations highlight likely stumbling blocks in exporting a complex family treatment like BSFT to community settings. These findings also underscore the importance of treatment fidelity in family therapy research. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  20. 76 FR 22406 - National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA); Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Study of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... research study to assess the efficacy of a specific interactive Web-based teaching module in the field of... directly to the public to survey customers to determine the kind and quality of services they want and... controlled trial design that compares the group that receives educational exposure to the set of new...

  1. Effects of mother-son incest and positive perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on the psychosocial adjustment of clinic-referred men.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert J; Wood, Jeffrey J; Gonzalez, Lauren S; MacDonald, Virginia; Waterman, Jill

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective was to examine the long-term impact of mother-son incest and positive initial perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on adult male psychosocial functioning. Sixty-seven clinic-referred men with a history of sexual abuse participated. The participants completed self-report measures regarding their current psychosocial functioning and described the nature of their sexual and physical abuse experiences during childhood. Seventeen men reported mother-son incest, and these men endorsed more trauma symptoms than did other sexually abused men, even after controlling for a history of multiple perpetrators and physical abuse. Mother-son incest was likely to be subtle, involving behaviors that may be difficult to distinguish from normal caregiving (e.g., genital touching), despite the potentially serious long-term consequences. Twenty-seven men recalled positive or mixed initial perceptions of the abuse, including about half of the men who had been abused by their mothers. These men reported more adjustment problems than did men who recalled purely negative initial perceptions. Mother-son incest and positive initial perceptions of sexual abuse experiences both appear to be risk factors for more severe psychosocial adjustment problems among clinic-referred men.

  2. Retention in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network Women and Trauma Study: implications for posttrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hien, Denise A; Yu, Gary; Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that influenced retention in the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Women and Trauma Study, conducted within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Women (N=346) were recruited from and received treatment in 6 CTN-affiliated sites. Log-linear and logistic models were used to explore factors associated with retention. The mean number of treatment sessions attended was 6.8 (SD=3.9). Women with more education, higher attendance at 12-step meetings, and strong therapeutic alliance between facilitator and participant had better retention rates. Significant site differences were found; the site with the highest retention rate provided child care and had the lowest average monthly intake. To retain women with histories of trauma and substance abuse in "real world" psychiatric settings, emphasis on regulating individual-level and site-related modifiable variables are crucial. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  3. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants.

  4. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among STD clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women’s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  5. Cervical screening and the aftermath of childhood sexual abuse: are clinical staff trained to recognise and manage the effect this has on their patients?

    PubMed

    Walker, Judith; Allan, Helen T

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the training needs and awareness of childhood sexual abuse amongst clinical staff taking cervical screening samples in one inner city primary care trust. Studies exploring sexual abuse and nonparticipation in cervical screening have demonstrated that women can experience re-traumatisation if care during examinations is insensitive to their particular needs. This was a mixed methods, service evaluation in three phases. A literature review, a questionnaire to cervical screening staff in an inner city primary care trust and a focus group of four staff drawn from questionnaire respondents to explore themes raised in the questionnaire data. Data analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data showed that clinical staff underestimated the frequency of childhood sexual abuse although they were aware of the difficulties and reluctance some women experience undergoing gynaecological examinations. When women did disclose childhood sexual abuse or when staff suspected a history of childhood sexual abuse, staff reported feeling unsure of how they should proceed. There was no support or clinical supervision, and unmet training needs were identified. Nurses expressed anxiety around the potential of the screening test to cause more harm than good and at their inability to provide more help than listening. Staff wanted support and further training after completing their cervical screening training course to assist in their provision of sensitive care to patients who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. Whilst our results cannot be generalised to a wider population, they may be meaningful for the community of cervical screening takers. We argue that screening staff require further training and professional support (clinical supervision) to increase their confidence when providing safe and sensitive practice for childhood sexual abuse survivors. If staff feel more confident and competent when responding to disclosure of childhood sexual abuse in screening

  6. MaNIDA: Insight into the German Marine Network for Integrated Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Angela; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) builds a sustainable e-Infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of data from distinct marine and earth science data providers in Germany (see ESSI1.2 and ESSI2.2). Thereby we implement the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" for coherent discovery, view, download and dissemination of aggregated content. MaNIDA receives a unique momentum from the cooperation and financial partnership between main German marine research institutes (AWI, MARUM, HZG, GEOMAR, Uni Hamburg, Uni Kiel, Uni Bremen) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency as well as active participation in international and major EU-initiatives (ICSU, GEOSS, SeaDataNet, EMODNET, ODIP). Together with a coherent management strategy coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, sustainability will be achieved via the long-term commitment of framework funding by the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific research organization for large-scale facilities and scientific infrastructure. Strategic Aims The installation of the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" will address the urgent demands of the German research community for reliable and easy access to marine research data at one single point of access and truth. Primary focus will be given to data derived from nationally operated research and monitoring facilities (vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc), whereby related contextual content and publications will become an integral part of the aggregation effort. For the scientific community we define responsibilities and commitments across partners while complementing existing data repositories and the new portal with well-articulated workflows from the instrument to the data product. Necessary level of quality assurance and user support will be implemented to achieve substantial enhancements in the whole lifecycle management of marine scientific data. The creation of a data

  7. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health.

  8. Variables Associated with Environmental Scanning among Clinicians at Substance Abuse Treatment Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Alison L.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth; Dickson, Marcus W.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables…

  9. Classification and definition of misuse, abuse, and related events in clinical trials: ACTTION systematic review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon M; Dart, Richard C; Katz, Nathaniel P; Paillard, Florence; Adams, Edgar H; Comer, Sandra D; Degroot, Aldemar; Edwards, Robert R; Haddox, J David; Jaffe, Jerome H; Jones, Christopher M; Kleber, Herbert D; Kopecky, Ernest A; Markman, John D; Montoya, Ivan D; O'Brien, Charles; Roland, Carl L; Stanton, Marsha; Strain, Eric C; Vorsanger, Gary; Wasan, Ajay D; Weiss, Roger D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    As the nontherapeutic use of prescription medications escalates, serious associated consequences have also increased. This makes it essential to estimate misuse, abuse, and related events (MAREs) in the development and postmarketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring of prescription drugs accurately. However, classifications and definitions to describe prescription drug MAREs differ depending on the purpose of the classification system, may apply to single events or ongoing patterns of inappropriate use, and are not standardized or systematically employed, thereby complicating the ability to assess MARE occurrence adequately. In a systematic review of existing prescription drug MARE terminology and definitions from consensus efforts, review articles, and major institutions and agencies, MARE terms were often defined inconsistently or idiosyncratically, or had definitions that overlapped with other MARE terms. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trials, Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership convened an expert panel to develop mutually exclusive and exhaustive consensus classifications and definitions of MAREs occurring in clinical trials of analgesic medications to increase accuracy and consistency in characterizing their occurrence and prevalence in clinical trials. The proposed ACTTION classifications and definitions are designed as a first step in a system to adjudicate MAREs that occur in analgesic clinical trials and postmarketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring, which can be used in conjunction with other methods of assessing a treatment's abuse potential. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical supervision, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention: A study of substance abuse treatment counselors in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Ducharme, Lori J.; Roman, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    An intriguing hypothesis is that clinical supervision may protect against counselor turnover. This idea has been mentioned in recent discussions of the substance abuse treatment workforce. To test this hypothesis, we extend our previous research on emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among counselors by estimating the associations between clinical supervision and these variables in a large sample (n = 823). An exploratory analysis reveals that clinical supervision was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Given our previous findings that emotional exhaustion and turnover intention were associated with job autonomy, procedural justice, and distributive justice, we estimate a structural equation model to examine whether these variables mediated clinical supervision’s associations with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. These data support the fully mediated model. We found the perceived quality of clinical supervision is strongly associated with counselors’ perceptions of job autonomy, procedural justice, and distributive justice, which are, in turn, associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. These data offer support for the protective role of clinical supervision in substance abuse treatment counselors’ turnover and occupational wellbeing. PMID:18424048

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Peer-Delivered Interventions for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse among Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Luekens, Craig; Cottler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine whether the additional interventions to standard care are cost-effective in addressing cocaine and alcohol abuse at 4 months (4 M) and 12 months (12 M) from baseline. Method We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (1) NIDA's Standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a Well Woman Exam (WWE); and, (3) SI, WWE, plus four Educational Sessions (4ES). Results To obtain an additional cocaine abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $7,223 at 4 M and $3,611 at 12 M. Per additional alcohol abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $3,611 and $7,223 at 4 M and 12 M, respectively. At 12 M, 4ES was dominated (more costly and less effective) by WWE for abstinence outcomes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis simultaneously examining cocaine and alcohol abuse in women. Depending on primary outcomes sought and priorities of policy makers, peer-delivered interventions can be a cost-effective way to address the needs of this growing, underserved population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01235091 PMID:22448255

  12. Prevalence of abuse and intimate partner violence surgical evaluation (PRAISE) in orthopaedic fracture clinics: a multinational prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Sheila; Bhandari, Mohit; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Goslings, J Carel; Poolman, Rudolf W; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Dosanjh, Sonia; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2013-09-07

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the leading cause of non-fatal injury to women worldwide. Musculoskeletal injuries, which are often seen by orthopaedic surgeons, are the second most common manifestation of IPV. We aimed to establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence of IPV in women presenting to orthopaedic fracture clinics. The PRAISE team of 80 investigators did a cross-sectional study of a consecutive sample of 2945 female participants at 12 orthopaedic fracture clinics in Canada, the USA, the Netherlands, Denmark, and India. Participants who met the eligibility criteria anonymously answered direct questions about physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, and completed two previously developed questionnaires (Women Abuse Screening Tool [WAST] and Partner Violence Screen [PVS]). We did a multivariable logistic regression analysis to investigate the risk factors associated with IPV. The overall response rate was 85% (2344 of 2759 patients provided informed consent). One in six women (455/2839, 16·0%, 95% CI 14·7-17·4%) disclosed a history of IPV within the past year, and one in three (882/2550, 34·6%, 32·8-36·5%) had experienced IPV in their lifetime. 49 women (1·7%, 1·3-2·2%) attended their clinic visit as a direct consequence of IPV, only seven of whom (14%) had ever been asked about IPV in a health-care setting. Women in short-term relationships (OR 0·584, 99% CI 0·396-0·860, p=0·0001) were at increased risk of IPV and physical abuse in the past 12 months in this study. Compared with women in Canada and the USA, those in the Netherlands and Denmark were at reduced risk of any abuse in the past 12 months, physical abuse in lifetime, and any abuse in lifetime (OR 0·595, 99% CI 0·427-0·830, p<0·0001; 0·630, 0·445-0·890, p=0·001; and 0·464, 0·352-0·612, p<0·0001, respectively). PRAISE is the largest prevalence study done so far in orthopaedics. Orthopaedic surgeons should be confident in the assumption that one in six women have a history

  13. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by increased fragility of various non-ossified tissues. It is usually ascertained due to abnormal skin texture, scarring complications, vascular fragility, or chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Sometimes, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome remains undetected until the patient, usually in the pediatric age, shows extensive or severe mucocutaneous injuries after only minor traumas. In this scenario, the misdiagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with child abuse is a possibility, as occasionally reported in the literature. Recently, more attention was posed by lay people between the possible association of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and bone fragility. Literature and personal experience show a strong association between Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, generalized joint hypermobility and reduced bone mass density in older children and adults, especially fertile women. The existence of a true increased risk of fracture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is still a matter of debate in children and adults with little and conflicting evidence. In case of suspected child abuse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is certainly on the differential for bruising, especially in EDS types with marked cutaneous and capillary involvement. In suspected child abuse cases, careful examination of the index case and her/his extended family is routine, as well as exclusion of other disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta. The hypothesis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as an alternative explanation for infantile fractures remains speculative. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Instruments to identify prescription medication misuse, abuse, and related events in clinical trials: an ACTTION systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon M.; Paillard, Florence; McKeown, Andrew; Burke, Laurie B.; Edwards, Robert R.; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Papadopoulos, Elektra J.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Slagle, Ashley; Strain, Eric C.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Turk, Dennis C.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of inappropriate medication use events (e.g., abuse, misuse) in clinical trials is important in characterizing a medication’s abuse potential. However, no “gold standard” assessment of inappropriate use events in clinical trials has been identified. In this systematic review, we examine the measurement properties (i.e., content validity, cross-sectional reliability and construct validity, longitudinal construct validity, ability to detect change, and responder definitions) of instruments assessing inappropriate use of opioid and non-opioid prescription medications to identify any that meet U.S. and European regulatory agencies’ rigorous standards for outcome measures in clinical trials. Sixteen published instruments were identified, most of which were not designed for the selected concept of interest and context of use. For this reason, many instruments were found to lack adequate content validity (or documentation of content validity) to evaluate current inappropriate medication use events; for example, evaluating inappropriate use across the lifespan rather than current use, including items that did not directly assess inappropriate use (e.g., questions about anger), or failing to capture information pertinent to inappropriate use events (e.g., intention, route of administration). In addition, the psychometric data across all instruments were generally limited in scope. A further limitation is the heterogeneous, non-standardized use of inappropriate medication use terminology. These observations suggest that available instruments are not well suited for assessing current inappropriate medication use within the specific context of clinical trials. Further effort is needed to develop reliable and valid instruments to measure current inappropriate medication use events in clinical trials. PMID:25660826

  16. Issues in the assessment of personality disorder and substance abuse using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II).

    PubMed

    Flynn, P M; McCann, J T; Fairbank, J A

    1995-05-01

    Substance abuse treatment clients often present other severe mental health problems that affect treatment outcomes. Hence, screening and assessment for psychological distress and personality disorder are an important part of effective treatment, discharge, and aftercare planning. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) frequently is used for this purpose. In this paper, several issues of concern to MCMI-II users are addressed. These include the extent to which MCMI-II scales correspond to DSM-III-R disorders; overdiagnosis of disorders using the MCMI-II; accuracy of MCMI-II diagnostic cut-off scores; and the clinical utility of MCMI-II diagnostic algorithms. Approaches to addressing these issues are offered.

  17. Correlates of having never been HIV tested among entrants to substance abuse treatment clinics: empiric findings from real-world New England settings.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jeanne J; Andrade, Leonardo F; Altice, Frederick L; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    Routine testing is the cornerstone to identifying HIV, but not all substance abuse treatment patients have been tested. This study is a real-world evaluation of predictors of having never been HIV tested among patients initiating substance abuse treatment. Participants (N = 614) from six New England clinics were asked whether they had ever been HIV tested. Eighty-five patients (13.8%) reported having never been tested and were compared to those who had undergone testing. Clinic, male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-3.41), and having fewer employment (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11-0.88) and medical problems (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.17-0.99) were independently correlated with having never been HIV tested. Thus, there is still considerable room for improved testing strategies as a clinically significant minority of substance abuse patients have never undergone HIV testing when they initiate treatment.

  18. Clinical peer review in the United States: history, legal development and subsequent abuse.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-06-07

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews.

  19. Clinical peer review in the United States: History, legal development and subsequent abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hozain, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The Joint Commission on Accreditation requires hospitals to conduct peer review to retain accreditation. Despite the intended purpose of improving quality medical care, the peer review process has suffered several setbacks throughout its tenure. In the 1980s, abuse of peer review for personal economic interest led to a highly publicized multimillion-dollar verdict by the United States Supreme Court against the perpetrating physicians and hospital. The verdict led to decreased physician participation for fear of possible litigation. Believing that peer review was critical to quality medical care, Congress subsequently enacted the Health Care Quality Improvement Act (HCQIA) granting comprehensive legal immunity for peer reviewers to increase participation. While serving its intended goal, HCQIA has also granted peer reviewers significant immunity likely emboldening abuses resulting in Sham Peer Reviews. While legal reform of HCQIA is necessary to reduce sham peer reviews, further measures including the need for standardization of the peer review process alongside external organizational monitoring are critical to improving peer review and reducing the prevalence of sham peer reviews. PMID:24914357

  20. Hyperbolic Discounting: Value and Time Processes of Substance Abusers and Non-Clinical Individuals in Intertemporal Choice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The single parameter hyperbolic model has been frequently used to describe value discounting as a function of time and to differentiate substance abusers and non-clinical participants with the model's parameter k. However, k says little about the mechanisms underlying the observed differences. The present study evaluates several alternative models with the purpose of identifying whether group differences stem from differences in subjective valuation, and/or time perceptions. Using three two-parameter models, plus secondary data analyses of 14 studies with 471 indifference point curves, results demonstrated that adding a valuation, or a time perception function led to better model fits. However, the gain in fit due to the flexibility granted by a second parameter did not always lead to a better understanding of the data patterns and corresponding psychological processes. The k parameter consistently indexed group and context (magnitude) differences; it is thus a mixed measure of person and task level effects. This was similar for a parameter meant to index payoff devaluation. A time perception parameter, on the other hand, fluctuated with contexts in a non-predicted fashion and the interpretation of its values was inconsistent with prior findings that supported enlarged perceived delays for substance abusers compared to controls. Overall, the results provide mixed support for hyperbolic models of intertemporal choice in terms of the psychological meaning afforded by their parameters. PMID:25390941

  1. Wireless Subject Incentives Using Reloadable Bank Cards to Increase Clinical Trial Retention with Abused Women Drinkers: A Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Melissa; Meisel, Zachary; Wiebe, Douglas; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2017-01-01

    Retaining participants in longitudinal studies is a unique methodological challenge in many areas of investigation, and specifically for researchers aiming to identify effective interventions for women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Individuals in abusive relationships are often transient and have logistical, confidentiality, and safety concerns that limit future contact. A natural experiment occurred during a large randomized clinical trial enrolling women in abusive relationships who were also heavy drinkers, which allowed for the comparison of two incentive methods to promote longitudinal retention: cash payment vs. reloadable wireless bank cards. Six-hundred patients were enrolled in the overall trial which aimed to incentivize participants using a reloadable bank card system in order to promote the completion of 11 weekly interactive voice response system (IVRS) phone surveys and 3, 6 and 12-month follow up phone or in person interviews. The first 145 participants were paid with cash as a result of logistical delays in setting up the bank card system. At 12 weeks, participants receiving the bank card incentive completed significantly more IVRS phone surveys (OR 2.4, 95% CI .01–1.69). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups related to satisfaction or safety and/or privacy. The bankcard system delivered lower administrative burden for tracking payments for study staff. Based on these and other results, our large medical research university is implementing reloadable bank card as the preferred method of subject incentive payments. PMID:27503325

  2. Wireless Participant Incentives Using Reloadable Bank Cards to Increase Clinical Trial Retention With Abused Women Drinkers: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Melissa; Meisel, Zachary; Wiebe, Douglas; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Rhodes, Karin V

    2016-08-01

    Retaining participants in longitudinal studies is a unique methodological challenge in many areas of investigation, and specifically for researchers aiming to identify effective interventions for women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Individuals in abusive relationships are often transient and have logistical, confidentiality, and safety concerns that limit future contact. A natural experiment occurred during a large randomized clinical trial enrolling women in abusive relationships who were also heavy drinkers, which allowed for the comparison of two incentive methods to promote longitudinal retention: cash payment versus reloadable wireless bank cards. In all, 600 patients were enrolled in the overall trial, which aimed to incentivize participants using a reloadable bank card system to promote the completion of 11 weekly interactive voice response system (IVRS) phone surveys and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up phone or in person interviews. The first 145 participants were paid with cash as a result of logistical delays in setting up the bank card system. At 12 weeks, participants receiving the bank card incentive completed significantly more IVRS phone surveys, odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.01, 1.69]. There were no significant differences between the two groups related to satisfaction or safety and/or privacy. The bank card system delivered lower administrative burden for tracking payments for study staff. Based on these and other results, our large medical research university is implementing reloadable bank card as the preferred method of participant incentive payments.

  3. Standardized patient walkthroughs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: common challenges to protocol implementation.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Holly E; Kunkel, Lynn E; McCarty, Dennis; Lewy, Colleen S

    2011-09-01

    Training research staff to implement clinical trials occurring in community-based addiction treatment programs presents unique challenges. Standardized patient walkthroughs of study procedures may enhance training and protocol implementation. Examine and discuss cross-site and cross-study challenges of participant screening and data collection procedures identified during standardized patient walkthroughs of multi-site clinical trials. Actors portrayed clients and "walked through" study procedures with protocol research staff. The study completed 57 walkthroughs during implementation of 4 clinical trials. Observers and walkthrough participants identified three areas of concern (consent procedures, screening and assessment processes, and protocol implementation) and made suggestions for resolving the concerns. Standardized patient walkthroughs capture issues with study procedures previously unidentified with didactic training or unscripted rehearsals. Clinical trials within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network are conducted in addiction treatment centers that vary on multiple dimensions. Based on walkthrough observations, the national protocol team and local site leadership modify standardized operating procedures and resolve cross-site problems prior to recruiting study participants. The standardized patient walkthrough improves consistency across study sites and reduces potential site variation in study outcomes.

  4. Profile of Ritualistic and Religion-Related Abuse Allegations Reported to Clinical Psychologists in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Bette L.; And Others

    One of the most shocking claims about child abuse in recent years is that satanic, occult, or ritualistic abuse is occurring and on the rise. To date, no one has attempted to assess the prevalence of claims of such abuse, or to determine the range of cases and the nature of the typical case. This study is currently surveying approximately 41,000…

  5. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  6. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part II: treatment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing debate about the role of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated children. Many professional organizations have issued statements against physically restraining children as some attachment therapists promote; however, often lost in these debates is the fundamental issue of what attachment theory and research proposes as the appropriate form of treatment. Given that these attachment therapies are often directed toward maltreated children, it becomes critical for clinicians working with abused and neglected children to understand these issues and recognize unethical and dangerous treatments. This article provides a summary of the theoretical and empirical bases for the use of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated school-age children, an examination of the ways questionable approaches to treatment have misinterpreted and misapplied attachment theory, and a conceptualization of attachment-based intervention grounded in current theory and research.

  7. Genetic modulation of plasma NPY stress response is suppressed in substance abuse: association with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Hong, Kwangik Adam; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hauger, Richard L; Goldman, David; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in stress regulation. Genetic variations predict plasma NPY and neural correlates of emotion and stress. We examined whether the functional NPY haplotype modulates stress-induced NPY and anxiety responses, and if plasma NPY stress responses are associated with substance dependence outcomes. Thirty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent substance dependent (SD) patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs) characterized on NPY diplotypes (HH: high expression; HLLL: intermediate/low expression) were exposed to stress, alcohol/drug cues and neutral relaxing cues, using individualized guided imagery, in a 3-session laboratory experiment. Plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety were assessed. Patients were prospectively followed for 90-days post-treatment to assess relapse outcomes. HH individuals showed significantly lower stress-induced NPY with greater heart rate and anxiety ratings, while the HLLL group showed the reverse pattern of NPY, anxiety and heart rate responses. This differential genetic modulation of NPY stress response was suppressed in the SD group, who showed no stress-related increases in NPY and higher heart rate and greater anxiety, regardless of diplotype. Lower NPY predicted subsequent higher number of days and greater amounts of post-treatment drug use. These preliminary findings are the first to document chronic drug abuse influences on NPY diplotype expression where NPY diplotype modulation of stress-related plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety responses was absent in the substance abuse sample. The finding that lower stress-related NPY is predictive of greater relapse severity provides support for therapeutic development of neuropeptide Y targets in the treatment of substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  9. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  10. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Kurrle, Susan

    2004-10-01

    Elder abuse is a common and yet often unrecognised problem in our community. With up to 5% of the community dwelling older population being victims of abuse, the general practitioner has a pivotal role in identifying this abuse. This article provides an outline of the definition of elder abuse, describes the types of abuse seen and the reasons for occurrence of abuse. It summarises the role of the GP in the identification and management of abuse and provides guidance on intervention strategies. Case studies are used to illustrate the issues discussed. Elder abuse is defined as any pattern of behaviour which causes physical, psychological, financial or social harm to an older person. The role of the GP in identifying abuse is critical. The vast majority of older people visit their GP at least once a year, and the GP often has a long standing relationship with their patient and the patient's family. They are therefore ideally placed to identify elder abuse.

  11. Acceptability of the Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) clinical prediction tool: A qualitative study with child protection professionals.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Laura E; Maguire, Sabine; Farewell, Daniel M; Quinn-Scoggins, Harriet D; Flynn, Matthew O; Kemp, Alison M

    2018-05-09

    The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) based on combinations of six clinical features: head/neck bruising; apnea; seizures; rib/long-bone fractures; retinal hemorrhages. We aimed to determine the acceptability of PredAHT to child protection professionals. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 56 participants: clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo for thematic analysis (38% double-coded). We explored participants' evaluations of PredAHT, their opinions about the optimal way to present the calculated probabilities, and their interpretation of probabilities in the context of suspected AHT. Clinicians, child protection social workers and police thought PredAHT would be beneficial as an objective adjunct to their professional judgment, to give them greater confidence in their decisions. Lawyers and pathologists appreciated its value for prompting multidisciplinary investigations, but were uncertain of its usefulness in court. Perceived disadvantages included: possible over-reliance and false reassurance from a low score. Interpretations regarding which percentages equate to 'low', 'medium' or 'high' likelihood of AHT varied; participants preferred a precise % probability over these general terms. Participants would use PredAHT with provisos: if they received multi-agency training to define accepted risk thresholds for consistent interpretation; with knowledge of its development; if it was accepted by colleagues. PredAHT may therefore increase professionals' confidence in their decision-making when investigating suspected AHT, but may be of less value in court. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The anti-doping hot-line, a means to capture the abuse of doping agents in the Swedish society and a new service function in clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Eklöf, Ann-Charlotte; Thurelius, Ann-Mari; Garle, Mats; Rane, Anders; Sjöqvist, Folke

    2003-11-01

    With the support of the Swedish National Institute of Health a national information service was started in 1993 aiming to capture the abuse of doping agents in the general public. It was organized as a telephone service, called the Anti-Doping Hot-Line, from our department and managed by trained nurses co-operating with clinical pharmacologists. Important information collected about all callers (anonymous) was: date of call, its origin, category of caller, doping experience and main question being asked. Abusers were asked about their age, sex, affiliation, abused drug(s), duration of abuse, habit of administration and adverse reactions (ADRs). Between October 1993 and December 2000 25,835 calls were received with a peak during spring and autumn. Most calls (12,400) came from non-abusers, 60% being males. Callers connected with gyms represented the largest group (30%). Most calls about specific drugs concerned anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Other drugs or products included ephedrine, clenbuterol and creatine. The most commonly abused anabolic steroids were testosterone, nandrolone-decanoate, methandienone and stanozolol. The ten most commonly reported ADRs of AAS were aggressiveness (835), depression (829), acne (770), gynecomastia (637), anxiousness (637), potency problems (413), testicular atrophy (404), sleep disorders (328), fluid retention (318) and mood disturbances (302). Female side effects included menstruation disturbances, hair growth in the face, lower voice and enlarged clitoris. During the period 1996-200, totally 4339 persons reported about 10,800 side effects. This figure should be compared with the very low number of ADRs (27) reported by prescribers to the Swedish ADR committee during the same period. Abuse of doping agents appears to be a new public health problem that needs detection, medical care and prevention.

  13. [Clinical evaluation of triage as drug-of-abuse test kit].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Toshiharu; Kohriyama, Kazuaki; Kondo, Rumiko; Goto, Kyoko; Yashiki, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    There are about 60,000 chemical substances which may cause poisoning. Identifying the cause substances is, therefore, very important for patient at emergency department. Triage is an immunoassay kit for the qualitative test for the metabolites of 8 major abuse drugs in urine. We assessed the usefullness of Triage on two patient groups. The first Group consists of the patients considered having not taken substances at initial diagnosis; the second Group consists of the patients considered having taken substances. The result are as follows. 1) The rate of Triage positive patients in the first Group were: attempt-suicide 23%, coma 24%, shock 10%, trauma 7%, respectively. Except for the habitually used medicine, narcotic and stimulant drugs were detected. In the first Group, negative result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patients as not poisoned, excluding the possitivity of 8 major drugs usage. 2) The rate of Triage positive patients in the second Group were very high: attempt-suicide 77%, coma 51%, shock 57%, trauma 30%, respectively, showing mostly any of 8 major drugs were the cause of poisoning. In the second Group, positive result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patient as poisoning or as coexisting poisoning with other diseases. 3) The specificity of Triage diagnosis in the first Group was 80% (113/142). The specificity and the sensitivity in the second Group were 64% (50/78) and 97% (74/76), respectively. These results means that Triage is very useful for diagnosis on 8 major drugs poisoning. 4) Triage is efficient for identifying the cause substances in drug poisoning and, therefore, can save medical expense. Triage is a very useful test kit at emergency department.

  14. An investigation of the clinical use of the house-tree-person projective drawings in the psychological evaluation of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, L; Farrar, A R; Valle, M; Ghahary, N; Panella, M; DeGraw, D

    2000-05-01

    Identification and evaluation of child sexual abuse is an integral task for clinicians. To aid these processes, it is necessary to have reliable and valid psychological measures. This is an investigation of the clinical validity and use of the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective drawing, a widely used diagnostic tool, in the assessment of child sexual abuse. HTP drawings were collected archivally from a sample of sexually abused children (n = 47) and a nonabused comparison sample (n = 82). The two samples were grossly matched for gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. The protocols were scored using a quantitative scoring system. The data were analyzed using a discriminant function analysis. Group membership could not be predicted based on a total HTP score.

  15. Clinical challenges in the treatment of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingo; Najavits, Lisa M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current literature on co-occuring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance-use disorder, with an emphasis on clinical aspects and emerging treatments. In clinical populations (focusing on either disorder), about 25-50% have a lifetime dual diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance-use disorder. Patients with both disorders have a more severe clinical profile than those with either disorder alone, lower functioning, poorer well being, and worse outcomes across a variety of measures. In recent years, several promising treatment programs have been developed specifically for co-occuring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance-use disorder, with one model having been established as effective thus far. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder/substance-use disorder is a frequent diagnosis in clinical populations that severely affects course and outcome. Treatment approaches appropriate for this vulnerable population need to be evaluated further and implemented in routine practice.

  16. Socio-demographic and Clinical Profile of Substance Abusers Attending a Regional Drug De-addiction Centre in Chronic Conflict Area: Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Rather, Yasir Hassan; Bashir, Wiqar; Sheikh, Ajaz Ahmad; Amin, Marya; Zahgeer, Yasir Arafat

    2013-05-01

    The menace of substance abuse is not only a socially unacceptable reality, but in its entirety is a disease and emerging as a major public health challenge. To study the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients attending the drug de-addiction centre. A descriptive study was undertaken in a drug de-addiction centre at the Police Hospital in Srinagar, and all patients (198) who were admitted during this period were interviewed. The mean (SD) age of patients was 26.8 years (SD 7.37), and over half (56%) belonged to the lower-middle social class. Poly-substance abuse was seen in 91.9%; medicinal opioids and cannabis were the most common substances abused. Most common age of initiation was 11-20 years (76.8%), with peer pressure and relief from a negative mood state being the most common reasons given for starting the drug(s). Prevalence of a co-morbid psychiatric disorder was high, on the order of 49.5%. A high rate of volatile substance use was observed among adolescents (54.5%). A pattern of poly-substance abuse was found to be quite common in patients, and use of volatile substances at a very young age emerged as a new trend. The dreadful repercussions of substance abuse justify the urgency to evolve a comprehensive strategy.

  17. Socio-demographic and Clinical Profile of Substance Abusers Attending a Regional Drug De-addiction Centre in Chronic Conflict Area: Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Yasir Hassan; Bashir, Wiqar; Sheikh, Ajaz Ahmad; Amin, Marya; Zahgeer, Yasir Arafat

    2013-01-01

    Background: The menace of substance abuse is not only a socially unacceptable reality, but in its entirety is a disease and emerging as a major public health challenge. Objective: To study the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients attending the drug de-addiction centre. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken in a drug de-addiction centre at the Police Hospital in Srinagar, and all patients (198) who were admitted during this period were interviewed. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 26.8 years (SD 7.37), and over half (56%) belonged to the lower-middle social class. Poly-substance abuse was seen in 91.9%; medicinal opioids and cannabis were the most common substances abused. Most common age of initiation was 11–20 years (76.8%), with peer pressure and relief from a negative mood state being the most common reasons given for starting the drug(s). Prevalence of a co-morbid psychiatric disorder was high, on the order of 49.5%. A high rate of volatile substance use was observed among adolescents (54.5%). Conclusion: A pattern of poly-substance abuse was found to be quite common in patients, and use of volatile substances at a very young age emerged as a new trend. The dreadful repercussions of substance abuse justify the urgency to evolve a comprehensive strategy. PMID:23966822

  18. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees.

    PubMed

    Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.

  19. National Institute on Drug Abuse International Program: improving opioid use disorder treatment through international research training.

    PubMed

    Gust, Steven W; McCormally, Judy

    2018-07-01

    For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD). Studies in several countries have demonstrated the effectiveness of physician office-based opioid substitution therapies. Other research has demonstrated the effectiveness of different formulations and doses of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, as well as different approaches to providing naloxone to treat opioid overdose. Continuing research into implementation of evidence-based treatment in international settings with limited resources is applicable to US regions that face similar structural, legal, and fiscal constraints. The current review describes international research on OUD treatment and opioid overdose, most coauthored by former NIDA fellows. The findings from outside the United States have important implications for best practices domestically and in other countries that are experiencing increases in OUD prevalence and related overdose deaths.

  20. Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Context With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended release capsules (MS-sNT) (EMBEDA®, King Pharmaceuticals® Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, in March 2011), a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients’ treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable optimization of pain-related outcomes, resulting in improved quality of life

  1. An Item Response Theory Modeling of Alcohol and Marijuana Dependences: A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Study*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G.; Tai, Betty; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Brooner, Robert K.; Woody, George E.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Blaine, Jack D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine psychometric properties of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), diagnostics criteria for alcohol and marijuana dependences among 462 alcohol users and 311 marijuana users enrolled in two multisite trials of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Method: Diagnostic questions were assessed by the DSM-IV checklist. Data were analyzed by the item response theory and the multiple indicators–multiple causes method procedures. Results: Criterion symptoms of alcohol and marijuana dependences exhibited a high level of internal consistency. All individual symptoms showed good discrimination in distinguishing alcohol or marijuana users between high and low severity levels of the continuum. In both groups, “withdrawal” appeared to measure the most severe symptom of the dependence continuum. There was little evidence of measurement nonequivalence in assessing symptoms of dependence by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Conclusions: These findings highlight the clinical utility of the DSM-IV checklist in assessing alcohol- and marijuana-dependence syndromes among treatment-seeking substance users. PMID:19371493

  2. Effects of coaching supervision, mentoring supervision and abusive supervision on talent development among trainee doctors in public hospitals: moderating role of clinical learning environment.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Anusuiya; Silong, Abu Daud; Uli, Jegak; Ismail, Ismi Arif

    2015-08-13

    Effective talent development requires robust supervision. However, the effects of supervisory styles (coaching, mentoring and abusive supervision) on talent development and the moderating effects of clinical learning environment in the relationship between supervisory styles and talent development among public hospital trainee doctors have not been thoroughly researched. In this study, we aim to achieve the following, (1) identify the extent to which supervisory styles (coaching, mentoring and abusive supervision) can facilitate talent development among trainee doctors in public hospital and (2) examine whether coaching, mentoring and abusive supervision are moderated by clinical learning environment in predicting talent development among trainee doctors in public hospital. A questionnaire-based critical survey was conducted among trainee doctors undergoing housemanship at six public hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Prior permission was obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia to conduct the research in the identified public hospitals. The survey yielded 355 responses. The results were analysed using SPSS 20.0 and SEM with AMOS 20.0. The findings of this research indicate that coaching and mentoring supervision are positively associated with talent development, and that there is no significant relationship between abusive supervision and talent development. The findings also support the moderating role of clinical learning environment on the relationships between coaching supervision-talent development, mentoring supervision-talent development and abusive supervision-talent development among public hospital trainee doctors. Overall, the proposed model indicates a 26 % variance in talent development. This study provides an improved understanding on the role of the supervisory styles (coaching and mentoring supervision) on facilitating talent development among public hospital trainee doctors. Furthermore, this study extends the literature to better

  3. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  4. Profile patterns, consistency, and change in the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    McMahon, R C; Richards, S K

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the MCMI-II in samples of cocaine-dependent subjects who were receiving treatment in three separate residential facilities. Profile characteristics, patterns of scale stability, and change are reported. MCMI-II elevations are found in all three samples on the Antisocial, Aggressive/Sadistic, Narcissistic, Passive-Aggressive, Borderline, Drug Dependence, and Alcohol Dependence scales at both intake into treatment and discharge. Moderate stability coefficients are found on Basic Personality, Pathological Personality, and Symptom scales. Although some statistically significant mean scale changes between intake and discharge are noted in each sample, few involve change from clinically elevated to below clinical levels.

  5. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Self-defining as sexually abused and adult sexual risk behavior: Results from a cross-sectional survey of women attending an STD clinic

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as having experienced CSA despite meeting objective criteria that CSA occurred. This study sought to determine whether individuals who met research criteria for CSA and who self-defined as sexually abused differed on traumagenic dynamics constructs and current sexual risk behavior from individuals who met research criteria for CSA and who did not self-define as sexually abused. Methods Participants were 481 women recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing childhood sexual experiences and adult sexual risk behavior. Results Of the total sample, 206 (43%) met research criteria for CSA. Of the women meeting research criteria for CSA, 142 (69%) self-defined as sexually abused. Women who met research criteria for CSA reported more traumatic sexualization, more trust of a partner, more powerlessness, less sexual guilt, more episodes of unprotected sex, more sex partners, and greater likelihood of sex trading, compared to women who did not meet research criteria for CSA. Among women meeting research criteria, those who self-defined as sexually abused did not differ from those who did not self-define on any of the traumagenic dynamics constructs or on current sexual risk behavior, controlling for CSA characteristics. Conclusions Individuals who were sexually abused as children by behavioral research criteria are at risk for engaging in sexual risk behavior as adults, regardless of whether or not they perceive the experience to be CSA. Future research is needed to understand how non-definers perceive these childhood sexual experiences. PMID:21620162

  7. Prescription opioid abuse, chronic pain, and primary care: a Co-occurring Disorders Clinic in the chronic disease model.

    PubMed

    Pade, Patricia A; Cardon, Karen E; Hoffman, Richard M; Geppert, Cynthia M A

    2012-12-01

    Abuse of opioids has become a public health crisis. The historic separation between the addiction and pain communities and a lack of training in medical education have made treatment difficult to provide, especially in primary care. The Co-occurring Disorders Clinic (COD) was established to treat patients with co-morbid chronic pain and addiction. This retrospective chart review reports results of a quality improvement project using buprenorphine/naloxone to treat co-occurring chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and opioid dependence in a primary care setting. Data were collected for 143 patients who were induced with buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) between June 2009 and November 2011. Ninety-three patients (65%) continued to be maintained on the medication and seven completed treatment and were no longer taking any opioid (5%). Pain scores showed a modest, but statistically significant improvement on BUP/NLX, which was contrary to our expectations and may be an important factor in treatment retention for this challenging population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. GunderKids: Design of a Clinical Care Management Program for Parents With Substance Abuse and Their Newborn Children with a Focus on Preventing Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Budzak-Garza, Ann E; Allmon Dixson, Allison L; Holzer, Renee A; Lillard-Pierce, Kaitlin E; Devine, Carolynn J

    2018-03-01

    In response to an increased need to care for babies born to mothers with substance abuse issues, we developed GunderKids, a care management program that provides integrated medical care beyond standard-of-care, well-child appointments for these socially complex families. The program incorporates frequent visits to the pediatrician and the care team, which includes pediatric nurses, a pediatric social worker, and a child psychologist. Enrollment is voluntary. Each visit addresses parenting challenges, home environment, basic needs, safety issues, and maintenance of sobriety, as well as child development and health issues. We found that mothers and fathers (or parents) welcome intense support following delivery, appreciate the relationship that is built with the care team, and prefer frequent visits at the medical center over in-home visits, which they perceive as potentially intrusive. We describe here the planning and implementation of the program, as well as insights gained in our first year. Copyright© Wisconsin Medical Society.

  9. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms ...

  10. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  11. Examining the effectiveness of home-based parent aide services to reduce risk for physical child abuse and neglect: six-month findings from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Neil B; Tabone, Jiyoung K; Bryan, George M; Taylor, Catherine A; Napoleon-Hanger, Cynthia; Banman, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    This study set out to carry out a feasible, real-world, randomized clinical trial to examine the benefits of home-based paraprofessional parent aide services in reducing physical abuse and neglect risk in high-risk parents. Families were randomly assigned to receive either parent aide plus case management services (n = 73) or case management services only (n = 65), collecting in-home data on physical child abuse and neglect and proximal risk and protective factors, just prior to service initiation, and again after six months of services. Mothers receiving parent aide and case management services reported significant improvements from baseline to six-month follow-up in self-reported indicators of physical child abuse risk, as well as improvements on parental stress, mastery, depression, and anxiety, whereas mothers receiving only case management services did not. The slopes of such observed changes across groups, however, were not found to be statistically significantly different. No discernable improvements were found with regard to indicators of risk for child neglect. As the first randomized clinical trial examining the effectiveness of parent aide services, this study provides the first controlled evidence examining the potential benefits of this service modality. This study suggests promising trends regarding the benefit of parent aide services with respect to physical child abuse risk reduction and related predictors, but evidence does not appear to suggest that such services, as they are presently delivered, reduce child neglect. These findings support the continued use of parent aide services in cases of physical child abuse and also suggest careful consideration of the ways such services may be better configured to extend their impact, particularly with respect to child neglect risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Susukida, Ryoko; Crum, Rosa M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ebnesajjad, Cyrus; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    To compare the characteristics of individuals participating in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) with individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings, and to provide a summary quantitative measure of differences between characteristics of these two groups of individuals using propensity score methods. Design Analyses using data from RCT samples from the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and target populations of patients drawn from the Treatment Episodes Data Set-Admissions (TEDS-A). Settings Multiple clinical trial sites and nation-wide usual SUD treatment settings in the United States. A total of 3592 individuals from 10 CTN samples and 1 602 226 individuals selected from TEDS-A between 2001 and 2009. Measurements The propensity scores for enrolling in the RCTs were computed based on the following nine observable characteristics: sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, employment status, marital status, admission to treatment through criminal justice, intravenous drug use and the number of prior treatments. Findings The proportion of those with ≥ 12 years of education and the proportion of those who had full-time jobs were significantly higher among RCT samples than among target populations (in seven and nine trials, respectively, at P < 0.001). The pooled difference in the mean propensity scores between the RCTs and the target population was 1.54 standard deviations and was statistically significant at P < 0.001. In the United States, individuals recruited into randomized controlled trials of substance use disorder treatments appear to be very different from individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings. Notably, RCT participants tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in usual care settings. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Data Share Project: Website Design, Usage, Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Hu, Lian; Allen, Colleen; Frasketi, Michael; Wu, Li-Tzy; VanVeldhuisen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The are many benefits of data sharing, including the promotion of new research from effective use of existing data, replication of findings through re-analysis of pooled data files, meta-analysis using individual patient data, and reinforcement of open scientific inquiry. A randomized controlled trial is considered as the “gold standard” for establishing treatment effectiveness, but clinical trial research is very costly and sharing data is an opportunity to expand the investment of the clinical trial beyond its original goals at minimal costs. Purpose We describe the goals, developments, and usage of the Data Share website (www.ctndatashare.org) for the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in the US, including lessons learned, limitations and major revisions and considerations for future directions to improve data sharing. Methods Data management and programming procedures were conducted to produce uniform and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant de-identified research data files from the completed trials of the CTN for archiving, managing, and sharing on the Data Share website. Results Since its inception in 2006 and through October 2012, nearly 1700 downloads from 27 clinical trials have been accessed from the Data Share website, with the use increasing over the years. Individuals from 31 countries have downloaded data from the website, and there have been at least 13 publications derived from analyzing data through the public Data Share website. Limitations Minimal control over data requests and usage has resulted in little information and lack of control regarding how the data from the website are used. Lack of uniformity in data elements collected across CTN trials has limited cross-study analyses. Conclusions The Data Share website offers researchers easy access to deidentified data files with the goal to promote additional research and identify new findings from completed CTN studies. To

  14. The national drug abuse treatment clinical trials network data share project: website design, usage, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Hu, Lian; Allen, Colleen; Frasketi, Michael; Wu, Li-Tzy; Vanveldhuisen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There are many benefits of data sharing, including the promotion of new research from effective use of existing data, replication of findings through re-analysis of pooled data files, meta-analysis using individual patient data, and reinforcement of open scientific inquiry. A randomized controlled trial is considered as the 'gold standard' for establishing treatment effectiveness, but clinical trial research is very costly, and sharing data is an opportunity to expand the investment of the clinical trial beyond its original goals at minimal costs. We describe the goals, developments, and usage of the Data Share website (http://www.ctndatashare.org) for the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in the United States, including lessons learned, limitations, and major revisions, and considerations for future directions to improve data sharing. Data management and programming procedures were conducted to produce uniform and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant de-identified research data files from the completed trials of the CTN for archiving, managing, and sharing on the Data Share website. Since its inception in 2006 and through October 2012, nearly 1700 downloads from 27 clinical trials have been accessed from the Data Share website, with the use increasing over the years. Individuals from 31 countries have downloaded data from the website, and there have been at least 13 publications derived from analyzing data through the public Data Share website. Minimal control over data requests and usage has resulted in little information and lack of control regarding how the data from the website are used. Lack of uniformity in data elements collected across CTN trials has limited cross-study analyses. The Data Share website offers researchers easy access to de-identified data files with the goal to promote additional research and identify new findings from completed CTN studies. To maximize the utility of the website

  15. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Lori J.; Chandler, Redonna K.; Harris, Alex H. S.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. PMID:26233697

  16. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  18. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  19. Cigarette Smoking During Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Secondary Outcomes from a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Meichen; Winhusen, Theresa; Vandrey, Ryan G; Ruglass, Lesia M; Covey, Lirio S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kyle, Tiffany L; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-06-01

    The majority of patients enrolled in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) also use tobacco. Many will continue to use tobacco even during abstinence from other drugs and alcohol, often leading to smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess the influence of being a smoker on SUD treatment outcomes and changes in smoking during a treatment episode. In this secondary analysis, cigarette smoking was evaluated in participants completing outpatient SUD treatment as part of a multi-site study conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Analyses included the assessment of changes in smoking and nicotine dependence via the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence during the 12-week study among all smokers (aim #1), specifically among those in the experimental treatment group (aim #2), and the moderating effect of being a smoker on treatment outcomes (aim #3). Participants generally did not reduce or quit smoking throughout the course of the study. Among a sub-set of participants with higher baseline nicotine dependence scores randomized to the control arm, scores at the end of treatment were lower compared to the experimental arm, though measures of smoking quantity did not appear to decrease. Further, being a smoker was associated with poorer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers enrolled in the trial. This study provides evidence that patients enrolled in community-based SUD treatment continue to smoke, even when abstaining from drugs and alcohol. These results add to the growing literature encouraging the implementation of targeted, evidence-based interventions to promote abstinence from tobacco among SUD treatment patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Substance Use, Depression and Sociodemographic Determinants of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Patients.

    PubMed

    Tross, Susan; Feaster, Daniel J; Thorens, Gabriel; Duan, Rui; Gomez, Zoilyn; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei Chen; Kyle, Tiffany; Erickson, Sarah; Spector, Anya; Haynes, Louise; Metsch, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    The NIDA Clinical Trials Network trial of rapid HIV testing/counseling in 1281 patients was a unique opportunity to examine relationships among substance use, depressive symptoms, and sex risk behavior. Past 6-month substance use; substance use severity (Drug Abuse Screening Test - 10); depressive symptoms (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology); and three types of sex risk behavior (unprotected sex occasions [USOs] with primary partners; USOs with nonprimary partners; and USOs while high/drunk) were assessed. Zero-inflated negative binomial analyses provided: probability and rate of sex risk behavior (in risk behavior subsample). Levels of sexual risk behavior were high, while variable across the three types of sex risk behaviors. Among the patients, 50.4% had engaged in USOs with primary partners, 42% in sex while drunk or high, and 23.8% in USOs with nonprimary partners. Similar factors were significantly associated with all three types of sex risk behaviors. For all types, problem drinking, cocaine use, and substance use severity had an exacerbating effect. Older age was associated with lower risk behavior; other relationship categories (eg, married, separated/divorced, cohabitating) were associated with greater risk behavior than was single status. Depressive symptoms were associated with decreased likelihood of USOs with a primary partner. Sexual risk behavior is common among individuals in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Results highlight problem drinking (eg, up to three-fold) and cocaine (eg, up to twice) in increasing sex risk behavior. They demonstrate the utility of distinguishing between partner types and presence/absence of alcohol/drugs during sex. Findings argue for the need to integrate sex risk reduction into drug treatment.

  1. Stimulant abuser groups to engage in 12-step: a multisite trial in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Dennis M; Daley, Dennis C; Brigham, Gregory S; Hodgkins, Candace C; Perl, Harold I; Garrett, Sharon B; Doyle, Suzanne R; Floyd, Anthony S; Knox, Patricia C; Botero, Christopher; Kelly, Thomas M; Killeen, Therese K; Hayes, Carole; Kau'i Baumhofer, Nicole; Kau'ibaumhofer, Nicole; Seamans, Cindy; Zammarelli, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week combined group plus individual 12-step facilitative intervention on stimulant drug use and 12-step meeting attendance and service. Multisite randomized controlled trial, with assessments at baseline, mid-treatment, end of treatment, and 3- and 6-month post-randomization follow-ups (FUs). Intensive outpatient substance treatment programs. Individuals with stimulant use disorders (n = 471) randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU into which the Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12) intervention was integrated. Urinalysis and self-reports of substance use and 12-step attendance and activities. Group sessions focused on increasing acceptance of 12-step principles; individual sessions incorporated an intensive referral procedure connecting participants to 12-step volunteers. Compared with TAU, STAGE-12 participants had significantly greater odds of self-reported stimulant abstinence during the active 8-week treatment phase; however, among those who had not achieved abstinence during this period, STAGE-12 participants had more days of use. STAGE-12 participants had lower Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite scores at and a significant reduction from baseline to the 3-month FU, attended 12-step meetings on a greater number of days during the early phase of active treatment, engaged in more other types of 12-step activities throughout the active treatment phase and the entire FU period, and had more days of self-reported service at meetings from mid-treatment through the 6-month FU. The present findings are mixed with respect to the impact of integrating the STAGE-12 intervention into intensive outpatient drug treatment compared with TAU on stimulant drug use. However, the results more clearly indicate that individuals in STAGE-12 had higher rates of 12-step meeting attendance and were engaged in more related activities throughout both the active treatment phase and the entire 6-month FU

  2. Prevalence and management of lower urinary tract symptoms in methamphetamine abusers: an under-recognized clinical identity.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jang Hwan; Rha, Koon Ho; Chung, Byung Ha; Hong, Sung Joon; Mah, Sang Yol

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in a cohort of methamphetamine abusers, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of α-blockers and anticholinergics. From May 2011 to March 2013, 78 male methamphetamine abusers diagnosed with methamphetamine addiction were identified at the National Forensic Hospital, Korea. The I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) with consultation was used to investigate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, defined as total I-PSS 8 or greater and quality of life index score of 2 or greater. These values for methamphetamine abusers were compared to those of 71 age matched controls. α-Blockers and anticholinergics were administered to methamphetamine abusers with lower urinary tract symptoms according to predominant voiding and storage symptoms based on voiding-to-storage subscore ratios. For methamphetamine abusers with no response, defined as a reduction of 4 or less in total I-PSS, an alternative drug or combination was administered. Efficacy was assessed based on a 4-week interval. The median periods of methamphetamine abuse and abstinence were 18.1 years and 5.7 months, respectively. Methamphetamine abusers showed a higher prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms compared to controls (77% vs 15%, p <0.001), with higher I-PSS and quality of life index score (13.3 vs 5.6 and 2.9 vs 0.9, respectively; p <0.001). Anticholinergics showed the greatest effect on I-PSS reduction with overall response rates for α-blockers, anticholinergics and combinations of 13%, 61% and 14%, respectively. Seven (12%) methamphetamine abusers did not respond to any therapy. Lower urinary tract symptoms were highly prevalent among methamphetamine abusers. Our results imply that pathological dopaminergic mechanisms have a role in methamphetamine associated lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, first line anticholinergics and prompt combination with α-blockers conferred the most therapeutic benefit to nonresponders

  3. Meta-analyses of seven of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's principles of drug addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Frank S; Prendergast, Michael L; Podus, Deborah; Vazan, Peter; Greenwell, Lisa; Hamilton, Zachary

    2012-07-01

    Of the 13 principles of drug addiction treatment disseminated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 7 were meta-analyzed as part of the Evidence-based Principles of Treatment (EPT) project. By averaging outcomes over the diverse programs included in the EPT, we found that 5 of the NIDA principles examined are supported: matching treatment to the client's needs, attending to the multiple needs of clients, behavioral counseling interventions, treatment plan reassessment, and counseling to reduce risk of HIV. Two of the NIDA principles are not supported: remaining in treatment for an adequate period and frequency of testing for drug use. These weak effects could be the result of the principles being stated too generally to apply to the diverse interventions and programs that exist or unmeasured moderator variables being confounded with the moderators that measured the principles. Meta-analysis should be a standard tool for developing principles of effective treatment for substance use disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Socio-demographic and clinical profile of substance abuse patients admitted to an emergency department in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avci, Sema; Sarikaya, Ridvan; Kavak, Nezih; Özmen, Fatma Nihal; Aydin, Macit; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Büyükcam, Fatih

    2017-01-16

    Illicit drug abuse is an important health problem around the world. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug, followed by amphetamines, opioids, and cocaine. In this study, we searched the socio-demographic features of drug abusers admitted to an emergency department. The study was performed in the emergency department of an education and training hospital in Ankara, Turkey. The socio-demographic features, substances commonly consumed, and the reason for the patients' presentation were recorded. The mean age of patients was 28.3±9.2. Of those under study, 93.3% were male; 68.7% were discharged from the emergency department after a short observation period; and 10.4% were hospitalized. The median age of the patients' first experience with illicit substances was 19 (4-56). Illicit drug use remains a significant medical health problem, not only in Turkey but also around the world. Abusers frequently seek emergency services, complaining of various symptoms, but generally do not mention their substance abuse. Emergency physicians must ask patients if they use abuse drugs.

  5. Noninvasive assessment of the risk of tobacco abuse in oral mucosa using fluorescence spectroscopy: a clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Asish, Rajashekharan; Venugopal, Chandrashekharan; Anita, Balan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco abuse and alcoholism cause cancer, emphysema, and heart disease, which contribute to high death rates, globally. Society pays a significant cost for these habits whose first demonstration in many cases is in the oral cavity. Oral cavity disorders are highly curable if a screening procedure is available to diagnose them in the earliest stages. The aim of the study is to identify the severity of tobacco abuse, in oral cavity, as reflected by the emission from endogenous fluorophores and the chromophore hemoglobin. A group who had no tobacco habits and another with a history of tobacco abuse were included in this study. To compare the results with a pathological condition, a group of leukoplakia patients were also included. Emission from porphyrin and the spectral filtering modulation effect of hemoglobin were collected from different sites. Multivariate analysis strengthened the spectral features with a sensitivity of 60% to 100% and a specificity of 76% to 100% for the discrimination. Total hemoglobin and porphyrin levels of habitués and leukoplakia groups were comparable, indicating the alarming situation about the risk of tobacco abuse. Results prove that fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis is an effective noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of pathological changes due to tobacco abuse.

  6. Mental health and substance abuse characteristics among a clinical sample of urban American Indian/Alaska native youths in a large California metropolitan area: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Johnson, Carrie L

    2012-02-01

    This study analyzes descriptive data among a clinical sample of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youths receiving mental health services in a large California metropolitan area. Among 118 urban AI/AN youths, mood disorders (41.5%) and adjustment disorder (35.4%) were the most common mental health diagnoses. Alcohol (69.2%) and marijuana (50.0%) were the most commonly used substances. Witnessing domestic violence (84.2%) and living with someone who had a substance abuse problem (64.7%) were reported. The majority of patients demonstrated various behavior and emotional problems. Enhancing culturally relevant mental health and substance abuse treatment and prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is suggested.

  7. Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee

    2014-04-04

    This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N = 494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. NCT01104805.

  8. Improving the healthcare response to domestic violence and abuse in sexual health clinics: feasibility study of a training, support and referral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Alex Hardip; Pathak, Neha; Blake, Sarah; Apea, Vanessa; Berry, Judith; Bailey, Jayne; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Sexual health and gynaecological problems are the most consistent and largest physical health differences between abused and non-abused female populations. Sexual health services are well placed to identify and support patients experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA). Most sexual health professionals have had minimal DVA training despite English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations. We sought to determine the feasibility of an evidence-based complex DVA training intervention in female sexual health walk-in services (IRIS ADViSE: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety whilst Assessing Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments). Methods An adaptive mixed method pilot study in the female walk-in service of two sexual health clinics. Following implementation and evaluation at site 1, the intervention was refined before implementation at site 2. The intervention comprised electronic prompts, multidisciplinary training sessions, clinic materials and simple referral pathways to IRIS ADViSE advocate-educators (AEs). The pilot lasted 7 weeks at site 1 and 12 weeks at site 2. Feasibility outcomes were to assign a supportive DVA clinical lead, an IRIS ADViSE AE employed by a local DVA service provider, adapt electronic records, develop local referral pathways, assess whether enquiry, identification and referral rates were measurable. Results Both sites achieved all feasibility outcomes: appointing a supportive DVA clinical lead and IRIS ADViSE AE, establishing links with a local DVA provider, adapting electronic records, developing local referral pathways and rates of enquiry, identification and referral were found to be measurable. Site 1: 10% enquiry rate (n=267), 4% identification rate (n=16) and eight AE referrals. Site 2: 61% enquiry rate (n=1090), a 7% identification rate (n=79) and eight AE referrals. Conclusions IRIS ADViSE can be successfully developed and implemented in sexual health clinics. It fulfils

  9. Effects of lower-cost incentives on stimulant abstinence in methadone maintenance treatment: a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    PubMed

    Peirce, Jessica M; Petry, Nancy M; Stitzer, Maxine L; Blaine, Jack; Kellogg, Scott; Satterfield, Frank; Schwartz, Marion; Krasnansky, Joe; Pencer, Eileen; Silva-Vazquez, Lolita; Kirby, Kimberly C; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Roll, John M; Cohen, Allan; Copersino, Marc L; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2006-02-01

    Contingency management interventions that provide tangible incentives based on objective indicators of drug abstinence have improved treatment outcomes of substance abusers, but have not been widely implemented in community drug abuse treatment settings. To compare outcomes achieved when a lower-cost prize-based contingency management treatment is added to usual care in community methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment settings. Random assignment to usual care with (n = 198) or without (n = 190) abstinence incentives during a 12-week trial. Six community-based methadone maintenance drug abuse treatment clinics in locations across the United States. Three hundred eighty-eight stimulant-abusing patients enrolled in methadone maintenance programs for at least 1 month and no more than 3 years. Participants submitting stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples earned draws for a chance to win prizes; the number of draws earned increased with continuous abstinence time. Total number of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples provided, percentage of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples provided, longest duration of abstinence, retention, and counseling attendance. Submission of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples was twice as likely for incentive as for usual care group participants (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-2.77). Achieving 4 or more, 8 or more, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was approximately 3, 9, and 11 times more likely, respectively, for incentive vs usual care participants. Groups did not differ on study retention or counseling attendance. The average cost of prizes was 120 dollars per participant. An abstinence incentive approach that paid 120 dollars in prizes per participant effectively increased stimulant abstinence in community-based methadone maintenance treatment clinics.

  10. Behaviour among children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway, as assessed by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).

    PubMed

    Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbaek, Morten; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2013-06-01

    A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment is given without substitution. This investigation assesses the behaviour of the children between the ages 6 and 13 years of women who attended the clinic. It also explores the correlation between the behaviour and a neuropsychological screening performed one and a half year earlier. The study was set up to investigate the influence of prenatal substance exposure. Thirty-eight SCWC children and 63 children in a comparison group were scored by Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). Twenty-one (55%) SCWC mothers were classed as short-term users (ceased substance abuse before the end of first trimester), and 17 (45%) were classed as long-term users (continued a moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy). Thirteen (77%) of the children of the long-term users were living in foster homes at the time of the investigation. SCWC children were scored within normal ranges for most items, but their scores were significantly worse than those of the comparison group. Children of short-term users were given lower scores than comparisons on more issues in CBCL than were children of long-term users. The SCWC children were breastfed for a shorter time (p = 0.023) and had moved house more often (p < 0.001) than comparisons. SCWC children living with their biological mothers received more special education or remedial classes (p ≤ 0.001) than children of the comparisons. Most children of long-term users were living in foster homes. Notably, children of short-term users, that is, children living with their biological mothers, were given lower scores than comparisons in CBCL. Children of short-term users were more likely to receive special education than children of comparisons. More research is needed on how to reveal parenting problems and how to guide mothers with previous or present substance abuse problems. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Self Concept of Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)

  12. Further Understanding the Systemic Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Two Groups of Clinical Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Briana S.; Wampler, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    Study compared female childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and their male partners with a group of couples reporting no CSA. Both female CSA survivors and their partners reported higher symptoms of stress, suggesting support for the theory of secondary traumatic stress. Relationship impairment results did not support the hypothesis that CSA…

  13. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  14. The Trauma of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth: A Comparison of CSE Victims to Sexual Abuse Victims in a Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny; Lee, Robert; Cohen, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the demographic features, trauma profiles, clinical severity indicators, problem behaviors, and service utilization characteristics of youth victims of commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) compared with a matched sample of sexually abused/assaulted youth who were not exploited in commercial sex. Secondary data analysis and propensity score matching were used to select a sample of 215 help-seeking youth who were exploited in prostitution (n = 43) or who were sexually abused/assaulted but not exploited in prostitution (n = 172) from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN CDS). Propensity Score Matching was used to select a comparison sample based on age, race, ethnicity, and primary residence. Statistically significant differences were noted between the groups on standardized (e.g., UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index [PTSD-RI], Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) and other measures of emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, dissociation, truancy, running away, conduct disorder, sexualized behaviors, and substance abuse). This study provides useful insight into the symptom and service utilization profiles of youth exploited in commercial sex as compared with youth with other types of sexually exploitive experiences. Targeted screening and event-sensitive measures are recommended to more accurately identify youth exploited in commercial sex. More research is needed to determine if and what modifications to trauma therapies may be required to address the more severe symptomatology and behavior problems associated with youth exploited in commercial sex. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  16. Wife Abuse and the Wife Abuser: Review and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carden, Ann D.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on wife abuse/abusers. Presents historical and contextual information, overview of domestic violence, prevalence data, and descriptions of evolution and current status of public and professional awareness and response. Proposes integrative model for understanding etiologic, dynamic, and…

  17. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator.

  18. A Systemic Approach to the Development of a Sexual Abuse Protocol in a Rural Community: An Examination of Social Work Leadership Theory and Practice. Issues in Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Stephen

    The paper presents the multi-factorial problem of sexual abuse of children within their families, provides definitions of relevant terms (incest, sexual abuse, sexual misuse, molestation, sexual assault, rape), reviews the epidemiology of sexual abuse and its effects, and traces development of a Sexual Abuse Resource Team in a rural/resort New…

  19. The Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence Project: Current status, preliminary results and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, NA; Henders, AK; Davenport, TA; Hermens, DF; Wright, MJ; Martin, NG; Hickie, IB

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS) in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded project Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks. PMID:23187020

  20. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  1. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  2. NIDA for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test Your Knowledge Tech-wise: Discovering Medications by Computer Sleep Is Your Brain’s Best Friend See All Blog Items Activities, Games, and More Addiction Science Award Videos About Us Accessibility FOIA NIH Home ...

  3. Improving the healthcare response to domestic violence and abuse in sexual health clinics: feasibility study of a training, support and referral intervention.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Alex Hardip; Pathak, Neha; Blake, Sarah; Apea, Vanessa; Berry, Judith; Bailey, Jayne; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene

    2018-03-01

    Sexual health and gynaecological problems are the most consistent and largest physical health differences between abused and non-abused female populations. Sexual health services are well placed to identify and support patients experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA). Most sexual health professionals have had minimal DVA training despite English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations. We sought to determine the feasibility of an evidence-based complex DVA training intervention in female sexual health walk-in services (IRIS ADViSE: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety whilst Assessing Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments). An adaptive mixed method pilot study in the female walk-in service of two sexual health clinics. Following implementation and evaluation at site 1, the intervention was refined before implementation at site 2. The intervention comprised electronic prompts, multidisciplinary training sessions, clinic materials and simple referral pathways to IRIS ADViSE advocate-educators (AEs). The pilot lasted 7 weeks at site 1 and 12 weeks at site 2. Feasibility outcomes were to assign a supportive DVA clinical lead, an IRIS ADViSE AE employed by a local DVA service provider, adapt electronic records, develop local referral pathways, assess whether enquiry, identification and referral rates were measurable. Both sites achieved all feasibility outcomes: appointing a supportive DVA clinical lead and IRIS ADViSE AE, establishing links with a local DVA provider, adapting electronic records, developing local referral pathways and rates of enquiry, identification and referral were found to be measurable. Site 1: 10% enquiry rate (n=267), 4% identification rate (n=16) and eight AE referrals. Site 2: 61% enquiry rate (n=1090), a 7% identification rate (n=79) and eight AE referrals. IRIS ADViSE can be successfully developed and implemented in sexual health clinics. It fulfils the unmet need for DVA training. Longer

  4. Vaccines for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Orson, Frank M; Kinsey, Berma M; Singh, Rana A K; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by antibodies, thereby reducing its entry into the central nervous system and thus its pharmacological effects. The effectiveness of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics is a function of both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies, and this combination will determine the success of the clinical applications of anti-cocaine vaccines in helping addicts discontinue cocaine abuse. This review will discuss these issues and present the current developmental status of cocaine conjugate vaccines.

  5. Intoxication by gamma hydroxybutyrate and related analogues: Clinical characteristics and comparison between pure intoxication and that combined with other substances of abuse.

    PubMed

    Miró, Òscar; Galicia, Miguel; Dargan, Paul; Dines, Alison M; Giraudon, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut E; Yates, Christopher; Wood, David M; Liakoni, Evangelia; Liechti, Matthias; Jürgens, Gesche; Pedersen, Carsten Boe; O'Connor, Niall; Markey, Gerard; Moughty, Adrian; Lee, Christopher; O'Donohoe, Patrick; Sein Anand, Jacek; Puiguriguer, Jordi; Homar, Catalina; Eyer, Florian; Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Persett, Per Sverre; Chevillard, Lucie; Mégarbane, Bruno; Paasma, Raido; Waring, W Stephen; Põld, Kristiina; Rabe, Christian; Kabata, Piotr Maciej

    2017-08-05

    To study the profile of European gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gammabutyrolactone (GBL) intoxication and analyse the differences in the clinical manifestations produced by intoxication by GHB/GBL alone and in combination with other substances of abuse. We prospectively collected data on all the patients attended in the Emergency Departments (ED) of the centres participating in the Euro-DEN network over 12 months (October 2013 to September 2014) with a primary presenting complaint of drug intoxication (excluding ethanol alone) and registered the epidemiological and clinical data and outcomes. We included 710 cases (83% males, mean age 31 years), representing 12.6% of the total cases attended for drug intoxication. Of these, 73.5% arrived at the ED by ambulance, predominantly during weekend, and 71.7% consumed GHB/GBL in combination with other substances of abuse, the most frequent additional agents being ethanol (50%), amphetamine derivatives (36%), cocaine (12%) and cannabis (8%). Among 15 clinical features pre-defined in the project database, the 3 most frequently identified were altered behaviour (39%), reduced consciousness (34%) and anxiety (14%). The severity ranged from mild cases requiring no treatment (308 cases, 43.4%) to severe cases requiring admission to intensive care (103 cases, 14.6%) and mechanical ventilation (49 cases, 6.9%). No deaths were reported. In comparison with only GHB/GBL consumption, patients consuming GHB/GBL with co-intoxicants presented more vomiting (15% vs. 3%, p<0.001) and cardiovascular symptoms (5.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.05), a greater need for treatment (59.8% vs. 48.3%, p<0.01) and a longer ED stay (11.3% vs. 3.6% patients with ED stay >12h, p<0.01). The profile of the typical GHB/GBL-intoxicated European is a young male, requiring care for altered behaviour and reduced level of consciousness, mainly during the weekend. The clinical features are more severe when GHB is consumed in combination with other substances of abuse

  6. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  7. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  8. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part I: diagnosis and assessment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Debate has ensued regarding the appropriate assessment and diagnosis for school-age children who display severe behavioral problems as a result of previous abuse and neglect within the primary attachment relationship. The current nomenclature recognizes reactive attachment disorder and some clinicians have suggested broader categories of attachment disorder. These attempts at classification are often criticized on empirical grounds; however, often lost in these criticisms is the fact that that these diagnostic approaches often misapply attachment theory and research. This article summarizes the original contributions of John Bowlby and other attachment researchers to our understanding of child development, examines misguided attempts to apply attachment theory to the diagnosis and assessment of maltreated children, and offers a diagnostic conceptualization and assessment recommendations consistent with the available attachment research.

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Behavioral Couples Therapy versus Individually-Based Treatment for Drug Abusing Women

    PubMed Central

    O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.; Murphy, Marie M.; Muchowski, Patrice M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance and relationship outcomes among patients with substance use disorder (SUD). This study compared BCT with IBT for drug-abusing women. Method Sixty-one women, mostly White, late thirties, with primary SUD other than alcohol (74% opioid diagnosis), and male partners were randomized to 26 sessions over 13-weeks of BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT (i.e. BCT+IBT) or IBT. Substance-related outcomes: percentage days abstinent (PDA), percentage days drug use (PDDU), Inventory of Drug Use Consequences. Relationship outcomes: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and days separated. Data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and quarterly for 1-yr follow-up. Results On PDA, PDDU, and substance-related problems, both BCT+IBT and IBT patients showed significant (p < .01) large effect size improvements throughout the 1-yr follow-up (d > .8 for most time periods). BCT+IBT showed a significant (p < .001) large effect size (d = −.85) advantage versus IBT on fewer substance-related problems, while BCT+IBT and IBT did not differ on PDA or PDDU (p’s > .47). On relationship outcomes, compared to IBT, BCT+IBT had significantly higher male-reported DAS (p < .001, d = .57) and fewer days separated (p = .01, d = −.47) throughout the 1-yr follow-up. Conclusion BCT+IBT for drug-abusing women was more efficacious than IBT in improving relationship satisfaction and preventing relationship break-up. On substance use and substance-related problems, women receiving both treatments substantially improved, and women receiving BCT+IBT had fewer substance-related problems than IBT. PMID:28333533

  10. A randomized clinical trial of behavioral couples therapy versus individually-based treatment for drug-abusing women.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Timothy J; Schumm, Jeremiah A; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice M

    2017-04-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance and relationship outcomes among substance use disorder patients. This study compared BCT with IBT for drug-abusing women. Sixty-one women, mostly White, late 30s, with primary substance use disorder other than alcohol (74% opioid), and male partners were randomized to 26 sessions over 13 weeks of BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT (i.e., BCT + IBT) or IBT. Substance-related outcomes were percentage days abstinent (PDA), percentage days drug use (PDDU), Inventory of Drug Use Consequences. Relationship outcomes were Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), days separated. Data were collected at baseline, posttreatment, and quarterly for 1-year follow-up. On PDA, PDDU, and substance-related problems, both BCT + IBT and IBT patients showed significant (p < .01) large effect size improvements throughout 1-year follow-up (d > .8 for most time periods). BCT + IBT showed a significant (p < .001) large effect size (d = -.85) advantage versus IBT on fewer substance-related problems, while BCT + IBT and IBT did not differ on PDA or PDDU (ps > .47). On relationship outcomes, compared to IBT, BCT + IBT had significantly higher male-reported Dyadic Adjustment Scale (p < .001, d = .57) and fewer days separated (p = .01, d = -.47) throughout 1-year follow-up. BCT + IBT for drug-abusing women was more efficacious than IBT in improving relationship satisfaction and preventing relationship breakup. On substance use and substance-related problems, women receiving both treatments substantially improved, and women receiving BCT + IBT had fewer substance-related problems than IBT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Do adjusted clinical groups eliminate incentives for HMOs to avoid substance abusers? Evidence from the Maryland Medicaid HealthChoice program.

    PubMed

    Ettner, Susan L; Johnson, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The adequacy of risk adjustment to eliminate incentives for managed care organizations (MCOs) to avoid enrolling costly patients had been questioned. This study explored systematic differences in expenditures between beneficiaries with and without substance disorders assigned to the same capitation rate group under the Maryland Medicaid HealthChoice program. The investigators used fiscal year (FY) 1995 to 1997 Medicaid data to assign beneficiaries to rate cells based on FY 1995 diagnoses and compared the distribution of expenditures for beneficiaries with and without substance disorders, defined using FY 1997 and FY 1995 diagnoses. Results showed that differences in FY 1997 expenditures between beneficiaries with and without FY 1995 substance disorders were negligible. However, MCOs could expect greater average losses and lower average profits on beneficiaries with FY 1997 substance disorders. Thus, the adjusted clinical groups methodology used to adjust capitation payments in the HealthChoice program attenuated, but did not eliminate, financial incentives for MCOs to avoid substance abusers.

  12. [Early drop-outs and retentions in substance abuse outpatient clinics: a cross-sectional comparative study of factors that increase or decrease adherence].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Fran; Carbonell, Xavier; Valero, Ramón; Costa, Jordi; Turró, Oriol; Giralt, Cristina; Ramírez, Marissa

    2017-08-23

    The aim of this study is to define the risk factors associated with early discharge in out-patients clinics. Cross-sectional and observational study. Substance abuse clinics in Girona (Catalonia, Spain). A total of 264 individuals were included in the sample, and 34.8% of them abandoned the process within two months of starting the therapy (n=92). Clinical and socio-demographic variables of the clinical history were compared between participants with/without adherence. The Student t test was used to measure the comparison, and the chi-squared test was used for the analysis of qualitative variables. A binary logistic regression model was adjusted, with adherence as the dependent variable. The results indicated that attending the appointments unaccompanied (OR=3.13), being female (OR=2.44), having cocaine related issues (OR=1.14), and being younger (OR=0.89) are the factors which increase the risk early abandonment. Contrarily, being referred to specialists from a Primary Health Centre reduces the risk (OR=0.28). It is concluded that special attention must be devoted to the patients' families, women, and young patients. Moreover, the appropriate coordination between specialist services and basic services increases adherence to treatment among drug users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... advice. loveisrespect.org : 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline : 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) National Sexual ... Rape National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence If you’re concerned about abusive relationships, here’s ...

  14. How Does Heroin Use Affect Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... adverse events. 26 Mothers' Buprenorphine Treatment During Pregnancy Benefits Infants A NIDA-funded clinical trial 24 found ... Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Chil... Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for ...

  15. The Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study: Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse, and Dependence project-current status, preliminary results, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Henders, Anjali K; Davenport, Tracy A; Hermens, Daniel F; Wright, Margie J; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B

    2013-02-01

    We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project, Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment, and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail, along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders, and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks.

  16. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse treatment systems. Seeking to expand international research and infrastructure, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s International Program has engaged international investigators and institutions in addiction research to promote dissemination of addiction science globally. This paper presents three mixed-methods case studies to exemplify the use of advancements in evidence-based practice in addiction treatment as guides and tools for the creation or further development of treatment systems in three countries, Vietnam, Lebanon, and Abu Dhabi. Results indicate that a framework of evidence-based medicine and empirical science creates a necessary platform from which objective conversations about addictions may begin. Other facilitative factors that help create treatment programs internationally include: a receptive and supportive government, support from international donors and technical experts, networking and interest from other international organizations, and often a synergistic and concerted effort by multiple entities and partners. Despite substantial differences in the circumstances that generated these initiatives and the varying scope of the services, common themes across these efforts have been the implementation of science-based approaches to systems transformation and support for a public health approach to addressing drug abuse and addiction. PMID:26752803

  17. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  18. Subtypes of cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

    1986-09-01

    We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction.

  19. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. 76 FR 3913 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse... individual investigators. Place: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns... Psychologist, Clinical Pharmacology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse...

  1. Is monogamy or committed relationship status a marker for low sexual risk among men in substance abuse treatment? Clinical and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, Donald A; Campbell, Aimee N; Tross, Susan; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A

    2011-09-01

    HIV prevention interventions often promote monogamy to reduce sexual risk. However, there is little consensus about how to define monogamy. To determine the extent to which recent monogamy and/or being in a committed relationship serve as markers for low sexual risk among men in substance abuse treatment. Participants were 360 men enrolled in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network "Real Men Are Safe" protocol who completed all assessments (baseline, 3 months, and 6 months). Self-reported behaviors included number of sexual partners, type of relationships, frequency of vaginal/anal intercourse, and percentage of condom use. The rate of self-reported monogamy in the prior 90 days was stable across assessments (54.2%, 53.1%, 58.3%). However, at each assessment 7.5-10% of monogamous men identified their partner as a casual partner, and only 123 (34.2%) reported being monogamous at every assessment. Of these, 20 (5.6%) reported being monogamous with different partners across assessments. Men with both committed relationship and casual partners reported more condom use with their committed relationship partners than men with only a committed relationship partner. Clinicians and researchers should consider individual relationship context and behavior and avoid assuming that recent monogamy or being in a committed relationship denotes low risk. This study provides evidence that, in male drug users, monogamy does not necessarily reflect low sexual risk. Rather, "monogamous" men actually encompass various combinations of partner types and levels of risk behavior that are unstable, even over brief time periods. Clinicians and researchers must take these variations into account.

  2. The Many Victims of Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding environments and support systems. In this article, we present a clinical case of opioid dependence and discuss various treatment options and modalities. We will discuss different variables that may maximize positive treatment outcomes. Also a review of the current literature regarding substance abuse treatment, psychotherapy with the drug abuser, and grief therapy should the substance abusing patient die for the surviving family members will be presented. PMID:20532120

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  4. Disrespect, harassment, and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue

    2009-01-01

    address these issues of workplace harassment and abuse in order to protect physician safety and avoid workplace dissatisfaction. Abusive encounters might push family physicians to leave clinical practice prematurely or refuse to work in higher-risk environments, such as emergency departments or rural areas. PMID:19282539

  5. Behavioural consequences of child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  6. Critical care aspects of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanouri, Ibrahim; Dikin, Matthew; Soubani, Ayman O

    2005-03-01

    The authors reviewed MEDLINE and references of major articles in the published literature over the last 30 years regarding the complications of alcohol abuse and discuss the critical care aspects of alcohol abuse. This article discusses the severe medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse that lead to admission to the medical intensive care unit. The clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnostic studies, and management of these conditions are discussed in detail.

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... No child is prepared to cope with repeated sexual stimulation. Even a two or three year old, who ... abuse. Some signs can only be detected on physical exam by a physician. Sexual abuse can also include noncontact abuse, such as ...

  9. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  10. Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School Adolescents: Five-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Nancy A; Jensen, Michaeline; Tein, Jenn Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Dumka, Larry E; Mauricio, Anne Marie

    2018-05-01

    Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample. A previous randomized clinical trial was conducted with 516 Mexican American 7th graders and at least 1 parent who identified as having Mexican origin. Three annual cohorts of families were recruited from rosters of 4 middle schools and randomized to the 9-session Bridges/Puentes family-focused group intervention or a workshop control condition. Recruitment, screening, pretest, and randomization occurred in the same academic year for each cohort: 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006. Data acquisition for the follow-up assessments of late-adolescent alcohol misuse and abuse, which were not included in the initial randomized clinical trial, was conducted from September 2009 to September 2014; analysis was conducted between August 2016 and July 2017. In this assessment, 420 children (81.4%) of the sample were included, when the majority were in their final year of high school. The 9-session Bridges/Puentes intervention integrated youth, parent, and family intervention sessions that were delivered in the spring semester at each school, with separate groups for English-dominant vs Spanish-dominant families. The control workshop was offered during the same semester at each school, also in English and Spanish. Primary outcomes were diagnostic assessment of lifetime alcohol use disorder in the 12th grade, 5 years after the intervention, based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and past-year frequency of alcohol use

  11. The impact of loss to follow-up on hypothesis tests of the treatment effect for several statistical methods in substance abuse clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Sarra L; Woolson, Robert F; Carter, Rickey E; Palesch, Yuko; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Malcolm, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    "Loss to follow-up" can be substantial in substance abuse clinical trials. When extensive losses to follow-up occur, one must cautiously analyze and interpret the findings of a research study. Aims of this project were to introduce the types of missing data mechanisms and describe several methods for analyzing data with loss to follow-up. Furthermore, a simulation study compared Type I error and power of several methods when missing data amount and mechanism varies. Methods compared were the following: Last observation carried forward (LOCF), multiple imputation (MI), modified stratified summary statistics (SSS), and mixed effects models. Results demonstrated nominal Type I error for all methods; power was high for all methods except LOCF. Mixed effect model, modified SSS, and MI are generally recommended for use; however, many methods require that the data are missing at random or missing completely at random (i.e., "ignorable"). If the missing data are presumed to be nonignorable, a sensitivity analysis is recommended.

  12. [The use of triptan in ambulatory medicine in Midi-Pyrénées Region: clinical and pharmacological contra-indications and drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Roussel, Henri; Lo Re, Geneviève; Honorat, Christian; Alonso, Michèle; Sciortino, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Evaluate triptan prescriptions in ambulatory medicine. Collection of medical data from 301 patients treated with triptans reimbursed by the French National Health Fund in the region of Midi-Pyrenees. Ninety-five per cent of selected patients suffered from migraine condition according to the International Headache Society diagnosis criteria [Confidence interval (CI) 95%: 93-98]. Co-morbidity factors contra-indicating triptan therapy were present in 6% of patients (CI 95%: 3-9). 2% of patients were prescribed other medicinal products contra-indicated with their triptan therapy (CI 95%: 0-4). Twenty-six per cent of patients were taking triptan medicines more than 8 times per month over a period of three months (CI 95%: 21-31) and 8% were taking this treatment more than 12 times per month (CI 95%: 5-1 I). Eleven per cent kept written information of their migraine crises (CI 95%: 7-15). Thirty-nine per cent benefited from dedicated prophylactic treatments (CI 95%: 33-45). In a context of sustained increase in prescriptions of migraine treatments, it appears necessary to remain cautious about clinical and pharmacological contra-indications. Prevention of abuse of medicines is based on a better use of crises agendas and introduction of prophylactic therapies.

  13. Prevalence Rate and Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse Among New Psychiatric Outpatients in a City in Northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.

  14. Association of Drug Abuse and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Children born to mothers who used illicit drugs during pregnancy were assessed for subsequent abuse or neglect. Of the 513 children exposed inutero to drugs, 102 were substantiated as abused or neglected. Infants exposed inutero to drugs had a higher than expected risk of subsequent abuse compared to children in the general population. (Author/SW)

  15. Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Medicalization and Legalization of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard

    The authors propose that theoretical confusion and clinical inadequacy regarding child abuse is due, in part, from medical and legal ambiguity concerning child abuse and from dilemmas surrounding social policy and the professional response toward families and children. The dilemmas of social policy (family autonomy versus coercive intervention)…

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ronald S.

    Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…

  18. Organizational and Clinical Implications of Integrating an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Within Non-Substance Abuse Serving Agencies

    PubMed Central

    PATTERSON, DAVID A.; WOLF (ADELV UNEGV WAYA), SILVER; McKIERNAN, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been efforts to advance evidenced-based practices into community-based organizations the limited successes of dissemination and poor implementation of efficacious treatments within these organizations are beginning to be documented. This article builds on the knowledge gained from organizational research and those internal structures (e.g., culture and climate), which possibly impede or enhance evidenced-based practice implementation within community-based organizations. While there are many evidenced-based practices available to human services organizations, there seems to be a gap between research and the implementation of these clinical practices. Recommendations are provided to better enable community-based organizations to integrate evidenced-based practice into its existing service structures. PMID:20799131

  19. Organizational and clinical implications of integrating an alcohol screening and brief intervention within non-substance abuse serving agencies.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; McKiernan, Patrick M

    2010-07-01

    Although there have been efforts to advance evidenced-based practices into community-based organizations the limited successes of dissemination and poor implementation of efficacious treatments within these organizations are beginning to be documented. This article builds on the knowledge gained from organizational research and those internal structures (e.g., culture and climate), which possibly impede or enhance evidenced-based practice implementation within community-based organizations. While there are many evidenced-based practices available to human services organizations, there seems to be a gap between research and the implementation of these clinical practices. Recommendations are provided to better enable community-based organizations to integrate evidenced-based practice into its existing service structures.

  20. [Web Visit Patterns for the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Abuse-Dependence].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Restrepo, Carlos Gómez

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are a set of recommendations for professionals, patients, and families, in order to make decisions about health care. The CPG respond to the need for concise, accurate, practical, and up to date information. In the field of mental health, Colombia has developed three GPC; alcohol (GPC-OH), depression (GPC-TDA), and schizophrenia. To describe the Web Portal traffic related to psychiatry guidelines, with emphasis on the number of visits, distribution throughout Colombian cities, and estimating user behaviour patterns. An evaluation was made of the traffic at the Clinical Practice Guidelines Web Portal of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection between 2013 and 2015 (two years of observation since the inauguration of the Portal). Out of the 45 GPC published on the website, the CPG-OH represented 1.21% of all page views of the Portal. CPG-TDA reached 1.52% (accumulated percentage of 2.73%), being the eighth most consulted guideline, with CPG-OH being number 16. The highest mean monthly number of visits for this group of guideliness was for the CPG-OH for health professionals (353 visits/month), and the lowest was for the CPG-AD for patients and relatives (24 single visits/month). Bogotá D.C. was the city where health carers accessed the guidelines more often. The guidelines for patients and relatives were consulted more in Villavicencio, Cúcuta, Manizales, Pereira, and Pasto. The web portal partially fulfills the purpose of circulating the CPG in Colombia. The visits to the CPG of mental health is quite low, and requires better dissemination strategies that allow the use of information and communication technology. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Medical student abuse: perceptions and experience.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, J A; Kay, J; Rudisill, J R; Bienenfeld, D; Gillig, P; Klykylo, W M; Markert, R J

    1993-07-01

    A questionnaire containing 18 vignettes of common clinical educational situations with potentially abusive treatment of medical students and a 10-item attitude assessment about abusive behaviour were administered to the first- and fourth-year medical students at a mid-west US university medical school. The first- and fourth-year groups did not differ significantly on perceived abusiveness of most of the vignettes, although several of the individual vignettes were perceived significantly differently by the two groups. As hypothesized, the fourth-year students had experienced such situations more frequently. Attitudes towards abusive behaviour did not differ between the two groups. The authors contrast teaching interactions perceived as educationally useful and not abusive with those seen as abusive and not useful and offer explanations for the differences observed. Finally, the possible implications of the results for medical education are discussed.

  3. Long-term outcomes from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; Provost, Scott E; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McDermott, Katherine A; Srisarajivakul, Emily N; Dodd, Dorian R; Dreifuss, Jessica A; McHugh, R Kathryn; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of prescription opioid dependence, longitudinal studies have not examined long-term treatment response. The current study examined outcomes over 42 months in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS). POATS was a multi-site clinical trial lasting up to 9 months, examining different durations of buprenorphine-naloxone plus standard medical management for prescription opioid dependence, with participants randomized to receive or not receive additional opioid drug counseling. A subset of participants (N=375 of 653) enrolled in a follow-up study. Telephone interviews were administered approximately 18, 30, and 42 months after main-trial enrollment. Comparison of baseline characteristics by follow-up participation suggested few differences. At Month 42, much improvement was seen: 31.7% were abstinent from opioids and not on agonist therapy; 29.4% were receiving opioid agonist therapy, but met no symptom criteria for current opioid dependence; 7.5% were using illicit opioids while on agonist therapy; and the remaining 31.4% were using opioids without agonist therapy. Participants reporting a lifetime history of heroin use at baseline were more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence at Month 42 (OR=4.56, 95% CI=1.29-16.04, p<.05). Engagement in agonist therapy was associated with a greater likelihood of illicit-opioid abstinence. Eight percent (n=27/338) used heroin for the first time during follow-up; 10.1% reported first-time injection heroin use. Long-term outcomes for those dependent on prescription opioids demonstrated clear improvement from baseline. However, a subset exhibited a worsening course, by initiating heroin use and/or injection opioid use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Depressive symptoms and suicidality in physically abused children.

    PubMed

    Finzi, R; Ram, A; Shnit, D; Har-Even, D; Tyano, S; Weizman, A

    2001-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and suicidality were assessed in 114 children 6-12 years old, of whom 41 had been physically abused, 38 neglected, and 35 neither abused nor neglected. The physically abused children manifested significantly higher levels of depressive symptomatology and suicidality than did the other two groups. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  5. Abuses against Older Women: Prevalence and Health Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Zink, Therese; Regan, Saundra L.

    2011-01-01

    A clinical sample of 995 community dwelling women aged 55 and older were surveyed by telephone about their experience with psychological/emotional, control, threat, physical, and sexual abuse. Nearly half of the women experienced at least one type of abuse since turning 55. Sizable proportions were victims of repeated abuse, and many experienced…

  6. Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; O'Brien, James G.

    The final report describes the Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse project. The project conference had four major content areas, including: a general introduction to the problem of elder abuse; clinical symptoms of abuse; legal issues; and referral and case management techniques. Training techniques included lectures, group discussion,…

  7. Sexual maturation and control issues among sexually abused and non-abused anorexia patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J; Burns, F

    2000-09-01

    To assess the relative salience of the maintenance of control and the avoidance of sexual maturation as sources of motivation for maintaining pathological eating behaviours among sexually abused anorexic patients. A two-factor mixed experimental design was employed. Three independent groups (sexually abused anorexics (N = 12); non-abused anorexics (N = 9); non-anorexic/non-abused controls (N = 12)) constituted the between-subjects factor. Allocation to abuse/non-abuse group was dependent upon replies to a questionnaire-based measure of unwanted sexual experience. The within-subjects factor comprised three conditions in which words of various colours were presented to participants for colour-naming (Stroop, 1935). The conditions were represented by lists of neutral words, sexual maturation words, and control-related words. Two trials were carried out in each condition and mean response times were measured. Within-group analyses revealed that interference was greater from sexual maturation words than from control-related words among the sexually-abused anorexics, but of equal magnitude among non-abused counterparts. Between-groups analyses found that abused patients experienced marginally greater cognitive interference from sexual maturation words than the non-abused patients. Theoretically, support is offered for elaborated schematic models of cognitive processing. Clinically, treatment interventions may need to pay particular attention to issues of sexual maturation among sexually abused anorexic patients.

  8. Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.

  9. Domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].

    PubMed

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  12. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. I. Long-term effect of childhood sexual abuse and incest with a treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-02

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  13. Cardiac conduction disturbance after loperamide abuse.

    PubMed

    Marraffa, J M; Holland, M G; Sullivan, R W; Morgan, B W; Oakes, J A; Wiegand, T J; Hodgman, M J

    2014-11-01

    Prescription opioid abuse is a major public health concern and an ongoing epidemic in the United States. Loperamide is a widely available and inexpensive over-the-counter antidiarrheal with peripheral mu-opioid receptor activity. Online resources discuss the use of loperamide for the amelioration of withdrawal symptoms or recreational abuse. We describe the clinical course of 5 patients abusing loperamide, 3 of whom had life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. In this observational case series, patients with cardiac arrhythmias or history of loperamide abuse with cardiac arrhythmias were identified; 5 patients were identified and 4 of the 5 patients were seen directly at the bedside. Clinical profile and outcome of patients is reported. We report 5 patients with history of loperamide abuse; 3 of the 5 patients had life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. One of the patients experienced a second life-threatening arrhythmia after he resumed loperamide abuse. Loperamide levels were obtained in 4 of the 5 patients and were at least one order of magnitude greater than therapeutic concentrations. Discontinuation of loperamide resulted in complete resolution of cardiac conduction disturbances. This case series describes several patients with cardiac conduction abnormalities and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias temporally related to loperamide abuse. With the recent efforts to restrict the diversion of prescription opioids, increasing abuse of loperamide as an opioid substitute may be seen. Toxicologists should be aware of these risks and we urge all clinicians to report such cases to FDA Medwatch(®).

  14. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.

  15. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  16. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior Problems in Young Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)

  17. Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study’s methodology (pooled n = 953). As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. There was also considerable variability in abuse rates and characteristics, including severity of abuse, among sexual minority subgroups. To the extent that differences in reports reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity subgroup differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications. PMID:23345571

  18. Oral health sensations associated with illicit drug abuse.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; Chan, B

    2005-02-12

    To investigate oral health sensations (short term oral health effects) associated with illicit drug abuse. In addition, to identify variations in oral health sensations produced by different illicit drugs. Young adults in a drug rehabilitation programme in Hong Kong, China. Self-completed questionnaire about their previous pattern of drug abuse and oral health sensations experienced (recalled). All (119) subjects were poly-drug abusers (abused one or more illicit drugs in the past). Amphetamine-based drugs such as methamphetamine ('speed') and methylenedioxymethamphetine ('ecstasy') were commonly abused. A wide range of oral health sensations were reported on recall of their abuse of illicit drugs; most frequently dry mouth (95%, 113). Types of illicit drugs abused were associated with oral health sensations reported (P < 0.001). 'Ecstasy' abusers more frequently reported chewing (P < 0.001), grinding (P < 0.001), and TMJ tenderness (P < 0.001) compared to non-'ecstasy' abusers. Illicit drug abuse produces many oral health sensations. Types of drugs abused were associated with oral sensations produced. and behavioural effects that may manifest as depression, anxiety, memory loss and various neuropsychotic disorders.(8),(9) In some cases drug abuse can result in death by various means: malignant hyperthermia, internal bleeding, fatal overdosing and through allergic reactions.(10),(11) Likewise, there have been reports on the long term clinical effects of illicit drug abused on oral health.

  19. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide array of psychiatric symptoms. There is little in the literature to differentiate methylphenidate from other stimulants when they are abused. The need for education of all involved with the use of methylphenidate is discussed to help prevent an increasing pattern of methylphenidate abuse. PMID:15014637

  20. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  1. The Clinical Correlates of Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Association between Age at Trauma Onset and Severity of Depression and PTSD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoedl, Aline Ferri; Costa, Mariana Cadrobbi Pupo; Mari, Jair J.; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the age of self-reported sexual abuse occurrence and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms in adulthood. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms as well as for a self-reported history of sexual abuse…

  2. Women who experience domestic violence and women survivors of childhood sexual abuse: a survey of health professionals' attitudes and clinical practice.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Feder, G; Eldridge, S; Chung, W S; Coid, J; Moorey, S

    2001-01-01

    Health professionals do not wish to routinely screen women for a history of domestic violence or childhood sexual abuse. However, over 80% believe that these are significant health care issues. Routine screening should not be prioritised until evidence of benefit has been established. PMID:11407053

  3. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  5. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. The management of abuse: 2. Child abuse.

    PubMed

    Panesear, Jaspel; Sinha, Karen Juggins Sonia; Acharya, Preeti; Jafar, Hima; Bower, Elizabeth J; Harrison, Victoria E; Newton, J Tim

    2006-09-01

    The role of the GDP and the dental team in the recognition and management of child abuse is discussed. Information on the current legislation and protocols for referral are provided. This paper discusses child abuse and offers information and practical advice for the dental team.

  7. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  8. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories among Women with Serious Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…

  9. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  10. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  11. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  12. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  13. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  14. Prevalence of substance abuse and socio-economic differences in substance abuse in an Australian community-dwelling elderly sample

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wendy; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2017-01-01

    A sample of 324 55–90-year-old Australian adults participated in a survey on elderly substance abuse using the Clinical Assessment Scales for the Elderly. Overall, males had a higher prevalence rate of substance abuse than females. Significant differences in substance abuse mean scores were found for gender, age, income, community involvement, and retirement. The findings also reveal that being a female, involved in community groups, being a retiree, and being a non-baby boomer are protective factors of substance abuse. Being an upper medium income earner appears to be a risk factor of substance abuse. PMID:28567302

  15. Evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Nancy D

    2007-06-01

    This report provides guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. The medical assessment is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate ancillary testing. The role of the physician may encompass reporting suspected abuse; assessing the consistency of the explanation, the child's developmental capabilities, and the characteristics of the injury or injuries; and coordination with other professionals to provide immediate and long-term treatment and follow-up for victims. Accurate and timely diagnosis of children who are suspected victims of abuse can ensure appropriate evaluation, investigation, and outcomes for these children and their families.

  16. Comparison and validation of screening tools for substance use in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study conducted in Maryland prenatal clinics.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H; Oga, Emmanuel A; Peters, Erica N; Trocin, Kathleen; Koszowski, Bartosz; Mark, Katrina

    2018-02-17

    Prescription-drug use in the USA has increased by more than 60% in the last three decades. Prevalence of prescription-drug use among pregnant women is currently estimated around 50%. Prevalence of illicit drug use in the USA is 14.6% among pregnant adolescents, 8.6% among pregnant young adults and 3.2% among pregnant adults. The first step in identifying problematic drug use during pregnancy is screening; however, no specific substance-use screener has been universally recommended for use with pregnant women to identify illicit or prescription-drug use. This study compares and validates three existing substance-use screeners for pregnancy-4 P's Plus, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Quick Screen/Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy (SURP-P) scale. This is a cross-sectional study designed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and usability of existing substance-use screeners. Recruitment occurs at two obstetrics clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We are recruiting 500 participants to complete a demographic questionnaire, NIDA Quick Screen/ASSIST, 4 P's Plus and SURP-P (ordered randomly) during their regularly scheduled prenatal appointment, then again 1 week later by telephone. Participants consent to multidrug urine testing, hair drug testing and allowing access to prescription drug and birth outcome data from electronic medical records. For each screener, reliability and validity will be assessed. Test-retest reliability analysis will be conducted by examining the results of repeated screener administrations within 1 week of original screener administrations for consistency via correlation analysis. Furthermore, we will assess if there are differences in the validity of each screener by age, race and trimester. This study is approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Maryland (HP-00072042), Baltimore, and Battelle Memorial Institute (0619

  17. Comparison and validation of screening tools for substance use in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study conducted in Maryland prenatal clinics

    PubMed Central

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H; Peters, Erica N; Trocin, Kathleen; Koszowski, Bartosz; Mark, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Prescription-drug use in the USA has increased by more than 60% in the last three decades. Prevalence of prescription-drug use among pregnant women is currently estimated around 50%. Prevalence of illicit drug use in the USA is 14.6% among pregnant adolescents, 8.6% among pregnant young adults and 3.2% among pregnant adults. The first step in identifying problematic drug use during pregnancy is screening; however, no specific substance-use screener has been universally recommended for use with pregnant women to identify illicit or prescription-drug use. This study compares and validates three existing substance-use screeners for pregnancy—4 P’s Plus, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Quick Screen/Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy (SURP-P) scale. Methods and analysis This is a cross-sectional study designed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and usability of existing substance-use screeners. Recruitment occurs at two obstetrics clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We are recruiting 500 participants to complete a demographic questionnaire, NIDA Quick Screen/ASSIST, 4 P’s Plus and SURP-P (ordered randomly) during their regularly scheduled prenatal appointment, then again 1 week later by telephone. Participants consent to multidrug urine testing, hair drug testing and allowing access to prescription drug and birth outcome data from electronic medical records. For each screener, reliability and validity will be assessed. Test–retest reliability analysis will be conducted by examining the results of repeated screener administrations within 1 week of original screener administrations for consistency via correlation analysis. Furthermore, we will assess if there are differences in the validity of each screener by age, race and trimester. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Maryland (HP

  18. Substance abuse vaccines.

    PubMed

    Orson, Frank M; Kinsey, Berma M; Singh, Rana A K; Wu, Yan; Gardner, Tracie; Kosten, Thomas R

    2008-10-01

    Conventional substance-abuse treatments have only had limited success for drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine. New approaches, including vaccination to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, are in advanced stages of development. Although several potential mechanisms for the effects of antidrug vaccines have been suggested, the most straightforward and intuitive mechanism involves binding of the drug by antibodies in the bloodstream, thereby blocking entry and/or reducing the rate of entry of the drug into the central nervous system. The benefits of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics will be influenced by both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies. The sum of these effects will determine the success of the clinical applications of antidrug vaccines in addiction medicine. This review will discuss these issues and present the current status of vaccine development for nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, and morphine.

  19. Middle school students' learning of the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain through serious game play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    In response to the solicitation of the National Institute on Drug Use (NIDA) (NIDA, 2006) for the Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Teaching about the Impact of Drug Abuse on the Brain, a virtual brain exhibit was developed by the joint venture of Entertainment Science, Inc. and Virtual Heroes, Inc.. This exhibit included a virtual reality learning environment combined with a video game, aiming at improving the neuroscience literacy of the general public, conveying knowledge about the impacts of methamphetamine abuse on the brain to the population, and establishing a stronger concept of drug use prevention among children. This study investigated the effectiveness of this interactive exhibit on middle school students' understanding and attitudes toward drug use. Three main research questions are addressed: (1) What do students learn about basic concepts of neuroscience and the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain via the exhibit? (2) How are students' attitudes toward methamphetamine use changed after exposure to the exhibit? (3) What are students' experiences and perceptions of using the exhibit to learn the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain? A mixed-method design, including pre/post/delayed-post test instruments, interviews, and video recordings, was conducted for 98 middle school students ranging from sixth to eighth grades to investigate these questions. The results show that students' understanding of the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain significantly improved after exposure to the exhibit regardless of grade or gender. Their pre-existing knowledge and their understanding after the exhibit indicated a tendency of progression. Most of the students consistently expressed negative attitudes toward general methamphetamine use regardless of whether it was before or after exposure to the exhibit. However, this exhibit gave them a better reason and made them feel more confident to refuse drugs. Finally, student learning

  20. Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

  1. Childhood abuse and neglect among women outpatients with chronic mental illness.

    PubMed

    Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J

    1993-07-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment on prescription drug abuse provides an overview of the current status of the research literature in this area. The papers in this special issue include a sampling of the latest research on the epidemiology, clinical correlates, treatment, and public policy considerations of prescription drug abuse. Although much has been learned about prescription drug abuse in recent years, this research remains in early stages, particularly with respect to understanding effective treatments for this population. Future research priorities include studies on the interaction of prescription drugs with other licit and illicit substances, the impact of prescription drug abuse across the lifespan, the optimal treatment for prescription drug abuse and co-occurring conditions, and effective public policy initiatives for reducing prescription drug abuse. PMID:25239857

  3. Elder physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinician responses to sexual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Jackson, H; Nuttall, R

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a survey using an experimental design to identify how and to what extent specific personal and case factors affect clinicians' judgments about sexual abuse allegations. We drew a stratified random sample of 1,635 United States clinicians from national directories of clinical social work, pediatrics, psychiatry and psychology. Six hundred and fifty-six completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a 42% response rate. We asked each subject to read and rate, on a 6 point scale, 16 vignettes alleging sexual abuse. The scale ranged from 1 (very confident it did not occur), to 6 (very confident it did occur). On average, respondents were "slightly confident sexual abuse had occurred" (M = 4.03; SD = 0.6). This finding was significantly different from a mean of 3.50, which is the expected null result. Seven case factors affected credibility ratings at the .01 level; perpetrators' race (Caucasians viewed as perpetrators more than minorities); perpetrators' relationship to victim (family members more often seen as perpetrators); victims' race (minorities more credible as victims); victims' affect (those showing negative affect more believable); age (younger victims more often seen as victimized); behavioral changes in the victim; and perpetrator's history of substance abuse. Six clinician factors were significant at the .05 level: age (younger clinicians were more credulous), gender (females more credulous), discipline (clinical social workers more credulous), theoretical orientation (family systems oriented more credulous) and personal history of sexual or physical abuse (abuse history more credulous).

  5. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of Philosophy of Life During Holistic Existential Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind) that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Annas existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases. PMID:17370004

  6. Effects of expressive writing on sexual dysfunction, depression, and PTSD in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Results from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Stephenson, Kyle R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. Aim We tested an expressive writing based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Main Outcome measures Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at post-treatment, 2 weeks, one month, and six months. Methods Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Results Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. PMID:23875721

  7. Effects of expressive writing on sexual dysfunction, depression, and PTSD in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Stephenson, Kyle R

    2013-09-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. We tested an expressive writing-based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction, and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at posttreatment: 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months. Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of philosophy of life during holistic existential therapy for childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-03-07

    When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind) that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna's existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.

  9. Impact of domestic violence and drug abuse in pregnancy on maternal attachment and infant temperament in teenage mothers in the setting of best clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, J A; Evans, S F

    2005-09-01

    We examined whether the prenatal detection of family violence and initiation of a comprehensive prenatal individualised care program could ameliorate the impact of family violence on maternal attachment to her infant at 6-months of age. An assessment of domestic violence was established for each subject at the 1(st) antenatal visit and women were classified as being exposed to domestic violence in pregnancy (EDV) or as being not exposed to domestic violence. Outcomes were determined 6 months postpartum. Of 173 consecutive women who met the eligibility criteria, consent was obtained from 150 (87% response). Women who had been subjected to domestic violence showed reduced overall attachment scores to their infants. Following multivariate analysis, drug use in pregnancy and domestic violence showed a significant independent effect on maternal attachment. Drug abuse and domestic violence were also associated with an increase in the easy-difficult scale of infant temperament. Thus, despite excellence in prenatal care, drug abuse and domestic violence were associated with poorer maternal attachment and assessment of infant temperament, suggesting that additional interventions are still required.

  10. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  11. Immunotherapy for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R

    2011-12-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use.

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  13. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  14. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    SciT

    Orendorff, Christopher; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  15. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  16. Counselor Self-Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    1991-01-01

    Defines counselor self-abuse as a phenomenon which differs from burnout, unethical behavior, and inappropriate countertransference in its underlying dynamics and some of its manifestations. Delineates the main manifestations of counselor self-abuse and outlines appropriate treatments. Emphasizes the need for further research to determine more…

  17. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  18. Preventing Internal Computer Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    abusers of computer systems are individuals who are -’’internal" to and working for the victim organization (these include full-time employees , part...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle Blower" Policy EDP Auditor 1...sensitive computer systems. Of all the controls discussed so far. the Employee Assistance Program ’ EAP

  19. Signs of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  20. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  1. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  3. Factors Predisposing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Carl D.; Phelps, Brady J.

    The exact nature of the events which may predispose a person to substance abuse is not known. This paper provides a theoretical discussion and review which emphasizes three contexts which have been shown to predispose on individual to drug abuse: (1) prenatal exposure to a given substance; (2) environmental conditions present upon first exposure…

  4. Abuse-deterrent formulations approval reform: Will clinical correctness or real-world results be used to address the nation's opioid crisis: "Noninterference" as a new approval standard.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Dan

    To further the public policy objectives of Congress and the country, legislators should now insist that abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) be deployed for every C-II opioid and stimulant. The need for these innovative technologies has never been greater. And to most efficiently incentivize innovators to develop and deploy the most effective and modern deterrents, a new and simpler regulatory approval standard for ADF should be adopted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. That standard, based on a concept of "Noninterference" increases the potential for a much earlier deployment of ADFs in a broad range of products and allows deterrence to play its most effective role in combatting the national opioid crisis.

  5. Clinical study of the relation of borderline personality disorder to Briquet's syndrome (hysteria), somatization disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Hudziak, J J; Boffeli, T J; Kreisman, J J; Battaglia, M M; Stanger, C; Guze, S B; Kriesman, J J

    1996-12-01

    The criteria for borderline personality disorder seem to select patients with very high rates of Briquet's syndrome (hysteria), somatization disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance abuse disorders. This study was undertaken to determine whether systematic assessment of patients with borderline personality disorder would reveal characteristic features of that condition which would distinguish it from these other disorders. Eighty-seven white female patients (75 in St. Louis and 12 in Milan, Italy) who had borderline personality disorder according to both the DSM-III-R criteria and the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines were further examined with the DSM-III-R Checklist and the Perley-Guze Hysteria Checklist to determine their patterns of psychiatric comorbidity. Every patient had at least one additional DSM diagnosis. Patients in St. Louis and Milan averaged five and four additional diagnoses, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the patients in St. Louis met criteria for either somatization disorder, Briquet's syndrome, antisocial personality disorder, or substance abuse disorders. Patterns of comorbidity for panic (51%), generalized anxiety disorder (55%), and major depression (87%) in St. Louis were consistent with those in other studies. The data indicate that the boundaries for the borderline condition are not specific and identify a high percentage of patients with these other disorders. Furthermore, the comorbidity profiles closely resemble the psychiatric profiles of patients with these disorders. If the borderline syndrome is meant to include all of these disorders, its usefulness as a diagnosis is limited. Until the fundamental features of borderline personality disorder that distinguish it from the others are identified, it is recommended that clinicians carefully assess patients for these other diagnoses. Efforts should be made to change the borderline personality disorder criteria by shifting away from overlap with the

  6. The treatment of chronic insomnia: drug indications, chronic use and abuse liability. Summary of a 2001 New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit meeting symposium.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Wallace B; Roth, Thomas; Cassella, James; Roehrs, Timothy; Walsh, James K; Woods, James H; Buysse, Daniel J; Meyer, Roger E

    2004-02-01

    This paper summarizes a group of presentations and panel discussions on chronic insomnia at the 2001 NCDEU meeting. The presentations and discussions focused on the twin issues of efficacy and concerns of abuse liability with long-term hypnotic therapy. The panel concluded that insomnia may be an epidemiological marker for a variety of difficulties including accidents, increased health care utilization and subsequent development of major depression. Whether or not treatment of insomnia will prevent these long-term problems has not yet been determined. Since the mid-1980s there has been a rapid rise in the off-label use of antidepressants, particularly trazodone, for treating insomnia. Some participants expressed concern at the lack of data for this practice, particularly the absence of dose-response and tolerance information, and noted that the small amount of efficacy data available is not encouraging. Similarly, there are minimal data to support the use of antihistamines as sleep aids; moreover, their side effect profile and interactions with other drugs may be under appreciated. The limited data available on nightly long-term usage of the newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, primarily of six-months' duration, suggest an absence of tolerance, but more data for both nightly and non-nightly administration are needed. Insomniacs tend to show therapy-seeking, rather than drug-seeking behavior, and patients without histories of drug abuse are unlikely to self-escalate dosage of currently available hypnotics. There is fairly good agreement on the characteristics of an ideal hypnotic. All currently available agents, while effective and safe, do not achieve this ideal. The next few years are likely to see the appearance of a variety of agents with new and promising mechanisms of action.

  7. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. Setting 16 general practices in the south west of England. Participants Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Main outcome measures Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. Results 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. Conclusions DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. PMID:25991450

  8. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-05-19

    To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. 16 general practices in the south west of England. Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Impact of methadone with versus without drug abuse counseling on HIV risk: 4- and 12-month findings from a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Sharon M; Schwartz, Robert P; Oʼgrady, Kevin E; Gandhi, Devang; Jaffe, Jerome H

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk behaviors were examined at 4- and 12-month follow-up for 230 newly admitted methadone patients randomly assigned to receive either methadone only (n = 99) or methadone with drug abuse counseling (n = 131) in the first 4 months of treatment. The AIDS Risk Assessment was administered at baseline (treatment entry) and at 4- and 12-month follow-up. Linear mixed model analysis examined changes in HIV drug- and sex-risk behaviors over the 12 months in the total sample, drug-risk behaviors in the subsample that reported injecting drugs at baseline (n = 110), and sex-risk behaviors in the subsample that reported engaging in unprotected sex at baseline (n = 130). Significant decreases over time were found in the frequencies of injecting, injecting with other injectors, and sharing cooker, cotton, or rinse water in the total sample and the injector subsample (P < 0.05). Decreases were also found in the frequencies of having sex without a condom either with someone who was not a spouse or primary partner or while high (P < 0.05) in the total sample and the frequencies of having sex without a condom and having sex without a condom while high in the unprotected-sex subsample (P < 0.05). No significant treatment group main effects or Treatment Group × Time interaction effects were found in any of the HIV-risk behaviors in the total sample or either subsample (P > 0.05). During the first 12 months of treatment, providing drug abuse counseling with methadone compared with providing methadone alone was not associated with significant changes in HIV-risk behaviors for methadone maintenance patients.

  10. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  11. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...

  12. [Community-based prevention of drug abuse in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this article is to review community-based drug abuse prevention and relapse prevention in Japan. Japan has a highly efficient system for the primary prevention of drug abuse; this system includes drug abuse education programs in schools and anti-drug abuse campaigns in communities. On the other hand, relapse prevention activities, such as counseling service at mental health welfare centers, self-help groups for drug addicts, and relapse prevention programs at outpatient clinics, are limited because of zero tolerance policies. Therefore, more relapse prevention activities are required in Japanese communities.

  13. Five-year all-cause mortality rates across five categories of substantiated elder abuse occurring in the community.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.

  14. Guidelines and methodological reviews concerning drug abuse liability assessment.

    PubMed

    Balster, Robert L; Bigelow, George E

    2003-06-05

    Regulatory control of drugs with abuse liability is an important component of drug control policy and is believed to help prevent nonmedical use. To be maximally effective, this requires a scientific assessment of abuse liability of drugs considered for regulatory control. These assessments have relied extensively on laboratory-based animal and human testing, but also utilize information from clinical trials, actual abuse and other sources. Here, we discuss recommendations and guidelines that have been proposed for abuse liability assessment and describe important review papers and conference proceedings that have addressed this matter, focusing primarily on drugs with medical usefulness. Historically, there is substantial consensus about how to approach abuse liability evaluation of drugs with actions similar to those of abused opiates, stimulants, depressants, and to a somewhat lesser extent, cannabinoids and hallucinogens, and much of what has been recommended for abuse potential assessment in the past remains valid and useful. On the other hand, novel CNS-active medications which cannot be readily classified with these traditional drugs of abuse are increasingly under development. In addition, advances in the science of abuse liability assessment need to be incorporated into future guidelines and recommendations on this subject. Developers of new medications need guidance on how to utilize scientific research to maximize therapeutic benefit while minimizing risk for abuse. Thus, another goal of this review has been to identify areas where critical thinking and new guideline development are needed.

  15. A Child Abuse Assessment Center: Alternative Investigative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiester, Douglas S.

    A child abuse assessment center was created in Dade County, Florida, and was funded by state and local government sources. Staff includes a project director, two clinical social workers, a follow-up case monitor, clerical support, and a psychologist. The center attempts to minimize trauma to the child victim of sexual and physical abuse by a…

  16. The Substance Abuse Counseling Workforce: Education, Preparation, and Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieckmann, Traci; Farentinos, Christiane; Tillotson, Carrie J.; Kocarnik, Jonathan; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) is an alliance of drug abuse treatment programs and research centers testing new interventions and implementation factors for treating alcohol and drug use disorders. A workforce survey distributed to those providing direct services in 295 treatment units in the CTN obtained responses…

  17. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  18. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  19. Blame among Adult Women Sexually Abused as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagwood, Kimberly

    In order to assess the intensity, direction, and type of self-blame and other blame in relationship to adjustment, a clinical sample of 31 women who had been sexually abused as children completed a questionnaire about their sexual abuse history, a self-blame scale that measured self- and other blame both retrospectively and currently, and three…

  20. Abuse Behavior Inventory: Cutpoint, Validity, and Characterization of Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Levin, Linda; Putnam, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study determines a clinical cutting score for the 29-item Abuse Behavior Inventory (ABI) developed by Shepard and Campbell (1992) to measure both physical and psychological abuse experiences. The authors report on a sample of 392 White and African American women from primary care waiting rooms, who completed the ABI and the revised Conflict…

  1. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  2. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  3. [Medicolegal aspects of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Hofer, P; Brandau, L-M; Mützel, E

    2016-05-01

    The prevention and clinical diagnostics of maltreatment of children and adolescents represents a great challenge to all medical disciplines concerned; therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration is indispensable. Medicolegal experts require specific radiological examination methods for the differentiation between accidental and non-accidental injuries, depending on the corresponding point in question. In addition, a clear and structured radiological appraisal of the findings is necessary. On the other hand, radiologists require an appropriate succinctly phrased question from the medicolegal expert. A close collaboration between radiologists and medicolegal experts is mandatory for a better recognition of cases of child abuse; therefore, the joint establishment of diagnostic standards and a comprehensive implementation is necessary.

  4. Factors that Predict How Women Label Their Own Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katerndahl, David; Burge, Sandra; Kellogg, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the psychological impact of child sexual abuse, many victims do not acknowledge that their experiences were "abuse." This study sought to identify factors that predict how women label their own experiences of childhood sexual abuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a family medicine clinic with adult female patients. Subjects…

  5. Attributions of Blame in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Behavior Problems and Frequency of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J

    2017-06-01

    Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.

  6. Sexually Abused Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  7. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. Other types of child abuse are: Neglect ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  8. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  9. Safety and abuse testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, G.

    1978-01-01

    A series of abuse tests on large lithium thionyl chloride cells was initiated. Performance data obtained in testing rectangular 2,000 and 10,000 ampere-hour cells are discussed and graphically presented.

  10. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... investigate potential elder abuse cases Caption: Multidisciplinary Team Technical Assistance Center (MDT TAC) Prev Play Pause Next ... Office of the Inspector General Open Government Plain Writing USA.gov BusinessUSA Footer Menu Justice First Column ...

  11. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... To try to improve concentration and academic or work performance Risk factors Many people fear that they may ... in crime Motor vehicle accidents Decreased academic or work performance Troubled relationships Prevention Prescription drug abuse may occur ...

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  13. Sexual abuse of street children brought to an observation home.

    PubMed

    Pagare, Deepti; Meena, G S; Jiloha, R C; Singh, M M

    2005-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of sexual abuse among male inmates of an observation home in Delhi. A total of 189 boys aged 6 to 18 years were assessed for sexual abuse using Finkelhors scale and Child Maltreatment History Self-Report followed by clinical examination using American Medical Associations guidelines. Majority of boys were runaways and 38.1 percent had suffered sexual abuse. On clinical examination, 61.1 percent showed physical signs and 40.2 percent showed behavioral signs of sexual abuse. Forcible sex was reported by 44.4 percent of victims and 25 percent had signs suggestive of sexually transmitted diseases. Strangers were the most common perpetrators of sexual abuse.

  14. Child and Spouse Abuse Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-11

    child abuse . (c) SPouse (C) Military Child Care (4) Involvement n previous established case of spouse abuse (d) Sbl,ng (d) Other Child Care (5...program 16.j.(2) Referred to a drug rehabilitation program 4 16.j.(3) Previous involvement in child abuse 16.j.(4) Previous involvement in spouse abuse 16...investigation, whether "unsubstantiated," "suspected," or "substantiated." 8.a. Child Abuse /Neglect. The physical injury, sexual maltreatment, emotional

  15. Assessing Historical Abuse Allegations and Damages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; Jaffe, Peter G.; Leschied, Alan W.; Legate, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Practitioners may be called upon to assess adults who have alleged child abuse as a minor and are seeking reparations. Such assessments may be used by the courts to determine harm and assess damages related to their claim or testimony. Our clinical/research team has conducted many such evaluations and reported the findings pertaining to the…

  16. The Universality of Emotional Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    Emotional child abuse is virtually inevitable in the context of the traditional nuclear family and often has a more detrimental effect on children than other, more widely publicized forms of maltreatment. This paper documents clinical, statistical, and empirical evidence showing that "normative" child-rearing practices in our culture have…

  17. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…

  19. Cost-effective way to reduce stimulant-abuse among gay/bisexual men and transgender women: a randomized clinical trial with a cost comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S X; Shoptaw, S; Reback, C J; Yadav, K; Nyamathi, A M

    2018-01-01

    A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners. A deconstructive cost analysis approach was utilized to capture direct costs associated with the delivery of both interventions. Based on an analysis of activity logs and staff interviews, specific activities and the time required to complete each were analyzed as follows: a) NCM + CM only; b) SE + CM only; c) time to administer/record vaccines; and d) time to receive and record CM visits. Cost comparison of the interventions included only staffing costs and direct cash expenditures. The study outcomes showed significant over time reductions in all measures of drug use and multiple sex partners, compared to baseline, although no significant between-group differences were detected. Cost analysis favored the simpler SE + CM intervention over the more labor-intensive NCM + CM approach. Because of the high levels of staffing required for the NCM relative to SE, costs associated with it were significantly higher. Findings suggest that while both intervention strategies were equally effective in achieving desired health outcomes, the brief SE + CM appeared less expensive to deliver. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Talking about domestic abuse: Crucial conversations for health visitors.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Domestic abuse is a serious problem across the world and it is considered a public health issue. Nurses play a crucial role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse but they sometimes lack confidence in dealing with the issue. In this article, two recently completed studies are used to extract lessons for health visiting practice. The first study investigated primary healthcare professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse. Many healthcare professionals were confident in dealing with domestic abuse. However, there was disinclination among some to discuss the issue. People who experience abuse rarely discuss it unless asked. So the study highlighted a potential dynamic of silence between health professionals and abused people in their care. The second study investigated student nurses and student midwives experiences of learning about domestic abuse. The student nurses had learned less than the student midwives. They had not been taught about domestic abuse in university and many had not had the opportunity to learn about it in clinical placement. They reported reluctance among some mentors to discuss the issue with them, with a resulting silencing of the issue. Both of these studies have important lessons for health visiting practice regarding opening up crucial conversations about domestic abuse.

  1. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  2. The Mediator Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Symptoms in Female Survivors of CSA.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David; Jauregui, Paula

    2016-04-24

    Child abuse is a traumatic experience that may have psychological consequences such as dysfunctional beliefs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impulsive behaviors (alcohol abuse, gambling, drug abuse, eating disorders, Internet abuse, videogame abuse, shopping and sex addiction) in sexual abuse survivors and to study the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the appearance of impulsive behaviors in adult female victims. The sample consisted of 182 adult women who had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA), mostly referred by associations for the treatment of childhood abuse and maltreatment. Sexual abuse was found to be positively related to the domains of Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Autonomy. Moreover, these domains were significantly related to impulsivity and impulsive behaviors. Finally, the Disconnection/Rejection domain was found to mediate between CSA and eating disorders and alcohol abuse. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Association for medical education and research in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jeffrey H; Galanter, Marc; Bridden, Carly; Lewis, David C

    2006-01-01

    The Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA) is a multi-disciplinary organization committed to health professional faculty development in substance abuse. In 1976, members of the Career Teachers Training Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse, a US federally funded multi-disciplinary faculty development program, formed AMERSA. The organization grew from 59 founding members, who were primarily medical school faculty, to over 300 health professionals from a spectrum of disciplines including physicians, nurses, social workers, dentists, allied health professionals, psychologists and other clinical educators who are responsible for advancing substance abuse education. AMERSA members promote substance abuse education among health professionals by developing curricula, promulgating relevant policy and training health professional faculty to become excellent teachers in this field. AMERSA influences public policy by offering standards for improving substance abuse education. The organization publishes a peer-reviewed, quarterly journal, Substance Abuse, which emphasizes research on the education and training of health professions and also includes original clinical and prevention research. Each year, the AMERSA National Conference brings together researchers and health professional educators to learn about scientific advances and exemplary teaching approaches. In the future, AMERSA will continue to pursue this mission of advancing and supporting health professional faculty who educate students and trainees to address substance abuse in patients and clients.

  4. Improving detection and quality of assessment of child abuse and partner abuse is achievable with a formal organisational change approach.

    PubMed

    Wills, Russell; Ritchie, Miranda; Wilson, Mollie

    2008-03-01

    To improve detection and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse within a health service. A formal organisational change approach was used to implement the New Zealand Family Violence Intervention Guidelines in a mid-sized regional health service. The approach includes obtaining senior management support, community collaboration, developing resources to support practice, research, evaluation and training. Formal pre-post evaluations were conducted of the training. Barriers and enablers of practice change were assessed through 85 interviews with 60 staff. More than 6000 clinical records were audited to assess rates of questioning for partner abuse. Identifications of partner abuse and referrals made were counted through the Family Violence Accessory File. Referrals to the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services (CYFS) were recorded routinely by the CYFS. Audits assessed quality of assessment of child and partner abuse, when identified. More than 700 staff were trained in dual assessment for child and partner abuse. Evaluations demonstrate improved confidence following training, though staff still need support. Barriers and enablers to asking about partner abuse were identified. Referrals from the health service to the CYFS increased from 10 per quarter to 70 per quarter. Identification of partner abuse increased from 30 to 80 per 6-month period. Routine questioning rates for partner abuse vary between services. Achieving and sustaining improved rates of identification and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse is possible with a formal organisational change approach.

  5. Core data elements tracking elder sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Nancy P; Burgess, Ann W; Gerolamo, Angela M

    2005-05-01

    Sexual abuse in the older adult population is an understudied vector of violent crimes with significant physical and psychological consequences for victims and families. Research requires a theoretical framework that delineates core elements using a standardized instrument. To develop a conceptual framework and identify core data elements specific to the older adult population, clinical, administrative, and criminal experts were consulted using a nominal group method to revise an existing sexual assault instrument. The revised instrument could be used to establish a national database of elder sexual abuse. The database could become a standard reference to guide the detection, assessment, and prosecution of elder sexual abuse crimes as well as build a base from which policy makers could plan and evaluate interventions that targeted risk factors.

  6. Recovery among Adolescents: Models for Post-Treatment Gains in Drug Abuse Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Joe, George W.; Knight, Danica Kalling; Becan, Jennifer E.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery among adolescents undergoing substance abuse treatment was modeled in terms of pre-treatment motivation, therapeutic relationships, psychological functioning, treatment retention, legal pressures, DSM diagnoses, and client demographics. To address between program differences, a within-covariance matrix, based on 547 youth, was used. Applicability of the results across treatment modalities was also examined. The data were from the NIDA-sponsored DATOS Adolescent study. Results from structural equation models (estimated using Mplus) indicated that higher pre-treatment motivation predicted stronger counselor and in-treatment peer relationships, better counselor relationships and retention predicted less illegal drug use at follow-up, and DSM diagnosis was important in the treatment process. Overall, illegal drug use at follow-up was associated with post-treatment alcohol consumption, cigarette use, condom nonuse, psychological distress, criminality, and school non-attendance. The results document the importance of motivation and therapeutic relationships on recovery, even when taking into account the relative effects of legal pressures, DSM diagnoses, and demographics. PMID:24238715

  7. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  8. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  9. What Sex Abusers Say about Their Treatment: Results from a Qualitative Study on Pedophiles in Treatment at a Canadian Penitentiary Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C.; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis…

  10. Legal liability perspectives on abuse-deterrent opioids in the treatment of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Rich, Ben A; Coleman, John J; Bolen, Jennifer; Wong, Winston

    2010-12-01

    Abuse-deterrent opioid analgesic formulations can help reduce the risk of opioid diversion and abuse. Not all opioid analgesics are available as both extended- and immediate-release dosage forms in abuse-deterrent formulations. Clinicians may have to balance the clinical benefit of a product that does not use abuse-deterrent technology versus the regulatory benefit of using a product with this technology. There is the possibility that a health care professional may be held legally liable when a product without abuse-deterrent qualities is used and a person suffers harm that would not have occurred had an abuse-deterrent formulation been provided. This article reviews legal precedents that inform an understanding of the need to reduce malpractice exposure by identifying patients who are at high risk of opioid diversion and/or abuse and considering the use of an abuse-deterrent formulation for these patients.

  11. Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk

    PubMed Central

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Young women reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed. PMID:19949224

  12. Prenatal care and counseling of female drug-abusers: effects on drug abuse and perinatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Kukko, H; Halmesmäki, E

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a specific counseling and withdrawal program for drug-abusing pregnant women and its effect on perinatal outcome. An analysis of 120 pregnancies followed in 111 drug-abusing women giving birth at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, in 1985-95. Personnel responsible for local maternity care in the Helsinki area were trained to identify pregnant drug-abusers and to refer them to our hospital for clinical antenatal care and counseling with psychological and social support. Substance abuse during pregnancy was monitored by self-report and serial urine screenings. Obstetric and perinatal outcome were compared between those who succeeded in quitting totally or reducing drug use, and those who continued their drug use throughout pregnancy. The significance of the differences was tested by Student's unpaired t-test and binomial t-test. Of the women, 62% registered before the 20th week of pregnancy and 32% during the 20th-29th week of pregnancy (mean 18.4+/-6.6 weeks). Twelve women were admitted to an obstetric ward for withdrawal. In 73 of the 120 (61%) pregnancies the woman succeeded either in quitting totally or reducing drug abuse. Among this group, incidence of preterm birth (4.1%) was smaller (p<0.001), and gestational age (39.8+/-2.2 weeks) and birth weight (3393+/-605 gr) higher (p<0.05) than those (19.6%, 38.3+/-3.4 wk and 3049+/-728 gr, respectively) in the group continuing their drug abuse. Additionally, the percentage of normal delivery (80.8%) was higher (p<0.05), and incidence of withdrawal symptoms (19.2%), lower (p<0.001) than for those who continued drug abuse (65.2% and 47.8%, respectively). Carefully monitored counseling program for pregnant drug abusers is effective in reducing the amount of drugs used and improves perinatal outcome.

  13. Therapeutic Progression in Abused Women Following a Drug-Addiction Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl; Azanza, Paula

    2015-06-30

    This study explored the prevalence of victims of abuse and the therapeutic progression among women who sought treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 180 addicted Spanish women was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), socio-demographic factors, consumption variables, and psychological symptoms. Of the total sample, 74.4% (n = 134) of the addicted women had been victims of abuse. Psychological abuse affected 66.1% (n = 119) of the patients, followed by physical abuse (51.7%; n = 93) and sexual abuse (31.7%; n = 57). Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted women with histories of victimization scored significantly higher on several European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and psychological variables. Specifically, physical abuse and sexual abuse were related to higher levels of severity of addiction. Regarding therapeutic progression, the highest rate of dropout was observed among victims of sexual abuse (63.5%; n = 33), followed by victims of physical abuse (48.9%; n = 23). Multivariate analysis showed that medical and family areas of the EuropASI, as well as violence problems and suicide ideation, were the main variables related to physical and/or sexual abuse. Moreover, women without abuse and with fewer family problems presented the higher probability of treatment completion. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior: Factors Mediating the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Offspring Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara; Tin, Adrienne; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Zelazny, Jamie; Burke, Ainsley Keller; Melhem, Nadine; Brent, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-reported childhood sexual abuse is associated with major depression and with suicidal behavior. The current study investigates the relationship between reported childhood abuse and the familial transmission of suicidal behavior and other related risk factors. Method 507 offspring of 271 parent probands with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were compared according to the reported childhood abuse history on demographic, diagnostic, and clinical variables related to risk for suicidal behavior. Both self-report and clinical interview measures assessed history of childhood physical and sexual abuse. The study was conducted from May 1997 to February 2004. Results Reported childhood sexual abuse, but not physical abuse, in the proband correlated with suicide attempts, posttraumatic stress disorder, earlier onset of major depressive disorder, higher levels of impulsivity, and greater likelihood of childhood sexual abuse in the offspring and was rarely perpetrated by the affected parent. A reported history of childhood physical abuse was related to more lifetime aggression in the offspring. Conclusions Reported childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for suicidal behavior in parent and offspring. Transmission of suicide risk across generations is related to the familial transmission of sexual abuse and impulsivity. Sexual abuse is not directly transmitted by the victim to the next generation and may be related to family dynamics related to sexual abuse. PMID:18373384

  16. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  17. Correlates of Abuse Around the Time of Pregnancy: Results from a National Survey of Canadian Women.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Dawn; Heaman, Maureen; Urquia, Marcelo; O'Campo, Patricia; Janssen, Patricia; Thiessen, Kellie; Smylie, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Although several studies have examined risk factors associated with abuse during pregnancy or postpartum periods, many used clinic-based or small regional samples, and few were national or population-based, limiting their generalizability and clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlates of abuse around the time of pregnancy among a nationally representative sample of women in Canada. Using data from 6421 postpartum women (weighted n = 76,500) who completed the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey from 10/2006 to 01/2007, we explored the association between demographic, psychosocial, behavioral, medical/obstetric factors and 'any' and 'severe' abuse. 'Any abuse' was defined as an affirmative answer to one or more of 10 items asked about physical or sexual abuse or threats of abuse. 'Severe abuse' was defined as experiencing a combination of threats and physical or sexual abuse. Odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals were generated from multivariable logistic regression models. 10.5 % of women (weighted n = 8400) reported 'any' abuse and 4.3 % (weighted n = 3400) reported 'severe' abuse in the previous 2 years. Correlates of severe abuse included: age <20 years; household income below the low income cut-off; single; stressful life events; history of depression or antidepressant use; smoking during pregnancy; and alcohol use prior to pregnancy. Correlates of 'any' abuse were the same as 'severe' abuse with the addition of age 20-34 years, developing a new health problem during pregnancy, and inadequate support during pregnancy. Increased odds of 'any' and 'severe' abuse were found for women who self-identified as Aboriginal and reduced odds of 'any' abuse were found among immigrant women and those who took folic acid pre-pregnancy. We identified risk factors that may enhance early detection of abuse in the perinatal period, and inform the development of interventions and preventive strategies to address this important public

  18. Childhood abuse and current interpersonal conflict: the role of shame.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of abused women's shame to interpersonal conflicts could be

  19. Childhood Abuse and Current Family Conflict: The Role of Shame

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    abused women's shame to interpersonal conflicts could be important in clinical interventions. PMID:19457556

  20. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  1. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to drink alcohol. Rural church and faith-based organizations can also play an important role in promoting ... activities focused on substance abuse prevention. Several ... Other organizations that provide substance abuse information and prevention program ...

  2. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Counseling and ... of Health and Human Services website. Children's Bureau. Child abuse and neglect. www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/focus- ...

  3. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  4. Child sexual abuse: an Italian perspective.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Ruspa, Marina; Motta, Tiziano; Gentilomo, Andrea; Scagnelli, Chiara

    2007-06-01

    The problem of child sexual abuse is a growing reality in Italy. The experience of over 200 children seen by the SVS (Soccorso Violenza Sessuale) Centre in Milan (the first Italian large-scale study) may give more information on the European situation. This study is a retrospective study based on information contained in the files of children beneath the age of 14 seen at the SVS Centre between May 1996 and May 2003, who arrived with a suspicion of child sexual abuse. Over 80% of all cases fell within the normal-aspecific category according to Adams' 2001 classification. This first Italian survey, though not based on substantiated cases but only on cases of suspected sexual abuse, supplies a perspective on a large northern European city such as Milan. Data seem similar to those published in other non-European studies, particularly as regards clinical signs observed. Thus, the results of this study, with all their limitations, start to give a perspective on the frequency and type of child population reaching this Italian center, what the scenarios are, what signs the children present and how infrequent it is to find clinical anogenital signs concerning for sexual abuse.

  5. Candida endophthalmitis after heroin abuse.

    PubMed

    Malecaze, F; Arne, J L; Bec, P; Séguéla, J P; Linas, M D; Recco, P; Béssières, M H

    1985-11-01

    Three cases of ocular candidosis involving heroin abusers have been observed in 1983 in Toulouse department of ophthalmology. These three patients had used iranian brown heroin. Twenty similar cases have been published in these last years. This new pathology can be explained on two reasons. The first is that the drug abusers have some immunity pertubation; however, immunity exploration in these patients does not reveal any immunodeficiency. The second reason, certainly more important, is the method of using heroin. The diagnosis of Candida endophthalmitis of course based on clinical context must be proved by biological tests. Candida albicans is never identified in aqueous humor. For this reason, it seems very interesting to detect anti-candida antibodies in aqueous humor. It has been used as methods of dosage laser Nephelemetry for IgG and immunofluorescence for candidosis antibodies. The criterion used is similar to the toxoplasmosis coefficient established by Desmonts (3). In two cases, this test was the only way that permits us to have certitude of candidosis ocular diagnosis. Otherwise the observations show that anterior chamber punction is more significant when there is an anterior uveitis.

  6. Childhood disclosure of sexual abuse: Necessary but not necessarily sufficient.

    PubMed

    Swingle, Janine M; Tursich, Mischa; Cleveland, Jonathan M; Gold, Steven N; Tolliver, Sue Fields; Michaels, Landon; Kupperman-Caron, Laura N; Garcia-Larrieu, Maria; Sciarrino, Nicole A

    2016-12-01

    Prevention programs often encourage sexually abused children to disclose without fully considering the potential for adverse consequences. This study examined the impact of disclosure on abuse cessation and later adult symptomatology. A clinical sample of 301 adult survivors completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES/IES-R), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Participants were divided into 3 groups: Nondisclosure (n=221), Disclosure/Abuse Ended (n=25), and Disclosure/Abuse Continued (n=55). Multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for abuse characteristics (age of onset, penetration, and number of perpetrators) and other trauma exposure, revealed significant differences in psychiatric symptom severity among the three groups, Wilks' λ=0. 95, F (6, 584)=2.69, p=0.014, η p 2 =0.03. Specifically, those in the Disclosure/Abuse Continued group scored significantly higher on the IES/IES-R Intrusion subscale (p=0.04) and the BDI-II (p=0.01), as compared to the Nondisclosure group. The Disclosure/Abuse Ended group did not differ significantly from the other groups. Results suggest that disclosure may be detrimental unless adequate steps are taken to ensure abuse cessation and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of depressed patients who report childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, G; Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P

    1999-03-01

    Depressed patients who had and had not been exposed to childhood sexual abuse were studied to determine differences in severity of depressed mood, lifetime histories of anxiety and depression, childhood environment, and disordered personality function. Data were obtained from 269 inpatients and outpatients with major depression (171 women and 98 men) by means of structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires. Forty-six of the 269 patients reported childhood sexual abuse; 40 of these were women. These 40 women were compared with the 131 who did not report childhood sexual abuse. The patients who experienced abuse did not differ from those who had not on psychiatrist-rated mood severity estimates, but they did have higher self-report depression scores. They also evidenced more self-destructive behavior, more personality dysfunction, and more overall adversity in their childhood environment. Childhood sexual abuse status was associated with more borderline personality characteristics independently of other negative aspects of the patients' earlier parenting. Childhood sexual abuse status was linked strongly to adult self-destructiveness, as was early exposure to maternal indifference. Multivariate analyses suggest that depression is unlikely to be a direct consequence of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be associated with a greater chance of having experienced a broadly dysfunctional childhood home environment, a greater chance of having a borderline personality style, and, in turn, a greater chance of experiencing depression in adulthood.

  8. Assessing Employee Potentials for Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, M. Dean; McQueen, William M.

    1983-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to abusive (N=21) and nonabusive (N=21) employees to identify potential for institutional child abuse. Results corroborated earlier findings of institutional child abuse and demonstrated an attempt at developing an assessment tool needed to screen staff who are working with the developmentally disabled and children in…

  9. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  10. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  11. Child Abuse and Cot Deaths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlands, Mary; Emery, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A search was made of confidential health department records in Great Britain for abused children, or children at risk for abuse, with siblings who had died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). An association was found between child abuse and about 10 percent of deaths of children diagnosed as SIDS. (BRM)

  12. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  13. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  14. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  15. What sex abusers say about their treatment: results from a qualitative study on pedophiles in treatment at a Canadian penitentiary clinic.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Korner, Annett C; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study used qualitative methodology to examine what pedophiles think about treatment, as well as their daily experience of a treatment program. To this end, twenty-three offenders receiving treatment from the La Macaza federal penitentiary clinic were interviewed using non-directive semi-structured interviews. Comparative analysis was used to analyze the resulting material. The following themes are discussed based on the results of this analysis: (a) the participants' past experience of therapy; (b) motivations for choosing the La Macaza clinic for treatment; (c) the structure of the program; (d) the group dynamics; (e) the therapists; and (f) the hardships and difficulties of treatment. Results suggest that the therapists and the program may have a function of containment or holding. Although part of the therapeutic process involves a focus on identifying and reducing cognitive distortions, results also warn therapists against misusing this concept by applying it to legitimately different opinions. Findings are discussed in terms of possible program improvements. The authors conclude that greater attention must be given to process research.

  16. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

  17. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  18. Handbook On Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Robert I.; And Others

    A decade of professional research on drug abuse has produced both an abundance of materials and a vocabulary that is not shared by planners, clinicians, and policy makers. This handbook compiles the major developments of the period and their treatment and research implications in a style intended to be understood by all three types of…

  19. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts about Marijuana - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Facts about Methamphetamine - English PDF Facts about Methamphetamine - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Substance Abuse or Dependence - العربية ( ...

  20. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some people misuse more than one substance. Many older adults who become addicted to drugs also have another serious medical condition, such as chronic pain or a mental ...

  1. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  2. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurting or harming someone) might have frightened the boy or girl into staying quiet. No matter what the abuser ... suit or underwear: breasts, vagina, and bottom for girls, and penis and bottom for boys. If an adult or another kid touches a ...

  3. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  4. Polydrug abuse: A review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews studies examining the pharmacological interactions and epidemiology of the combined use of opioids and benzodiazepines (BZD). A search of English language publications from 1970 - 2012 was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO®. Our search found approximately 200 articles appropriate for inclusion in this paper. While numerous reports indicate that the co-abuse of opioids and BZDs is ubiquitous around the world, the reasons for the co-abuse of these medications are not entirely clear. Though the possibility remains that opioid (ab)users are using BZDs therapeutically to self-medicate anxiety, mania or insomnia, the data reviewed in this paper suggest that BZD use is primarily recreational. For example, co-users report seeking BZD prescriptions for the purpose of enhancing opioid intoxication or “high,” and use doses that exceed the therapeutic range. Since there are few clinical studies investigating the pharmacological interaction and abuse liability of their combined use, this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated in clinical settings. As such, our analysis encourages further systematic investigation of BZD abuse among opioid users. The co-abuse of BZDs and opioids is substantial and has negative consequences for general health, overdose lethality, and treatment outcome. Physicians should address this important and underappreciated problem with more cautious prescribing practices, and increased vigilance for abusive patterns of use. PMID:22857878

  5. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  6. See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil: why do relatively few male victims of childhood sexual abuse receive help for abuse-related issues in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Holmes, G R; Offen, L; Waller, G

    1997-01-01

    This literature review explores the reasons why comparatively few adult males with a history of childhood sexual abuse are seen by professionals for help with difficulties relating to that abuse. Two potential explanations are discounted as myths-that relatively few males are sexually abused, and that abuse has little effect on males. However, it is suggested that society (including professionals and the victims themselves) has given credence to these myths. Male victims are relatively unlikely to disclose their experience of childhood abuse, and (as a coping strategy) they deny the impact of sexual abuse on their lives. Professionals fail to hypothesise that their male clients may have been abused, and do not create the conditions that would enable males to talk about the abuse. Blumer's (1971) model of the social construction of problems is applied to account for these beliefs and behaviours on the part of victims and clinicians. It is argued that the childhood sexual abuse of males has not yet acquired legitimacy as a problem recognised by society, thus lagging behind the abuse of females. In short, the "evil' of childhood sexual abuse in the male population is not being seen or heard by clinicians, and is not being recognised or talked about by victims. Clinical implications are considered.

  7. The intergenerational transfer of mother-daughter risk for gender-based abuse.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this 10-year longitudinal study 150 mother-daughter pairs were recruited to participate in a study examining gender-based abuse across three generations. Forms of gender-based abuse included: child sexual abuse, witnessing intimate partner violence against their mothers, and intimate partner violence or dating violence in adolescence or adulthood. Daughters were interviewed when they were on average 9, 14, and 16 years old. Regression analyses revealed that if the grandmother (G1) was abused by her husband, her daughter (G2) was more likely to be sexually molested in childhood and was also more likely to be in an abusive relationship as an adult. If the mother (G2) was sexually abused as a child her daughter (G3) was at increased risk for child sexual abuse. In turn, child sexual abuse for the daughters related to their reports of dating violence in adolescence. Daughters (G3) who were sexually abused expressed more anxiety about romantic relationships, reflecting early attachment conflicts. Both child sexual abuse and anxious romantic attachment style independently predicted adolescent sexual risk-taking as in having multiple sexual partners or dating older men. These findings demonstrate how informative it is to include multiple forms of gender-based abuse in research and practice to better illuminate complex family dynamics. In addition, the findings support previous empirical work showing the importance of attachment behavior in women who are in abusive relationships, which has unique clinical implications.

  8. Characteristics of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence influence sexual risk behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2007-10-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior.

  9. Intentional Misuse and Abuse of Loperamide: A New Look at a Drug with "Low Abuse Potential".

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Watts, Susan H; Tull, Jonathan; Baeza, Salvador; Diebold, Stephanie; Barrow, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Despite its opioid properties, loperamide has long been thought to have low abuse potential due to its poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and limited potential to cross the blood-brain barrier. A recent patient reportedly taking loperamide to avoid heroin withdrawal symptoms, at doses approximately 100 times those recommended, directed our attention to this issue. 1) Investigate number of cases of intentional loperamide abuse and misuse reported to poison centers between 2009 and 2015; 2) Compile reports of clinical effects of loperamide abuse; and 3) Search for evidence of increasing Internet interest in the central opioid effects of loperamide. For the years 2009 thru 2015, we reviewed exposure calls related to misuse/abuse of loperamide in the Texas Poison Center Network's database and the National Poison Data System. We used Google trend analysis to detect evidence of increased Internet interest in the illicit use of loperamide. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of misuse/abuse calls related to loperamide alone nearly doubled, with about one-third of cases occurring in teens and young adults in their 20s. Of particular concern are reports of significant cardiotoxic effects (∼18% of cases), including conduction defects and various dysrhythmias, sometimes leading to death. Google Trends analysis demonstrates an increasing number of searches for "loperamide high" and "loperamide withdrawal" beginning in 2011. Loperamide misuse/abuse seems to be on the rise. Given its propensity to induce conduction disturbances and dysrhythmias at very high doses, emergency physicians should be vigilant for this form of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…

  11. Exploration and validation of clusters of physically abused children.

    PubMed

    Sabourin Ward, Caryn; Haskett, Mary E

    2008-05-01

    Cluster analysis was used to enhance understanding of heterogeneity in social adjustment of physically abused children. Ninety-eight physically abused children (ages 5-10) were clustered on the basis of social adjustment, as measured by observed behavior with peers on the school playground and by teacher reports of social behavior. Seventy-seven matched nonabused children served as a comparison sample. Clusters were validated on the basis of observed parental sensitivity, parents' self-reported disciplinary tactics, and children's social information processing operations (i.e., generation of solutions to peer relationship problems and attributions of peer intentions in social situations). Three subgroups of physically abused children emerged from the cluster analysis; clusters were labeled Socially Well Adjusted, Hanging in There, and Social Difficulties. Examination of cluster differences on risk and protective factors provided substantial evidence in support of the external validity of the three-cluster solution. Specifically, clusters differed significantly in attributions of peer intent and in parenting (i.e., sensitivity and harshness of parenting). Clusters also differed in the ways in which they were similar to, or different from, the comparison group of nonabused children. Results supported the contention that there were clinically relevant subgroups of physically abused children with potentially unique treatment needs. Findings also pointed to the relevance of social information processing operations and parenting context in understanding diversity among physically abused children. Pending replication, findings provide support for the importance of considering unique treatment of needs among physically abused children. A singular approach to intervention is unlikely to be effective for these children. For example, some physically abused children might need a more intensive focus on development of prosocial skills in relationships with peers while the

  12. [Migraine type childhood headache aggravated by sexual abuse: case report].

    PubMed

    Kaleağasi, Hakan; Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Kar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    Although the vast majority of chronic headache is idiopathic in origin, child abuse can be a very rare cause of paroxysmal headaches in children. The aim of this report was to present a case of migraine headache aggravated after sexual abuse, which did not respond to treatment. An 11-year-old girl admitted to the outpatient department of the Neurology Clinic with headache complaint for the past two years. Neurological examination, neuroimaging and laboratory tests were normal. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria, the headache was diagnosed as migraine without aura and treatment as prophylaxis was planned. Her headache did not respond to treatment, so she was consulted with the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and diagnosed as major depressive disorder. During one of the psychological interviews, she confessed that she had been sexually abused by her mother's boyfriend for two years. After this confession and punishment of the abuser, her headache improved dramatically. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood has been estimated between 13% and 27%, and these children may suffer chronic pain, headache or depression. Sexual abuse has been strongly associated with the migraine-depression phenotype when abuse first occurred before the age of 12 years. Despite the high prevalence of abuse, many physicians do not routinely ask about abuse history. In conclusion, child abuse must be kept in mind in intractable childhood headache. A multidisciplinary approach with the Departments of Forensic Sciences and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and detailed psychiatric evaluation should be useful in these cases.

  13. Reinforcer Pathology: The Behavioral Economics of Abuse Liability Testing.

    PubMed

    Bickel, W K; Snider, S E; Quisenberry, A J; Stein, J S

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the abuse liability of novel drugs is critical to understanding the risk these new compounds pose to society. Behavioral economics, the integration of psychology and economics, can be used to predict abuse liability of novel substances. Here, we describe the behavioral economic concept of reinforcer pathology and how it may predict the use of novel drugs in existing drug-users and initiation of use in the drug-naive. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. A Distance Education Model for Training Substance Abuse Treatment Providers in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.; Rawson, Richard R.; Rataemane, Solomon; Shafer, Michael S.; Obert, Jeanne; Bisesi, Lorrie; Tanamly, Susie

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale for the use of a distance education approach in the clinical training of community substance abuse treatment providers. Developing and testing new approaches to the clinical training and supervision of providers is important in the substance abuse treatment field where new information is always available. A…

  15. Substance abuse and cancer.

    PubMed

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  16. Reforming Dutch substance abuse treatment services.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Gerard M; Schramade, Mark; Walburg, Jan A

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch substance abuse treatment system is in the middle of a major reorganization. The goal is to improve outcomes by redesigning all major primary treatment processes and by implementing a system of regular monitoring and feedback of clinical outcome data. The new program includes implementing standardized psychosocial behavior-oriented treatment modalities and a stepped-care patient placement algorithm in a core-shell organizational model. This article outlines the new program and presents its objectives, developmental stages, and current status.

  17. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    SciT

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested withinmore » 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.« less

  18. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Wang, G J; Smith, L; Volkow, N D; Telang, F; Logan, J; Tomasi, D; Wong, C T; Hoffman, W; Jayne, M; Alia-Klein, N; Thanos, P; Fowler, J S

    2012-09-01

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  19. Answers to Student's Most Popular Questions about Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... from NIDA scientists. For more information about Chat Day, go to https://teens.drugabuse.gov/national-drug- ...

  20. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciT

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improvemore » lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.« less

  2. Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.

  3. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin E; Moe, Derek; Bond, Mary; Gasior, Maciej; Malamut, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Misuse, abuse and diversion of prescription opioid analgesics represent a global public health concern. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse and diversion of these medications, as well as potentially limiting medical consequences when misused or administered in error. ADFs aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or aversive. However, opioid ADFs may still be abused via the intended route of administration by increasing the dose and/or dosing frequency. The science of abuse deterrence and the regulatory landscape are still relatively new and evolving. This paper reviews the current status of opioid ADFs, with particular focus on different approaches that can be used to deter abuse, regulatory considerations and implications for clinical management.

  4. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Opioid Abuse after TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE "Opioid Abuse after TBI" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...17beta‐estradiol confers protection following  traumatic brain injury in the rat and involves activation of G Protein‐coupled estrogen receptor 1 ( GPER

  6. Abusive families and character formation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  7. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  9. [Physical abuse of women].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Ma Dolores; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca O; Estrada-López, Mireya; Isais-Millán, Rebeca; Bayardo-Quezada, Cristina; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Tene, Carlos Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was determine prevalence of intrafamily violence of the type physical-abuse, toward female claimants aged 18 years and older at the HGZ MF No. 1 in Colima. A transversal study was conducted in 288 females aged 18 years and older who were seen at the Family Medicine Unit for external consultation. Average age was 33.86 years (+/- 11.6), the highest level of schooling was primary for 33% of subjects and secondary for 26%, 75% of our female claimants were divorced, 53.5% of monthly family incomes in each household was between 1,000 and 3,000 thousand Mexican pesos, and 27.8% of physical abuse consisted of shoving. Our research revealed that there is indeed physical violence toward 63.45% of female claimants at our hospital, especially toward those with low level of schooling, low socioeconomic status, and monthly income below minimum wage. These conditions only contribute toward making women fall prey to physical violence. Our study is only a first step for better understanding of domestic violence. Risk factors associated with physical abuse need to be controlled to decrease rate of interfamily violence against our claimants.

  10. Domestic violence and abuse: an exploration and evaluation of a domestic abuse nurse specialist role in acute health care services.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Julie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff in responding to disclosure of domestic violence and abuse, and to evaluate the effectiveness of training and support provided by a dedicated Domestic Abuse Nurse Specialist across one acute National Health Service Trust in the UK. The impact of domestic violence and abuse is well documented and is far reaching. Health care professionals have a key role to play in the effective identification and management of abuse across a range of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the constituents of effective support for practitioners within wider nonemergency hospital-based services. A qualitative approach semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with clinical staff based in one acute care Trust in the UK. Interviews were informed by an interview guide and analysed using the Framework approach. The organisation of the nurse specialist role facilitated a more cohesive approach to management at an organisational level with training and ongoing support identified as key facets of the role by practitioners. Time constraints were apparent in terms of staff training and this raises questions with regard to the status continuing professional development around domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse continues to exert a significant and detrimental impact on the lives and health of those who encounter abuse. Health care services in the UK and globally are increasingly on the frontline in terms of identification and management of domestic violence and abuse. This is coupled with the growing recognition of the need for adequate support structures to be in place to facilitate practitioners in providing effective care for survivors of domestic violence and abuse. This study provides an approach to the expansion of existing models and one which has the potential for further exploration and application in similar settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  12. Child emotional aggression and abuse: definitions and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Foster, Rachel E; Linkh, David J; Whitworth, James D

    2011-10-01

    Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b) used these criteria to design a parent-report measure of parental emotional aggression and child emotional abuse that could be used in research. In this paper, we review the development and field trials of these criteria for making substantiation decisions. Agreement between master reviewers and field decisions was extremely high in a 5-site development trial (96% agreement, κ=.89) and a 41-site dissemination trial (90% agreement, κ=.73). We compare these criteria to other research criteria in the literature. We then present data collected using a self-report measure designed to parallel these criteria from an anonymous online survey of US Air Force personnel and their spouses. The final sample (N=52,780) was weighted to be representative of the United States civilian population. The prevalence of parents' emotionally aggressive acts was much higher than the prevalence of emotional abuse (acts plus impact), but rates of parents' acts of emotional aggression were lower than those typically reported in the literature. Additional analyses tested for differential effects due to gender of perpetrator (i.e., mothers or fathers), age of victim, and clustering within families. These factors did not drive rates of aggression or abuse. In sum, the criteria developed and proposed appear to support reliable clinical decision making regarding child emotional abuse and can be translated to research survey tools that better capture the continuum of parents' emotional aggression and child emotional abuse than the measures that are currently available, advancing the state of the science with respect to child emotional abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bazmi, Elham; Mousavi, Farinaz; Giahchin, Leila; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Behnoush, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography. Results A total of 230 patients (5.9%) had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9%) were <20 years old and 196 (85.2%) were male. In total, 119 (51.7%) used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3%) used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%), followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%). Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3%) of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD) was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%), three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings. PMID:28417026

  14. Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

  15. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  17. Abuse victimization in childhood or adolescence and risk of food addiction in adult women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Susan M; Flint, Alan J; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2013-12-01

    Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Over 8% of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 U of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  18. Child Witness to Domestic Abuse: Baseline Data Analysis for a Seven-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Blair, Faye; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2015-01-01

    Children who witness the abuse of their mother by an intimate partner suffer negative effects on behavioral functioning. In this study, 300 abused women seeking services for abuse were interviewed regarding how often their child had witnessed the abuse. Baseline data for this study found that boys who witnessed abuse had externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems comparable to boys in clinical treatment. Girls did not display clinically significant behaviors. For evidence-based programs to interrupt the effect of witness to violence on children, empirical data that are gender-specific are needed. Findings support the need to screen mothers for abuse during well-child visits and offer education to all mothers on the possible effects of child witness to violence in the home.

  19. Substance abuse disorders in nurses.

    PubMed

    Griffith, J

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious concern in the profession of nursing. The American Nurses Association (1997) estimates that 10% to 20% of nurses have substance abuse problems, and that 6% to 8% of registered nurses are impaired due to their abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Chemical dependency is considered a disease that requires treatment. Early identification and treatment of the chemically dependent nurse is important for the safety of the public and for the well-being of the nurse and her profession. This article addresses substance abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective, and includes a description of an approach to treatment and suggestions for the role of nursing administration.

  20. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  1. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciT

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  2. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341

  3. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  4. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of

  5. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin Qi

    2015-06-01

    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Medical students' experiences of professional lapses and patient rights abuses in a South African health sciences faculty.

    PubMed

    Vivian, Lauraine M H; Naidu, Claudia S; Keikelame, Mpoe J; Irlam, James

    2011-10-01

    To elicit South African medical students' experiences of witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses during their clinical training in order to inform an appropriate and effective response. During June and July 2009 at the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, the authors surveyed 223 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students in selected clinical rotations concerning abuses they had observed. Volunteers were later interviewed individually. The authors coded interview transcripts for key themes using a constant-comparative grounded theory approach. Of 223 students surveyed, 183 (82%) responded, 130 (71%) of whom reported witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses, including physical abuse (38%), verbal abuse (37%), disrespect for patients' dignity (25%), and inadequately informing patients about their treatment (25%). Students attributed abuse to stressed health workers, overburdened facilities, and disempowered patients. Most students who witnessed abuse (59%) did not actively respond, and 64% of survey respondents felt unprepared or uncertain about challenging abuses in the future. Interviews with 28 students yielded detailed accounts of the abuses witnessed and of students' emotional reactions, coping strategies, and responses. Most students did not report abuses; they feared reprisal or doubted it would make a difference. This study demonstrates the disjunction between what these students were taught about human rights and ethics and what they witnessed in clinical settings. The high prevalence of patient rights abuses experienced by these students highlights the need to align medical ethics and human rights with medico-legal protocols in theory and clinical practice.

  7. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Redican, Kerry J; Marek, Lydia I; Brock, Donna JP; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse. Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders. Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco¬done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries) turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers. Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed. PMID:24688929

  8. Leucoencephalopathy following abuse of sniffed heroin.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Lebas, Axel; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Grangeon, Lou; Ozkul-Wermester, Ozlem; Aubier-Girard, Carole; Martinaud, Olivier; Maltête, David

    2017-01-01

    A 29-year-old man was admitted for acute cognitive impairment. Three weeks earlier, he had been admitted for coma due to sniffed heroin abuse responsive to naloxone infusion. At admission, the patient presented with apraxia, severe memory impairment and anosognosia. Brain MRI revealed symmetric hyperintensities of supratentorial white matter, sparing brainstem and cerebellum, on FLAIR and B1000 sequences. Four months later, repeated neuropsychological assessment revealed dramatic improvement of global cognitive functions. Toxic leucoencephalopathy excluding the cerebellum and brainstem is a rare complication of heroin abuse, and seems to concern especially patients that use heroin by sniff or injection. In these patients, cognitive troubles are predominant, prognosis seems better and infratentorial brain structures can be spared. In conclusion, our observation emphasizes that heroin-induced encephalopathy can have a favourable outcome and that imaging and clinical patterns can indicate the mode of drug administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover. PMID:19949883

  10. Substance abuse as a symptom of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Teusch, R

    2001-11-01

    The recovery process of a 37-year-old woman with adult onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presented. The patient had suffered childhood sexual abuse and had self-medicated for many years with drugs and alcohol to maintain the dissociation of memories of abuse and to facilitate interpersonal functioning. Upon onset of PTSD, the patient's substance abuse became a full-blown addiction that was highly resistant to treatment. It became evident that her substance abuse symbolically repeated her traumatization. In reexperiencing the affects associated with her earlier trauma (despair, denial, shame, and helplessness) as part of her substance abuse and in the transference, the patient was able to gain mastery over these affects and, subsequently, was able to achieve a stable recovery from both illnesses.

  11. Association of childhood abuse with homeless women's social networks.

    PubMed

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J

    2012-01-01

    . The effects of childhood physical abuse should be more actively investigated in clinical settings, especially those frequented by homeless women, particularly with respect to the formation of social networks in social contexts that may expose these women to greater risks. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sibling Maltreatment: The Forgotten Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Morrill-Richards, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the study of family violence in the past 30 years. However, sibling abuse and its prevalence in the family have largely been overlooked. In this article, the major issues associated with sibling maltreatment are highlighted, and strategies for helping the victims and perpetrators of sibling abuse and their families…

  13. Observations on Substance Abuse Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Applies a philosophy of science perspective to substance abuse theory to clarify these theories in general and peer cluster theory in particular. Examines the natural history of an illicit drug from a macroscopic level of analysis to illuminate some of the social-psychological factors that influence drug use and abuse patterns. (Author/KS)

  14. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  15. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse].

    PubMed

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-03-08

    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.

  16. Working on Memories of Abuse....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsman, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  17. A Study in Computer Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield Inst. of Technology (Australia).

    Computer abuse is examined as both a general issue and as a specific problem. A statistical profile of computer crime lists distribution by country of reported cases, by industry of occurrence, and by amount of monetary loss. The characteristics of computer abuse are described along with the important categories of such crimes. Factors inhibiting…

  18. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  19. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  20. [Child abuse: a world problem].

    PubMed

    Santana-Tavira, R; Sánchez-Ahedo, R; Herrera-Basto, E

    1998-01-01

    Several problems are encountered in the study of child abuse: ignorance of its real proportions, deep cultural and historical roots, diversity of opinion as to its definition and classification and, finally, very diverse considerations on its repercussions and therapeutic management. The present study approaches child abuse from its historical precedents, its classifications, definitions and epidemiology. In addition, repercussions are reviewed, and treatment alternatives considered which are held as fundamental to confront this alarmingly increasing phenomenon. It is important to unify criteria as to the definition and classification of scientific information surrounding demographic data which, in the end, will situate the problem, the progress related to its causes, diagnosis, preventive measures and treatment. It is extremely important to prevent child abuse by all possible means, since this harm is reflected in the adult life of the child. Various classifications are considered, as well as characteristics of the abuser and of the abused.