Young, Lisa M
Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Screening for childhood physical and sexual abuse among outpatient substance abusers.
Simpson, T L; Westerberg, V S; Little, L M; Trujillo, M
Research demonstrates that substance-abusing individuals report substantially higher rates of childhood sexual and physical abuse than the general population. This study sought to test a method of identifying substance-abusing clients with histories of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse and to explore the differences between those reporting childhood abuse and those not. Files of substance abusing clients from two distinct time periods were examined for reports of childhood abuse. At Time 1 (n = 399) clients were not systematically asked about experiences of childhood abuse, and at Time 2 (n = 305) clients were routinely asked about this issue. Results indicate that significantly more male and female clients disclosed childhood abuse at Time 2. Additionally, male clients reporting childhood abuse appeared more distressed than those not reporting abuse; female clients reporting childhood abuse did not appear more distressed than their counterparts.
The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.
Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender
Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Physically Abusive Parents: Efficacy for Reducing Future Abuse Reports
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chaffin, Mark; Silovsky, Jane F.; Funderburk, Beverly; Valle, Linda Anne; Brestan, Elizabeth V.; Balachova, Tatiana; Jackson, Shelli; Lensgraf, Jay; Bonner, Barbara L.
A randomized trial was conducted to test the efficacy and sufficiency of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in preventing re-reports of physical abuse among abusive parents. Physically abusive parents (N=110) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: (a) PCIT, (b) PCIT plus individualized enhanced services, or (c) a…
Verbal and physical abuse against nurses in Turkey.
Celik, S S; Celik, Y; Ağirbaş, I; Uğurluoğlu, O
This study of verbal and physical abuse against nurses in Turkey aimed to describe prevalence, sources, important effects on work, family and social life of the nurses, coping methods and factors. A sample of 622 nurses working in eight hospitals located in the capital city of Turkey was surveyed using verbal and physical abuse questionnaires. The prevalence of verbal and physical abuse against nurses in the sample of this study were found to be as 91.1% and 33.0% respectively. Colleagues were found to be the most important source of verbally abusive behaviours while patients and patients' relatives were the important sources of physically abusive behaviours. Disturbed mental health, decreased job performance and headache were the more frequently reported negative effects of verbal and physical abuses on nurses. The most common reactions against abusive behaviours were anger, helplessness, humiliation and depression. It is interesting to find that 'did nothing' was the most reported coping method with verbal abuse. The findings also suggested that working in inpatient units and increasing work experience in the nursing profession were statistically significant variables increasing the likelihood of being abused physically. All the results on sources, negative effects, feelings and coping methods on verbally and physically abusive behaviours lead us to discuss that lower working status and power of the nurses at the work, poor working conditions in healthcare settings and insufficient administrative mechanisms as well as law and regulations against the abusers are the important factors forcing the nurses to work in an inappropriate work environment in Turkey.
Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Post-Traumatic Stress in Sexually Abused, Physically Abused, and Nonabused Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
This investigation compared rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms across sexually abused (N=29), physically abused (N=20), and nonabused (N=29) psychiatrically hospitalized children. Overall rates were not significantly different across groups, but significant differences were found with respect to specific symptoms, especially in…
Figueroa, Ma Dolores; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca O; Estrada-López, Mireya; Isais-Millán, Rebeca; Bayardo-Quezada, Cristina; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Tene, Carlos Enrique
Our aim was determine prevalence of intrafamily violence of the type physical-abuse, toward female claimants aged 18 years and older at the HGZ MF No. 1 in Colima. A transversal study was conducted in 288 females aged 18 years and older who were seen at the Family Medicine Unit for external consultation. Average age was 33.86 years (+/- 11.6), the highest level of schooling was primary for 33% of subjects and secondary for 26%, 75% of our female claimants were divorced, 53.5% of monthly family incomes in each household was between 1,000 and 3,000 thousand Mexican pesos, and 27.8% of physical abuse consisted of shoving. Our research revealed that there is indeed physical violence toward 63.45% of female claimants at our hospital, especially toward those with low level of schooling, low socioeconomic status, and monthly income below minimum wage. These conditions only contribute toward making women fall prey to physical violence. Our study is only a first step for better understanding of domestic violence. Risk factors associated with physical abuse need to be controlled to decrease rate of interfamily violence against our claimants.
Child physical punishment, injury and abuse (part two).
Watkins, Dianne; Cousins, Judy
This is the second paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. Paper one concentrated on the extent of child physical punishment, injuries sustained and the relationship between macrotheoretical factors. It highlighted a continuum between child physical discipline, injuries and child physical abuse. Paper two introduces the reader to microtheoretical factors that contribute to child physical punishment and its relationship with child physical injuries and abuse. The focus is on parental and child influences, lifestyle factors and socialisation of parents. It will integrate macrotheroretical factors highlighted in paper one and microtheroretical factors presented in this paper into a framework for the prevention of child physical injury and abuse based on an ecological model.
The Role of Parental Stress in Physically Abusive Families.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whipple, Ellen E.; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn
A study of 123 families examined the role of parental stress in physically abusive and nonabusive families with conduct-disordered children. Parental stress was found to play an important role in abusive families. Physically abusive families were found to have lower incomes, younger mothers with less education, a history of child abuse, and more…
Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.
Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…
Depressive symptoms and suicidality in physically abused children.
Finzi, R; Ram, A; Shnit, D; Har-Even, D; Tyano, S; Weizman, A
Depressive symptoms and suicidality were assessed in 114 children 6-12 years old, of whom 41 had been physically abused, 38 neglected, and 35 neither abused nor neglected. The physically abused children manifested significantly higher levels of depressive symptomatology and suicidality than did the other two groups. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.
Evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.
Kellogg, Nancy D
This report provides guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. The medical assessment is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate ancillary testing. The role of the physician may encompass reporting suspected abuse; assessing the consistency of the explanation, the child's developmental capabilities, and the characteristics of the injury or injuries; and coordination with other professionals to provide immediate and long-term treatment and follow-up for victims. Accurate and timely diagnosis of children who are suspected victims of abuse can ensure appropriate evaluation, investigation, and outcomes for these children and their families.
Imaging and Diagnosis of Physical Child Abuse.
Johnson, Marlene M
Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...
Parental physical abuse and sexual orientation in males.
Because male homosexuals have usually been found to have poorer relationships with their fathers than male heterosexuals, and because children who are disappointments to their parents are more likely to be physically abused than other children, it was hypothesized that gays are more likely than heterosexual men to have been physically abused by parents. This hypothesis was tested comparing 17 gay male college students and 67 heterosexual male college students. Gay males were found to have been more abused during adolescence. Abuse was related to a history of childhood femininity, to having poor relationships with fathers, and to having engaged in gay sex during adolescence. A history of childhood femininity and engaging in gay sex may provoke parental abuse.
Child physical abuse and concurrence of other types of child abuse in Sweden-Associations with health and risk behaviors.
Annerbäck, E-M; Sahlqvist, L; Svedin, C G; Wingren, G; Gustafsson, P A
To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in 2 different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (n=7,262). The response rate was 81.8%. The pupils were asked among other things about their exposure to child physical abuse, exposure to parental intimate violence, bullying, and exposure to being forced to engage in sexual acts. Adjusted analyses were conducted to estimate associations between exposure and ill-health/risk-taking behaviors. Child physical abuse was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.6 to 6.2. The associations were stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse with OR ranging from 2.0 to 13.2. Also experiencing parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with the same graded relationship to repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse and the associations increased with the number of concurrent abuse. This study provides strong indications that child abuse is a serious public health problem based on the clear links seen between abuse and poor health and behavioral problems. Consistent with other studies showing a graded relationship between experiences of abuse and poor health/risk-taking behaviors our study shows poorer outcomes for repeated and multiple abuse. Thus, our study calls for improvement of methods of comprehensive assessments, interventions and treatment in all settings where
Exploration and validation of clusters of physically abused children.
Sabourin Ward, Caryn; Haskett, Mary E
Cluster analysis was used to enhance understanding of heterogeneity in social adjustment of physically abused children. Ninety-eight physically abused children (ages 5-10) were clustered on the basis of social adjustment, as measured by observed behavior with peers on the school playground and by teacher reports of social behavior. Seventy-seven matched nonabused children served as a comparison sample. Clusters were validated on the basis of observed parental sensitivity, parents' self-reported disciplinary tactics, and children's social information processing operations (i.e., generation of solutions to peer relationship problems and attributions of peer intentions in social situations). Three subgroups of physically abused children emerged from the cluster analysis; clusters were labeled Socially Well Adjusted, Hanging in There, and Social Difficulties. Examination of cluster differences on risk and protective factors provided substantial evidence in support of the external validity of the three-cluster solution. Specifically, clusters differed significantly in attributions of peer intent and in parenting (i.e., sensitivity and harshness of parenting). Clusters also differed in the ways in which they were similar to, or different from, the comparison group of nonabused children. Results supported the contention that there were clinically relevant subgroups of physically abused children with potentially unique treatment needs. Findings also pointed to the relevance of social information processing operations and parenting context in understanding diversity among physically abused children. Pending replication, findings provide support for the importance of considering unique treatment of needs among physically abused children. A singular approach to intervention is unlikely to be effective for these children. For example, some physically abused children might need a more intensive focus on development of prosocial skills in relationships with peers while the
Suspicious scars: physical child abuse vs Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Vadysinghe, Amal Nishantha; Wickramashinghe, Chatula Usari; Nanayakkara, Dineshi Nadira; Kaluarachchi, Chandishni Ishara
Child abuse is a sensitive topic among many medical practitioners and the diagnosis of this entity requires awareness about conditions which can mimic physical child abuse. Here, the authors present a case of a 13-year-old school non-attendee who was referred due to multiple scars, over areas prone to accidental as well as non-accidental injury, who underwent medicolegal examination due to suspicion of physical child abuse. On further inquiry, it was discovered that she had easy bruising and poor wound healing. A diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was established and physical child abuse was excluded. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying conditions which may confound the diagnosis of physical child abuse. This is of utmost importance in avoiding adverse legal and psycho-social implications on the child, family and society.
Physical abuse in low-income women in Aleppo, Syria.
Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid
Violence against women is a vicious practice present in all societies. Yet data about its occurrence and associated factors are scarce in the Arab world. In this study, we attempt to determine the spread of physical abuse and its sociodemographic correlates among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 411 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97%, mean age of participants 28 +/- 8 years, and most women (88%) were married. A special questionnaire was used including questions about physical abuse, the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), and questions about relevant sociodemographic information. Current physical abuse (battering at least 3 times during the previous year) was found in 23% of the investigated and among 26% of married women, while regular abuse (battering at least once weekly) was found in 3.3% of married women. Correlates of physical abuse were women's education, religion, age, marital status, economic status, mental distress, smoking, and residence. Our data show that physical abuse is prevalent in this population and that women's education is the most important modifiable factor.
Carrying the pain of abuse: gender-specific findings on the relationship between childhood physical abuse and obesity in adulthood.
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Sinclair, Deborah A; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR) = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 1.67). Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53). This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration.
Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Evaluation of family drawings of physically and sexually abused children.
Piperno, Francesca; Di Biasi, Stefania; Levi, Gabriel
The aim of this study is to analyse the family drawings of two groups of physically and/or sexually abused children as compared to the drawings of non-abused children of a matched control group. The drawings by 12 physically abused, 12 sexually abused and 12 non-abused children, all aged between 5 years-old and 10 years-old, were assessed and compared. Family drawings were analysed using a specific Screening Inventory (FDI-Family Drawing Inventory). This Inventory takes into consideration such qualitative and quantitative variables as the quality of drawing, the children's perception of their family members and their own perception of themselves within the family system. The results have shown significant differences between the abused minors and the control group. Abused children are more likely to draw distorted bodies, the human figure is usually represented devoid of details, their drawings generally show clear signals of trauma and the majority of the abused children are likely to exclude their primary caregiver from the drawings. The "drawings of the family" of physically and/or sexually abused children significantly evidence a greater emotional distress then the drawings of the non-abused children of the matched control group.
A national survey of childhood physical abuse among females in Swaziland
Breiding, Matthew J.; Mercy, James A.; Gulaid, Jama; Reza, Avid; Hleta-Nkambule, Nonhlanhla
Objective This study describes the scope and characteristics of childhood physical abuse in a nationally representative sample of 13–24 year-old females in Swaziland. The current study also examined health consequences and risk factors of childhood physical abuse. Methods The study utilized a two-stage cluster sampling design in order to conduct the household survey. Retrospective reports of childhood physical abuse and relevant risk factors were collected from 1292 females. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models examined associations between childhood physical abuse and both health consequences and risk factors. Results Nearly 1 in 5 females in Swaziland has experienced childhood physical abuse in their lifetime, with nearly 1 in 20 having experienced abuse that was so severe that it required medical attention. A number of risk factors for lifetime childhood physical abuse were identified including: maternal death prior to age 13; having lived with three or more families during their childhood; and having experienced emotional abuse prior to age 13. Conclusions Preventing childhood physical abuse in Swaziland may be addressed through: promoting safe, stable, and nurturing relationships between children and their caretakers; addressing social norms that contribute to harsh physical punishment; and addressing underlying stressors associated with severe social and economic disadvantage. PMID:23856568
Representations of self and other in the narratives of neglected, physically abused, and sexually abused preschoolers.
Toth, S L; Cicchetti, D; Macfie, J; Emde, R N
The MacArthur Story Stem Battery was used to examine maternal and self-representations in neglected, physically abused, sexually abused, and nonmaltreated comparison preschool children. The narratives of maltreated children contained more negative maternal representations and more negative self-representations than did the narratives of nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children also were more controlling with and less responsive to the examiner. In examining the differential impact of maltreatment subtype differences on maternal and self-representations, physically abused children evidenced the most negative maternal representations; they also had more negative self-representations than nonmaltreated children. Sexually abused children manifested more positive self-representations than neglected children. Despite these differences in the nature of maternal and self-representations, physically and sexually abused children both were more controlling and less responsive to the examiner. The investigation adds to the corpus of knowledge regarding disturbances in the self-system functioning of maltreated children and provides support for relations between representational models of self and other and the self-organizing function that these models exert on children's lives.
[The Process of Healing Child Physical Abuse: Sprouting and Twining].
Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei
Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.
Negative affect and parental aggression in child physical abuse.
Mammen, Oommen K; Kolko, David J; Pilkonis, Paul A
Parental negative affect is a risk factor for child physical abuse. As negative affect contributes to aggression, and because physical abuse involves an aggressive act directed at the child, we examined the relationship between negative affect and parent-to-child aggression (PTCA) in parents reported to Child Protective Services for physical abuse. Baseline assessment data were retrospectively examined on 49 participants in a treatment study for child physical abuse. The negative affects studied were depression, anxiety, and hostility on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Brief Symptom Inventory. PTCA was assessed using the physical aggression subscales (Minor and Severe Physical Violence) of the Conflict Tactics Scale. The contribution of these negative affects to PTCA was examined after controlling individually for the effects of parental attributions and contextual variables widely regarded as etiological factors in child physical abuse. Contributions of negative affect to PTCA after individually controlling for other predictors were found for Minor Physical Violence but not Severe Physical Violence. Findings were strongest with depression on the Beck Depression Inventory and to a lesser extent with hostility on the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finding that negative affect contributed to PTCA in this sample suggests that it may be important to study the effects of emotion-focused treatments in physically abusive parents. These findings also suggest that PTCA may have qualities of impulsive aggression, a form of aggression that is conceptualized as driven by negative affect, occurs in response to aversive events, and is not planned.
Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Norman, Rosana E; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo
Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. This overview of the evidence suggests a causal relationship between non-sexual child
Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace
Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…
Prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in veterans with psychiatric diagnoses.
Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J
We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤ 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p < 0.0001). More patients with depressive disorders reported sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.
Prevalence of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Veterans With Psychiatric Diagnoses
Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L.; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J.
We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p < 0.0001). More patients with depressive disorders reported sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:23538982
A literature review of findings in physical elder abuse.
Murphy, Kieran; Waa, Sheila; Jaffer, Hussein; Sauter, Agnes; Chan, Amanda
To review the medical literature for reports on the types of physical injuries in elder abuse with the aim of eliciting patterns that will aid its detection. The databases of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and TRIP were searched from 1975 to March 2012 for articles that contained the following phrases: "physical elder abuse," "older adult abuse," "elder mistreatment," "geriatric abuse," "geriatric trauma," and "nonaccidental geriatric injury." Distribution and description of injuries in physical elder abuse from case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports as seen at autopsy, in hospital emergency departments, or in medicolegal reports were tabulated and summarized. A review of 9 articles from a total of 574 articles screened yielded 839 injuries. The anatomic distribution in these was as follows: upper extremity, 43.98%; maxillofacial, dental, and neck, 22.88%; skull and brain, 12.28%; lower extremity, 10.61%; and torso, 10.25%. Two-thirds of injuries that occur in elder abuse are to the upper extremity and maxillofacial region. The social context in which the injuries takes place remains crucial to accurate identification of abuse. This includes a culture of violence in the family; a demented, debilitated, or depressed and socially isolated victim; and a perpetrator profile of mental illness, alcohol or drug abuse, or emotional and/or financial dependence on the victim. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Selective attention to facial emotion in physically abused children.
Pollak, Seth D; Tolley-Schell, Stephanie A
The ability to allocate attention to emotional cues in the environment is an important feature of adaptive self-regulation. Existing data suggest that physically abused children overattend to angry expressions, but the attentional mechanisms underlying such behavior are unknown. The authors tested 8-11-year-old physically abused children to determine whether they displayed specific information-processing problems in a selective attention paradigm using emotional faces as cues. Physically abused children demonstrated delayed disengagement when angry faces served as invalid cues. Abused children also demonstrated increased attentional benefits on valid angry trials. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of early adverse experience on children's selective attention to threat-related signals as a mechanism in the development of psychopathology.
... homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...
The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo
Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these
Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.
Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon
This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.
Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701
Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Cognitive and Neuroimaging Findings in Physically Abused Preschoolers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prasad, M. R.; Kramer, L. A.; Ewing-Cobbs, L.
Aims: To characterise the cognitive, motor, and language skills of toddlers and preschoolers who had been physically abused and to obtain concurrent MRIs of the brain. Methods: A between groups design was used to compare of sample of 19 children, aged 14-77 months, who had been hospitalised for physical abuse with no evidence of neurological…
Sexual, Physical, Verbal/Emotional Abuse and Unexplained Chest Pain
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.
Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…
Drug Use, the Drug Environment, and Child Physical Abuse and Neglect.
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J
Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.
Disclosure of physical, emotional and sexual child abuse, help-seeking and access to abuse response services in two South African Provinces.
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie; Loening-Voysey, Heidi; Bray, Rachel; Doubt, Jenny; Casale, Marisa; Sherr, Lorraine
Physical, emotional and sexual child abuse are major problems in South Africa. This study investigates whether children know about post-abuse services, if they disclose and seek services, and what the outcomes of help-seeking behaviour are. It examines factors associated with request and receipt of services. Confidential self-report questionnaires were completed by adolescents aged 10-17 (n = 3515) in South Africa. Prevalence of frequent (>weekly) physical abuse was 7.4%, frequent emotional abuse 12.4%, and lifetime contact sexual abuse 9.0%. 98.6% could name one suitable confidante or formal service for abuse disclosure, but only 20.0% of abuse victims disclosed. Of those, 72% received help. Most common confidantes were caregivers and teachers. Of all abuse victims, 85.6% did not receive help due to non-disclosure or inactivity of services, and 14.4% received help: 4.9% from formal health or social services and 7.1% through community vigilante action. Emotional abuse, sexual abuse and female gender were associated with higher odds of help-seeking. While children in South Africa showed high knowledge of available services, access to and receipt of formal services among abused children was low. Notably fewer children received help from formal services than through community vigilante action. Urgent action is needed to improve service access for child abuse victims.
The whole picture: Child maltreatment experiences of youths who were physically abused.
Stevens, Kristopher I; Schneiderman, Janet U; Negriff, Sonya; Brinkmann, Andrea; Trickett, Penelope K
The purpose of the current study was to describe the maltreatment experiences of a sample of urban youths identified as physically abused using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI). The sample (n=303) of 9-12 year old youths was recruited from active child protective services (CPS) cases in 2002-2005, and five years of child protective service records were reviewed. The demographic and maltreatment experiences of MCRAI-identified youths with physical abuse were compared to maltreated youths who were not physically abused and youths who were identified as physically abused by CPS when they entered this longitudinal study. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and maltreatment experiences of the sample MCRAI-identified physically abused to the sample MCRAI-identified as nonphysically abused maltreated by gender. Of the total sample, 156 (51%) were identified by MCRAI as physically abused and 96.8% of these youth also experienced other types of maltreatment. Whereas youth with the initial CPS identification of physical abuse showed little co-occurrence (37.7%) with other forms of maltreatment. The MCRAI-identified physically abused youths had a significantly higher mean number of CPS reports and higher mean number of incidents of maltreatment than MCRAI-identified nonphysically maltreated youths. Lifeline plots of case record history from the time of first report to CPS to entry into the study found substantial individual variability in maltreatment experiences for both boys and girls. Thus, obtaining maltreatment information from a single report vastly underestimates the prevalence of physical abuse and the co-occurrence of other maltreatment types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
A meta-analysis of disparities in childhood sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, and peer victimization among sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals.
Friedman, Mark S; Marshal, Michael P; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.
Children's Play: The Differential Effects of Intrafamilial Physical and Sexual Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
This study investigated the play of 40 sexually abused, physically abused, physically and sexually abused, and nonabused children, ages 3-10. Results are analyzed in terms of structural differences (representational or fantasy worlds) and thematic differences (such as domestic life, need for protection, need for nurturance, conflict, chaos, and…
Elder abuse is a common and yet often unrecognised problem in our community. With up to 5% of the community dwelling older population being victims of abuse, the general practitioner has a pivotal role in identifying this abuse. This article provides an outline of the definition of elder abuse, describes the types of abuse seen and the reasons for occurrence of abuse. It summarises the role of the GP in the identification and management of abuse and provides guidance on intervention strategies. Case studies are used to illustrate the issues discussed. Elder abuse is defined as any pattern of behaviour which causes physical, psychological, financial or social harm to an older person. The role of the GP in identifying abuse is critical. The vast majority of older people visit their GP at least once a year, and the GP often has a long standing relationship with their patient and the patient's family. They are therefore ideally placed to identify elder abuse.
Intimate Partner Violence and Cigarette Smoking: Association Between Smoking Risk and Psychological Abuse With and Without Co-Occurrence of Physical and Sexual Abuse
Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Wright, Rosalind J.
Objectives. We examined the association between psychological abuse in a current relationship and current cigarette smoking among women, with and without the co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse. Methods. Women’s experience of psychological abuse, experience of physical or sexual abuse, and smoking status were ascertained through a survey of female nurses. A score of 20 or more on the Women’s Experience With Battering scale defined psychological abuse. We used logistic regression to predict current smoking, adjusting for demographic and social covariates. Analyses included women in a current relationship (n=54200). Results. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that women experiencing only psychological abuse alone were 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13%, 57%) more likely to smoke than nonabused women. Compared with nonabused women, psychologically abused women’s risk of smoking was greater if they reported a single co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; 95% CI=1.3, 1.8) or multiple co-occurrences (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.7, 2.3). Conclusions. Psychological abuse in a current relationship was associated with an increased risk of smoking in this cohort of largely White, well-educated, and employed women. The co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse enhanced that risk. Further research is needed to see if these associations hold for other groups. PMID:17600272
Speak softly--and forget the stick. Corporal punishment and child physical abuse.
Zolotor, Adam J; Theodore, Adrea D; Chang, Jen Jen; Berkoff, Molly C; Runyan, Desmond K
Previous studies have shown an association between spanking and child physical abuse. However, the relationship between more frequent and severe corporal punishment and abuse remains unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between reported spanking, spanking frequency, or spanking with an object and the odds of physical abuse in a representative sample of mothers from North and South Carolina. This study is a cross-sectional, anonymous telephone survey of adult mothers with children aged<18 years living in the Carolinas in 2002. The analysis was conducted in 2007. Survey responses were used to determine the association between corporal punishment (spanking, spanking frequency, and spanking with an object) and an index of harsh physical punishment consistent with physical abuse (beating, burning, kicking, hitting with an object somewhere other than the buttocks, or shaking a child aged<2 years). Mothers who report that the child was spanked are 2.7 (95% CI=1.2, 6.3) times more likely to report abuse. Increases in the frequency of reported spanking in the last year are also associated with increased odds of abuse (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01, 1.06). Mothers reporting spanking with an object are at markedly increased odds of reporting abuse (OR=8.9, 95% CI=4.1, 19.6). Although reported spanking increases the odds of reported physical abuse, the relationship between the reported hitting of a child with an object and reported abuse is much stronger. Reduction in this form of discipline through media, educational, and legislative efforts may reduce child physical abuse.
Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.
Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James
This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children.
Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham
The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.
Exploration and Validation of Clusters of Physically Abused Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, Caryn Sabourin; Haskett, Mary E.
Objective: Cluster analysis was used to enhance understanding of heterogeneity in social adjustment of physically abused children. Method: Ninety-eight physically abused children (ages 5-10) were clustered on the basis of social adjustment, as measured by observed behavior with peers on the school playground and by teacher reports of social…
Elder Abuse among African Americans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia
Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…
Cognitive and emotional differences between abusive and non-abusive fathers.
Francis, Karen J; Wolfe, David A
Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Abusive (n=24) and non-abusive (n=25) fathers completed standard measures assessing their experience and expression of anger, mental health, parenting stress, and their empathy and perceptions of children's socio-emotional signals. Abusive fathers differed from comparisons on almost all constructs. They experienced more anger and were more likely to express that anger aggressively. They reported more mental health concerns (such as depression, hostility, and paranoid ideation), more stress in parenting, and significantly less empathy for their children. They were also more likely to perceive children's emotional expressions as depicting negative emotions, such as anger and disgust. Abusive fathers struggle with a myriad of difficulties that likely contribute to their problematic parenting. These difficulties are both inter- and intra-personal in nature. The findings suggest that abusive fathers require comprehensive assessment that includes mental health screening. Interventions should be selected carefully to target abusive fathers' high levels of negative affect and negative perceptions. Treatment strategies should address problems related to parenting style (e.g., managing stress and interpretation of children's socioemotional signals) as well as their personal adjustment (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies for regulating affect and cognitive distortions).
Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder.
Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Nolen, Willem A
Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult outpatients (average age 40 years). Patients gave informed consent and provided information about their age of onset and course of illness prior to study entry. Verbal abuse alone occurred in 24% of the patients. Similar to a history of physical or sexual abuse, a history of verbal abuse was related to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder and other poor prognosis characteristics, including anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, and a deteriorating illness course as reflected in ratings of increasing frequency or severity of mania and depression. A lasting adverse impact of the experience of verbal abuse in childhood is suggested by its relationship to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder, other poor prognosis factors, and a deteriorating course of illness. Verbal abuse is a common confound in comparison groups defined by a lack of physical or sexual abuse. Ameliorating the impact of verbal abuse on the unfolding course of bipolar disorder appears to be an important target of therapeutics and worthy of attempts at primary and secondary prophylaxis. Family-based treatments that focus on psychoeducation, enhancing intra-family communication, and coping skills may be particularly helpful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.
To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…
Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung
Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…
Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.
Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D
The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.
[Systematic detection of physical child abuse at emergency rooms].
Sittig, J S; Uiterwaal, C S P M; Moons, K G M; Russel, I M B; Nievelstein, R A J; Nieuwenhuis, E E S; van de Putte, E M
The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up in 4 ERs in The Netherlands. Participants were 4290 children aged 0-7 years, attending the ER because of physical injury. All children were systematically tested with an easy-to-use child abuse checklist (index test). A national expert panel (reference standard) retrospectively assessed all children with positive screens and a 15% random sample of the children with negative screens for physical abuse, using additional information, namely, an injury history taken by a paediatrician, information provided by the general practitioner, youth doctor and social services by structured questionnaires, and 6-month follow-up information. Our main outcome measure was physical child abuse; secondary outcome measure was injury due to neglect and need for help. 4253/4290 (99%) parents agreed to follow-up. At a prevalence of 0.07% (3/4253) for inflicted injury by expert panel decision, the positive predictive value of the checklist was 0.03 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.085), and the negative predictive value 1.0 (0.994 to 1.0). There was 100% (93 to 100) agreement about inflicted injury in children, with positive screens between the expert panel and child abuse experts. Rare cases of inflicted injury among preschool children presenting at ERs for injury are very likely captured by easy-to-use checklists, but at very high false-positive rates. Subsequent assessment by child abuse experts can be safely restricted to children with positive screens at very low risk of missing cases of inflicted injury. Because of the high false positive rate, we do advise careful prior consideration of cost-effectiveness and clinical and societal implications before de novo implementation.
The intellectual profile of abused and neglected children in the Philippines: An analysis of SB5 IQ scores of sexually abused, physically abused and neglected children.
Bengwasan, Peejay D
Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Physical abuse in the era of financial crisis in Greece.
Kontos, Michael; Moris, Demetrios; Davakis, Spyridon; Schizas, Dimitrios; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Liakakos, Theodoros
Greece is suffering an economic recession of enormous magnitude, but whether its health has deteriorated as a result, has not yet been well established. We aim to present and analyze differences in demographics and clinical distribution of patients victims of physical abuse examined at the surgical emergency room in an Academic institution in the era of financial crisis. A retrospective database analysis of all patients that were examined to surgical emergency room (ER), between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2014, was conducted. We only analyzed and evaluated data for the years 2008 to 2014. The number of patients being examined in the ER in 2011 was higher compared with that of 2014 and to 2008 respectively (P<0.05). There was an increase of the total cases of physical abuse (P<0.05). The majority of cases examined for physical abuse were men, with a constant tendency of increasing number of women abused throughout the years of crisis. Financial crisis seems to have a multivariable effect on epidemiology and clinical diversity of the patients, victims of physical abuse, being examined in the ER.
Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Al Dosari, Mohammed N.; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K.; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M.
OBJECTIVE: To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t-test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk
Maternal and paternal physical abuse: Unique and joint associations with child behavioral problems.
Cui, Naixue; Deatrick, Janet A; Liu, Jianghong
Although there is a substantial amount of literature documenting the relationship between child abuse and behavioral problems in China, there is, on the other hand, a limited number of studies on the joint and unique associations of maternal and paternal physical abuse with child behaviors within the Chinese context. The present study, using the family systems theory as the theoretical framework, aims to examine these joint and the unique associations of maternal and paternal physical abuse with externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a community sample of Chinese children. A total of 296 children (54.7% boys, mean age 12.31±0.56years) from two-parent families participated in the study, and they reported their physical abuse experience by their mother and father in the previous year using the Chinese version of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale. Participants, using the Youth Self Report, reported personal externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and, similarly, their mothers, using the Child Behavior Checklist, assessed children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Linear mixed effect models with random intercept and slope were used to examine the joint and unique associations of maternal and paternal physical abuse with child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results revealed that physically abused children were more likely to be simultaneously abused by both mothers and fathers. Furthermore, when compared with their non-abused counterparts, children with physical abuse that was carried out solely by mothers (externalizing behaviors: β=6.71, 95% CI=2.45-10.98, p<0.01; internalizing behaviors: β=4.52, 95% CI=0.37-8.66, p<0.05) or by both mothers and fathers (externalizing behaviors: β=4.52, 95% CI=1.80-7.24, p<0.001; internalizing behaviors: β=2.98, 95% CI=0.34-5.61, p<0.05) reported more externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Externalizing and internalizing behaviors of children who were physically abused solely by fathers
Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: a case report.
Subramanian, E M G; Subhagya, B; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N
Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Concordance of Parent- and Child-Reported Physical Abuse Following Child Protective Services Investigation.
Kobulsky, Julia M; Kepple, Nancy Jo; Holmes, Megan R; Hussey, David L
Knowledge about the concordance of parent- and child-reported child physical abuse is scarce, leaving researchers and practitioners with little guidance on the implications of selecting either informant. Drawing from a 2008-2009 sample of 11- to 17-year-olds ( N = 636) from Wave 1 of the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study first examined parent-child concordance in physical abuse reporting (Parent-Child Conflict Tactic Scale). Second, it applied multivariate regression analysis to relate parent-child agreement in physical abuse to parent-reported (Child Behavior Checklist) and child-reported (Youth Self Report) child behavioral problems. Results indicate low parent-child concordance of physical abuse (κ = .145). Coreporting of physical abuse was related to clinical-level parent-reported externalizing problems ([Formula: see text] = 64.57), whereas child-only reports of physical abuse were the only agreement category related to child-reported internalizing problems ( B = 4.17, p < .001). Attribution bias theory may further understanding of reporting concordance and its implications.
Utility of Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Child Physical Abuse Evaluations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Stephanie; Makoroff, Kathi; Care, Marguerite; Thomas, Amy; Shapiro, Robert
Objective: To evaluate the utility of a follow-up skeletal survey in suspected child physical abuse evaluations. Methods: In this prospective study, follow-up skeletal surveys were recommended for 74 children who, after an initial skeletal survey and evaluation by the Child Abuse Team, were suspected victims of physical abuse. The number and…
... No child is prepared to cope with repeated sexual stimulation. Even a two or three year old, who ... abuse. Some signs can only be detected on physical exam by a physician. Sexual abuse can also include noncontact abuse, such as ...
Physical abuse during adolescence: Gender differences in the adolescents' perceptions of family functioning and parenting.
Sunday, Suzanne; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; Salzinger, Suzanne
To examine the relationship between physical abuse of adolescents and parenting by mothers and fathers and whether the association differs by gender. Subjects were adolescents, 51 girls and 45 boys, documented by Child Protective Services (CPS) as physically abused during adolescence. Comparison subjects were non-abused adolescents, 47 girls and 48 boys, from the same suburban communities. Subjects completed the following: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, modified Conflict Tactics Scale (assessing physical abuse/punishment by each parent). Although CPS generally cited fathers as the abuse perpetrators, abused boys and girls often reported experiencing physical maltreatment from both parents. Not surprisingly, comparison subjects rated parents more positively than abused subjects. For both groups, mothers were perceived as more caring and less controlling, were reported to have closer relationships with their adolescents, and were less likely to use abuse/harsh punishment than were fathers. Differences between the adolescents' perceptions of mothers and fathers were more pronounced for abused than for comparison subjects. Boys' and girls' perceptions of parenting were generally similar except that girls, especially the abused girls, reported feeling less close to fathers. Abused girls also viewed mothers as less caring than the other groups viewed mothers. Abused girls were also less likely than abused boys to perceive that either parent, but particularly fathers, had provided them with an optimum style of parenting. Adolescents who experienced relatively mild physical abuse reported dysfunctional family relationships, which may place them at risk of poor adult outcomes. Adolescents' reports suggest that CPS reports may underestimate physical maltreatment by mothers.
Acute Precipitants of Physical Elder Abuse: Qualitative Analysis of Legal Records From Highly Adjudicated Cases.
Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; LoFaso, Veronica M; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Breckman, Risa; Markarian, Arlene; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl
Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences for older adults. Although researchers have begun to identify predisposing risk factors for elder abuse victims and abusers, little is known about the acute precipitants that lead to escalation to physical violence. We analyzed legal records from highly adjudicated cases to describe these acute precipitants for physical elder abuse. In collaboration with a large, urban district attorney's office, we qualitatively evaluated legal records from 87 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from 2003 to 2015. We transcribed and analyzed narratives of the events surrounding physical abuse within victim statements, police reports, and prosecutor records. We identified major themes using content analysis. We identified 10 categories of acute precipitants that commonly triggered physical elder abuse, including victim attempting to prevent the abuser from entering or demanding that he or she leave, victim threatening or attempting to leave/escape, threat or perception that the victim would involve the authorities, conflict about a romantic relationship, presence during/intervention in ongoing family violence, issues in multi-generational child rearing, conflict about the abuser's substance abuse, confrontation about financial exploitation, dispute over theft/destruction of property, and disputes over minor household issues. Common acute precipitants of physical elder abuse may be identified. Improved understanding of these acute precipitants for escalation to physical violence and their contribution to elder abuse may assist in the development of prevention and management strategies.
The cutaneous manifestations and common mimickers of physical child abuse.
Mudd, Shawna S; Findlay, Jeanne S
The cutaneous manifestations of physical child abuse are some of the most common and easily recognized forms of injury. To make an accurate assessment and diagnosis, it is important to differentiate between inflicted cutaneous injuries and mimickers of physical abuse. Likewise, an understanding of reporting guidelines helps guide practitioners in their decision making.
Understanding the medical markers of elder abuse and neglect: physical examination findings.
Gibbs, Lisa M
A specific foundation of knowledge is important for evaluating potential abuse from physical findings in the older adult. The standard physical examination is a foundation for detecting many types of abuse. An understanding of traumatic injuries, including patterns of injury, is important for health care providers, and inclusion of elder abuse in the differential diagnosis of patient care is essential. One must possess the skills needed to piece the history, including functional capabilities, and physical findings together. Armed with this skill set, health care providers will develop the confidence needed to identify and intervene in cases of elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham
Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…
Physical abuse, smoking, and substance use during pregnancy: prevalence, interrelationships, and effects on birth weight.
McFarlane, J; Parker, B; Soeken, K
To establish the singular and combined occurrence of physical abuse, smoking, and substance use (i.e., alcohol and illicit drugs) during pregnancy and its effect on birth weight. Prospective cohort analysis. Urban public prenatal clinics. 414 African American, 412 Hispanic, and 377 white pregnant women. Occurrence of physical abuse was 16%; smoking, 29.5%; and alcohol/illicit drug use, 11.9%. Significant relationships existed between physical abuse and smoking for African American and white women. For African American women, 33.7% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 49.5% of women who were abused (chi 2 = 8.21; df = 1; p < 0.005). Alcohol/illicit drug use was 20.8% for nonabused women compared with 42.1% for abused women (chi 2 = 18.18; df = 1; p < 0.001). For white women, 46.6% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 59.6% of those who were abused (chi 2 = 5.22; df = 1; p < 0.005). As a triad, physical abuse, smoking, and alcohol/ illicit drug use were significantly related to birth weight (F[3, 1040] = 30.19, p < 0.001). Physical abuse during pregnancy is common, readily detected with a five-question screen, and associated with significantly higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Clinical protocols that integrate assessment and intervention for physical abuse, smoking, and substance use are essential for preventing further abuse and improving smoking and substance cessation rates.
A Behavioral Approach to the Classification of Different Types of Physically Abusive Mothers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oldershaw, Lynn; And Others
Cluster analytic techniques identified three subgroups of physically abusive mothers: emotionally distant, intrusive, and hostile. Examination of abused children revealed a clear relationship between abusive parenting styles and behavioral profiles of children. Parents in all abusive subgroups perceived their children more negatively than did…
Acute Precipitants of Physical Elder Abuse: Qualitative Analysis of Legal Records From Highly Adjudicated Cases
Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M.; LoFaso, Veronica M.; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E.; Breckman, Risa; Markarian, Arlene; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl
Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences for older adults. Although researchers have begun to identify predisposing risk factors for elder abuse victims and abusers, little is known about the acute precipitants that lead to escalation to physical violence. We analyzed legal records from highly adjudicated cases to describe these acute precipitants for physical elder abuse. In collaboration with a large, urban district attorney’s office, we qualitatively evaluated legal records from 87 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from 2003 to 2015. We transcribed and analyzed narratives of the events surrounding physical abuse within victim statements, police reports, and prosecutor records. We identified major themes using content analysis. We identified 10 categories of acute precipitants that commonly triggered physical elder abuse, including victim attempting to prevent the abuser from entering or demanding that he or she leave, victim threatening or attempting to leave/escape, threat or perception that the victim would involve the authorities, conflict about a romantic relationship, presence during/intervention in ongoing family violence, issues in multi-generational child rearing, conflict about the abuser’s substance abuse, confrontation about financial exploitation, dispute over theft/destruction of property, and disputes over minor household issues. Common acute precipitants of physical elder abuse may be identified. Improved understanding of these acute precipitants for escalation to physical violence and their contribution to elder abuse may assist in the development of prevention and management strategies. PMID:27506228
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…
History of sexual, emotional or physical abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in substance-dependent patients.
Daigre, Constanza; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Tarifa, Núria; Rodríguez-Martos, Lola; Grau-López, Lara; Berenguer, Marta; Casas, Miguel; Roncero, Carlos
Sexual, emotional or physical abuse history is a risk factor for mental disorders in addicted patients. However, the relationship between addiction and abuse lifespan is not well known. This study aims to compare clinical and psychopathological features of addicted patients according to the experience of abuse and to the number of different types of abuse suffered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. 512 addicted patients seeking treatment were included, 45.9% reported abuse throughout life (38.9% emotional, 22.3% physical and 13.5% sexual abuse). It was found that female gender; depressive symptoms and borderline personality disorder were independently associated with history of any abuse throughout life. As well, it was found that 14% have been suffered from all three types of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical), 34.5% from two and 55.5% from one type. Female gender and borderline personality disorder were independently associated independently with a greater number of different types of abuse. Results suggest that history of abuse is frequent among substance-dependent patients and these experiences are more prevalent in women and are associated with more psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recall of Childhood Neglect and Physical Abuse as Differential Predictors of Current Psychological Functioning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gauthier, Lisa; And Others
Histories of child neglect or child physical abuse were correlated with psychological functioning in 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. Childhood neglect was more predictive of psychological problems and anxious attachment styles than was physical abuse. Results suggest neglect and physical abuse are potentially separate moderators of…
Behavior problems in school-aged physically abused and neglected children in Spain.
de Paúl, J; Arruabarrena, M I
The present study investigated behavior problems in school-aged physically abused, neglected, and comparison children in the Basque Country (Spain). Data from the Teacher's Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist was obtained on 66 children consisting of three groups (17 physically abused children, 24 physically neglected children, and 25 low-risk comparison children). The three groups were matched on seven sociodemographic variables. Overall, the abused and neglected children were higher than the comparison group on Total Behavior Problems scores. However, only neglected children obtained higher scores than the comparison group on the total score of the Externalized Scale, and only abused children scored higher than the comparison group on the total score of the Internalized Scale. Follow-up analysis indicated that both abused and neglected children had higher scores on the Social Problems, Delinquent Behavior, and Attention Problems subscales. Moreover, neglected children had higher scores on the Aggressive Behavior subscale than the comparison children, and abused children had higher scores on the Withdrawn subscale than the comparison children. The abused and neglected children also showed a lower school adjustment than the comparison group. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed and their implications for research and treatment are considered.
Neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse: a population-based study in Japan.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Yamaoka, Yui; Kawachi, Ichiro
We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks. Infant physical abuse during the past month was assessed by self-reports of spanking, shaking or smothering. The prevalence of infant physical abuse at 4 months of age was 9.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 7.6-10.7 %). Women living in trusting neighborhoods were less likely to report infant physical abuse compared to those living in areas with low neighborhood trust (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95 % CI 0.06-0.97). In addition, women with supportive social networks were less likely to report infant physical abuse (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99). In addition to one's personal social network, social trust in the neighborhood was independently associated with lowered risk of infant physical abuse. To prevent infant abuse, interventions should consider strengthening community social bonds in addition to strengthening the social network of isolated mothers.
[Child abuse: an interdisciplinary management experience].
Seldes, José Julio; Ziperovich, Valentina; Viota, Alejandra; Leiva, Fernanda
Child abuse constitutes one of the most frequent forms of family violence. The following study tries to demonstrate the situation that arises in the city of Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina, and to establish some associations about that matter. A series of 128 cases of abused children is presented, between 0 and 19 years old, attended from November 1998 to November 2002, in Moiru, Center of prevention, direction, attendance and qualification in social conducts of risk that works in Mercedes. 56% of physical abuse; 30% of sexual abuse; 10% of neglect; 3% of emotional abuse and 1% of syndrome of Münchaussen was detected, with a similar distribution by sexes in the total population. Demographic variables and certain associations in cases of physical abuse and sexual abuse are indicated. A significant association between mothers victims of domestic violence and physical abuse towards their children was demonstrated. 128 young boys and girls were seen in our center. It is considered that a significant population was treated where physical abuse and sexual abuse appears as most relevant.
Alcohol abuse as a risk factor for and consequence of child abuse.
Widom, C S; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S
The relationship between child abuse and the use or abuse of alcohol has two aspects. First, some findings have indicated that parental alcohol abuse may be associated with the physical or sexual abuse of children. Research findings in this area remain inconsistent, however. Second, the experience of being abused as a child may increase a person's risk for alcohol-related problems as an adult. This relationship has best been demonstrated in women who had been victims of childhood abuse. Several factors most likely contribute to or influence this relationship, including coping skills; antisocial behavior; and psychological problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder.
Screening injured children for physical abuse or neglect in emergency departments: a systematic review.
Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth
Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.
Physical, emotional and sexual adolescent abuse victimisation in South Africa: prevalence, incidence, perpetrators and locations
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Loening-Voysey, Heidi
Background Physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children is a major problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. To date, no known studies have used data directly obtained from community-based samples of children to investigate prevalence, incidence, locations and perpetrators of child abuse victimisation. This study aims to investigate prevalence and incidence, perpetrators, and locations of child abuse victimisation in South Africa using a multicommunity sample. Methods 3515 children aged 10–17 years (56.6% female) were interviewed from all households in randomly selected census enumeration areas in two South African provinces. Child self-report questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.7% retention). Results Prevalence was 56.3% for lifetime physical abuse (18.2% past-year incidence), 35.5% for lifetime emotional abuse (12.1% incidence) and 9% for lifetime sexual abuse (5.3% incidence). 68.9% of children reported any type of lifetime victimisation and 27.1% reported lifetime multiple abuse victimisation. Main perpetrators of abuse were reported: for physical abuse, primary caregivers and teachers; for emotional abuse, primary caregivers and relatives; and for sexual abuse, girlfriend/boyfriends or other peers. Conclusions This is the first study assessing current self-reported child abuse through a large, community-based sample in South Africa. Findings of high rates of physical, emotional and sexual abuse demonstrate the need for targeted and effective interventions to prevent incidence and re-victimisation. PMID:26962202
Examining Physical and Sexual Abuse Histories as Correlates of Suicide Risk Among Firefighters.
Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E
Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
The elder physical abuse reflected in judicial authorities in Eskisehir.
Karbeyaz, Kenan; Çelikel, Adnan
Elder abuse is a health and human rights problem that may occur among every race and ethnic group all around the world. This study aims at describing all cases of physical abuse of elderly which have been reported to, and investigated by Eskisehir - a western city of Turkey. Physical abuse incidents above 65 years of age which were evaluated by the Eskisehir Council of Forensic Medicine for expert witness opinion during 5year period between 01.01.2010 and 12.31.2014 are examined in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. 253 cases are found and evaluated in the scope of the study. It is determined that all aggressors are the acquaintance of the victim, and for 114 cases (45.1%) the aggressor is the victim's son. It is found that only investigation procedures of cases are completed, but no protection and rehabilitation program has been issued. In conclusion, it is determined that elder victims are abused by family members and relatives who are mostly the care givers. It is seen that emergency physicians play a great role in the detection of abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Child-Related Cognitions and Affective Functioning of Physically Abusive and Comparison Parents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haskett, Mary E.; Scott, Susan Smith; Grant, Raven; Ward, Caryn Sabourin; Robinson, Canby
This study examined risk factors for abusive parenting in 56 physically abusive parents and 62 matched comparison parents. The set of five risk variables was predictive of abuse status; however, not all variables were predictive when considered individually and interactions did not contribute significantly to prediction. Findings supported a…
Using neuropsychological profiles to classify neglected children with or without physical abuse.
Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise
The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment. Seventy-nine children aged 6-12 years and currently receiving Child Protection Services because of one of two types of maltreatment (neglect with physical abuse, n=56; neglect without physical abuse, n=28) were compared with a control group of 53 children matched for age, gender, and annual family income. The neuropsychological assessment focused on motor performance, attention, memory and learning, visual-motor integration, language, frontal/executive functions, and intelligence. Discriminant analysis identified auditory attention and response set, and visual-motor integration (Function 1), and problem solving, abstraction, and planning (Function 2) as the two sets of variables that most distinguished the groups. Discriminant analysis predicted group membership in 80% of the cases. Children who were neglected with physical abuse showed cognitive deficits in auditory attention and response set, and visual-motor integration (Function 1) and problem solving, abstraction, and planning (Function 2). Children who were neglected without physical abuse differed from the control group in that they obtained lower scores in auditory attention and response set, and visual-motor integration (Function 1). Surprisingly, these same children demonstrated a greater capacity for problem solving, abstraction, and planning (Function 2) than the physically abused neglected and control children. The present study underscores the relevance of neuropsychology to maltreatment research. The results support the heterogeneity of cognitive deficits in children based on different types of maltreatment and the fact that neglect with physical abuse is more harmful than
Physical, sexual and emotional abuse during childhood: Experiences of a sample of Sri Lankan Young adults.
Chandraratne, Nadeeka K; Fernando, Asvini D; Gunawardena, Nalika
Abuse during childhood is a human tragedy leading to lifelong adverse health, social, and economic consequences for survivors. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abusive experiences among students (aged 18-19 years) in a Sri Lankan district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 1500 students. Experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse and age at abuse, perpetrators, consequences and severity were assessed using a version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective Version (ICAST-R) which was culturally adapted and validated by the authors for use amongst Sinhalese students. The prevalence of the various forms of abuse during childhood was as follows: physical: 45.4% (95% CI: 42.9-7.9); sexual: 9.1% (95% CI: 7.6-10.5); emotional: 27.9% (95% CI: 25.7-30.2). The corresponding percentages of individuals categorized as having experienced severe or very severe abuse were as follows, physical: 0.3% (2/672); sexual: 4.05% (3/135); emotional: 8.8% (36/412). Experience of physical abuse was more prevalent amongst male students (54.8% vs. 38.3%) as was emotional abuse (33.9% vs. 23.2%), whereas experience of sexual abuse was more prevalent amongst female students (11.5% vs. 6.4%). Parents and teachers were the commonest perpetrators of physical and emotional abuse. Most of the sexually abusive acts were committed by neighbors or strangers. Some physically abusive acts were more frequent at earlier ages than emotional and sexual abusive acts, which were more common in late adolescence. The results indicate the necessity of targeted interventions to address this public health issue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emotion recognition in fathers and mothers at high-risk for child physical abuse.
Asla, Nagore; de Paúl, Joaquín; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia
The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Based on their scores on the Abuse Scale of the CAP Inventory (Milner, 1986), 64 parents at high risk (24 fathers and 40 mothers) and 80 parents at low risk (40 fathers and 40 mothers) for physical child abuse were selected. The Subtle Expression Training Tool/Micro Expression Training Tool (Ekman, 2004a, 2004b) and the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy II (Nowicki & Carton, 1993) were used to assess emotion recognition. As expected, parents at high risk, in contrast to parents at low risk, showed deficits in emotion recognition. However, differences between high- and low-risk participants were observed only for fathers, but not for mothers. Whereas fathers at high risk for physical child abuse made more errors than mothers at high risk, no differences between mothers at low risk and fathers at low risk were found. No interaction between stress, gender, and risk status was observed for errors in emotion recognition. The present findings, if confirmed with physical abusers, could be helpful to further our understanding of deficits in processing information of physically abusive parents and to develop treatment strategies specifically focused on emotion recognition. Moreover, if gender differences can be confirmed, the findings could be helpful to develop specific treatment programs for abusive fathers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.
Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann
Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.
Aging and Risk: Physical and Sexual Abuse of Elders in Canada
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brozowski, Kari; Hall, David R.
In this article, we review the literature on physical and sexual elder abuse within the context of risk theory and feminist sociology. Employing data from the 1999 General Social Survey, we also examine several variables potentially associated with the risk for physical or sexual abuse of elders. Women, Aboriginal Canadians, and elders who are…
Differentiating corporal punishment from physical abuse in the prediction of lifetime aggression.
King, Alan R; Ratzak, Abrianna; Ballantyne, Sage; Knutson, Shane; Russell, Tiffany D; Pogalz, Colton R; Breen, Cody M
Corporal punishment and parental physical abuse often co-occur during upbringing, making it difficult to differentiate their selective impacts on psychological functioning. Associations between corporal punishment and a number of lifetime aggression indicators were examined in this study after efforts to control the potential influence of various forms of co-occurring maltreatment (parental physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, sibling abuse, peer bullying, and observed parental violence). College students (N = 1,136) provided retrospective self-reports regarding their history of aggression and levels of exposure to childhood corporal punishment and maltreatment experiences. Analyses focused on three hypotheses: 1) The odds of experiencing childhood physical abuse would be higher among respondents reporting frequent corporal punishment during upbringing; 2) Corporal punishment scores would predict the criterion aggression indices after control of variance associated with childhood maltreatment; 3) Aggression scores would be higher among respondents classified in the moderate and elevated corporal punishment risk groups. Strong support was found for the first hypothesis since the odds of childhood physical abuse recollections were higher (OR = 65.3) among respondents who experienced frequent (>60 total disciplinary acts) corporal punishment during upbringing. Partial support was found for the second and third hypotheses. Dimensional and categorical corporal punishment scores were associated significantly with half of the criterion measures. These findings support efforts to dissuade reliance on corporal punishment to manage child behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Risk factors for paternal physical child abuse.
Lee, Shawna J; Guterman, Neil B; Lee, Yookyong
This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Interviews were conducted with 1257 married or cohabiting biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. PCA was assessed when the index children were 3 years old. Analyses included a comprehensive set of self-reported paternal variables as well as controls for maternal variables linked to child maltreatment. PCA was measured using proxy variables: two questions assessing the frequency of spanking in the past month and Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-PC) [Straus, M., Hamby, S., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the parent-child conflict tactics scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 249-270] psychological and physical aggression subscales. Bivariate results indicated that Hispanic fathers were the least likely to spank or engage in psychological or physical aggression. Multiple regression analyses indicated that paternal employment and earnings were not significantly associated with PCA. Compared to cohabiting African American fathers, married African American fathers were found to be at greater risk for some forms of PCA. This pattern was not found for White or Hispanic families. In this diverse sample of involved, biological fathers, there appear to be multiple potential risk-heightening pathways that vary across race/ethnic groups. With the proper control variables, paternal employment and earnings may not be as directly linked to fathers' physical abuse risk as has been previously thought. There is a need for interventions within the child welfare system that better promote
The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…
Psychological abuse: a variable deserving critical attention in domestic violence.
O'Leary, K D
Policy makers and researchers give psychological abuse considerably less attention than physical abuse in the partner abuse area. One reason for the relative neglect of psychological abuse is that there are difficulties in arriving at a common definition of psychological abuse that might be useful to both the mental health and legal professions. Another reason for the relative neglect of psychological abuse has been an implicit assumption that physical abuse exacts a greater psychological toll on victims than does psychological abuse. At the extreme level of physical abuse, this assumption seems defensible, but at levels of physical aggression that are most common in marriage and long-term relationships, psychological abuse appears to have as great an impact as physical abuse. Even direct ratings of psychological and physical abuse by women in physically abusive relationships indicate that psychological abuse has a greater adverse effect on them than physical abuse. Retrospective reports, longitudinal research, and treatment dropout research all provide evidence that psychological abuse can exact a negative effect on relationships that is as great as that of physical abuse. Finally, psychological abuse almost always precedes physical abuse, so that prevention and treatment efforts clearly need to address psychological abuse. Eight measures of various forms of psychological abuse that have reasonable psychometric properties and considerable construct validity are reviewed and a definition of psychological abuse in intimate relations is provided.
Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases
Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.
The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals’ personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681
Does physical activity protect against drug abuse vulnerability?
Bardo, Michael T; Compton, Wilson M
The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.
Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.
Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Residents' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Physical Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan
Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…
Prevalence and correlates of physical and sexual abuse in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.
Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Gill, Mary Kay; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Strober, Michael A; Hunt, Jeffrey; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Ryan, Neal D; Leonard, Henrietta; Keller, Martin
Adult bipolar disorder (BP) has been associated with lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse. However, there are no reports of the prevalence of abuse in BP youth. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of physical and/or sexual abuse among youth with BP spectrum disorders. Four hundred forty-six youths, ages 7 to 17 years (12.7+/-3.2), meeting DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n=260), BP-II (n=32) or operationalized definition of BP-NOS (n=154) were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Abuse was ascertained using the K-SADS. Twenty percent of the sample experienced physical and/or sexual abuse. The most robust correlates of any abuse history were living with a non-intact family (OR=2.6), lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR=8.8), psychosis (OR=2.1), conduct disorder (CD) (OR=2.3), and first-degree family history of mood disorder (OR=2.2). After adjusting for confounding demographic factors, physical abuse was associated with longer duration of BP illness, non-intact family, PTSD, psychosis, and first-degree family history of mood disorder. Sexual abuse was associated with PTSD. Subjects with both types of abuse were older, with longer illness duration, non-intact family, and greater prevalence of PTSD and CD as compared with the non-abused group. Retrospective data. Also, since this is a cross-sectional study, no inferences regarding causality can be made. Sexual and/or physical abuse is common in youth with BP particularly in subjects with comorbid PTSD, psychosis, or CD. Prompt identification and treatment of these youth is warranted.
[Role of physical, psychological and sexual abuse in functional digestive disorders. A case-controls trial.].
Remes-Troche, J M; Cid-Juárez, S; Campos-Ramos, I; Ramos-de la Medina, A; Galmiche, A; Schmulson-Wasserman, M; Roesch-Dietlen, F
Abuse has been considered a significant factor on the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), especially for severe and treatment-refractory patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of all FGID according to Rome II criteria, in a group of women with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. A cross sectional study was performed in 96 women (37 +/- 12 years of age) with history of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse (cases); and 96 open population women (36 +/- 14 years of age) (controls). The following evaluations were administered: Rome II questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to evaluate history of physical (beating), psychological(insults, public humiliation) and/or sexual abuse (rape, coercion), and HAD questionnaire. Among 96 women with history of abuse,91 (95%) reported to have suffered psychological abuse, 72 (75%) physical abuse, and 24 (25%)sexual abuse. Women with history of abuse had a higher prevalence of rumination (6% vs. 0%, p= 0.02), functional heartburn (26% vs. 13%, p =0.04), aerofagia (17% vs. 5%, p = 0.019), irritable bowel syndrome (38% vs. 18%, p = 0.002), fecalin continence (16% vs. 4%, p = 0.01), elevator anisyndrome (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.05), and proctalgia fugax (29% vs. 15%, p = 0.02) compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between anxiety (r = 0.5, p = 0.001) and depression scores(r = 0.45, p = 0.001), and the number of FGID. We demonstrated a high prevalence of FGID among women with history of physical,psychological, and/or sexual abuse. In this association,concomitant anxiety and depression play a significant role.
Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study.
Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam
Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger. Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse. The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial in our low-risk pregnant population
Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study
Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger. Results Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse. Conclusion The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial
When Is a Child's Forensic Statement Deemed Credible? A Comparison of Physical and Sexual Abuse Cases.
Hershkowitz, Irit; Melkman, Eran P; Zur, Ronit
A large national sample of 4,775 reports of child physical and sexual abuse made in Israel in 2014 was analyzed in order to examine whether assessments of credibility would vary according to abuse type, physical or sexual, and whether child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be determined as credible would be similar or different in child physical abuse (CPA) and child sexual abuse (CSA) cases. Results revealed that CPA reports were less likely to be viewed as credible (41.9%) compared to CSA reports (56.7%). Multigroup path analysis, however, indicated equivalence in predicting factors. In a unified model for both types of abuse, salient predictors of a credible judgment were older age, lack of a cognitive delay, and the alleged abusive event being a onetime less severe act. Over and beyond the effects of these factors, abuse type significantly contributed to the prediction of credibility judgments.
child abuse . (c) SPouse (C) Military Child Care (4) Involvement n previous established case of spouse abuse (d) Sbl,ng (d) Other Child Care (5...program 16.j.(2) Referred to a drug rehabilitation program 4 16.j.(3) Previous involvement in child abuse 16.j.(4) Previous involvement in spouse abuse 16...investigation, whether "unsubstantiated," "suspected," or "substantiated." 8.a. Child Abuse /Neglect. The physical injury, sexual maltreatment, emotional
[Abuse of minors. Clinical considerations on physical abuse, sexual aggression and emotional deprivation].
Loredo-Abdalá, A; Trejo-Hernández, J; Bustos-Valenzuela, V
Physicians and other health personnel dealing with the consequences of child abuse ought to have abroad understanding of the magnitude of this serious medical and social phenomenon. The three main patterns of child mistreatment as observed at a pediatric hospital are reviewed, with emphasis on its medical and juridical aspects. Various pathologic entities are to be taken into account for differential diagnoses when child abuse is suspected. Risk factors regarding the victims, the abusers and the psychosocial environment are noted.
Child-related cognitions and affective functioning of physically abusive and comparison parents.
Haskett, Mary E; Smith Scott, Susan; Grant, Raven; Ward, Caryn Sabourin; Robinson, Canby
The goal of this research was to utilize the cognitive behavioral model of abusive parenting to select and examine risk factors to illuminate the unique and combined influences of social cognitive and affective variables in predicting abuse group membership. Participants included physically abusive parents (n=56) and a closely-matched group of comparison parents (n=62). Social cognitive risk variables measured were (a) parent's expectations for children's abilities and maturity, (b) parental attributions of intentionality of child misbehavior, and (c) parents' perceptions of their children's adjustment. Affective risk variables included (a) psychopathology and (b) parenting stress. A series of logistic regression models were constructed to test the individual, combined, and interactive effects of risk variables on abuse group membership. The full set of five risk variables was predictive of abuse status; however, not all variables were predictive when considered individually and interactions did not contribute significantly to prediction. A risk composite score computed for each parent based on the five risk variables significantly predicted abuse status. Wide individual differences in risk across the five variables were apparent within the sample of abusive parents. Findings were generally consistent with a cognitive behavioral model of abuse, with cognitive variables being more salient in predicting abuse status than affective factors. Results point to the importance of considering diversity in characteristics of abusive parents.
Risk factor characteristics in carers who physically abuse or neglect their elderly dependants.
Reay, A M; Browne, K D
This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer.
Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.
Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A
We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Family Environments of Abused versus Non-Abused Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Cynthia A.; Graybill, Daniel
Compared Moos Family Environment Scale scores from 15 physically abusive families with scores from 15 nonabusive families. Results showed that abusive families were less supportive of one another and less free to express their wants and desires, more independent, more likely to express anger and aggression, and more rigid. (JAC)
... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. Other types of child abuse are: Neglect ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...
Abuse of elderly people by their carers.
Homer, A C; Gilleard, C
OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of abuse of elderly people by their carers and the characteristics of abusers and the abused. DESIGN--Information on abuse and risk factors was collected over six months from carers and patients. Risk factors were identified in the abused group and compared with those in a non-abused control group. SETTING--Carers were interviewed at home; patients were examined in the wards of Putney and Barnes geriatric hospitals, London. SUBJECTS--All patients referred from any source for respite care to the geriatric services over a six month period and their carers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Amount of physical and verbal abuse or neglect. Quantification of risk factors and correlation with the presence or absence of abuse. RESULTS--45% Of carers openly admitted to some form of abuse. Few patients admitted abuse. The most significant risk factor for physical abuse was alcohol consumption by the carer (p less than 0.001). Other significant risk factors were a poor pre-morbid relationship and previous abuse over many years. Abuse was often reciprocated and was associated with social dysfunction in many patients. Service delivery, respite care, and level of mental and physical disability were not significantly associated with abuse. CONCLUSION--The high level of abuse found in elderly patients in respite care was particularly associated with alcohol abuse and long term relationships of poor quality, which are difficult to change. Even with increased provision of services, care in the community may not be the best solution for these people. PMID:2271883
Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design.
Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi
The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. © 2014.
DOES ALCOHOL OUTLET DENSITY MODERATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS OF ALCOHOL USE AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE?
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price
Objectives Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this paper examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. Methods A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, while densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Conclusion Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused. PMID:27642071
Several unusual cases of child abuse.
Palmer, H; Weston, J T
All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.
Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Shirley N.; And Others
Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…
Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response.
Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H
Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.
Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories among Women with Serious Mental Illness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others
Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…
Verbal abuse and physical violence among a cohort of low-income pregnant women.
O'Campo, P; Gielen, A C; Faden, R R; Kass, N
We report on the occurrence of verbal abuse and physical violence during pregnancy for 358 low-income women. Overall, 65% of the women in our study experienced either verbal abuse or physical violence during their pregnancies. Twenty percent of the women in our sample experienced moderate or severe violence. Perpetrators, although primarily male partners, included family members and friends. These rates varied by age, with younger women experiencing significantly higher rates of verbal abuse and physical violence. There was no association between verbal abuse or physical violence and birth weight or gestational age. Prenatal care may be one of the only opportunities that women, and especially disadvantaged women, may have to get proper assistance with domestic violence. We conclude that enhanced screening, counseling, and referral by obstetricians and other health care providers are some of the immediate activities that could be implemented in prenatal care settings to address the compelling problems of violence during pregnancy.
Interplay Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Familial Risk in the Onset of Psychotic Disorders
Fisher, Helen L.; McGuffin, Peter; Boydell, Jane; Fearon, Paul; Craig, Thomas K.; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Doody, Gillian A.; Jones, Peter B.; Leff, Julian; Murray, Robin M.; Morgan, Craig
Background: Childhood abuse is considered one of the main environmental risk factors for the development of psychotic symptoms and disorders. However, this association could be due to genetic factors influencing exposure to such risky environments or increasing sensitivity to the detrimental impact of abuse. Therefore, using a large epidemiological case-control sample, we explored the interplay between a specific form of childhood abuse and family psychiatric history (a proxy for genetic risk) in the onset of psychosis. Methods: Data were available on 172 first presentation psychosis cases and 246 geographically matched controls from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses study. Information on childhood abuse was obtained retrospectively using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire and occurrence of psychotic and affective disorders in first degree relatives with the Family Interview for Genetic Studies. Results: Parental psychosis was more common among psychosis cases than unaffected controls (adjusted OR = 5.96, 95% CI: 2.09–17.01, P = .001). Parental psychosis was also associated with physical abuse from mothers in both cases (OR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.06–12.51, P = .040) and controls (OR = 10.93, 95% CI: 1.03–115.90, P = .047), indicative of a gene-environment correlation. Nevertheless, adjusting for parental psychosis did not measurably impact on the abuse-psychosis association (adjusted OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.22–8.95, P = .018). No interactions were found between familial liability and maternal physical abuse in determining psychosis caseness. Conclusions: This study found no evidence that familial risk accounts for associations between childhood physical abuse and psychotic disorder nor that it substantially increases the odds of psychosis among individuals reporting abuse. PMID:24399191
Interplay between childhood physical abuse and familial risk in the onset of psychotic disorders.
Fisher, Helen L; McGuffin, Peter; Boydell, Jane; Fearon, Paul; Craig, Thomas K; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Leff, Julian; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig
Childhood abuse is considered one of the main environmental risk factors for the development of psychotic symptoms and disorders. However, this association could be due to genetic factors influencing exposure to such risky environments or increasing sensitivity to the detrimental impact of abuse. Therefore, using a large epidemiological case-control sample, we explored the interplay between a specific form of childhood abuse and family psychiatric history (a proxy for genetic risk) in the onset of psychosis. Data were available on 172 first presentation psychosis cases and 246 geographically matched controls from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses study. Information on childhood abuse was obtained retrospectively using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire and occurrence of psychotic and affective disorders in first degree relatives with the Family Interview for Genetic Studies. Parental psychosis was more common among psychosis cases than unaffected controls (adjusted OR = 5.96, 95% CI: 2.09-17.01, P = .001). Parental psychosis was also associated with physical abuse from mothers in both cases (OR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.06-12.51, P = .040) and controls (OR = 10.93, 95% CI: 1.03-115.90, P = .047), indicative of a gene-environment correlation. Nevertheless, adjusting for parental psychosis did not measurably impact on the abuse-psychosis association (adjusted OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.22-8.95, P = .018). No interactions were found between familial liability and maternal physical abuse in determining psychosis caseness. This study found no evidence that familial risk accounts for associations between childhood physical abuse and psychotic disorder nor that it substantially increases the odds of psychosis among individuals reporting abuse. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
Physical Spouse Abuse in a 28-Week-Pregnant Woman: A Case Report.
Memarian, Azadeh; Ameri, Maryam; Shakeri, Mozhgan; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh
In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife's pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband's methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient's health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as "osr-o-haraj" or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband's consent.
Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.
This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…
Developmental trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors: Factors underlying resilience in physically abused children
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Stevens, Kristopher I.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Using a multisite community sample of 585 children, this study examined how protective and vulnerability factors alter trajectories of teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior from kindergarten through Grade 8 for children who were and were not physically abused during the first 5 years of life. Early lifetime history of physical abuse (11.8% of sample) was determined through interviews with mothers during the prekindergarten period; mothers and children provided data on vulnerability and protective factors. Regardless of whether the child was abused, being African American; being male; having low early social competence, low early socioeconomic status (SES), and low adolescent SES; and experiencing adolescent harsh discipline, low monitoring, and low parental knowledge were related to higher levels of externalizing problems over time. Having low early social competence, low early SES, low adolescent SES, and low proactive parenting were related to higher levels of internalizing problems over time. Furthermore, resilience effects, defined as significant interaction effects, were found for unilateral parental decision making (lower levels are protective of externalizing outcomes for abused children), early stress (lower levels are protective of internalizing outcomes for abused children), adolescent stress (lower levels are protective of internalizing outcomes for abused children), and hostile attributions (higher levels are protective of internalizing outcomes for abused children). The findings provide a great deal of support for an additive or main effect perspective on vulnerability and protective factors and some support for an interactive perspective. It appears that some protective and vulnerability factors do not have stronger effects for physically abused children, but instead are equally beneficial or harmful to children regardless of their abuse status. PMID:16478551
Sex differences in disinhibition and its relationship to physical abuse in a sample of stimulant-dependent patients.
Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel
Research suggests that impulsivity is a vulnerability factor for developing stimulant dependence, that women develop dependence more quickly than men, and that physical abuse can increase impulsivity and may have greater adverse health consequences in women. This study sought to tie these findings together by evaluating: (1) sex differences in disinhibition prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and (2) the relationship between physical abuse and disinhibition in stimulant-dependent patients. The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of three neurobehavioral domains associated with frontal systems functioning (Apathy, Disinhibition, and Executive Dysfunction, summed for a Total), that assesses pre-morbid functioning and has a specific cutoff for defining clinically significant abnormalities. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained the FrSBe from 118 methamphetamine- and/or cocaine-dependent participants. Lifetime physical abuse was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The proportion reporting clinically significant disinhibition was significantly higher in women (64.9%) than in men (45.0%, p=0.04), with no significant difference on the other FrSBe scales. Physical abuse in women, but not men, was associated with worse functioning, with physically abused, relative to non-abused, women having a significantly greater proportion with clinically significant disinhibition (p<0.01) and total neurobehavioral abnormalities (p<0.01). These findings suggest that women may have significantly greater disinhibition than men prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and that physical abuse in women is associated with greater disinhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific
Youngstrom, Eric A.; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.
The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N=829, M= 10.9 years old ±3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment. PMID:25118660
Evaluation of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) program: A community intervention for child abuse victims.
Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany
Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Management of physical child abuse in South Africa: literature review and children's hospital data analysis.
Janssen, T L; van Dijk, M; Al Malki, I; van As, A B
The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which to base their management of physical child abuse, at both governmental and hospital management level. The main aim of the second part is to outline the extent of the problem as seen at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital (RCH) in Cape Town. The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was searched for articles specifically about the management of physical child abuse. Hospital data were analysed in two phases: one addressed various types of assault in order to assess the number of patients admitted to the trauma unit of RCH between 1991 and 2009, and the other to identify all children with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) presenting to the trauma unit at RCH from January 2008 until December 2010. Information on physical abuse of children in Africa in the English scientific literature remains disappointing with only two articles focusing on its management. RCH data for the period 1991-2009 recorded a total number of 6415 children hospitalised with injuries following assault, who accounted for 4.2% of all trauma admissions. Types of abuse included assault with a blunt or sharp instrument, rape/sexual assault and human bite wounds. Over the last 2 decades, there has been a minor decline in the number of cases of severe abuse requiring admission; admissions for other injuries have remained stable. More detailed analysis of hospital data for 2008-2010, found that boys were far more commonly assaulted than girls (70.5% vs 29.5%). Physical abuse appeared to be the most common cause of abuse; 89.9% of all boys and 60.5% of all girls presented after physical abuse. In order to eradicate child abuse, awareness of it as to be promoted in the community at large. Because the types of child
Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.
Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…
Intimate partner sexual violence: a comparison of foreign- versus US-born physically abused Latinas.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Messing, Jill T; Amanor-Boadu, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Chris O; Webster, Daniel; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed.
Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia
Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…
Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder.
Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina
To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P < 0.001; tPTSD,MADD = 13.73, P < 0.001). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the greatest predictors in the multivariate model were mental health difficulties, poorer economic status, poor social support, and physical and verbal aggression in partner conflicts. Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse.
Perceived social risk in medical decision-making for physical child abuse: a mixed-methods study.
Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A; Page, Kent; Cook, Lawrence J; Bardsley, Tyler; Olson, Lenora M
The medical literature reports differential decision-making for children with suspected physical abuse based on race and socioeconomic status. Differential evaluation may be related to differences of risk indicators in these populations or differences in physicians' perceptions of abuse risk. Our objective was to understand the contribution of the child's social ecology to child abuse pediatricians' perception of abuse risk and to test whether risk perception influences diagnostic decision-making. Thirty-two child abuse pediatrician participants prospectively contributed 746 consultations from for children referred for physical abuse evaluation (2009-2013). Participants entered consultations to a web-based interface. Participants noted their perception of child race, family SES, abuse diagnosis. Participants rated their perception of social risk for abuse and diagnostic certainty on a 1-100 scale. Consultations (n = 730) meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively analyzed for social risk indicators, social and non-social cues. Using a linear mixed-effects model, we examined the associations of social risk indicators with participant social risk perception. We reversed social risk indicators in 102 cases whilst leaving all injury mechanism and medical information unchanged. Participants reviewed these reversed cases and recorded their social risk perception, diagnosis and diagnostic certainty. After adjustment for physician characteristics and social risk indicators, social risk perception was highest in the poorest non-minority families (24.9 points, 95%CI: 19.2, 30.6) and minority families (17.9 points, 95%CI, 12.8, 23.0). Diagnostic certainty and perceived social risk were associated: certainty increased as social risk perception increased (Spearman correlation 0.21, p < 0.001) in probable abuse cases; certainty decreased as risk perception increased (Spearman correlation (-)0.19, p = 0.003) in probable not abuse cases. Diagnostic decisions changed
Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia
Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…
Behavior Problems in School-Aged Physically Abused and Neglected Children in Spain.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia
This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…
Intimate partner violence and miscarriage: examination of the role of physical and psychological abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Morland, Leslie A; Leskin, Gregory A; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Friedman, Matthew J
Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse, psychological abuse, PTSD, and miscarriage among 118 primarily ethnic minority women. The interaction between maximum severity of abuse and age provided the best multivariate predictor of miscarriage rate, accounting for 26.9% of the variance between live birth and miscarriage outcome. Mean scores of psychological abuse, physical violence, forced sex, and PTSD were significantly higher in the miscarriage group than in the live birth group. Women who experience physical violence and psychological abuse during pregnancy may be at greater risk for miscarriage. Prospective studies can confirm findings and determine underlying mechanisms. Routine screening for traumatic stress and PTSD may reduce rates of miscarriage.
Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.
Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K
Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in
Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.
Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…
Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in China
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…
Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse
Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.
Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306
Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Maternal sexual abuse of male children.
Elliott, Andrew J; Peterson, Linda W
Preview Sexual abuse of boys by their mothers is being increasingly reported and must be considered in the course of history taking and physical examination. Often there is little objective evidence of such abuse, and only a cluster of signs and risk factors may reveal the victimization. Drs Elliott and Peterson list characteristics that can help physicians identify sexually abusive mothers and sexually abused children; they also discuss how to retrieve a report of abuse from a child and assess its credibility.
Crossing the Line from Physical Discipline to Child Abuse: How Much Is Too Much?.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whipple, Ellen E.; Richey, Cheryl A.
A search of the literature to differentiate among definitions of physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse identified five studies which revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents suggested a "normal range" of daily spanking…
[Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].
Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa
The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different
Women's reasons for leaving abusive spouses.
Ulrich, Y C
Research has focused on factors associated with leaving physically abusive relationships, yet little is known about what the woman thinks when she leaves. Fifty-one formerly battered women from rural and metropolitan areas in two midwestern states described 86 reasons for leaving a physically abusive relationship. During open-ended interviews, women who rated themselves as severely abused spontaneously emphasized leaving as a process. Content analysis resulted in reasons categorized as safety, dependency, and personal growth. Self-report retrospective data from a nonrandom sample limit generalizability of results; however, the awareness and reasoning of the women, coupled with their emphasis on leaving as process and personal growth, suggest the importance of education and support programs for abused women and women at risk for abuse.
Physically abusive and nonabusive mothers' perceptions of parenting and child behavior.
Bradley, E J; Peters, R D
Physically abusive and nonabusive mothers were studied for differences in perceptions of the parenting role and of child behavior problems. Findings suggested systematic differences in attributional style of the abusive mothers, supporting the hypothesis that such mothers are hyperreactive to their children's misbehavior. These mothers also tended to minimize both their own contribution to negative parent-child interactions and their children's role in positive ones.
Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.
Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I
To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.
Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.
Bland, R C; Orn, H
The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.
Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Early Detection of Child Abuse
Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341
Personality inferences drawn about abusive mothers.
Davidson, W B; Jennings, C
This study investigated the personality inferences people draw about abusive mothers by having 287 subjects view videotapes of four female targets engaged in social discourse with other adults. Some subjects were primed beforehand to believe that the female targets had physically abused or neglected their child and other subjects viewed the tapes without being primed. Afterward, all subjects rated the targets' personalities using 17 bipolar trait scales and estimating the likelihood of six social behaviors. Analyses compared the ratings of the two types of abuse groups (physical abuse and neglect) with each other and with the unprimed control group. Analysis showed that ratings of one or both of the abuse groups differed from those of the control group on 10 of the 17 trait dimensions and four of six social behaviors. Implications are drawn about the social forces experienced by abusive mothers and the possible role of such forces in therapeutic change.
[Psychological state of abused children of risk group].
Didziokiene, Alina; Zemaitiene, Nida
The aim of this study was to describe the psychological peculiarities of physically abused schoolchildren of risk group. The survey was based on the data gathered using anonymous questionnaire. Indicators, chosen for evaluation of psychological well-being of schoolchildren, were the following: loneliness, happiness, ability to make contacts and socialize with peers, sense of coherence, self-esteem, and suicidal tendencies. The sample of 211 schoolchildren, aged 10 to 16 year from seventeen Kaunas secondary schools participated in the survey. The sampling was made on the basis of lists of socially and pedagogically neglected schoolchildren. It has been established that psychological well-being of physically abused schoolchildren, in comparison with the ones not abused, was worse. Physically abused children more often felt loneliness and unhappiness, found it more difficult to make friends, were more often characterized by low self-esteem and weak sense of coherence. The relationship between physical abuse and suicidal tendencies was established; suicidal tendencies among physically abused schoolchildren were six times more frequent than among those, who did not suffer violence (78.5% and 12.5%). Almost all schoolchildren, attributed to the group with high risk for suicide, were physically abused (29.0% and 1.9%, respectively).
Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder
Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina
Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Results Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P < 0.001; tPTSD,MADD = 13.73, P < 0.001). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the greatest predictors in the multivariate model were mental health difficulties, poorer economic status, poor social support, and physical and verbal aggression in partner conflicts. Conclusion Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse. PMID:21328717
Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ascione, Frank R.
The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…
Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.
Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…
The Association Between Childhood Abuse and Elder Abuse Among Chinese Adult Children in the United States.
Dong, XinQi; Li, Ge; Simon, Melissa A
The previous researchers have postulated that an abused child may abuse his or her abuser parent when the parent is getting old, also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence. However, few studies use data to support this model, and it has yet to be examined in the U.S. Chinese community. This study aims to examine the association between childhood abuse and elder abuse reported by Chinese adult children in the United States. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and older participated in this study. Childhood abuse was assessed by four-item Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) scale. Elder abuse was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Childhood abuse was associated with caregiver abuse screen results (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.95). Being physically hurt (r = .13, p < .01), insulted (r = .15, p < .001), threatened (r = .12, p < .01), and screamed at (r = .18, p < .001) as a child were significantly correlated with caregiver abuse screen results. This study suggests that childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of elder abuse among Chinese adult children in the United States. Longitudinal research should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which childhood abuse and its subtypes links with elder abuse. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.
Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children.
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E; Longo, Gregory S; Nice, Rachel
Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Findings from the present study highlight the
Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children
Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel
Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice
Integration of physical abuse clinical decision support into the electronic health record at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital.
Suresh, Srinivasan; Saladino, Richard A; Fromkin, Janet; Heineman, Emily; McGinn, Tom; Richichi, Rudolph; Berger, Rachel P
To evaluate the effect of a previously validated electronic health record-based child abuse trigger system on physician compliance with clinical guidelines for evaluation of physical abuse. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with comparison to a preintervention group was performed. RCT-experimental subjects' providers received alerts with a direct link to a physical abuse-specific order set. RCT-control subjects' providers had no alerts, but could manually search for the order set. Preintervention subjects' providers had neither alerts nor access to the order set. Compliance with clinical guidelines was calculated. Ninety-nine preintervention subjects and 130 RCT subjects (73 RCT-experimental and 57 RCT-control) met criteria to undergo a physical abuse evaluation. Full compliance with clinical guidelines was 84% pre-intervention, 86% in RCT-control group, and 89% in RCT-experimental group. The physical abuse order set was used 43 times during the 7-month RCT. When the abuse order set was used, full compliance was 100%. The proportion of cases in which there was partial compliance decreased from 10% to 3% once the order set became available (P = .04). Male gender, having >10 years of experience and completion of a pediatric emergency medicine fellowship were associated with increased compliance. A child abuse clinical decision support system comprised of a trigger system, alerts and a physical abuse order set was quickly accepted into clinical practice. Use of the physical abuse order set always resulted in full compliance with clinical guidelines. Given the high baseline compliance at our site, evaluation of this alert system in hospitals with lower baseline compliance rates will be more valuable in assessing the efficacy in adherence to clinical guidelines for the evaluation of suspected child abuse.
Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children
Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of
Protective Factors, Physical Abuse, and Purging from Community-Wide Surveys of Female Adolescents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom; Jank, Wolfgang
Examined relationship between physical abuse and purging through a survey of 100,236 females ages 12 to 18. Investigated other influences on resiliency such as age, ethnicity, family structure and support, parental education, school climate, sexual abuse, religiosity, and other adult support. Found statistical correlations between bulimia and…
Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…
Association between Self-Reported Health and Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Experienced before Age 18
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonomi, Amy E.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.
Objective: The present study evaluated the association between women's health and physical and sexual abuse suffered before age 18. Methods: A total of 3,568 randomly sampled insured women ages 18-64 completed a telephone interview to assess history of physical only, sexual only, or both physical and sexual abuse before age 18 (Behavioral Risk…
Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…
Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.
D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa
It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology.
False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.
Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegations of abuse did not occur in the context of parental separation, divorce, or custody disputes concerning the children. They occurred in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The age of the children, 3 to 9 years, was older than the usual age for Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The mother was the source of the false allegations and was the person who encouraged or taught six of the children to substantiate allegations of sexual abuse. PMID:8503664
Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong
The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.
Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B
Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future.
Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.
Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…
Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.
Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui
Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.
[Nutritional status in children victims of physical and sexual abuse].
Martín-Martín, Verónica; Loredo-Abdalá, Arturo
To assess and relate the nutritional status by type of abuse in a pediatric population diagnosed with physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA). It's a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 178 clinical records of children aged less than 12 years, attended at the Clinic for the Integral Care of the Abused Child of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CAINM-INP-UNAM), during the period 1994 to 2005. The relationship of nutritional status with the type of abuse was analyzed in two age ranges (3 months to less than five years, and five to 11 years) and gender with Student t and chi-square tests. We identified that, in girls PA was associated with stunting (PA: 48% vs. SA: 12%, p < 0.005 and PA: 21% vs. SA: 0%, p < 0.002) and wasting (PA: 21% vs. SA: 0%, p < 0.01 and PA: 21% vs. SA: 0%, p < 0.002). Whereas in girls SA was associated with overweight and obesity in age range five to 11 years (PA: 0% vs. SA: 31%; p < 0.01). This study identified acute and chronic under nutrition in girls with PA, and overweight and obesity in girls with SA. These findings enrich the knowledge for the suspicion of maltreatment child syndrome during the search of the aetiology of the clinical expression studied.
Definition and identification of child abuse by Finnish public health nurses.
Paavilainen, Eija; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu
The purpose of this study was to determine how public health nurses in Finland defined child abuse and how they assessed their capability to identify child abuse in the family. Public health nurses described child abuse as consisting of physical and emotional abuse. They described physical abuse as consisting of two categories, direct physical abuse towards children and other acts causing children physical harm. Emotional abuse included neglect, teasing the child, frightening the child, rejecting the child in the family, and forcing the child to assume an adult role. The nurses divided the identification of child abuse into two categories: tools for identifying child abuse and markers indicating child abuse. The tools for identifying abuse included knowledge acquisition and interactive skills, intuition, and the capacity of the nurse to handle problematic situations. Public health nurses identified child abuse in the child's behavior and appearance and in family behaviors. Public health nurses seem to be aware of child abuse, but further research is needed if they need more-specific skills regarding how to apply their theoretical knowledge to nursing practice to provide nursing care for abused children and their families.
Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.
Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.
Physical Abuse during Adolescence: Gender Differences in the Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Functioning and Parenting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sunday, Sunday; Labruna, Victor; Kaplan, Sandra; Pelcovitz, David; Newman, Jennifer; Salzinger, Suzanne
Objective: To examine the relationship between physical abuse of adolescents and parenting by mothers and fathers and whether the association differs by gender. Methods: Subjects were adolescents, 51 girls and 45 boys, documented by Child Protective Services (CPS) as physically abused during adolescence. Comparison subjects were non-abused…
Development of the scale of economic abuse.
Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R
Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.
Substance Abuse and Disability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…
Analog of parental empathy: association with physical child abuse risk and punishment intentions.
Rodriguez, Christina M
Current research has been inconsistent in corroborating that parents' compromised empathy is associated with elevated physical child abuse risk, perhaps in part because of an emphasis on dispositional empathy rather than empathy directed at their own children. Research has also relied on self-reports of empathy that are susceptible to participant misrepresentation. The present study utilized an analog task of parental empathy to investigate the association of parental empathy toward one's own child with physical child abuse potential and with their tendency to punish perceived child misbehavior. A sample of 135 mothers and their 4-9 year old children were recruited, with mothers estimating their children's emotional reactions using a behavioral simulation of parental empathy. Mothers also provided self-reports on two measures of child abuse potential, a measure of negative attributions and expected punishment of children using vignettes, as well as a traditional measure of dispositional empathic concern and perspective-taking. Findings suggest that parental demonstration of poorer empathic ability on the analog task was significantly related to increased physical abuse potential, likelihood to punish, and negative child attributions. However, self-reported dispositional empathy exhibited the pattern of inconsistent associations previously observed in the literature. Parental empathy appears to be a relevant target for prevention and intervention programs. Future research should also consider similar analog approaches to investigate such constructs to better uncover the factors that elevate abuse risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Factors influencing the prosecution of child physical abuse cases in a Swedish metropolitan area.
Otterman, Gabriel; Lainpelto, Katrin; Lindblad, Frank
To examine whether case characteristics of alleged child physical abuse, such as severity, influence criminal investigation procedures and judicial outcomes. We identified all police-reported cases of nonfatal child physical abuse during 2006 in a Swedish metropolitan area (n = 158). Case characteristics were abstracted from police records. Over half (56%) of the victims were boys, and the median age group was 9-12 years. The severity of the alleged violence was low in 8% of cases, moderate in 51% and high in 41%. Suspects were interviewed in 53% of cases, with fathers more likely to be interviewed than mothers. Children were forensically interviewed in 52% of cases, with 9% physically examined by a clinician and 2.5% by a forensic specialist. Seven per cent of the cases were prosecuted and 1.3% resulted in summary punishment. We found no association between severity of alleged abuse and whether the suspect was interviewed, the child was forensically interviewed or physically examined or whether the perpetrator was prosecuted. Despite the high severity of alleged violence, physical examination rates were low, suggesting a need for criminal investigative procedures on child physical abuse to be reviewed in Sweden. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Occult head injury is common in children with concern for physical abuse.
Boehnke, Mitchell; Mirsky, David; Stence, Nicholas; Stanley, Rachel M; Lindberg, Daniel M
Studies evaluating small patient cohorts have found a high, but variable, rate of occult head injury in children <2 years old with concern for physical abuse. The American College of Radiology (ACR) recommends clinicians have a low threshold to obtain neuroimaging in these patients. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of occult head injury in a large patient cohort with suspected physical abuse using similar selection criteria from previous studies. Additionally, we evaluated proposed risk factors for associations with occult head injury. This was a retrospective, secondary analysis of data collected by an observational study of 20 U.S. child abuse teams that evaluated children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for concern of abuse. We evaluated children <2 years old and excluded those with abnormal mental status, bulging fontanelle, seizure, respiratory arrest, underlying neurological condition, focal neurological deficit or scalp injury. One thousand one hundred forty-three subjects met inclusion criteria and 62.5% (714) underwent neuroimaging with either head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. We found an occult head injury prevalence of 19.7% (141). Subjects with emesis (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-6.8), macrocephaly (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.7-20.2), and loss of consciousness (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.2-22.9) had higher odds of occult head injury. Our results show a high prevalence of occult head injury in patients <2 years old with suspected physical abuse. Our data support the ACR recommendation that clinicians should have a low threshold to perform neuroimaging in patients <2 years of age.
Is There a Specific Relationship between Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Repeated Suicidal Behavior?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ystgaard, Mette; Hestetun, Ingebjorg; Loeb, Mitchell; Mehlum, Lars
Objective: Studies show that childhood sexual and physical abuse predict repeated suicide attempts and self-mutilation. Little is known about the importance of sexual and physical abuse when compared to other severe childhood adversities with respect to chronic suicidal behavior. Method: Seventy-four subjects, 65% of whom were women, consecutively…
32 CFR 161.18 - Benefits for abused dependents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
... offense involving physical or emotional abuse of the spouse or child, or was administratively discharged... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benefits for abused dependents. 161.18 Section... Other Eligible Individuals § 161.18 Benefits for abused dependents. (a) Abused dependents of active duty...
Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Psychosocial Stressors of Drug-Abusing Disadvantaged Adolescent Mothers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scafidi, Frank A.; Field, Tiffany; Prodromidis, Margarita; Rahdert, Elizabeth
Explores psychosocial stressors associated with adolescent pregnancy and drug abuse among 104 mothers between 13 and 21 years of age. Results suggest that drug-abusing mothers were depressed, whereas the nondrug-abusing mothers were not depressed. Drug-abusing mothers reported more mental and physical health problems, more problematic…
Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Ko Ling
The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…
Differences in Physical and Mental Health Symptoms and Mental Health Utilization Associated With Intimate-Partner Violence Versus Childhood Abuse
Nicolaidis, Christina; McFarland, Bentson; Curry, MaryAnn; Gerrity, Martha
Background There is ample evidence that both intimate-partner violence (IPV) and childhood abuse adversely affect the physical and mental health of adult women over the long term. Objective The authors assessed the associations between abuse, symptoms, and mental health utilization. Method The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of 380 adult female, internal-medicine patients. Results Although both IPV and childhood abuse were associated with depressive and physical symptoms, IPV was independently associated with physical symptoms, and childhood abuse was independently associated with depression. Women with a history of childhood abuse had higher odds, whereas women with IPV had lower odds, of receiving care from mental health providers. Conclusion IPV and childhood abuse may have different effects on women’s symptoms and mental health utilization. PMID:19687174
The Incidence of Infant Physical Abuse in Alaska
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gessner, Bradford D.; Moore, Martha; Hamilton, Bernita; Muth, Pam T.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with infant (less than 1 year of age) physical abuse in Alaska. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study for the 1994-2000 resident birth cohort was conducted by linking data from birth certificates, Child Protective Services, a statewide hospital-based trauma…
Gender differences in abused children with and without disabilities.
Sobsey, D; Randall, W; Parrila, R K
Two questions were posed: (1) What are the proportions of boys and girls in various categories of substantiated child abuse? (2) Do the gender proportions differ for children with and without disabilities? Data collected by previous researchers from a demographically representative sample of U.S. child abuse reporting districts was analyzed. This included 1,249 case files involving 1,834 children. The number of girls and boys who did and did not have disabilities was identified for three age categories and for several categories of abuse. Chi-square analyses were used to determine whether there was a relationship between disability and gender for the various age and abuse categories. More boys were physically abused and neglected, but more girls were sexually abused. Boys with disabilities, however, were over-represented in all categories of abuse. Moreover, gender proportions among abused children with disabilities differed significantly from those found among other abused children. Although slightly more than half of abused children without disabilities were girls, 65% of abused children with disabilities were boys. Boys represented a significantly larger proportion of physically abused, sexually abused, and neglected children with disabilities than would be expected from their respective proportion of abused and neglected children without disabilities. Several possible explanations for the observed gender and disability status interaction are discussed.
Crossing the line from physical discipline to child abuse: how much is too much?
Whipple, E E; Richey, C A
The aim of this paper was to better differentiate physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse based on samples drawn from the United States. The American literature was examined to differentiate these three constructs, first on such dimensions as severity, intention, and child effects; and second on key contextual or environmental factors empirically associated with higher rates of violent behavior in families. Third, normative data on parental spanking frequencies were summarized to better operationalize patterns of physical discipline among abusive and nonabusive parents. Five articles that met selection criteria revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents were used to compute a continuum or "normal range" of daily spanking frequencies from 0 to 5.73 (M = 2.5) times in 24 hours. While further research is needed to address spanking intensity, severity, and context, results of the research suggest that "relative exposure" to spanking may be an additional risk marker for abuse when considered with other known indicators or risk factors.
Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.
Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…
Elder abuse and its medical outcomes in older Chinese people with cognitive and physical impairments.
Fang, Boye; Yan, Elsie; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Partick
Elder abuse poses a major public health threat considering the ongoing rapid aging of the global population. This study investigates the association between elder abuse by family caregivers and medical outcomes among older Chinese patients with cognitive and physical impairments in the People's Republic of China. Using cross-sectional design, 1002 older patients (aged 55 y and older) and their family caregivers were recruited from 3 grade A hospitals in Guangdong Province. The major independent variable is caregiver-reported elder abuse, while outcome variables include cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer, digestive disorder, chronic hepatic disease, chronic renal disease, metabolic disease, acute inflammation, joint disease, tumor, and general injury. The prevalence of these medical conditions among patients who were abused and those who were not were compared using descriptive analyses and chi-square tests, and logistic regression was used to establish the relevant independent associations. A total of 429 (42.8%) older persons have experienced physical or psychological abuse over the past 12 months. After adjusting for potential confounders, abused older persons were more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer, digestive disorder, metabolic disease, acute inflammation, tumor, and injuries. Elder abuse is associated with various major medical morbidities. Interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary to identify and reduce the adverse physiological consequences in victims. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Physical and Emotional Abuse of Primary School Children by Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.
The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…
Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043
Differentiating physical discipline from abuse: Q findings from Chinese American mothers and pediatric nurses.
Ho, Grace W K; Gross, Deborah A
The perception and use of physical discipline (PD) is culture-based, and the differentiation between PD and abuse is subjective and complex. The purpose of this study was to understand how Chinese American mothers and one group of mandated reporters of child abuse (i.e. pediatric nurses) differentiate PD from abuse. Using Q-methodology, 3 viewpoints on PD and abuse differentiation were uncovered from a sample of 35 Chinese American mothers and 48 pediatric nurses. Although there was wide consensus on the most acceptable and most unacceptable parent discipline behaviors across the 3 views, the acceptability of punishments differed by their potential to inflict injury, pain, or incite fear and uncertainty. This was the first study to examine PD and abuse differentiation based on 5 definable domains of PD (i.e. specific behavior, intention, delivery, outcome, and pattern of use). Findings point to important nuances in how some mothers and nurses differentiate abuse from acceptable discipline, and the potential for using Q-methodology for exploring PD and abuse differentiations across diverse cultural, social, and professional groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.
Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…
Association of Drug Abuse and Child Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; And Others
Children born to mothers who used illicit drugs during pregnancy were assessed for subsequent abuse or neglect. Of the 513 children exposed inutero to drugs, 102 were substantiated as abused or neglected. Infants exposed inutero to drugs had a higher than expected risk of subsequent abuse compared to children in the general population. (Author/SW)
The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari
This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…
Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
History of reported sexual or physical abuse among long-term heroin users and their response to substitution treatment.
Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Marchand, Kirsten; Guh, Daphne; Marsh, David C; Brissette, Suzanne; Krausz, Michael; Anis, Aslam; Schechter, Martin T
Opioid-dependent individuals with a history of abuse have exhibited worse mental and physical health compared to those without such a history; however, the evidence regarding the influence of abuse histories on addiction treatment outcomes are conflicting. In the present study, we identified history of physical or sexual abuse at treatment initiation in relation to drug use and health among long-term opioid-dependent individuals and we determined the relationship of abuse histories with treatment outcomes following substitution treatment. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial that compared the effectiveness of opioid-agonists in the treatment of chronic opioid dependence. The North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) was conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) and provided oral methadone, injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A total of 112 (44.6%) participants reported a history of physical or sexual abuse at baseline. Participants with an abuse history reported a significantly higher number of chronic medical problems, suicide attempts, and previous drug treatments and had poorer psychiatric, family and social relations, and quality of life status compared to those without abuse histories. No differences in current and past substance use were found between those with and without abuse histories. Following 12 months of treatment, the participants with abuse histories improved to a similar degree as those without a history of abuse in all of the European Addiction Severity Index sub-scales, with the exception of medical status. The findings suggest that individuals with abuse histories were able to achieve similar outcomes as those without abuse histories following treatment despite having poorer scores in physical and mental health, social status and quality of life at treatment initiation. These findings suggest that the substitution treatments as provided in
An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph
Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…
Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.
Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher
The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.
Schizophrenia clinical symptom differences in women vs. men with and without a history of childhood physical abuse.
Kelly, Deanna L; Rowland, Laura M; Patchan, Kathleen M; Sullivan, Kelli; Earl, Amber; Raley, Heather; Liu, Fang; Feldman, Stephanie; McMahon, Robert P
Childhood abuse has been implicated as an environmental factor that increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. A recent large population-based case-control study found that abuse may be a risk factor for schizophrenia in women, but not men. Given the sex differences in onset and clinical course of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that childhood abuse may cause phenotypic differences in the disorder between men and women. We examined the prevalence of childhood physical abuse in a cohort of men and women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Specifically, we examined differences in positive, negative, cognitive and depressive symptoms in men and women who reported a history of childhood physical abuse. We recruited 100 subjects for a single visit and assessed a history of childhood physical abuse using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and clinical symptoms and cognition using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the calgary depression scale (CDS) and the repeatable battery of the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) for cognition. Ninety-two subjects completed the full CTQ with abuse classified as definitely present, definitely absent or borderline. Twelve subjects who reported borderline abuse scores were excluded. Of the 80 subjects whose data was analyzed, 10 of 24 (41.6 %) women and 11 of 56 (19.6 %) men reported a history of childhood physical abuse (χ(2) = 4.21, df = 1, p = 0.04). Women who reported such trauma had significantly more psychotic (sex by abuse interaction; F = 4.03, df = 1.76, p = 0.048) and depressive (F = 4.23, df = 1.76, p = 0.04) symptoms compared to women who did not have a trauma history and men, regardless of trauma history. There were no differences in negative or cognitive symptoms. Women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder may represent a distinct phenotype or subgroup with distinct etiologies and may require different, individually tailored treatments.
[On the relationship between emotional dependency and abuse].
Leemans, C; Loas, S
Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone.
... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...
Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women
Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.
Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902
Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.
Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua
This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.
Behavioural consequences of child abuse
Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay
Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022
The emerging problem of physical child abuse in South Korea.
Hahm, H C; Guterman, N B
South Korea has had remarkably high incidence and prevalence rates of physical violence against children, yet the problem has received only limited public and professional attention until very recently. This article represents the first attempt in English to systematically analyze South Korea's recent epidemiological studies on child maltreatment. Discussed are sociocultural factors that have contributed both to delays in child protection laws and a low public awareness of the problem of child abuse. The article highlights methodological issues concerning the definition of physical abuse in South Korea and the complex attitudes toward violence. It also examines the role of the Korean women's movement in the reform of family laws and the recent establishment of new child protection legislation. Suggestions for future directions for the problem of child maltreatment within South Korea are presented.
Emotional and Physical Abuse in Family: Survey among High School Adolescents
Aberle, Neda; Ratković-Blažević, Violeta; Mitrović-Dittrich, Dubravka; Coha, Renata; Stoić, Antun; Bublić, Joško; Boranić, Milivoj
Aim To determine the prevalence of different forms of child abuse among high school pupils in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. Method The study included 2140 first and fourth-grade pupils aged between 14 and 18 years from all 10 high schools in Slavonski Brod and the area (4 grammar and 6 vocational schools). The pupils were asked to complete an anonymous structured questionnaire during a 45-minute class. The questionnaire, developed for the needs of this study, collected basic demographic data on family life and experience of emotional or physical abuse. Results First-grade pupils were more satisfied with their family life than fourth-grade pupils (96.9% vs 91.3%, P<0.001, χ2 test). The feeling of being insufficiently loved or unloved was reported by 17.5% of the first-grade and 24.6% of the fourth-grade pupils and a greater percentage of pupils whose parents were divorced or who had a stepparent. Almost 80% of pupils had been verbally or nonverbally punished for disobedience. Emotional abuse was significantly associated with female sex (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.87, β = 0.474, P = 0.028), younger age (β = 1.263, P<0.001), and alcoholism in the family (β = 2.037, P<0.001. Physical punishment for disobedience was reported significantly more often by first-grade than fourth-grade pupils (15.6% vs 12.9% P = 0.021, χ2 test). Physical abuse was significantly associated (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.69) with younger age (β = 0.379, P<0.012), emotional abuse (β = 0.665, P<0.002), alcoholism in the family (β = 1.791, P<0.001) and the lack of parental love (β = -0.645, P<0.001). Possible sexual molestation was admitted by 6.0% boys and 3.3% girls. Conclusion Most high school pupils in Slavonski Brod were satisfied with their life at home. Disobedience was usually punished verbally or by aggressive behavior of the parents. Physical punishment was less common and usually did not result in serious injuries. PMID:17436389
Therapeutic Progression in Abused Women Following a Drug-Addiction Treatment Program.
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl; Azanza, Paula
This study explored the prevalence of victims of abuse and the therapeutic progression among women who sought treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 180 addicted Spanish women was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), socio-demographic factors, consumption variables, and psychological symptoms. Of the total sample, 74.4% (n = 134) of the addicted women had been victims of abuse. Psychological abuse affected 66.1% (n = 119) of the patients, followed by physical abuse (51.7%; n = 93) and sexual abuse (31.7%; n = 57). Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted women with histories of victimization scored significantly higher on several European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and psychological variables. Specifically, physical abuse and sexual abuse were related to higher levels of severity of addiction. Regarding therapeutic progression, the highest rate of dropout was observed among victims of sexual abuse (63.5%; n = 33), followed by victims of physical abuse (48.9%; n = 23). Multivariate analysis showed that medical and family areas of the EuropASI, as well as violence problems and suicide ideation, were the main variables related to physical and/or sexual abuse. Moreover, women without abuse and with fewer family problems presented the higher probability of treatment completion. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Parental perceptions of neighborhood processes, stress, personal control, and risk for physical child abuse and neglect.
Guterman, Neil B; Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Rathouz, Paul J
This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. In-home and phone interview data were examined cross-sectionally from a national birth cohort sample of 3,356 mothers across 20 US cities when the index child was 3 years of age. Mothers' perceptions of neighborhood social processes, parenting stress, and personal control were examined as predictors, and three subscales of the Parent-To-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-PC) were employed as proxies of physical child abuse and neglect risk. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test direct and indirect pathways (via parenting stress and control) from perceived neighborhood processes to proxy measures of physical child abuse and neglect. Multiple group SEM was conducted to test for differences across major ethnic groups: African American, Hispanic, and White. Although perceived negative neighborhood processes had only a mild direct role in predicting risk for physical child abuse, and no direct role on child neglect, these perceptions had a discernable indirect role in predicting risk via parenting stress and personal control pathways. Parenting stress exerted the clearest direct role on both physical abuse and neglect risk. This predictor model did not significantly differ across ethnic groups. Although neighborhood conditions may not play a clear directly observable role on physical child abuse and neglect risk, the indirect role they play underscores the importance of parents' perceptions of their neighborhoods, and especially the role they play via parents' reported stress and personal control. Such findings suggest that targeting parents' sense of control and stress in relation to their immediate social environment holds particular potential to reduce physical
Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E
Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for
Testing a Social Mechanism: Does Alcohol Outlet Density Moderate the Relationship Between Levels of Alcohol Use and Child Physical Abuse?
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price
Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this article examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, whereas densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused.
Affective responsiveness, betrayal, and childhood abuse.
Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N
Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment.
Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C
Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk.
Partner, workplace, and stranger abuse during pregnancy in Germany.
Stöckl, Heidi; Hertlein, Linda; Friese, Klaus; Stöckl, Doris
To investigate the prevalence, perpetrators, sociodemographic correlates, and health impacts of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse during pregnancy among women attending a maternity ward in Germany. A written questionnaire was given to pregnant women in a maternity ward of a university hospital in Munich. Abuse during pregnancy was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. Of 552 women, 401 completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 72.6%. The prevalence of psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy by any perpetrator was 6.7% (n = 27); the main perpetrators were women's partners and work colleagues. After controlling for the effect of age, psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was significantly associated with a history of abuse, low education level of the woman and the father of her child, short relationship duration, unintended pregnancy, financial problems caused by the pregnancy, having more than 3 children, and insufficient social support. Women who reported abuse during pregnancy were significantly more likely to smoke and to have adverse maternal health outcomes. Psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was experienced by 1 in 15 women who attended a maternity ward in Munich and adversely affected maternal health outcomes. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.
Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I
Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Typologies of Abuse among Afro-Trinidadian Women
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hadeed, Linda F.; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines typologies of abusive behaviors among Afro-Trinidadian women. A total of 17 women participated in a 2-hour, face-to-face interview. The findings suggest that women experience multiple types of abuse including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and controlling behaviors. This article discusses the implications of the findings…
Attitudes of Jordanian Society toward Wife Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Btoush, Rula; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.
The authors conducted an exploratory study among a convenience sample of 260 Jordanian men and women, using self-administered open and closed questions to examine the participants' approach toward wife abuse. In general, there was high awareness of wife abuse and the different types of abuse (mainly physical and psychological), a general tendency…
Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann
Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…
A comparison of abused and non-abused women's definitions of domestic violence and attitudes to acceptance of male dominance.
Faramarzi, M; Esmailzadeh, S; Mosavi, S
To examine the effects of women's subjective definitions of wife abuse and of their general attitudes to acceptance of male dominance on the occurrence of domestic violence. A case-control survey was conducted in the public health center of Babol University of Medical Sciences from November 2002 to October 2003. The Abuse Assessment Screen Form was used to identify partner violence, and the Abuse Definition Form and Abuse Attitude Form were applied to measure how the women defined wife abuse and their attitudes to male dominance. Women with positive attitudes to male dominance had experienced more physical and emotional abuse than those with negative attitudes toward male dominance (p < 0.05). Although living in villages, low level of education, female unemployment, and low family income were important risk factors for domestic violence, the strongest predictor of physical abuse was a positive attitude to male dominance. A positive attitude of women to male dominance increases the acceptance and frequency of partner violence. This finding shows the need to raise the educational levels of women and raise their awareness of their rights. This could convert an attitude of male dominance to equality of men and women.
How Teachers Can Help Victims of Child Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Identifies aspects of students' behavior and appearance which may indicate child abuse, discusses various types of physical and emotional child abuse, and points out steps which teachers should take if they suspect that a student is being abused. (DB)
Disrespect, harassment, and abuse
Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine harassment and abusive encounters between family physicians and their patients or colleagues in the workplace. DESIGN Qualitative case study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight family physicians from across the province. METHODS A collective case-study approach was developed, with 24 cases of 2 individuals per case. Cases were selected based on sex, location (urban or rural), language (French or English), and number of years since medical school graduation (< 10 years, 10 to 20 years, or > 20 years). Physicians were interviewed in either French or English. Participants were recruited using the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick’s physician directory. Based on the rates of response and participation, some cases were overrepresented, while others were not completed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically using a categorical aggregation approach. A coding scheme for the thematic analysis was developed by the research team before the interviews were transcribed. MAIN FINDINGS Although the original intent of this study was to examine the work environment of family physicians in light of the increasing number of women entering the profession, harassment and abusive encounters in the workplace emerged as a main theme. These encounters ranged from minor to severe. Minor abusive encounters included disrespectful behaviour and verbal threats by patients, their families, and occasionally colleagues. More severe forms of harassment involved physical threats, physical encounters, and stalking. Demanding patients, such as heavy drug users, were often seen as threatening. Location of practice, years in practice, and sex of the physician seemed to affect abusive encounters—young, female, rural physicians appeared to experience such encounters most often. CONCLUSION Abusive encounters in the workplace are concerning. It is essential to
Personality disturbances in drug-dependent women: relationship to childhood abuse.
Haller, Deborah L; Miles, Donna R
This study examined associations between childhood abuse and personality disturbances in 228 drug-dependent women. Thirty-six percent denied abuse, 50% reported emotional, 42% physical, and 42% sexual abuse. Million Clinical Multiarial Inventory (MCMI-III) scores > 74 provided evidence of personality disturbance and scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales measuring somatic complaints, depression, anxiety and postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) served as covariates. Emotional and physical abuse survivors were at increased risk for borderline, masochistic, and avoidant disturbances and decreased risk for narcissistic disturbances. Emotional abuse survivors were also less likely to be sadistic whereas physical abuse survivors were more likely to be paranoid. Sexual abuse survivors were twice as likely be antisocial; however, no association was found with borderline personality. Finally, an increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances was observed among those experiencing multiple types of abuse. Childhood trauma predisposes drug-dependent women to develop troublesome personality characteristics that are independent of drug addiction and other psychological problems associated with childhood trauma.
WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL MEETS THE ECOLOGICAL: A STUDY OF PARENT DRINKING PATTERNS, ALCOHOL OUTLETS AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.
Background Despite well-known associations between heavy drinking and child physical abuse, little is known about specific risks related to drinking different amounts of alcohol in different drinking venues. This study uses a context specific dose-response model to examine how drinking in various venues (e.g., at bars or parties) are related to physically abusive parenting practices while controlling for individual and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Data were collected via a telephone survey of parents in 50 cities in California resulting in 2,163 respondents who reported drinking in the past year. Child physical abuse and corporal punishment were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent Child version. Drinking behaviors were measured using continued drinking measures. Data were analyzed using zero inflated Poisson models. Results Drinking at homes, parties or bars more frequently was related to greater frequencies of physically abusive parenting practices. The use of greater amounts of alcohol in association with drinking at bars appeared to increase risks for corporal punishment, a dose-response effect. Dose-response relationships were not found for drinking at homes or parties or drinking at bars for physical abuse nor for drinking at home and parties for corporal punishment. Conclusion Frequencies of using drinking venues, particularly bars and home or parties, are associated with greater use of abusive parenting practices. These findings suggest that a parent’s routine drinking activities place children at different risks for being physically abused. They also suggest that interventions that take into account parents’ alcohol use at drinking venues are an important avenue for secondary prevention efforts. PMID:23316780
Residents' Experiences of Abuse and Harassment in Emergency Departments.
Sadrabad, Akram Zolfaghari; Bidarizerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Farahmand Rad, Reza; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Alimohammadi, Hossein
The widespread epidemic of emerging abuse in Emergency Departments (ED) toward residents generates negative effects on the residents' health and welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine and highlight the high prevalence of abuse and harassment toward Emergency residents. In 2011, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional study was conducted at seven Emergency Residencies of central hospitals in Iran. Residents were asked about their age, marital status, postgraduate year (PGY) levels, and work experiences before residency. Prevalence of abuse in four categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; verbal and physical threat; physical assault and sexual harassment; and by whom. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Two hundred fifteen of the 296 residents (73%) completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 89%; 43% of residents experienced verbal and physical threats, 10% physical assault, and 31% sexual harassment. Verbal abuse and verbal and physical threats without the use of weapons were higher in men in comparison with women (p< .04). Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (31% vs. 7%, p< .01). Among the sexual harassment categories, sexual jokes (51%) were the most prevalent between residents. Junior residents (PGY-1) were more likely to experience abuse than senior residents (PGY-2 and PGY-3; p< .01). Patients and their companions were the main agents of abusive behaviors. Abuse and harassment during residency in ED are highly prevalent. Educational programs and effective preventive measures against this mistreatment are urgently required. © The Author(s) 2016.
Adolescent Victims of Abuse: A Treatment Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
This paper presents a theory and model for treating adolescent victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect. The theory examines issues related to abuse or neglect and the effect that an abusive history has on adolescent development. Specific issues noted are depression, anger, low self-esteem, self-shame, lack of trust, a sense of…
Psychological Sequelae in Adult Females Reporting Childhood Ritualistic Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawrence, Kathy J.; And Others
Comparison of 19 adult females reporting childhood ritualistic sexual abuse with 27 adult females reporting sexual abuse without ritualism found that women reporting ritualistic abuse scored significantly higher on measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse severity. Neither posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status nor PTSD…
Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican adolescents.
Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C
To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.
Alcoholism and Familial Abuse: Enhancement of Quality Force Programs Using a Companion-Problem Approach
physical auc] sexual abuse and spouse abuse) hurt Air Force readiness and mission accomiplishmnent. The Air Force needs better means of problem identi- A...Abuse and Domestic Violence ................... 7 Alcohol Abuse and Child Physical Abuse ............... 9 i Alcohol Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse...abuse (spouse abuse, child phyzical abuse, and child sexual abuse) are serious problems in today’s Air Force. Beyond the moral considerations, they
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda
Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)
... drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms ...
Working on Memories of Abuse....
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)
Men Who Abuse Their Spouses: Social and Psychological Supports.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davidovich, Jessica R.
Explores psychological variables which have been identified as characteristic of males who physically abuse their partners to determine which variables explain acts of violently abusive male who engages in spouse abuse. Presents the psychology of wife abuse from the perspectives of personality, social learning theory, and the psychodynamics.…
Childhood abuse and neglect among women outpatients with chronic mental illness.
Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J
The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.
When abuse primes addiction - automatic activation of alcohol concepts by child maltreatment related cues in emotionally abused alcoholics.
Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William
Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…
Abuse history and premenstrual symptomatology: assessing the mediating role of perceived stress.
Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Widman, Laura; Becker, Linda de Laveaga
The present study assessed the interrelationships among abuse history (Abuse), perceived stress (Stress), and premenstrual symptom severity reports (PMSR) among female college students (N = 91, 18-25 years old), and determined if Stress mediated the relationship between Abuse and PMSR. Abuse history was noted by 44% of women in this sample, including sexual (25%), physical (11%), or both sexual and physical (8%) abuse. Importantly, results showed significant positive relationships between Abuse, Stress, and PMSR, suggesting Abuse affects psychological and physical aspects of women's health. Overall, women rated PMSR affect symptoms highest, and abused women rated pain and water retention higher than non-abused women. Stress did not fully mediate the relationship between Abuse and PMSR in this study, but accounted for 24% of the variance between these variables. The health implications of these findings are discussed.
RORA and posttraumatic stress trajectories: main effects and interactions with childhood physical abuse history
Lowe, Sarah R; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Koenen, Karestan C
Background Longitudinal studies of posttraumatic stress (PTS) have documented environmental factors as predictors of trajectories of higher, versus lower, symptoms, among them experiences of childhood physical abuse. Although it is now well-accepted that genes and environments jointly shape the risk of PTS, no published studies have investigated genes, or gene-by-environment interactions (GxEs), as predictors of PTS trajectories. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. Methods and Materials We examined associations between variants of the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and trajectory membership among a sample of predominantly non-Hispanic Black urban adults (N = 473). The RORA gene was selected based on its association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first PTSD genome wide association study. Additionally, we explored GxEs between RORA variants and childhood physical abuse history. Results We found that the minor allele of the RORA SNP rs893290 was a significant predictor of membership in a trajectory of consistently high PTS, relatively to a trajectory of consistently low PTS. Additionally, the GxE of rs893290 with childhood physical abuse was significant. Decomposition of the interaction showed that minor allele frequency was more strongly associated with membership in consistently high or decreasing PTS trajectories, relative to a consistently low PTS trajectory, among participants with higher levels of childhood physical abuse. Conclusion The results of the study provide preliminary evidence that variation in the RORA gene is associated with membership in trajectories of higher PTS and that these associations are stronger among persons exposed to childhood physical abuse. Replication and analysis of functional data are needed to further our understanding of how RORA relates to PTS trajectories. PMID:25798337
Male-initiated partner abuse during marital separation prior to divorce.
Toews, Michelle L; McKenry, Patrick C; Catlett, Beth S
The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of male-initiated psychological and physical partner abuse during the separation process prior to divorce among a sample of 80 divorced fathers who reported no physical violence during their marriages. The predictor variables examined were male gender-role identity, female-initiated divorces, dependence on one's former wife, depression, anxiety, and coparental conflict. Through ordinary least square (OLS) regression techniques, it was found that male gender-role identity was positively related to male-initiated psychological abuse during separation. Logistic regression analyses revealed that male-initiated psychological abuse, anxiety level, coparental conflict, and dependence on one's former spouse increased the odds of a man engaging in physical abuse. However, depression decreased the odds of separation physical abuse. The models predicting both male-initiated psychological abuse (F = 2.20, p < .05, R2 = .15) and physical violence during the separation process were significant (Model chi2 = 35.00, df= 7, p < .001).
[Physical and sexual abuse during childhood and revictimization during adulthood in Mexican women].
Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Allen, Betania; Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Avila-Burgos, Leticia
To quantify the association between physical and sexual abuse during childhood and violence during adulthood in a representative sample of female health care users in Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to 26 042 women over 14 years of age who sought medical consultation from public health care services between October 2002 and March 2003, in all 32 states in Mexico. Two models were constructed: a) Multiple polytomic logistic regression models to explore the association between violent victimization by the partner during adulthood and violence during childhood. b) Multiple logistic regression models to explore the association between experiencing rape during adulthood and violence during childhood. Among women studied, an association was found between experiencing physical violence during childhood and suffering physical and sexual violence from the male partner or experiencing rape, during adulthood. When physical violence during childhood occurred "almost always", it was more likely that the woman undergo physical and sexual violence (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 2.6-3.7) and rape (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.4-3.6), during her adult life. In addition, when violence during childhood was more frequent, the likelihood of experiencing violence during adulthood was greater. A positive association was found between physical and sexual abuse before 15 years of age (OR = 2.8; 95% CI 2.2-3.5). Experiencing rape during adulthood was also associated with sexual abuse before 15 years of age (OR = 11.8; 95% CI 10.2-13.7). In this sample of Mexican women, both physical and sexual violence during childhood has negative results during adulthood, including a greater likelihood of revictimization by the male partner and rape. Physical and sexual abuse during childhood must be prevented or at least detected and treated.
Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses.
Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Sullivan, Kristen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Rentz, E Danielle
Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to hav e used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions.
Association of childhood abuse with homeless women's social networks.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J
Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women
Prevalence of intimate partner abuse among nurses and nurses' aides in Mexico.
Díaz-Olavarrieta, C; Paz, F; de la Cadena, C G; Campbell, J
Nurses are the health professionals most frequently involved in the diagnosis and treatment of victims of family violence (FV). Understanding their personal experience with victimization is the key to shaping an appropriate role as advocates for medical recognition of FV and as integral members of the screening teams. We sought to determine the lifetime prevalence of intimate partner abuse among them and identify its risk factors. In our cross-sectional study, 1,150 registered nurses and nurses' aides at 11 urban hospitals in Mexico City self-administered an anonymous survey. We calculated descriptive statistics, Fisher exact tests, and multivariate logistic regression models to analyze physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during adulthood. Physical/sexual abuse during adulthood was 13% for nurses' aides and 18% for nurses. Similar proportions (13% of nurses' aides and 14% of nurses) also reported childhood physical/sexual abuse. Additional respondents (39% nurses' aides, 42% nurses) reported emotional abuse during adulthood. Detecting no significant differences in abuse patterns between the two groups, we combined occupations for all subsequent analyses. Being separated or divorced (vs. married) (Apr = 3.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81-6.44) and having suffered physical/sexual abuse during childhood (Apr = 3.39, 95% CI: 2.26-5.08) were associated with physical/sexual abuse in adulthood. The same variables were associated with adult emotional abuse (separated/divorced: Apr = 5.33, 95% CI: 2.61-10.85, and childhood physical/sexual abuse: Apr = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.79-3.75). Younger women (between the ages of 23 and 28 years) reported more emotional abuse (Apr = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.48-2.98). Counseling for abused nursing staff may help break the cycle. Physical/sexual partner abuse among nurses appears lower than among the general Mexican population, but remains worrisome. Battling childhood abuse might prevent intimate partner violence.
Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L
The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator.
Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues
refer spouse abuse or child abuse offenders with identified alcohol or other drug involvement to the on-base counseling center for a substance...abuse assessment. The military’s response to combat substance abuse involves a combination of education, prevention, random testing for illicit drug ...data from three Army sources: the Army Central Registry (ACR), the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS), and Army personnel data
Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?
undergraduate students who participated in this study. References Balge, K., & Milner, J. S. (2000). Emotion-recognition ability in mothers at high...recruits (N=5,394) and college students (N=716) completed self-report measures of their history of child abuse (i.e., CPA and child sexual abuse [CSA...reported in undergraduate samples (e.g., Crouch, Milner, & Caliso, 1995; de Paul, Milner, & Mugica, 1995; de Paul, Perez-Albeniz, Paz, Alday, & Mocoroa
[Dependency, abuse, and depression by gender in widowed elderly].
Kim, Ok-Soo; Yang, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Kye-Ha
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dependency and abuse on depression according to gender in widowed elderly. A convenient sample consisted of 246 widowed elderly who were more than 65 years old in four cities. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire from August to September, 2002. A dependency Scale developed by Ahn (1999) was used to measure the level of dependency. Emotional abuse and physical abuse were measured by 10 items for emotional abuse and 7 items for physical abuse selected out of the Conditions Scale of Elder Abuse. The level of depression was measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The SPSS WIN 11.0 version program was used for data analysis. In male widowed elderly, dependency affected depression indirectly through emotional abuse. While in female widowed elderly, dependency affected depression directly and affected emotional abuse indirectly. The study showed that dependency was the most explainable variable on depression in widowed female elderly. Therefore, it dependency should be assessed first in nursing intervention to relieve depression of widowed elderly.
Decline in Physical Function and Risk for Elder Abuse Reported to Social Services in a Community-Dwelling Population of Older Adults
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis
Objectives Elder abuse is an important public health and human rights issue and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between decline in physical function and the risk for elder abuse. Design Prospective population-based study Setting Geographically defined community in Chicago. Participants Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is a population-based study (N=6,159), and we identified 143 CHAP participants who had elder abuse reported to social services agency from 1993–2010. Participants The primary independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using decline in physical performance testing (Tandem stand, measured walk and chair stand). Secondary independent variables were assessed using the decline in self-reported Katz, Nagi, and Rosow-Breslau scales. Outcomes were reported and confirmed elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse (physical, psychological, caregiver neglect and financial exploitation). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of decline in physical function measures and risk for elder abuse. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, every 1 point decline in physical performance testing (OR, 1.13(1.06–1.19)), Katz impairment (OR, 1.29(1.15–1.45)), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.30(1.13–1.49)) and Rosow Breslau impairment (OR, 1.42(1.15–1.74)) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest tertiles of physical performance testing (OR, 4.92 (1.39–17.46), highest tertiles of Katz impairment (OR, 3.99 (2.18–7.31), Nagi impairment (OR, 2.37 (1.08–5.23), and Rosow Breslau impairment (2.85 (1.39–5.84) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Conclusion Decline in objectively assessed physical function and self-reported physical function are associated with increased risk for elder abuse. PMID:23002901
The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Harold P.
The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…
Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singh, HSS Amar; And Others
A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)
Substance abuse as a symptom of childhood sexual abuse.
The recovery process of a 37-year-old woman with adult onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presented. The patient had suffered childhood sexual abuse and had self-medicated for many years with drugs and alcohol to maintain the dissociation of memories of abuse and to facilitate interpersonal functioning. Upon onset of PTSD, the patient's substance abuse became a full-blown addiction that was highly resistant to treatment. It became evident that her substance abuse symbolically repeated her traumatization. In reexperiencing the affects associated with her earlier trauma (despair, denial, shame, and helplessness) as part of her substance abuse and in the transference, the patient was able to gain mastery over these affects and, subsequently, was able to achieve a stable recovery from both illnesses.
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Clinical pharmacokinetics of non-opiate abused drugs.
Busto, U; Bendayan, R; Sellers, E M
The present review discusses the available data on the kinetic properties of non-opiate abused drugs including psychomotor stimulants, hallucinogens and CNS-depressants. Some of the drugs of abuse reviewed here are illicit drugs (e.g. cannabis, cocaine), while others are effective pharmacological agents but have the potential to be abused (e.g. benzodiazepines). Although some of the drugs mentioned in this review have been in use for centuries (e.g. caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, cannabis), knowledge of their kinetics and metabolism is very recent and in some cases still incomplete. This is partially due to the difficulties inherent in studying drugs of abuse in humans, and to the complex metabolism of some of these drugs (e.g. cannabis, caffeine) which has made it difficult to develop sensitive assays to determine biological pathways. Although drugs of abuse may have entirely different intrinsic pharmacological effects, the kinetic properties of such drugs are factors contributing to abuse and dependence. The pharmacokinetic properties that presumably contribute to self-administration and drug abuse include rapid delivery of the drug into the central nervous system and high free drug clearance. Kinetic characteristics also play an important role in the development of physical dependence and on the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome: the longer the half-life, the greater the likelihood of the development of physical dependence; the shorter the half-life, the earlier and more severe the withdrawal. The balance between these 2 factors, which has not yet been carefully studied, will also influence abuse patterns. The clinical significance of kinetic characteristics with respect to abuse is discussed where possible.
Identification and Evaluation of Abused Children at Imam Hossein Hospital
Arabghol, Fariba; Derakhshanpour, Firooze; Davari Ashtiyani, Rozita; Chimeh, Narges; Panaghi, Layli
Background Child abuse is a phenomenon that confronts the child, family, and society with irretrievable physical and mental injuries, and its negative effects continue until adulthood. Objectives The present study was conducted to identify and evaluate cases of abused children at a medical center. Patients and Methods This is a descriptive-analytic study. The subjects were all children and adolescents who were referred to Imam Hussein hospital within 6 months due to physical or psychiatric reasons and were diagnosed with child abuse and neglect by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. The number of these children was 73. Children and their parents were assessed by schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS), Kiddie-SADS, and child abuse and demographic questionnaires. The statistical methods of mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. Results 56 cases (76%) were physically abused, 53 cases (72.6%) were emotionally abused, and 3 cases (12.3%) were neglected. The most common psychiatric disorder in abused children was ADHD (65.8%). The next most common were oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and enuresis. About 80% of the abused children had at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorders in mothers were general anxiety disorder (34.8%) and depression (33.3%), and in fathers, it was substance abuse (19.7%). Conclusions Child abuse is a common phenomenon that relates to psychiatric disorders in the abused child or abuser parents. It seems that on-time identification and appropriate interventions can prevent further negative consequences for the child, family, and society. PMID:27162764
Identification and Evaluation of Abused Children at Imam Hossein Hospital.
Arabghol, Fariba; Derakhshanpour, Firooze; Davari Ashtiyani, Rozita; Chimeh, Narges; Panaghi, Layli
Child abuse is a phenomenon that confronts the child, family, and society with irretrievable physical and mental injuries, and its negative effects continue until adulthood. The present study was conducted to identify and evaluate cases of abused children at a medical center. This is a descriptive-analytic study. The subjects were all children and adolescents who were referred to Imam Hussein hospital within 6 months due to physical or psychiatric reasons and were diagnosed with child abuse and neglect by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. The number of these children was 73. Children and their parents were assessed by schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS), Kiddie-SADS, and child abuse and demographic questionnaires. The statistical methods of mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. 56 cases (76%) were physically abused, 53 cases (72.6%) were emotionally abused, and 3 cases (12.3%) were neglected. The most common psychiatric disorder in abused children was ADHD (65.8%). The next most common were oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and enuresis. About 80% of the abused children had at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorders in mothers were general anxiety disorder (34.8%) and depression (33.3%), and in fathers, it was substance abuse (19.7%). Child abuse is a common phenomenon that relates to psychiatric disorders in the abused child or abuser parents. It seems that on-time identification and appropriate interventions can prevent further negative consequences for the child, family, and society.
Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chambliss, Catherine; And Others
This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…
Comorbid psychiatric and alcohol abuse/dependence disorders: psychosocial stress, abuse, and personal history factors of those in treatment.
De Bernardo, Gina L; Newcomb, Michael; Toth, Amanda; Richey, Gary; Mendoza, Richard
Factors related to comorbid versus only substance disorders are essential to understanding and treating these complex problems. Medical records of sixty-nine inpatients at a private rehabilitation hospital in Southern California were reviewed to determine the associations between personal history factors and (1) comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders and (2) participant's self-assessed progress in treatment. Results revealed significant differences between dual diagnosis patients (alcohol abuse/dependence and an affective disorder) and alcohol abuse/dependence only in regard to gender, previous diagnosis, length of illness, suicide attempts, psychotropic medication history, maternal emotional, physical and sexual abuse, paternal abuse, legal difficulties, and psychosocial stressors. No significant differences between substance abusing patients and dually diagnosed patients were found in terms of self-assessment of progress in treatment. Significant correlations were found between self-assessed progress in treatment and major depression (versus bipolar disorder), use of psychotropic medication, and less abuse from mother or primary caretaker. Identification of these personal history factors may be useful in developing and implementing treatment plans.
De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes
The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals
Childhood risk factors for alcohol abuse and psychological distress among adult lesbians.
Hughes, Tonda L; Johnson, Timothy P; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Szalacha, Laura A
This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting variables and latent measures of lifetime alcohol abuse and psychological distress in a large community-based sample of lesbians. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) directly predicted lifetime alcohol abuse, and childhood physical abuse (CPA) directly predicted lifetime psychological distress. In addition, CSA indirectly increased the risk of lifetime alcohol abuse through its negative effect on age at first heterosexual intercourse. Childhood physical abuse had only indirect effects on lifetime alcohol abuse through its strong relationship to lifetime psychological distress. Parental drinking problems and parental strictness directly predicted lifetime psychological distress; parental drinking problems indirectly predicted lifetime alcohol abuse through the mediators of age of drinking onset and lifetime psychological distress. White lesbians, younger lesbians, and those with lower levels of education were at greatest risk of psychological distress. While the cross-sectional design precludes causal conclusions, study findings--especially those related to CSA--are consistent with previous research on predominantly heterosexual women in the general population. Lesbians who experienced CSA were at heightened risk of lifetime alcohol abuse and those who experienced CPA were at heightened risk of lifetime psychological distress relative to lesbians without abuse histories. Given the dearth of research on childhood abuse and sexual orientation, studies are needed that examine the similarities and differences between lesbians' and heterosexual women's experiences of, and responses to, childhood abuse.
The relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for violence against children.
Tajima, E A
To investigate the relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal child abuse. The study explored the importance of wife abuse relative to blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics and also relative to specific risk factors. This study re-analyzed a sub-sample (N = 2,733) of data from the 1985 National Family Violence Survey. Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted, using five different criterion variables measuring physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal abuse separately and in combination. Blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics were more important predictors of violence towards children than was wife abuse, though the presence of wife abuse in the home was a consistently significant specific risk factor for all forms of violence against children. Of specific risk factors, a respondent's history of having been hit as an adolescent was a larger risk factor for physical child abuse than was wife abuse. Wife abuse was an important predictor of physical punishment. Non-violent marital discord was a greater factor in predicting likelihood of verbal child abuse than was wife abuse. Though this study confirms the association between wife abuse and violence towards children, it cautions us not to overlook the contribution of other factors in our attempts to understand the increased risk attributed to wife abuse.
The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John
Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…
Can Questionnaire Reports Correctly Classify Relationship Distress and Partner Physical Abuse?
Heyman, Richard E.; Feldbau-Kohn, Shari R.; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; O’Leary, K. Daniel
Relationship adjustment (e.g., Dyadic Adjustment Scale; DAS) and physical aggression (e.g., Conflict Tactics Scale) measures are used both as screening tools and as the sole criterion for classification. This study created face valid diagnostic interviews for relationship distress and physical abuse, through which one could compare preliminarily the classification properties of questionnaire reports. The DAS (and a global measure of relationship satisfaction) had modest agreement with a structured diagnostic interview; both questionnaires tended to overdiagnose distress compared with the interview. Results for partner abuse reiterated the need to go beyond occurrence of aggression as the sole diagnostic criterion, because men’s aggression was more likely than women’s to rise to the level of “abuse” when diagnostic criteria (injury or substantial fear) were applied. PMID:11458637
Social Intuition and Social Information in Physical Child Abuse Evaluation and Diagnosis.
Keenan, Heather T; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M; Bardsley, Tyler; Campbell, Kristine A
Poor and minority children with injuries concerning for abuse are evaluated and diagnosed for abuse differentially. We hypothesized that 2 steps in the decision-making process would influence evaluation and diagnosis: social intuition from meeting the family and objective social information associated with child abuse risk. Between 2009 and 2013, 32 child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) submitted 730 child abuse consultations including original medical evaluations and diagnoses. CAPs evaluated and diagnosed each other's cases. Comparisons of evaluations and diagnoses were made by levels of social understanding available to the CAP: meeting the family (social intuition and information), reading the case (social information), and reading the case without social information. Evaluations were compared with a consensus gold standard by using logistic regression modeling adjusting for child and CAP characteristics. Diagnostic categories were compared by level of social understanding and diagnostic certainty by using contingency tables. CAPs without access to social intuition were approximately twice as likely to perform gold standard evaluations for neurotrauma and long bone fracture compared with CAPs who met families. Diagnostic agreement fell from 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.1%-76.5%) when social information was present to 66.5% (95% CI: 63.1%-70.0%) when social information was restricted. In cases with less certainty, agreement dropped to 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0%-56.7%). Social intuition and information play a role in the physical child abuse decision-making process, which may contribute to differential diagnosis. Simple interventions including decision tools, check lists, and peer review may structure evaluations to ensure children's equal treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Abuses against Older Women: Prevalence and Health Effects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisher, Bonnie S.; Zink, Therese; Regan, Saundra L.
A clinical sample of 995 community dwelling women aged 55 and older were surveyed by telephone about their experience with psychological/emotional, control, threat, physical, and sexual abuse. Nearly half of the women experienced at least one type of abuse since turning 55. Sizable proportions were victims of repeated abuse, and many experienced…
Stressful life events and the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse.
Chen, May S; Foshee, Vangie A
Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that stressful life events are associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence among adults, but little attention has been given to the relationship between stressful life events and adolescent dating abuse, a prevalent form of violence that results in serious and long-lasting consequences. The current study addresses this gap by examining associations between family-, peer-, school-, and health-related stressful life events and the perpetration of both psychological and physical forms of dating abuse in a sample of 1,125 adolescents (54.6% female, 18% Black), and determining whether these associations are moderated by attributes of the family (closeness to parent) and the adolescent (sex and self-esteem). The total number of stressful events and school-related events were positively associated with the perpetration of psychological dating abuse and family-related events were related to the perpetration of psychological dating abuse for boys, but not girls. Closeness to parent buffered the effect of stressful health-related events on the perpetration of physical dating abuse, but exacerbated the effect of stressful family-related events on the perpetration of physical dating abuse. Health-related events were associated with physical perpetration for those with high, but not low self-esteem. Finally, the total number of stressful events and family-related events were related to the perpetration of physical dating abuse by boys, but not by girls. Taken together, these findings suggest that stressful life events play an important role in adolescent dating abuse, and should be taken into consideration when developing adolescent dating abuse prevention programs.
Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada
Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625
Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Drug Abuse: A Challenge for Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conte, Anthony E.; Mason, Eugene R.
This report provides comprehensive information regarding drug use/abuse. The first chapter describes drugs -- those generally accepted by society as well as those less accepted -- and discusses potential psychic and physical dangers inherent in their abuse. The second chapter explains the reasons offered by drug users for their generally…
Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms.
Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick
Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russian perspectives on elder abuse: an exploratory study.
Rinsky, Karina; Malley-Morrison, Kathleen
The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze Russian perceptions of elder abuse as reflected in their examples of abusive behavior from an adult child to an aging parent. Also of interest was the possibility of gender differences in the Russian perspectives on elder abuse. The convenience sample consisted of 21 Russian participants (10 males, 10 females, and one without gender identified), who provided examples of extreme, moderate, and mild abuse from an adult child towards an aging parent. Most examples of extreme abuse were forms of physical violence. Typical examples of moderate abuse were instances of psychological aggression-particularly verbal aggression-and neglect. The most common examples of mild abuse were verbal aggression and neglect. One-way analyses of variance revealed statistically significant gender differences in the number of references to psychological aggression in general and to verbal aggression in particular in the examples of moderate abuse, with females giving more examples than males.
Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.
Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…
Dating violence victimization across the teen years: abuse frequency, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence.
Bonomi, Amy E; Anderson, Melissa L; Nemeth, Julianna; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Buettner, Cynthia; Schipper, Deborah
Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U.S adolescents, with 36 percent of males and 44 percent to 88 percent of females experiencing victimization across adolescence/young adulthood. Despite promising information characterizing adolescents' dating violence experiences longitudinally, prior studies tended to concentrate on physical and sexual types of violence only, and did not report information on the number of times dating violence was experienced across multiple abusive partners. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19-including dating violence types (physical, sexual, and psychological), frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. A total of 730 subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse). Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of 341 subjects who completed the survey, we included 297 (64 percent females; 36 percent males) who had a dating partner from age 13 to 19. Fully 64.7 percent of females and 61.7 percent of males reported dating violence victimization between age 13 and 19, with most experiencing multiple occurrences. More than one-third of abused females had two or more abusive partners: controlling behavior (35.6 percent); put downs/name calling (37.0); pressured sex (42.9); insults (44.3); slapped/hit (50.0); and threats (62.5). Males also had two or more abusive partners, as follows: controlling behavior (42.1 percent); insults (51.2); put downs (53
Dating violence victimization across the teen years: Abuse frequency, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence
Background Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U.S adolescents, with 36 percent of males and 44 percent to 88 percent of females experiencing victimization across adolescence/young adulthood. Despite promising information characterizing adolescents’ dating violence experiences longitudinally, prior studies tended to concentrate on physical and sexual types of violence only, and did not report information on the number of times dating violence was experienced across multiple abusive partners. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19—including dating violence types (physical, sexual, and psychological), frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. Methods A total of 730 subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse). Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of 341 subjects who completed the survey, we included 297 (64 percent females; 36 percent males) who had a dating partner from age 13 to 19. Results Fully 64.7 percent of females and 61.7 percent of males reported dating violence victimization between age 13 and 19, with most experiencing multiple occurrences. More than one-third of abused females had two or more abusive partners: controlling behavior (35.6 percent); put downs/name calling (37.0); pressured sex (42.9); insults (44.3); slapped/hit (50.0); and threats (62.5). Males also had two or more abusive partners, as follows: controlling behavior (42.1 percent
Gender differences in pathways from child physical and sexual abuse to adolescent risky sexual behavior among high-risk youth.
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Individual- and County-Level Religious Participation, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse of Children: An Exploratory study.
Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy Jo
Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.
Resident experience of abuse and harassment in emergency medicine: ten years later.
Li, Siu Fai; Grant, Kelly; Bhoj, Tanuja; Lent, Gretchen; Garrick, Jocelyn Freeman; Greenwald, Peter; Haber, Marc; Singh, Malini; Prodany, Karla; Sanchez, Leon; Dickman, Eitan; Spencer, James; Perera, Tom; Cowan, Ethan
In 1995, a Society for Academic Emergency Medicine in-service survey reported high rates of verbal and physical abuse experienced by Emergency Medicine (EM) residents. We sought to determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment 10 years later to bring attention to these issues and determine if there has been a change in the prevalence of abuse over this time period. To determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment in a sample of EM residencies. We conducted a cross-section survey of EM residents from 10 residencies. EM residents were asked about their experience with verbal abuse, verbal threats, physical threats, physical attacks, sexual harassment, and racial harassment; and by whom. The primary outcome of the study was the prevalence of abuse and harassment as reported by EM residents. There were 196 of 380 residents (52%) who completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 91%; 86% of residents experienced verbal abuse, 65% verbal threats, 50% physical threats, 26% physical attacks, 23% sexual harassment, and 26% racial harassment. Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (37% [38/102] vs. 8% [7/92]; p < 0.001). Racial harassment was not limited to minorities (23% [16/60] for Caucasians vs. 26% [29/126] for non-Caucasians; p = 0.59). Senior residents were more likely to have encountered verbal and physical abuse. Only 12% of residents formally reported the abuse they experienced. Abuse and harassment during EM residency continues to be commonplace and is underreported. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reporting and identifying child physical abuse: How well are we doing?
Ho, Grace W K; Bettencourt, Amie; Gross, Deborah A
Entry into the child protection system in the US begins with a child maltreatment report. Some evidence suggests that report source and child age are related to report outcomes, but there has been no national study of these relationships. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to describe the distribution of report sources for child physical abuse (CPA), and examine whether (a) the source of a report and (b) child age contribute to the likelihood of substantiation of the reported abuse. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted using a US national sample of 204,414 children investigated for CPA in 2013 in a dataset obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Results showed that fewer than one in seven children reported for CPA were confirmed victims of abuse. Professionally mandated reporters initiated the majority of CPA reports, and their reports were more likely to be substantiated compared with nonprofessionals. However, reports made by even the most accurate professional group (legal/law enforcement) had only a 26% chance of substantiation, and some professional groups had a lower likelihood of substantiation than nonprofessionals. Reports made by professionals were less likely to be substantiated as child age increased. More research is warranted to develop and test the effectiveness of training programs to improve CPA reporting and identification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The management of abuse: 2. Child abuse.
Panesear, Jaspel; Sinha, Karen Juggins Sonia; Acharya, Preeti; Jafar, Hima; Bower, Elizabeth J; Harrison, Victoria E; Newton, J Tim
The role of the GDP and the dental team in the recognition and management of child abuse is discussed. Information on the current legislation and protocols for referral are provided. This paper discusses child abuse and offers information and practical advice for the dental team.
Screening Children for Abuse and Neglect: A Review of the Literature.
Hoft, Mary; Haddad, Lisa
Child abuse and neglect occur in epidemic numbers in the United States and around the world, resulting in major physical and mental health consequences for abused children in the present and future. A vast amount of information is available on the signs and symptoms and short- and long-term consequences of abuse. A limited number of instruments have been empirically developed to screen for child abuse, with most focused on physical abuse in the context of the emergency department, which have been found to be minimally effective and lacking rigor. This literature review focuses on physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect, occurring in one or multiple forms (polyabuse). A systematic, in-depth analysis of the literature was conducted. This literature review provides information for identifying children who have been abused and neglected but exposes the need for a comprehensive screening instrument or protocol that will capture all forms of child abuse and neglect. Screening needs to be succinct, user-friendly, and amenable for use with children at every point of care in the healthcare system.
A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Bonnie E.
Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)
[Child psychiatric assessment and the debate regarding the abuse of abuse].
Fegert, J M
The current discussion on false allegations in sexual abuse cases has led to a polarization in the views expressed about the credibility of children. Some authors even speak of a "child sexual accuse syndrome" or of a "sexual abuse allegation in divorce" (SAID) syndrome. A phenomenological analysis of the multiple reasons for misinterpretations is presented. Instead of stressing the importance only of false positives in child sexual abuse questions, an attempt is made to describe reasons for false negatives. Based on a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive child psychiatric experts in connection with court cases, there does not appear to be an increase in false accusations. Rather, only about one third of the cases even involved suspected sexual abuse. Sexual abuse allegations were much more frequent in girls than in boys. Of 20 abuse allegations we judge four to be false allegations. In only one of these cases, that of an adolescent girl who had been abused in childhood, was the false allegation intended.
Childhood sexual abuse history and role reversal in parenting.
Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L
This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.
The role of abuse-deterrent formulations in countering opioid misuse and abuse.
Nguyen, V; Raffa, R B; Taylor, R; Pergolizzi, J V
Pain is a prevalent, and due to the ageing population, increasing medical problem. Opioids are frequently prescribed to meet the unmet medical need. Unfortunately, with the increase in the legitimate use of opioids, there has been a corresponding increase in abuse. A practical way to retain the pain relief afforded by opioids while decreasing opportunities for abuse is to make it more difficult to extract the opioid from the product or to make it less desirable to do so by designing an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF). We provide a brief overview of the strategies and early evidence related to opioid ADFs. Published and unpublished literature, websites, and other sources were searched for current opioid formulation options, including immediate-release and extended-release products. Each was summarized, reviewed and assessed. The strategies that have been used to design the current opioid ADFs involve one or more of four approaches: a physical barrier; incorporation of an opioid receptor antagonist (e.g. naloxone) that self-limits opioid action when taken in excess amount; inclusion of a noxious agent that is released during inappropriate use; or a pro-drug. Legitimate use of opioid analgesics carries with it certain risks, including the risk of abuse. The new ADFs utilize four major strategies and provide innovative additions to the armamentarium. They likely will become an important part of a comprehensive approach to limiting, although not eliminating, opioid misuse and abuse. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Androgen abuse in the community.
Melnik, Bodo C
To provide information of the current prevalence of illicit use of androgens by individuals of the community. Prevalence of abuse of androgens in individuals of the general population has reached alarming dimensions. Use of androgens is no longer limited to competitive sports, but has spread to leisure and fitness sports, bodybuilding, and nonathletes motivated to increase muscular mass and physical attractiveness. Alarming studies from Germany demonstrated that members of the healthcare systems provide illegal androgens to 48.1% of abusers visiting fitness centers. The new trend to combine androgens with growth hormone, insulin, and insulinotropic milk protein-fortified drinks may potentiate health risks of androgen abuse. The use of androgens has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public health concern. The potential health hazards of androgen abuse are underestimated in the medical community, which unfortunately contributes to illegal distribution of androgens. Both the adverse effects of current androgen abuse especially in young men as well as the chronic toxicity from past long-term abuse of now middle-aged men has to be considered as a growing public health problem. In the future, an increasing prevalence of androgen misuse in combination with other growth-promoting hormones and insulinotropic milk protein products has to be expected, which may have further promoting effects on the prevalence of chronic western diseases.
Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...
Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G
It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse.
Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.
Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…
Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.
Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…
Recent and Past Intimate Partner Abuse and HIV Risk Among Young Women
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Dichter, Melissa E.; Sullivan, Cris M.
Objective To examine the associations between past intimate partner abuse experienced during adolescence (verbal and physical), recent intimate partner abuse (verbal, physical, and sexual), and HIV risk (as indicated by lack of condom use) for sexually active young adult women in relationships with male partners. Design Secondary data analysis of waves II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Setting The Add Health Study is a longitudinal, in-home survey of a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Sample Analyses involved 2,058 sexually active young adult women. Main Outcome Measures HIV risk was measured by consistent condom use over the past 12 months. Results Physical and verbal abuse experienced in adolescence were associated with physical/verbal abuse experienced in young adulthood. Young, sexually active women experiencing no abuse in their relationships were more likely to consistently use condoms in the past 12 months than were their abused counterparts. Conclusion A causal pathway may exist between prior abuse, current abuse, and HIV risk. PMID:18336447
Gender differences in the association between childhood physical and sexual abuse, social support and psychosis.
Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen L; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Thomas K; Morgan, Craig
Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.
Mental and Physical Health Needs of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment.
Flentje, Annesa; Livingston, Nicholas A; Roley, Jason; Sorensen, James L
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) orientation predicts greater substance use, treatment utilization, and poorer mental and physical health, but health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in mental and physical health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment. Substance abuse treatment admissions data from the County of San Francisco were used in this investigation of differences in mental and physical health problems and service utilization between LGB (n=1,441) and heterosexual individuals (n=11,770). LGB individuals were more likely to have mental health diagnoses (adjORs ranging from 1.86 to 4.00) and current mental health prescription medications (adjORs from 1.79 to 4.99) than heterosexual counterparts. Gay and bisexual men and bisexual women but not lesbian women, were more likely to be receiving mental health treatment. Gay men and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual counterparts to report physical health problems. Gay and bisexual men and bisexual women but not lesbian women were more likely to be receiving health care. There were no differences between LGB individuals and heterosexual counterparts in the number of emergency room visits or hospital overnight stays. This study found that LGB individuals entering substance abuse treatment have greater mental and physical health needs than heterosexual counterparts. Implications for healthcare integration, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Status Compatibility, Physical Violence, and Emotional Abuse in Intimate Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
The prevalence of lifetime abuse among older adults in seven European countries.
Eslami, Bahareh; Viitasara, Eija; Macassa, Gloria; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Lindert, Jutta; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Barros, Henrique; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Soares, Joaquim J F
To investigate the lifetime prevalence rate of abuse among older persons and to scrutinize the associated factors (e.g. demographics). This cross-sectional population-based study had 4467 participants, aged 60-84, from seven European cities. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injuries) was measured based on The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, and the UK survey of abuse/neglect of older people. Over 34 % of participants reported experiencing lifetime psychological, 11.5 % physical, 18.5 % financial and 5 % sexual abuse and 4.3 % reported injuries. Lifetime psychological abuse was associated with country, younger age, education and alcohol consumption; physical abuse with country, age, not living in partnership; injuries with country, female sex, age, education, not living in partnership; financial abuse with country, age, not living in partnership, education, benefiting social/partner income, drinking alcohol; and sexual abuse with country, female sex and financial strain. High lifetime prevalence rates confirm that elder abuse is a considerable public health problem warranting further longitudinal studies. Country of residence is an independent factor associated with all types of elder abuse which highlights the importance of national interventions alongside international collaborations.
[Impact of childhood abuses on the psychology and behaviors regarding harmful dietary pattern in adolescents].
Ye, Qing; Tao, Fang-biao; Fang, Dong-sheng; Huang, Kun; Sun, Ying
To examine the effect of childhood abuses on adolescents' psychology and behaviors related to harmful dietary pattern. Anonymous questionnaire study on childhood abuses, adolescents' psychology and behaviors regarding their dietary patterns was conducted among 5141 students in 9 middle schools in 2 areas of Anhui province. Among 5141 students, 29.9% reported having severe childhood physical abuse, 64.8% having intermediate childhood physical abuse, 51.4% having mental abuse, 5.3% having physical contact sexual abuse and 24.5% having non-physical contact sexual abuse. In junior, senior middle schools and vocational schools, the incidence rate of severe childhood physical abuse, physical contact sexual abuse and non-physical contact sexual abuse among male students was higher than that among female students. In total, the incidence rate of childhood mental abuse among female students (53.1%) was higher than that among male students (49.8%) and with significant difference (chi2 = 5.484, P < 0.05). The incidence rate of 5 kinds of childhood abuses among junior middle school students was relatively low, and the incidence rate of intermediate childhood physical abuse and mental abuse was higher among senior middle school students. The incidence rate of 9 among the 11 kinds of psychology and behaviors related to harmful dietary pattern among female students in the middle schools and vocational schools was higher than that among male students. By unconditional multivariate logistic regression model, results showed that the childhood abuses was among the 11 kinds of psychological and behavioral risk factors related to harmful dietary pattern. Childhood abuses had negative effects on dietary behaviors in adolescents.
Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case-control study.
Hobbs, Christopher J; Wright, Charlotte M
There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. all eligible cases from 1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35-193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10).Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse.
Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.
Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.
Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sexual maturation and control issues among sexually abused and non-abused anorexia patients.
Walsh, J; Burns, F
To assess the relative salience of the maintenance of control and the avoidance of sexual maturation as sources of motivation for maintaining pathological eating behaviours among sexually abused anorexic patients. A two-factor mixed experimental design was employed. Three independent groups (sexually abused anorexics (N = 12); non-abused anorexics (N = 9); non-anorexic/non-abused controls (N = 12)) constituted the between-subjects factor. Allocation to abuse/non-abuse group was dependent upon replies to a questionnaire-based measure of unwanted sexual experience. The within-subjects factor comprised three conditions in which words of various colours were presented to participants for colour-naming (Stroop, 1935). The conditions were represented by lists of neutral words, sexual maturation words, and control-related words. Two trials were carried out in each condition and mean response times were measured. Within-group analyses revealed that interference was greater from sexual maturation words than from control-related words among the sexually-abused anorexics, but of equal magnitude among non-abused counterparts. Between-groups analyses found that abused patients experienced marginally greater cognitive interference from sexual maturation words than the non-abused patients. Theoretically, support is offered for elaborated schematic models of cognitive processing. Clinically, treatment interventions may need to pay particular attention to issues of sexual maturation among sexually abused anorexic patients.
Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status.
Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A
Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.
Risk and protective factors for physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Africa: a review and implications for practice.
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L
There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.
The complexities of elder abuse.
Roberto, Karen A
Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Psychological abuse, substance abuse distress, dissatisfaction with friendships, and incident psychiatric problems.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed
The aim of this study was to assess the mediating role of dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood in the associations between psychological abuse in childhood, substance abuse distress in childhood, and incident psychiatric problems (IPPs) in adulthood over 13 years of follow-up. We used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 9502), a representative, longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associations between psychological abuse, substance abuse distress, dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood, and IPPs in adulthood. Indirect effects and proportion mediated (%) were assessed with the difference-in-coefficients method. Psychological abuse (relative risk [RR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-1.89) and substance abuse distress in childhood (RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.62) were associated with an increased risk of dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood was associated with an increased risk of IPPs in adulthood (RR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.33-2.20). Moreover, dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood mediated 9.31% (95% CI: 4.25-14.57) of the association between psychological abuse in childhood and IPPs in adulthood, and 9.17% (95% CI: 4.35-16.33) of the association between substance abuse distress in childhood and IPPs in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with friendships in adulthood mediates a minor proportion of the associations between psychological abuse, substance abuse distress, and IPPs in adulthood. Interventions aimed at decreasing dissatisfaction with friendships may dampen some of the effect of psychological abuse and substance abuse distress in childhood on IPPs in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Child Physical Abuse and Self-Perceived Social Isolation among Adolescents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle
This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated…
Individual and county-level religious participation, corporal punishment, and physical abuse of children: An exploratory study
Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy J.
Background Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. Additionally, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. Method We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Results Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. Discussion This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings. PMID:29294609
The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L
The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Childhood Abuse and Sexual Revictimization in a Female Navy Recruit Sample.
child abuse and adult rape. The results show that 55.4% of women who reported childhood sexual abuse reported subsequent rape, whereas 20.2% of the women who reported no childhood abuse reported rape. Women with a childhood history of sexual abuse were 4.70 times more likely to have been raped. The highest rape rates were reported by women with a combined childhood history of physical and sexual abuse. Ethnic differences in reports of childhood abuse and rates of revictimization were found. A regression analysis of the relative contributions of childhood sexual abuse,
The Influence of Maternal History of Abuse on Parenting Knowledge and Behavior
Bert, Shannon Carothers; Guner, Bella Mironovna; Lanzi, Robin Gaines
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of abuse among a sample of 681 teen, adult low, and adult high resource first-time mothers. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 years, with a mean of 20 years. Exposure to childhood emotional and physical abuse was associated with 6-month parenting behavior; but not parenting knowledge. Teen mothers, as opposed to adult mothers, had higher mean scores for exposure to childhood emotional and physical abuse. Adult high resource mothers reported lower mean scores on each abuse outcome than both teen and adult low resource mothers. For the total sample of mothers, as past exposure to emotional and physical abuse increased, maternal responsivity decreased, and opinions towards, and propensities for, abusive behavior increased. PMID:21695065
[Relationship of childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder in adolescence: the mediating role of self-esteem].
Zhang, Zhi-hua; Yang, Lin-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Fen; Zhang, Xiu-jun; Sun, Ye-huan
To find out whether the effects of childhood physical abuse on internet addiction disorder in adolescence could be mediated by self-esteem. 3798 high school students selected from 76 classes in Grade One and Grade Two, were asked to fill in the anonymous questionnaire, which including the demographic characteristics of students, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Childhood physical abuse could directly predict less self-esteem and internet addiction disorder (r = -0.108, P < 0.01, r = 0.057, P < 0.01) and had significant indirect effects on internet addiction disorder which could be mediated through self-esteem (a = -0.703, standardized b = -0.104, z = 5.052, P < 0.001). Self-esteem had mediated 22.5% of the childhood physical abuse cases on their internet addiction disorders during the period of adolescence. Self-esteem could partially mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder. The mediating roles of self-esteem suggested that salient leverage points could make a change through empowerment training, self-esteem group training on self-esteem enhancement in the stage of adolescence.
Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…
[Prevalence of sexual abuse in students and its relation with drug abuse].
Ramos-Lira, L; Saldívar-Hernández, G; Medina-Mora, M E; Rojas-Guiot, E; Villatoro-Velázquez, J
To determine the prevalence of sexual abuse among high school (secondary and preparatory) students, male and female, throughout Mexico, and its relationship with drug abuse. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Drug Use in Schools applied in November and December, 1991. A total of 61,779 students, 51.8% men and 47.1% women, with a mean age of 14.4 years completed the self-applied questionnaire. Sexual abuse was explored from the perspective of the abusers and of the victims. The prevalence of sexual abuse in adolescent victims was 4.3% and no statistically significant differences were found between sexes. The prevalence of sexual aggressors was 2.5%. Men coerced someone else in a higher proportion than women. Adolescent women experienced sexual abuse at a younger age than men and they also reported a higher percentage of intrafamily abuse. Men reported friends as the most frequent aggressors. Victims and aggressors of both sexes reported a significantly higher drug consumption than students without these antecedents. The differences in the experience of sexual abuse between men and women are described. In particular, the fact that sexual abuse in men mainly occurs outside the family sphere, while in women it is mainly within the family and at a younger age than in men. Additionally, the need for further research focusing on the consequences on mental health of infantile and adolescent sexual abuse and drug consumption is emphasized, considering the characteristics of each gender.
Psychological Abuse of Children: Implications for Malpractice and Dismissals of Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Patrick D.
This article defines psychological abuse of students in school settings and describes legal aspects of the problem, particularly with respect to possible action in negligence. The following four categories of psychological abuse are examined: verbal abuse, refusal to communicate, physical acts (and sexual abuse) that cause psychological damage,…
Abuse victimization in childhood or adolescence and risk of food addiction in adult women.
Mason, Susan M; Flint, Alan J; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W
Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Over 8% of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 U of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands.
Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda
In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semistructured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of, and explanation for, elder abuse may influence their detection and reporting behavior, as they may tend to acknowledge only severe cases of intentional physical violence that leave clear and therefore physically detectable evidence.
Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alcohol Dependence and Domestic Violence as Sequelae of Abuse and Conduct Disorder in Childhood.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kunitz, Stephen J.; Levy, Jerrold E.; McCloskey, Joanne; Gabriel, K. Ruben
This study compared 204 Navajo men and women for alcohol dependence and domestic violence as sequelae of abuse and conduct disorders in childhood. Both physical and sexual abuse were risk factors for conduct disorder. Physical abuse and conduct disorder were risk factors for alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence and physical abuse were…
Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect
Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.
Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study’s methodology (pooled n = 953). As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. There was also considerable variability in abuse rates and characteristics, including severity of abuse, among sexual minority subgroups. To the extent that differences in reports reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity subgroup differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications. PMID:23345571
Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493
Correlates of Male and Female Juvenile Offender Abuse Experiences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Childs, Kristina
This paper reports the results of developing and evaluating a classification of 315 arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center from September 1, 1994 to January 31, 1998. Youth were characterized as physically or sexually abused if they reported abuse or if they had been referred to juvenile court for abuse.…
Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence As a Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes in Adult Women
Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Spiegelman, Donna; Lividoti Hibert, Eileen N.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Todd, Tamarra James; Kawachi, Ichiro; Wright, Rosalind J.
Background Although child abuse is associated with obesity, it is not known whether early abuse increases risk of type 2 diabetes. Purpose To investigate associations of child and adolescent abuse with adult diabetes Methods Proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of lifetime abuse reported in 2001 with risk of diabetes from 1989 to 2005 among 67,853 women in the Nurses Health Study II. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Child or teen physical abuse was reported by 54% and sexual abuse by 34% of participants. Models were adjusted for age, race, body type at age 5 years, and parental education and history of diabetes. Compared to women who reported no physical abuse, the hazards ratio (HR) was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.17) for mild physical abuse, 1.26 (1.14, 1.40) for moderate physical abuse, and 1.54 (1.34, 1.77) for severe physical abuse. Compared with women reporting no sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence, the HR was 1.16 (1.05, 1.29) for unwanted sexual touching, 1.34 (1.13, 1.59) for one episode of forced sexual activity, and 1.69 (1.45, 1.97) for repeated forced sex. Adult BMI accounted for 60% (32%, 87%) of the association of child and adolescent physical abuse and 64% (38%, 91%) of the association of sexual abuse with diabetes. Conclusions Moderate to severe physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence have dose response associations with risk of type 2 diabetes among adult women. This excess risk is partially explained by the higher BMI of women with a history of early abuse. PMID:21084073
Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.
Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa
Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions
Sheu, Lei K.; Midei, Aimee J.; Gianaros, Peter J.
Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113
The Temporal Association Between Traditional and Cyber Dating Abuse Among Adolescents.
Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna
While research has explored adolescents' use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58 % female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration 1 year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts.
The Temporal Association between Traditional and Cyber Dating Abuse among Adolescents
Temple, Jeff R.; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna
While research has explored adolescents’ use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58% female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration one year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts. PMID:26525389
School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse.
Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an available person prepared to listen. The aim of the study was to explore the ability of the school nurses to detect and support sexually abused children. It is a secondary analysis of focus group interviews with school nurses. Thematic analysis was performed. Results showed that the school nurses avoided addressing CSA due to arousal of strong emotions, ambivalence, and a complicated disclosure process. In order to detect CSA and support abused children, attentiveness of sexual abuse as a possible cause of physical and mental ill-health is crucial.
Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael
This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…
[Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].
Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo
The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.
The Impact of Juror Characteristics and Victim Health Status on the Perception of Elder Physical Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinstle, Terri L.; Hodell, Emily C.; Golding, Jonathan M.
An experiment investigated mock juror perceptions of elder abuse using a community sample from Lexington, Kentucky. Two-hundred six men and women ranging in age from 18 to 88 read a fictional criminal trial summary of a case of elder physical abuse (EPA) in which the accuser was described as healthy, frail, or confused. In addition, the influence…
Measuring Psychological and Physical Abuse of Children with the Conflict Tactics Scales.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Straus, Murray A.
Application of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) to the assessment of child abuse is described. The CTS is a brief instrument designed to measure three aspects of parent-to-child behavior: (1) reasoning; (2) psychological aggression; and (3) physical aggression. The psychological and physical aggression indexes are intended to measure the…
Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.
Gabaeff, Steven C
There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need
The ‘Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure’ (MACE) Scale for the Retrospective Assessment of Abuse and Neglect During Development
Teicher, Martin H.; Parigger, Angelika
There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen’s Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several
Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.
Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…
Establishing "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations: A proposed development framework.
Setnik, Beatrice; Cone, Edward J
Abuse-deterrent formulations are one strategy for mitigating the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Regulatory guidance documents describe the requirements for developing abuse-deterrent formulations of novel drugs and formulations; however, they do not address "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic formulations. As generics may be produced with different excipients and formulations compared to reference drugs, differences in their properties may impact their abuse-deterrent features. Currently, it is unclear what specific studies are needed to support generic abuse-deterrence claims. This commentary outlines several recommendations on the in vitro and in vivo testing required, including the conditions for conducting a human abuse potential study.
Measuring Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors: Revising the Scale of Economic Abuse.
Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; Stylianou, Amanda M
Recent attention has been given by researchers to understanding how abusers use economic abuse strategies. Unfortunately, limited measures are available to accurately understand the prevalence of economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Recently, researchers created the 28-item Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) but further validation is needed. This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the SEA through confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses using data collected with 120 survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEA-12 as a shorter instrument to measure economic abuse as a distinct form of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.
Childhood abuse and neglect and adult intimate relationships: a prospective study.
Colman, Rebecca A; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family class with non-abused and non-neglected children and followed prospectively into adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995, 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hour in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment and a variety of standardized rating scales. Male and female abuse and neglect victims reported higher rates of cohabitation, walking out, and divorce than controls. Abused and neglected females were also less likely than female controls to have positive perceptions of current romantic partners and to be sexually faithful. Although previous research on childhood maltreatment and adult intimate relationships has emphasized outcomes for female victims of childhood sexual abuse, present findings suggest that other forms of early maltreatment (physical abuse and neglect) also have a negative effect on both males' and females' ability to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships in adulthood.
Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior Problems in Young Sexually Abused Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John
Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)
Perceptions of Why Women Stay in Physically Abusive Relationships: A Comparative Study of Chinese and U.S. College Students.
Pugh, Brandie; Li, Luye; Sun, Ivan Y
In both China and the United States, public attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) have shifted from viewing IPV as a tolerable, private matter to viewing it as a matter of public concern that should be dealt with as a crime. Empirical and comparative examinations of the perceptions of why women stay in physically abusive relationships are lacking. Answering this question calls for comprehensive, methodologically rigorous research. Using survey data collected from approximately 1,000 college students from two Chinese and two U.S. universities, this study empirically compared and contrasted factors that impact U.S. and Chinese students' perceptions as to why women remain in physically abusive relationships. Utilizing a theoretical framework of social constructionism, two common reasons were assessed: Women stay in physically abusive relationships because of learned helplessness and positive beliefs in the relationship/hope for the future. The results show that viewing IPV as a crime, gender, and beliefs of the causes of IPV were robust predictors of college students' perceptions toward why women stay in physically abusive relationships. U.S. college students were more likely to express sympathy and understanding toward why women remain in abusive relationships than Chinese students. Directions for future research and policy implications were discussed.
Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study
Background There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35–193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10). Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Conclusions Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse. PMID:24884914
Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David
A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…
[The dentist's role in the child abuse: diagnosis and report].
Crespo, Manuela; Andrade, David; Alves, Ana La-Salete; Magalhães, Teresa
Child Abuse is a frequent problem worldwide that surpasses ethnicity, religion, culture, economic and social classes. In the United States of America child protective services account, per year, over one million cases of child abuse or neglect. In Portugal, the incidence of the problem is unknown but each year thousands of abused children are accompanied by the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Youth at Risk. This abuse threatens children's physical, emotional and intellectual development, as well as their dignity, security, well-being and even their own lives. The body regions most frequently affected in physical abuse, are the cranium, neck and orofacial region, in fact, about 50% of the injuries arising from child abuse occur in the orofacial region. These data place the dentist in a privileged position to make the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse. Therefore, these professionals must be prepared to recognize, diagnose and report their suspicions to the appropriate authorities, which play a key role in victims protection and criminal investigation. This review intends to stress the important role of the dentist in the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse, systematizing child abuse risk factors and indicators essential to the intervention of these professionals. This problem's approach is multidisciplinary, involving particularly dentists, who must obtain continuing education and training in this area.
Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.
Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin
The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A population-based study of physical function and risk for elder abuse reported to social service agency: findings from the Chicago health and aging project.
Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis
We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2012.
Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.
Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.
Evaluations of children who have disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication.
Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J
To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.
The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…
Childhood abuse victimization, stress-related eating, and weight status in young women.
Mason, Susan M; MacLehose, Richard F; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Austin, S Bryn; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harlow, Bernard L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W
Abuse in childhood predicts stress-related overeating and excess weight gain in young women. We investigated whether two stress-related overeating behaviors--binge eating and coping-motivated eating--explain childhood abuse associations with weight status in young women. Analyses included 4377 women participating in the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of youth enrolled at age 9 to 14 years. We used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of abuse before age 11 years on weight status at age 22 to 29 years with and without adjustment for binge eating and coping-motivated eating. Women with severe physical, sexual, and emotional abuse had early adult body mass indexes (BMIs) that were 0.74 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.33), 0.69 (95% CI: -0.46 to 1.83), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.24-1.45) kg/m(2) higher, respectively, than those without abuse. Adjustment for coping-motivated eating attenuated the excess BMI associated with severe physical abuse, but no other important attenuations were found. Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse before age 11 years were associated with higher early adult weight status, although the sexual abuse estimate was not statistically significant. Evidence for a role of stress-related eating in abuse--BMI associations was limited and inconsistent across abuse types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anger-related dysregulation as a factor linking childhood physical abuse and interparental violence to intimate partner violence experiences.
Iverson, Katherine M; McLaughlin, Katie A; Adair, Kathryn C; Monson, Candice M
Childhood family violence exposure is associated with increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. Difficulties with emotion regulation may be one factor that helps to explain this relationship. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence, as well as subsequent IPV experiences, were assessed in a large sample of young adults (N = 670). Several indicators of anger-related dysregulation were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable of anger-related dysregulation, which was examined as a potential mediator of the associations between childhood family violence exposure and IPV. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were associated with greater physical, sexual, and emotional IPV victimization. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were also associated with anger-related dysregulation, which was positively associated with all three types of IPV experiences. Anger-related dysregulation fully mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and physical IPV. Anger-related dysregulation partially mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and psychological IPV and the associations of childhood physical abuse with all three forms of IPV. These associations were consistent across gender. Interventions aimed at reducing IPV risk among survivors of childhood family violence may benefit from including techniques to target anger-related emotion regulation skills.
[Suspected child abuse in paediatric emergency service].
Sabaté Rotés, A; Sancosmed Ron, M; Cebrián Rubio, R; Canet Ponsa, M; Martín González, M
To describe the epidemiology of child abuse in an emergency department of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Descriptive and retrospective study from January 2008 to January 2006 including patients less than sixteen years of age who were suspected of being abused during the examination in the emergency department. Child maltreatment was 0.07% of all paediatric emergencies (45% physical abuse, 35% sexual abuse and 20% neglect). Mean age of 6 years old, with no gender differences. 86% were suspected of maltreatment. An adult living with the child was suspected in 67% of cases. Social and judicial procedures were activated. A total of 24 children were admitted, 14 under medical criteria and the rest in order to protect the child; 2 had serious neurological consequences and one died. Eight patients were discharged to social service care centres. We believe it is necessary to improve the pediatrician's knowledge of child abuse and to create specialized units.
Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents.
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Prosecution: An Effective Response to Child Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
A district attorney of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, argues that prosecution is the most effective and appropriate response to child abuse cases. Two basic premises are advanced. First, anyone who physically abuses, sexually assaults, or rapes a child has committed a serious crime, regardless of the relationship of the victim to the offender.…
Pre-Enlistment Maltreatment Histories of U.S. Navy Basic Trainees: Prevalence of Abusive Behaviors.
adolescents being at higher risk (Salter, 1992). Nationwide, child abuse reports, for all forms of abuse, increased 31% from 1985 to 1990 (Daro & McCurdy...084) between adults’ histories of childhood physical abuse and their child abuse potential scores. Generally, the majority of victims of childhood...perpetration of sexual aggression, potential for physical child abuse , attitudes toward the opposite gender, and the psychological sequelae of their
Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.
Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…
Childhood verbal abuse and risk for personality disorders during adolescence and early adulthood.
Johnson, J G; Cohen, P; Smailes, E M; Skodol, A E; Brown, J; Oldham, J M
Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate whether childhood verbal abuse increases risk for personality disorders (PDs) during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric and psychosocial interviews were administered to a representative community sample of 793 mothers and their offspring from two New York State counties in 1975, 1983, 1985 to 1986, and 1991 to 1993, when the mean ages of the offspring were 5, 14, 16, and 22 years, respectively. Data regarding childhood abuse and neglect were obtained from the psychosocial interviews and from official New York State records. Offspring who experienced maternal verbal abuse during childhood were more than three times as likely as those who did not experience verbal abuse to have borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and paranoid PDs during adolescence or early adulthood. These associations remained significant after offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. In addition, youths who experienced childhood verbal abuse had elevated borderline, narcissistic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal PD symptom levels during adolescence and early adulthood after the covariates were accounted for. These findings suggest that childhood verbal abuse may contribute to the development of some types of PDs, independent of offspring temperament, childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical punishment during childhood, parental education, parental psychopathology, and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.
[Prevalence of elder abuse in Spanish dwelling in community].
Pérez-Rojo, Gema; Izal, María; Montorio, Ignacio; Regato, Pilar; Espinosa, Juan Manuel
Although elder abuse is not a new phenomenon, it remains hidden. There have been carried out various preliminary studies about the prevalence of elder abuse in different countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse in old persons without cognitive impairment, dwelling in community, who were attended in Primary Health Care or Social Services Centres. We carried out a transverse study in which 340 elders participated. We found a 12.1% prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse. Psychological abuse suspicion was the most frequent type and it was very common the simultaneous presence of different types of abuse (psychological and physical and sexual). The suspicion of elder abuse was more frequent in women and spouses were responsible in a high great frequency. The information obtained allows advancing in the knowledge of elder abuse in Spain, where the research about this issue is poor. However, the prevalence found neither has to be considered as a social alarm nor as a social slackness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Physical punishment, abuse, torture or revenge? A case report.
Gharib, Behdad; Esmaeili, Sara; Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Shariati, Golnaz
Child maltreatment happens in all countries and cultures. Children as the vulnerable part of the societies are subject to rage, abuse and maltreatment and need special multidisciplinary attention to get proper protection and care. Appropriate legislation, community education, advocacy in media and attention of care givers and children health providers may alter the trend of child abuse in communities. In order to raise awareness about child abuse for healthcare professionals, in this report we introduce a disastrous case of 4 years old boy who was attacked by his father which presented to Children's Medical Center in Tehran. The living environment of the victim was a dysfunctional family and an addict father as the risk factors of dangerous circumstances for a child.
Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the association with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in a multi-ethnic pregnant population in southern Sweden.
Wangel, Anne-Marie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Schei, Berit; Östman, Margareta; Lukasse, Mirjam
This study aims to describe the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and analyze associations with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in pregnancy, by ethnic background. This is a cross-sectional study of the Swedish data from the Bidens cohort study. Ethnicity was categorized as native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Women completed a questionnaire while attending routine antenatal care. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) assessed a history of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The Edinburgh Depression Scale-5 measured symptoms of depression. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) included intrusion, avoidance and numbness. Of 1003 women, 78.6% were native and 21.4% were non-native Swedish-speakers. Native and non-native Swedish-speakers experienced a similar proportion of lifetime abuse. Moderate emotional and physical abuse in childhood was significantly more common among non-native Swedish-speakers. Sexual abuse in adulthood was significantly more prevalent among native Swedish-speakers. Emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of depression for both natives and non-natives. Physical abuse was significantly associated with symptoms of depression for non-natives only. All types of abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of PTS for both native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Adding ethnicity to the multiple binary regression analyses did not really alter the association between the different types of abuse and symptoms of depression and PTS. The prevalence of lifetime abuse did not differ significantly for native and non-native Swedish-speakers but there were significant differences on a more detailed level. Abuse was associated with symptoms of depression and PTS. Being a non-native Swedish-speaker did not influence the association much. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Screening homeless youth for histories of abuse: prevalence, enduring effects, and interest in treatment.
Keeshin, Brooks R; Campbell, Kristine
To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in a structured assessment of histories of abuse, tobacco use and substance abuse. Sixty-four homeless youth in Salt Lake City, Utah completed the study, 43 males and 21 females. Eighty-four percent screened positive for childhood physical and/or sexual abuse occurring before the age of 18; 42% screened positive for both physical and sexual abuse; 72% reported still being affected by their abuse. Among all abuse victims, 44% were interested in treatment for their abuse history and 62% of homeless youth who reported still being affected by their abuse were interested in treatment. Individuals were more likely to be interested in treatment if they were female, had not completed high school or had been previously asked about family dysfunction. Many victims who declined treatment offered spontaneous insight into their decision. Interest in treatment was similar to interest in treatment for other behaviors such as smoking and substance abuse. Histories of abuse are common among homeless youth. A majority of those reporting a history of abuse are still affected by their abuse. Interest in treatment for a history of abuse was comparable to interest in treatment for other morbidities in the homeless youth population such as tobacco use and substance abuse. Our finding that homeless youth continue to be impacted by their abuse and are interested in treatment should prompt more screening for histories of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alcohol outlets and child physical abuse and neglect: applying routine activities theory to the study of child maltreatment.
Freisthler, Bridget; Midanik, Lorraine T; Gruenewald, Paul J
The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not alcohol access in neighborhood areas is differentially related to substantiated reports of child physical abuse and neglect. This cross-sectional ecological study uses spatial regression procedures to examine the relationship between the number of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets per population and rates of child physical abuse and neglect in 940 census tracts in California, while controlling for levels of social disorganization, population density and county of residence. The number of off-premise outlets per population was positively associated with rates of child physical abuse (b = 3.34, SE = 1.14), and the number of bars per population was positively related to rates of child neglect (b = 1.89, SE = 0.59). These results suggest that alcohol access is differentially related to type of child maltreatment, with higher densities of bars being related to higher rates of child neglect, and higher rates of off-premise outlets related to higher rates of child physical abuse. The findings suggest there is a spatial dynamic of neighborhoods that can result in child maltreatment and underscore the importance of examining the alcohol environment when developing programs to prevent child maltreatment.
Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk
Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.
In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Young women reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed. PMID:19949224
Nutritional status and physical abuse among the children involved in domestic labour in Karachi Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey.
Zainab, Saima; Kadir, Masood
To determine the prevalence of physical abuse among domestic child labours and to assess the nutritional status by calculating the Body Mass Index of children involved in domestic labour in Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted in the squatter settlements of Karachi. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted to capture physical abuse with 385 children who worked as domestic labour in the household of their employer. The ages of the children were between 10 to 14 years belonging to both genders. The children were enrolled in study by snow-ball sampling technique. The overall prevalence of physical abuse among domestic child labour in Karachi was found to be 8.3 %. Over 9 % had low weight and about 90% were stunted. This study also highlighted that 95% of the children involved in domestic labour perform overtime work in their employer's home, more than once per week. There is high burden of physical abuse among the domestic child labour and these children are malnourished. There is a need to recognize and regulate this form of labour in Pakistan.
Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.
Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H
Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.
Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality
Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.
Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692
Counselors and Bikers Collaborate to Empower Abused Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawyer, Cheryl; Judd, Rebecca G.
Child abuse is a tragedy that harms children psychologically, emotionally, and physically while disrupting healthy development. Many abused children live in terror of the accused perpetrator, court proceedings, and complications associated with abandonment from family and friends. Aligned with relational and creative counseling practice, a…
Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women.
Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James
The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.
Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Hospital based emergency department visits attributed to child physical abuse in United States: predictors of in-hospital mortality.
Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Asad, Rahimullah; Lee, Min Kyeong; Nalliah, Romesh P; Rampa, Sankeerth; Speicher, David G; Rotta, Alexandre T; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush
To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED) visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008-2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of "Child physical abuse" (Battered baby or child syndrome) due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7%) required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years). Male or female partner of the child's parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%), intracranial injuries (32.3%) and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%). Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization). Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96, p < 0.0001). Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07-5.34, p = 0.03), those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57-154.41, p<0.0001), or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24-11.07, p<0.0001) had higher odds of mortality compared to their male counterparts. In this
The association of physical and sexual abuse with HIV risk behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood: implications for public health.
Cunningham, R M; Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F
This paper explores the relationship between changes in HIV risk behaviors and physical and sexual abuse. A stratified random sampling procedure selected 602 youths from a sample of 2,787 patients seen consecutively at public health clinics in 10 cities. Face-to-face structured interviews conducted since 1984-85 provide a history of change in risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood. Univariate and bivariate analyses assessed differences in demographic and number and type of risk behaviors between those experiencing single or multiple types of abuse and those with no abuse history at all. The results show that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape is related to engaging in a variety of HIV risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the total number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. This information might help practitioners to both prevent initial involvement in HIV risk behaviors and to prevent continuation of behaviors as youths move into young adulthood.
Wife Abuse and the Wife Abuser: Review and Recommendations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carden, Ann D.
Reviews clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on wife abuse/abusers. Presents historical and contextual information, overview of domestic violence, prevalence data, and descriptions of evolution and current status of public and professional awareness and response. Proposes integrative model for understanding etiologic, dynamic, and…
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult male sexual dysfunction.
Sarwer, D B; Crawford, I; Durlak, J A
The present study investigated the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual dysfunction in men. In addition, the investigation compared sexually abused men and women on the characteristics of the sexual abuse. Subjects were 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment. Thirty men reported a history of sexual abuse. Characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced by these men also were compared to the sexual abuse experienced by 73 women initially investigated elsewhere (Sarwer & Durlak 1996). Sexual abuse was not found to predict sexual dysfunction in these men. Rather, unemployment served as the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Comparisons of the sexual abuse reported by male and female victims indicated that males were more likely to experience physical force, but were less likely than female victims to be abused more than once and to be abused by an adult. The results support the notion that childhood sexual abuse may not be as disruptive to adult sexual functioning in men as it is in women. This difference may be a function of the specific circumstances of the sexual abuse. Suggestions for future research on male sexual abuse are provided.
Abuse of Patients in Nursing Homes: Findings from a Survey of Staff.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pillemer, Karl; Moore, David W.
Surveyed 577 nurses and nurse's aides working in long-term care facilities to examine abuse of nursing home residents by staff. Respondents indicated that abuse did occur and significant minority of respondents reported having themselves committed physically or psychologically abusive actions. Findings suggest that abuse may be common part of…
Maternal versus Paternal Physical and Emotional Abuse, Affect Regulation and Risk for Depression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.
Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…
Recognizing Emotion in Faces: Developmental Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pollak, Seth D.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hornung, Katherine; Reed, Alex
Two experiments assessed recognition of emotion among physically abused and neglected preschoolers. Results showed that neglected children had more difficulty discriminating emotional expressions that control or abused children. Abused children displayed response bias for angry facial expressions. Control children viewed discrete emotions as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kent, Lindsey; And Others
Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…
Local macroeconomic trends and hospital admissions for child abuse, 2000-2009.
Wood, Joanne N; Medina, Sheyla P; Feudtner, Chris; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, Russell; Fieldston, Evan S; Rubin, David M
To examine the relationship between local macroeconomic indicators and physical abuse admission rates to pediatric hospitals over time. Retrospective study of children admitted to 38 hospitals in the Pediatric Hospital Information System database. Hospital data were linked to unemployment, mortgage delinquency, and foreclosure data for the associated metropolitan statistical areas. Primary outcomes were admission rates for (1) physical abuse in children <6 years old, (2) non-birth, non-motor vehicle crash-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infants <1 year old (which carry high risk for abuse), and (3) all-cause injuries. Poisson fixed-effects regression estimated trends in admission rates and associations between those rates and trends in unemployment, mortgage delinquency, and foreclosure. Between 2000 and 2009, rates of physical abuse and high-risk TBI admissions increased by 0.79% and 3.1% per year, respectively (P ≤ .02), whereas all-cause injury rates declined by 0.80% per year (P < .001). Abuse and high-risk TBI admission rates were associated with the current mortgage delinquency rate and with the change in delinquency and foreclosure rates from the previous year (P ≤ .03). Neither abuse nor high-risk TBI rates were associated with the current unemployment rate. The all-cause injury rate was negatively associated with unemployment, delinquency, and foreclosure rates (P ≤ .007). Multicenter hospital data show an increase in pediatric admissions for physical abuse and high-risk TBI during a time of declining all-cause injury rate. Abuse and high-risk TBI admission rates increased in relationship to local mortgage delinquency and foreclosure trends.
Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
Abuse-deterrent formulations, an evolving technology against the abuse and misuse of opioid analgesics.
The increased use of opioid pain medication has been mirrored by the increased misuse and abuse of these drugs. As part of a multidisciplinary approach to this epidemic, pharmaceutical companies, with the encouragement of the Food and Drug Administration, have increased the development of abuse-deterrent formulations. While all have the goal of treating pain while mitigating misuse and abuse, there are different technologies utilized to impart the abuse-deterrent properties. The goal of this paper is to review the basis of abuse-deterrent formulations, the different types and approaches of some of the abuse-deterrent products, and their current regulatory status in the USA.
A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.
The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…
Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment.
Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro
Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation
Growing up with Parental Alcohol Abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dube, Shanta R.; Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Croft, Janet B.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Giles, Wayne H.
A study involving 8,629 adults examined the association between parental alcohol abuse and child abuse, neglect, and other household dysfunction. Compared to households without alcohol abuse, the adjusted odds ratio for each category of adverse childhood experience was 2 to 13 times higher if parents abused alcohol. (Contains references.) (CR)
The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines
Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan
Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517
Determining History of Victimization and Potential for Abusive Behavior in U.S. Navy Recruits
child abuse , spouse abuse, and sexual/physical aggression to provide a scientific basis for a study to survey Navy recruits for their history of and...been found to be associated with abusive behavior and to ascertain the reliability, validity, and appropriateness for use of relevant instruments. Child abuse , Spouse abuse, Sexual aggression, Sexual abuse.
Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.
Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan
Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adult Vulnerability to PTSD: The Mediating Effects of Attachment and Dissociation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia
Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…
Childhood Abuse and Current Family Conflict: The Role of Shame
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante
Objective To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Method Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. Conclusion The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. Practical Implications These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of
Childhood abuse and current interpersonal conflict: the role of shame.
Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L; Cicchetti, Dante
To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of abused women's shame to interpersonal conflicts could be
Drug Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel
drugs of abuse, but, in contrast to narcotics, the psychological dependence is more powerful than the physical dependence. By stimulating the pleasure...with one’s life, social isolation, or interpersonal difficulties; traumatic experiences such as childhood physical or sexual abuse; and a family...LSD, PCP, etc.) ............................... 45 vii STIMULANTS (AMPHETAMINES, Etc.) ........................... 50 SEDATIVES, TRANQUILIZERS
[Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].
Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B
A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)
Moderating factors in the path from physical abuse to attempted suicide in adolescents: application of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.
Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah
Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced self-esteem. Involvement in youth programs moderated the direct effect. Community service moderated the indirect effect. Results indicate 2 hours per week of involvement in youth programs and 2 hours per week of community service mitigated suicide attempt risk associated with abuse. Providing avenues for youth experiencing abuse to increase their community service and involvement is recommended. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.
A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: new findings from a 30-year follow-up.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Bentley, Tyrone; Johnson, Mark S
We investigated whether abused and neglected children are at risk for negative physical health outcomes in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, we matched children (aged 0-11 years) with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect from a US Midwestern county during 1967 through 1971 with nonmaltreated children. Both groups completed a medical status examination (measured health outcomes and blood tests) and interview during 2003 through 2005 (mean age=41.2 years). After adjusting for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment predicted above normal hemoglobin, lower albumin levels, poor peak airflow, and vision problems in adulthood. Physical abuse predicted malnutrition, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and hemoglobin A1C. Neglect predicted hemoglobin A1C, albumin, poor peak airflow, and oral health and vision problems, Sexual abuse predicted hepatitis C and oral health problems. Additional controls for childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, unhealthy behaviors, smoking, and mental health problems play varying roles in attenuating or intensifying these relationships. Child abuse and neglect affect long-term health status-increasing risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, and vision problems-and support the need for early health care prevention.
A Prospective Investigation of Physical Health Outcomes in Abused and Neglected Children: New Findings From a 30-Year Follow-Up
Czaja, Sally J.; Bentley, Tyrone; Johnson, Mark S.
Objectives. We investigated whether abused and neglected children are at risk for negative physical health outcomes in adulthood. Methods. Using a prospective cohort design, we matched children (aged 0–11 years) with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect from a US Midwestern county during 1967 through 1971 with nonmaltreated children. Both groups completed a medical status examination (measured health outcomes and blood tests) and interview during 2003 through 2005 (mean age = 41.2 years). Results. After adjusting for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment predicted above normal hemoglobin, lower albumin levels, poor peak airflow, and vision problems in adulthood. Physical abuse predicted malnutrition, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and hemoglobin A1C. Neglect predicted hemoglobin A1C, albumin, poor peak airflow, and oral health and vision problems, Sexual abuse predicted hepatitis C and oral health problems. Additional controls for childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, unhealthy behaviors, smoking, and mental health problems play varying roles in attenuating or intensifying these relationships. Conclusions. Child abuse and neglect affect long-term health status—increasing risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, and vision problems—and support the need for early health care prevention. PMID:22515854
Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.
Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad
Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.
Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study
Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad
Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426
Child physical abuse and self-perceived social isolation among adolescents.
Elliott, Gregory C; Cunningham, Susan M; Linder, Meadow; Colangelo, Melissa; Gross, Michelle
This research examines the connection between physical abuse and social isolation. Using data from the National Youth Survey, a measure of self-perceived social isolation was constructed indicating the extent to which respondents feel detached from their friends and from school. Those who had experienced violence were predicted to be more isolated than those who had not. Results strongly supported the hypothesis, controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Explanation is provided in terms of damage to attachment skills, social competence, and self-esteem concomitant to being a victim of abuse. Males were more socially isolated than females, and Hispanics more than Whites. Children with involved parents were less socially isolated; those whose parents experienced normlessness were more isolated. Children who recently experienced a stressful event or were from riskier neighborhoods were more isolated. The number of children in the family was positively related to isolation. Social isolation decreases between seventh and eighth grades.
Substance abuse and child maltreatment.
Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.
Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.
Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki
Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.
Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse.
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. © The Author(s) 2014.
Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women
Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A.; Sutton, Tara E.; Mackillop, James
Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. Method: A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals’ Facebook network. Results: Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Conclusions: Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions. PMID:26562592
Clinician responses to sexual abuse allegations.
Jackson, H; Nuttall, R
We conducted a survey using an experimental design to identify how and to what extent specific personal and case factors affect clinicians' judgments about sexual abuse allegations. We drew a stratified random sample of 1,635 United States clinicians from national directories of clinical social work, pediatrics, psychiatry and psychology. Six hundred and fifty-six completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a 42% response rate. We asked each subject to read and rate, on a 6 point scale, 16 vignettes alleging sexual abuse. The scale ranged from 1 (very confident it did not occur), to 6 (very confident it did occur). On average, respondents were "slightly confident sexual abuse had occurred" (M = 4.03; SD = 0.6). This finding was significantly different from a mean of 3.50, which is the expected null result. Seven case factors affected credibility ratings at the .01 level; perpetrators' race (Caucasians viewed as perpetrators more than minorities); perpetrators' relationship to victim (family members more often seen as perpetrators); victims' race (minorities more credible as victims); victims' affect (those showing negative affect more believable); age (younger victims more often seen as victimized); behavioral changes in the victim; and perpetrator's history of substance abuse. Six clinician factors were significant at the .05 level: age (younger clinicians were more credulous), gender (females more credulous), discipline (clinical social workers more credulous), theoretical orientation (family systems oriented more credulous) and personal history of sexual or physical abuse (abuse history more credulous).
Identity Abuse as a Tactic of Violence in LGBTQ Communities: Initial Validation of the Identity Abuse Measure.
Woulfe, Julie M; Goodman, Lisa A
Intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., physical, sexual, or psychological abuse by a current or former partner) remains a public health concern with devastating personal and societal costs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are also vulnerable to a dimension of IPV called identity abuse (IA); that is, abuse tactics that leverage systemic oppression to harm an individual. Yet, we know little about its relative prevalence in subgroups of the LGBTQ community. This study developed and evaluated a measure of IA, and explored its prevalence in a sample of 734 sexual minority adults. The sample included women (53.1%), men (27.4%), and transgender or gender nonconforming "TGNC" (19.3%) participants. The majority of participants identified as queer or pansexual (38.7%), then gay (23.6%), lesbian (22.8%), and bisexual (13.6%). Participants completed an online survey that included measures of IA and physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. The IA items formed a unidimensional factor structure with strong internal consistency and construct validity. Nearly one fifth of the sample (16.8%) experienced past year IA and 40.1% reported adult IA. Women experienced greater exposure to IA in adulthood than men, and TGNC participants reported higher rates of IA in adulthood and in the last year compared to their cisgender counterparts. The odds of queer or bisexual participants reporting IA in adulthood were almost three times higher than gay participants, and two times higher than lesbian participants. Findings have implications for advancing assessment of partner abuse in the LGBTQ community, LGBTQ-competent clinical care, and training of practitioners.
Domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women: a qualitative investigation.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona
To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abusive families and character formation.
McCarthy, J B
Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.
The association of sibling relationship and abuse with later psychological adjustment.
Mackey, Amber L; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and later psychological adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). Respondents completed self-report questionnaires of sibling abuse (CTS2-SP), self-labeling of sibling abuse, quality of sibling relationships (SRQ), depression (CES-D), and anxiety (ZAS). Results indicated differences in frequency of reported abuse depending on how sibling abuse was defined. Also, there were no statistically significant correlations between the CTS2-SP and measures of psychological adjustment. Although self-labeling as emotionally abused correlated with later anxiety, the emotional context of the sibling relationship did not moderate this relationship.
Relationships between parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among South Korean adolescents.
Park, Sookyung; Kim, Haeryun; Kim, Haesung
This study examined the roles played by parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in surrounding Kyung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more on the POSIT scale, which suggested they met the problematic criteria for substance abuse risk. Logistic regression results suggested that the influence of social support on substance abuse risk among adolescents depended on the source of support--parents or peers. These findings need to be considered in the development of intervention programs for adolescents at risk for substance abuse.
Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India.
Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind
Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.
Profiles and behavioral consequences of child abuse among adolescent girls and boys from Barbados and Grenada.
Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Sherretts, Nicole; Willmott, Dominic; Jones, Adele D
The current study used latent class analysis to uncover groups of youths with specific abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) profiles in and outside the family, and identify how membership in each abuse group is associated with behavioral outcomes. Data were collected among a sample of male (n = 662; M age = 13.02 years) and female (n = 689; M age = 12.95 years) children and adolescents (9-17 years old) from Barbados and Grenada. Self-report surveys were completed by participants in school settings. Three latent classes of child abuse were distinguished among boys, including 'low abuse' (39.2% of the sample), 'physical and emotional abuse high outside/medium in the family' (43.2%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.6%). Among girls, four unique classes were recovered: 'low abuse' (40.7%), 'high physical and emotional abuse outside the family' (7.6%), 'high emotional and moderate physical abuse' (33.9%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.8%). Compared with members of low abuse groups, youths who reported having experienced high/moderate levels of various forms of violence, including those who were abused in multiple ways and across the two settings ('high overall abuse'), were significantly more likely to engage in violent and hostile behavior. Abused and non-abused youths did not differ on non-violent conflict resolution skills. The significance of present findings for future research and practice is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abusive head trauma in children: a literature review.
Lopes, Nahara R L; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Williams, Lúcia C A
To review the scientific literature on pediatric abusive head trauma as a form of physical abuse against infants and young children, highlighting the prevalence, signs and symptoms, consequences, risk factors for its occurrence, and prevention strategies. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and Web of Science databases from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, using the terms "shaken baby syndrome" and "abusive head trauma" in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Pediatric abusive head trauma is defined as injury to the skull or intracranial contents of a infant or child younger than 5 years due to intentional abrupt impact and/or violent shaking. It occurs mainly in infants and children under 1 year of age, and may result in severe consequences, from physical or mental disabilities to death. Although there are specific signs for this form of abuse, they can be mistaken for common illnesses in children or accidental head injury; thus, clinical training of professionals involved in the assessment of cases to attain the correct diagnosis is crucial. Prevention strategies should include early identification of cases, as well as parental education on child development, especially on the infant's crying pattern. Considering the severity of abusive head trauma in children, it is critical that prevention strategies be implemented and evaluated in the Brazilian context. It is suggested that its incidence indicators be assessed at the national level. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Social-relational risk factors for predicting elder physical abuse: an ecological bi-focal model.
von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B; Chee, Grace
Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context to more distal social support contexts, utilizing a subsample of 203 elderly participants from the Midlife Development in the United States study (MIDUS II, 2004-2006). LISREL modeling examined causal pathways between elderly demographic characteristics, physical/emotional health, and behavioral and contextual characteristics from an ecological perspective. Data modeling was accomplished using Mplus, PAXW, and SYSTAT statistical software packages. Results indicate that latent factors including older adult health, social isolation of the older adult, and adult child characteristics were significantly associated with elder physical abuse, as mediated by the quality of the elderly parent/adult child relationship.
[Factors associated with non-institutional abuse in nursing homes].
Gómez Martínez, Carmelo; Hernández Morante, Juan José; Carrasco Martínez, Elena; García Belzunce, Agustín; Nicolás Alarcón, Virginia
Abuse in elderly has dimensions not yet sufficiently explored. Particularly, little is known about the abuse or mistreatment suffered by old people in nursing homes, but where the origin is not, at least initially, institutional, since is perpetrated by external social agents not related to the nursing home. The lack of data in this area has led us to conduct this exploratory study, with the aim of assessing the prevalence of this non-institutional abuse. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index was administered to a total of 286 subjects belonging to the nursing homes from the «Mensajeros de la Paz» Association of Murcia. Cases of suspected abuse were referred to the social workers to confirm the diagnosis. Initially, 53 subjects (18.5%) suffered any kind of abuse, which was reduced to only 26 cases after one year. On the other hand, abuse appeared after admission in 20 subjects (7%). Precisely, this 7% might present what we called non-institutional abuse. Economic abuse was the most prevalent, followed by psychological, neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. The data showed a significant interaction between the different types of abuse. Our data provides evidence of a new scenario that must be addressed in a professional and social context, considering the environment where this mistreatment takes place. Health and social professionals must be sensitive to this reality, and should be informed and trained about the different ways to dignify the care of the elderly. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)
Child Custody Decisions in Families Experiencing Woman Abuse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saunders, Daniel G.
Reviews literature comparing risk that battered women and men who batter will physically abuse their children. Challenges several tenets of social work practice lore and cautions practitioners about use of psychological tests and profiles to judge child abuse potential and parenting ability. Discusses hazards of mediation and joint custody and…
Elder Abuse Awareness Project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.
The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)
Developmental experiences of child sexual abusers and rapists.
Simons, Dominique A; Wurtele, Sandy K; Durham, Robert L
The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender classification was obtained from official records and verified through polygraph examinations. Compared to rapists, child sexual abusers reported more frequent experiences of child sexual abuse (73%), early exposure to pornography (65% before age 10), an earlier onset of masturbation (60% before age 11), and sexual activities with animals (38%). In contrast to child sexual abusers, rapists reported more frequent experiences of physical abuse (68%), parental violence (78%), emotional abuse (70%), and cruelty to animals (68%). Both child sexual abusers and rapists (>93%) reported frequent exposure to violent media during their childhood. Most offenders (94%) described having insecure parental attachment bonds; 76% of rapists reported avoidant parental attachments and 62% of child sexual abusers reported anxious parental attachments. Findings from this study support the role of specific developmental experiences as etiological factors in differential sexual offending. Child sexual abusers' developmental histories were characterized by heightened sexuality; whereas rapists' childhood histories were more indicative of violence. These findings have implications for the treatment of sexual abusers and the prevention of sexual abuse. This study's findings suggest that sexual offenders have been socialized to satisfy human needs of intimacy and sexuality through maladaptive means, which implies that a risk management approach may not be sufficient treatment. Although risk models teach offenders skills to avoid high-risk situations, they fail to address the maladaptive strategies that they may have developed for satisfying needs. Instead, the focus
Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma?
Edwards, George A
Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Alcohol Abuse Among U.S. Navy Recruits Who Were Maltreated in Childhood
adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect 20, 1219–1231. Clark, D. B., Lesnick, L. and Hegedus, A. M. (1997) Traumas and other adverse life events in...A. and Beebe, T. J. (1997) Multiple substance use among adolescent physical and sexual abuse victims. Child Abuse and Neglect 21, 529–539. Hernandez...Robertson, K. R. and Rogers, D. L. (1990) Childhood history of abuse and adult child abuse potential. Journal of Family Violence 5, 15–35. Rosen, L. N
Incidence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in India.
Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika
The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth interview schedule which included five areas of abuse, namely, "general abuse," "health abuse," "verbal abuse," "physical abuse," and "psychological abuse." Data was interpreted using percentages, t-test and correlations. Street children reported experiences of abuse in all the five areas under study. Larger numbers of children (61.8%) scored in the "moderate" category of abuse while 36.6% children indicated abuse in "severe" and "very severe" categories on the intensity of abuse. Highest mean scores were obtained on the "verbal" and "psychological" area of abuse. Gender differences were significant in health and overall abuse, indicating boys to be significantly more abused than girls. There were significant positive correlations of abuse with increasing "age" and "income" of street children; and the occurrence of "multi-type" maltreatment and neglect in street children was clearly present. Different forms of abuse are prevalent in street children in India. This area of study needs attention both by the researchers and the social workers. children who are identified in severe and very severe categories of abuse should be worked with in a follow up study with the help of governmental and nongovernmental agencies working in the field for child welfare.
Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.
Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pregnancy intendedness and the association with physical, sexual and emotional abuse - a European multi-country cross-sectional study.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Laanpere, Made; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit
Unintended pregnancies are common and when not resulting in a termination of pregnancy may lead to unintended childbirth. Unintended pregnancies are associated with increased health risks, also for women for whom pregnancy continues to childbirth. Our objective was to present the prevalence of unintended pregnancy in six European countries among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care, and to investigate the association with a history of physical, sexual and emotional abuse. A prospective cross-sectional study, of 7102 pregnant women who filled out a questionnaire during pregnancy as part of a multi-country cohort study (Bidens) with the participating countries: Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Sweden. A validated instrument, the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAq) consisting of 10 descriptive questions measured abuse. Pregnancy intendedness was assessed using a single question asking women if this pregnancy was planned. Cross-tabulation, Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Approximately one-fifth (19.2 %) of all women reported their current pregnancy to be unintended. Women with an unintended pregnancy were significantly younger, had less education, suffered economic hardship, had a different ethnic background from the regional majority and more frequently were not living with their partner. The prevalence of an unintended pregnancy among women reporting any lifetime abuse was 24.5 %, and 38.5 % among women reporting recent abuse. Women with a history of any lifetime abuse had significantly higher odds of unintended pregnancy, also after adjusting for confounding factors, AOR for any lifetime abuse 1.41 (95 % CI 1.23-1.60) and for recent abuse AOR 2.03 (95 % CI 1.54-2.68). Women who have experienced any lifetime abuse are significantly more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This is particularly true for women reporting recent abuse, suggesting that women living in a violent relationship have less control
Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population.
Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N
Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural.
The Association of Sibling Relationship and Abuse with Later Psychological Adjustment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and…
Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.
Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…
A report on student abuse during medical training.
Maida, Ana Margarita; Vásquez, Alicia; Herskovic, Viviana; Calderón, José Luis; Jacard, Marcela; Pereira, Ana; Widdel, Lars
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, and the consequences, of abusive situations as perceived by students during the course of their medical training. A descriptive study was carried out surveying the entire 2000 fifth-year class of 181 in the Medical School of the University of Chile. The questionnaire was answered by 144 students. Results showed that 91.7% of the students who responded had suffered at least one episode of abuse while enrolled in medical school. The main offenders were teachers and peers. Verbal abuse was the most common (85.4%), followed by psychological (79.9%), sexual(26.4%) and physical (23.6%) abuse. Students reported that abuse had effects on their mental health, social life and the image they had of physicians; 17% considered dropping out of school as a consequence of this experience. Efforts should be addressed to prompt educators to reflect on their role.
Cerebrovascular complications of alcohol and sympathomimetic drug abuse.
Alcohol abuse has been linked to intracranial hemorrhage, both intracerebral and subarachnoid. Some studies have found a dose-response relationship, so that increasing levels of abuse are associated with greater risk of hemorrhage. However, alcohol abuse has not been clearly linked to cerebral infarction, and some studies find that mild-to-moderate drinking appears to be associated with a decreased risk of cerebral infarction. Intravenous administration of drugs of abuse predisposes to endocarditis, which may lead to embolic stroke. Associations have been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and cerebral infarction. A possible mechanism for cerebral infarction is focal arterial vasoconstriction and occasionally cerebral vasculitis. Associations have also been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and intracranial hemorrhage. A likely mechanism for intracranial hemorrhage is acute arterial hypertension. With the exception of endocarditis, management of stroke related to drug abuse is largely supportive, with emphasis on supportive care to prevent stroke complications, physical and occupational therapy, and aggressive addiction rehabilitation.
Moderating Factors in the Path from Physical Abuse to Attempted Suicide in Adolescents: Application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah
Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced…
Child and adolescent abuse in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 2009.
Gawryszewski, Vilma Pinheiro; Valencich, Dalva Maria de Oliveira; Carnevalle, Cláudia Vieira; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco
To describe the profile of the reports of child and adolescent abuse in the state of São Paulo in 2009, and to analyze possible associated factors. A total of 4,085 reports regarding children and adolescents younger than 15 years recorded by the Domestic, Sexual, and Other Interpersonal Violence Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância de Violência Doméstica, Sexual e Outras Violências Interpessoais - VIVA) were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The females comprised 61.4% of the total cases. The most common age group among females was 10 to 14 years (38.8%) and among males was < 5 years (35.8%). Physical abuse accounted for 43.3% of cases in males, and sexual abuse cases accounted for 41.7% of cases in females. The main perpetrators of the abuse were parents (43.8% of the total) and acquaintances (29.4%). Male aggressors were 72.0% of the total. The abuse occurred at home in 72.9% of cases; repeated abuse was reported in 51.4% of cases. Differences between the cases of physical and sexual abuse: a) physical abuse - mostly males (50.9%), parents as perpetrators (48.4%), and women as perpetrators (42.8%), b) sexual abuse - mostly females (77.2%), known aggressors (48.4%), and men as perpetrators (96.1%). Variables associated with physical abuse: male gender (OR: 2.22), age 10-14 years (OR: 1.68), and parents as perpetrators (OR: 2.50). Sexual abuse was associated with female gender (OR: 2.84), age 5-9 years (OR: 1.66), and unknown authors (OR: 1.53). Public policies should guarantee that children and adolescents have a healthy and violence-free life. The analysis of the notifications is an important tool to establish prevention strategies.
Predictors of nurses' experience of verbal abuse by nurse colleagues.
Keller, Ronald; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Budin, Wendy; Djukic, Maja
Between 45% and 94% of registered nurses (RNs) experience verbal abuse, which is associated with physical and psychological harm. Although several studies examined predictors of RNs' verbal abuse, none examined predictors of RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. To examine individual, workplace, dispositional, contextual, and interpersonal predictors of RNs' reported experiences of verbal abuse from RN colleagues. In this secondary analysis, a cross-sectional design with multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effect of 23 predictors on verbal abuse by RN colleagues in a sample of 1,208 early career RNs. Selected variables in the empirical intragroup conflict model explained 23.8% of variance in RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. A number of previously unstudied factors were identified that organizational leaders can monitor and develop or modify policies to prevent early career RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Comparison of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in patients with opioid abuse and non-abusers.
Jalali, Mohammad Reza; Zargar, Mohammad; Salavati, Mojgan; Kakavand, Ali Reza
The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.
Estimating attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed "abuse-deterrent" prescription opioid formulation.
Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Folensbee, Lesley; Chang, Alan; Katz, Nathaniel
The present study builds on research to model abusers' perceptions of particular analgesics' attractiveness for abuse and extends these methods to derive an estimate of attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) of a prescription opioid (Remoxy), Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA, and King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN). In a previous study, the Opioid Attractiveness Technology Scaling (OATS) method identified, from a drug abuser's point of view, the particular features of a prescription opioid relevant to its attractiveness for recreational use. A second online sample rated the extent to which these features applied to particular products they had actually used/abused. These data were used to model the abusers' overall preference for prescription opioids they had used/abused. In the present study, this method was applied to a not-yet-marketed ADF using substance abuse counselors as proxies for prescription opioid abusers. Thirty-eight counselors were given materials describing the new ADF along with four known products. Thirty-two counselors demonstrated sufficient agreement with abusers' ratings of the overall attractiveness of these drugs. The overall model yielded a significant pseudo R(2) of 0.15 (P < 0.001), with increasing model fit based on preferred route of administration, from swallowing whole (pseudo R(2) = 0.06; P < 0.001) and best for those who preferred to inject (pseudo R(2) = 0.40; P < 0.001). Data from a cross-validation group of 16 counselors/proxies were used to calculate the OATS scores for the five rated drugs and revealed significant differences between the ADF and OxyContin (Purdue Pharma LP, Stamford, CT), Percocet (Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA), and Vicodin (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), but not Talwin NX (Sanofi-aventis, Bridgewater, NJ), which was identified in the prior study as a highly unattractive drug for recreational purposes. The OATS method shows promise for
Using Latent Class Analysis to Identify Profiles of Elder Abuse Perpetrators.
DeLiema, Marguerite; Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Gassoumis, Zach D; Yon, Yongjie; Conrad, Ken J
Research suggests that abuser risk factors differ across elder mistreatment types, but abuse interventions are not individualized. To move away from assumptions of perpetrator homogeneity and to inform intervention approaches, this study classifies abusers into subtypes according to their behavior profiles. Data are from the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment administered to victims by Adult Protective Service (APS) in Illinois. Latent class analysis was used to categorize abusers (N = 336) using victim and caseworker reports on abusers' harmful and supportive behaviors and characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was then used to determine which abuser profiles are associated with 4 types of mistreatment-neglect, physical, emotional, and financial-and other sociodemographic characteristics. Abusers fall into 4 profiles descriptively labeled "Caregiver," "Temperamental," "Dependent Caregiver," and "Dangerous." Dangerous abusers have the highest levels of aggression, financial dependency, substance abuse, and irresponsibility. Caregivers are lowest in harmful characteristics and highest in providing emotional and instrumental support to victims. The 4 profiles significantly differ in the average age and gender of the abuser, the relationship to victims, and types of mistreatment committed. This is the first quantitative study to identify and characterize abuser subtypes. Tailored interventions are needed to reduce problem behaviors and enhance strengths specific to each abuser profile.
Multiple unexplained fractures in infants and child physical abuse.
Cannell, John Jacob; Holick, Michael F
When an infant presents with X-rays showing multiple unexplained fractures in various stages of healing (MUFVSH), the child is usually diagnosed with child abuse based on criteria of the Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (AAPCCAAN). Almost always, the infant is subsequently removed from the home and civil or criminal proceeding commence. It may be that healing infantile rickets or other poorly understood metabolic bone disorders of infancy are responsible for these x-rays. Activated vitamin D is a seco-steroid hormone, whose mechanism of action is genetic regulation. Lack of it can result in musculoskeletal defects known as rickets. Low calcium can also cause rickets. However, it is clear that experts for the state believe that the x-rays in these cases are so definitive as to be pathognomonic for child abuse. Therefore, if the caregivers deny abusing their infants, experts following American Academy of Pediatric's Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. guidelines are essentially claiming that x-rays showing multiple unexplained fractures in various stages of healing are lie detector tests. However, it is not widely appreciated that the gold standard for the diagnosis of rickets is a bone biopsy, not x-rays, as radiologists miss biopsy proven rickets 80% of the time; that is, 4 out of 5 infants with rickets will have normal x-rays. In this article we provide reports of two cases and their outcomes. We discuss information about healing infantile rickets and an example of common sense medical conclusions in these cases. This information could lead to a significant reduction in the number of innocent parents having their infant removed or sent to prison. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A prospective examination of whether childhood sexual abuse predicts subsequent sexual offending.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Massey, Christina
Childhood sexual abuse has been assumed to increase the risk for sexual offending. However, despite methodological limitations of prior research, public policies and clinical practice have been based on this assumption. To empirically examine the commonly held belief that sexually abused children grow up to become sexual offenders and specialize in sex crimes. This prospective cohort study and archival records check included cases and control individuals originally from a metropolitan county in the Midwest. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (aged 0-11 years) were matched with children without such histories on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and approximate family social class (908 cases and 667 control individuals). Both groups were followed up into adulthood (mean age, 51 years). The court cases were from 1967 to 1971; the follow-up extended to 2013. Criminal history information was collected from federal and state law enforcement agency records at 3 points in time and from state sex offender registries. Overall, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were at increased risk for being arrested for a sex crime compared with control individuals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.17; 95% CI, 1.38-3.40), controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Specifically, individuals with histories of physical abuse (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.16) and neglect (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.51) were at significantly increased risk for arrest for sex offenses, whereas for sexual abuse, the AOR (2.13; 95% CI, 0.83-5.47) did not reach significance. Physically abused and neglected males (not females) were at increased risk and physically abused males also had a higher mean number of sex crime arrests compared with control individuals. The results did not provide support for sex crime specialization. The widespread belief that sexually abused children are uniquely at risk to become sex offenders was not supported by
Using Neuropsychological Profiles to Classify Neglected Children with or without Physical Abuse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise
Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…
Sexual abuse of street children brought to an observation home.
Pagare, Deepti; Meena, G S; Jiloha, R C; Singh, M M
This study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of sexual abuse among male inmates of an observation home in Delhi. A total of 189 boys aged 6 to 18 years were assessed for sexual abuse using Finkelhors scale and Child Maltreatment History Self-Report followed by clinical examination using American Medical Associations guidelines. Majority of boys were runaways and 38.1 percent had suffered sexual abuse. On clinical examination, 61.1 percent showed physical signs and 40.2 percent showed behavioral signs of sexual abuse. Forcible sex was reported by 44.4 percent of victims and 25 percent had signs suggestive of sexually transmitted diseases. Strangers were the most common perpetrators of sexual abuse.
The relationship between childhood abuse and adult personality disorder symptoms.
Grover, Kelly E; Carpenter, Linda L; Price, Lawrence H; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Tyrka, Audrey R
This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults.
... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...
Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…
Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers
Dasanayake, Ananda P.; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K.; Cooper, Derek J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Gelbier, Stanley
Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (P < .05). As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.43–2.75) and drank wine (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.16–2.96) had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers. PMID:20379366
Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.
This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…
Childhood Abuse and Suicidal Ideation in a Cohort of Pregnant Peruvian Women
ZHONG, Qiu-Yue; WELLS, Anne; RONDON, Marta B.; WILLIAMS, Michelle A.; BARRIOS, Yasmin V.; SANCHEZ, Sixto E.; GELAYE, Bizu
Background Childhood abuse is a major global and public health problem associated with a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life course. Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality during the perinatal period. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between experiences of childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in pregnancy. Objective To examine the association between exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal ideation among pregnant women. Study Design A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,964 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics, in Lima, Peru. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounders. Results Overall, the prevalence of childhood abuse in this cohort was 71.8% and antepartum suicidal ideation was 15.8%. The prevalence of antepartum suicidal ideation was higher among women who reported experiencing any childhood abuse compared to those reporting none (89.3% vs. 10.7%, P<0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounders, including antepartum depression and lifetime intimate partner violence, those with history of any childhood abuse had a 2.9-fold (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence intervals: 2.12-3.97) increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation. Women who experienced both physical and sexual childhood abuse had much higher odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratios =4.04; 95% confidence intervals: 2.88-5.68). Women who experienced any childhood abuse and reported depression had 3.44-fold (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence intervals: 1.84-6.43) increased odds of suicidal ideation compared with depressed women with no history of childhood abuse. Finally, the odds of suicidal ideation increased with increased number of childhood abuse
Childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women.
Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Wells, Anne; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu
Childhood abuse is a major global and public health problem associated with a myriad of adverse outcomes across the life course. Suicide is one of the leading causes of mortality during the perinatal period. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between experiences of childhood abuse and suicidal ideation in pregnancy. We sought to examine the association between exposure to childhood abuse and suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2964 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse Questionnaire. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for potential confounders. Overall, the prevalence of childhood abuse in this cohort was 71.8% and antepartum suicidal ideation was 15.8%. The prevalence of antepartum suicidal ideation was higher among women who reported experiencing any childhood abuse compared to those reporting none (89.3% vs 10.7%, P < .0001). After adjusting for potential confounders, including antepartum depression and lifetime intimate partner violence, those with history of any childhood abuse had a 2.9-fold (2.90, adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.12-3.97) increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation. Women who experienced both physical and sexual childhood abuse had much higher odds of suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.88-5.68). Women who experienced any childhood abuse and reported depression had 3.44-fold (3.44, adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-6.43) increased odds of suicidal ideation compared with depressed women with no history of childhood abuse. Finally, the odds of suicidal ideation increased with increased number of childhood abuse events experienced (P value for
Identifying and responding to gaps in domestic abuse services for older women.
Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse report more health-related concerns than any other group, and demonstrate a higher incidence of significant mental health issues. Research suggests that older women who have experienced domestic abuse are not having their psychological and physical support needs met by existing services. This article examines the physical and mental health issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers to seeking help. Multidisciplinary healthcare professionals can facilitate the therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited in terms of the support they can offer, however, research suggests that developing a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial.
Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.
Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan
Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping
Abstract Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P < 0.001). Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P < 0.005), leading to longer hospitalization (P = 0.042) and a higher Injury Severity Score (P = 0.043). There were more skin injuries in neglect (P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.49% (n = 9). The CPMSDC could enhance the ability, alertness, and inclination of professionals to identify suspected cases of child abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical
Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.
Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P < 0.001). Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P < 0.005), leading to longer hospitalization (P = 0.042) and a higher Injury Severity Score (P = 0.043). There were more skin injuries in neglect (P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.49% (n = 9). The CPMSDC could enhance the ability, alertness, and inclination of professionals to identify suspected cases of child abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse
Physically Abused Women’s Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children’s Disruptive Behavior Problems
Spiller, Laura C.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A.
Objective Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women’s experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children’s disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers’ physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women’s sexual victimization and their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Method The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4–8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Results Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women’s experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children’s disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women’s experiences of sexual victimization and their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Conclusions This research suggests that physically abused women’s experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861
Prevalence of child abuse in school environment in Kerala, India: An ICAST-CI based survey.
Kumar, Manoj Therayil; Kumar, Sebind; Singh, Surendra P; Kar, Nilamadhab
Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected. Student supportive measures were provided both during and after the survey. 6682 school attending adolescents in Thrissur, Kerala participated in this cross sectional self report study. One year and lifetime prevalence of physical (75.5%, 78.5%), emotional (84.5%, 85.7%) and sexual (21.0%, 23.8%) abuse was high. Abuse was considered to be present even if an individual item from these three categories was reported. Most abuse was reported as occurring 'sometimes' rather than 'many times'. More males than females reported being victims of abuse; figures for one-year prevalence were: physical abuse (83.4% vs. 61.7%), emotional abuse (89.5% vs. 75.7%), and sexual abuse (29.5% vs. 6.2%). Various factors significantly increase the likelihood of abuse-male gender, low socioeconomic status, regular use of alcohol and drugs by family member at home, and having other difficulties at school. Children tended to report abuse less frequently if they liked attending school and if they always felt safe at school. The results highlight the urgent need to address the issue of abuse in the school environment and minimize its impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Internal working models and adjustment of physically abused children: the mediating role of self-regulatory abilities.
Hawkins, Amy L; Haskett, Mary E
Abused children's internal working models (IWM) of relationships are known to relate to their socioemotional adjustment, but mechanisms through which negative representations increase vulnerability to maladjustment have not been explored. We sought to expand the understanding of individual differences in IWM of abused children and investigate the mediating role of self-regulation in links between IWM and adjustment. Cluster analysis was used to subgroup 74 physically abused children based on their IWM. Internal working models were identified by children's representations, as measured by a narrative story stem task. Self-regulation was assessed by teacher report and a behavioral task, and adjustment was measured by teacher report. Cluster analyses indicated two subgroups of abused children with distinct patterns of IWMs. Cluster membership predicted internalizing and externalizing problems. Associations between cluster membership and adjustment were mediated by children's regulation, as measured by teacher reports of many aspects of regulation. There was no support for mediation when regulation was measured by a behavioral task that tapped more narrow facets of regulation. Abused children exhibit clinically relevant individual differences in their IWMs; these models are linked to adjustment in the school setting, possibly through children's self-regulation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Recognizing emotion in faces: developmental effects of child abuse and neglect.
Pollak, Seth D; Cicchetti, Dante; Hornung, Katherine; Reed, Alex
The contributions to the recognition of emotional signals of (a) experience and learning versus (b) internal predispositions are difficult to investigate because children are virtually always exposed to complex emotional experiences from birth. The recognition of emotion among physically abused and physically neglected preschoolers was assessed in order to examine the effects of atypical experience on emotional development. In Experiment 1, children matched a facial expression to an emotional situation. Neglected children had more difficulty discriminating emotional expressions than did control or physically abused children. Physically abused children displayed a response bias for angry facial expressions. In Experiment 2, children rated the similarity of facial expressions. Control children viewed discrete emotions as dissimilar, neglected children saw fewer distinctions between emotions, and physically abused children showed the most variance across emotions. These results suggest that to the extent that children's experience with the world varies, so too will their interpretation and understanding of emotional signals.
Discovering Physical Abuse: Insights from a Follow-Up Study of Delinquents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stein, Abby; Lewis, Dorothy Otnow
Incarcerated Connecticut youth (n=66) were interviewed using a protocol that elicited more self-reports of abusive experiences than did earlier direct questions about maltreatment. Conflicts underlying denial or minimization of abuse are discussed, along with interview strategies for overcoming them. (Author/DB)
Abuse and deliberate self-poisoning in women: a matched case-control study.
Coll, X; Law, F; Tobías, A; Hawton, K; Tomàs, J
Controlled studies have shown deliberate self-harm to be more common in abused populations, but no controlled studies have shown abuse to be more common in self-harming populations. This is the first controlled study to determine whether abuse experiences (sexual, physical, and psychological) occurred more commonly in women who take overdoses than in controls. The design was a matched (1:1) case-control study set in a district general hospital in England. The subjects were 36 women admitted following deliberate self-poisoning. They were matched with the next non-overdose admission to the same hospital on six variables (sex, age, ethnicity, social class, marital status, and geographical locality). The main outcome measures used were modified versions of standardized self-report questionnaires of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse, together with measures of parenting style and general psychopathology. Women who had taken an overdose were more likely (odds ratio 15.0, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 113.6) to have been sexually abused, and somewhat more likely to have been psychologically (1.02, 1.00 to 1.05) but not physically abused. They also had higher measures of psychopathology (GHQ-30: 1.19, 1.07 to 1.31), were more likely to have been abused at a younger age, exposed to the "affectionless control" style of parenting by their mothers, and to have harmed themselves in other ways. The management of women presenting to hospital after self-poisoning should include assessment of abuse experiences, and instigation of appropriate treatment in those with significant sequelae of abuse.
Corporal Punishment of Adolescents by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…
The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women.
Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.
Dissociation in victims of childhood abuse or neglect: a meta-analytic review.
Vonderlin, Ruben; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Alpers, Georg W; Bohus, Martin; Lyssenko, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian
Childhood abuse and neglect are associated with dissociative symptoms in adulthood. However, empirical studies show heterogeneous results depending on the type of childhood abuse or neglect and other maltreatment characteristics. In this meta-analysis, we systematically investigated the relationship between childhood interpersonal maltreatment and dissociation in 65 studies with 7352 abused or neglected individuals using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). We extracted DES-scores for abused and non-abused populations as well as information about type of abuse/neglect, age of onset, duration of abuse, and relationship to the perpetrator. Random-effects models were used for data synthesis, and meta-regression was used to predict DES-scores in abused populations from maltreatment characteristics. The results revealed higher dissociation in victims of childhood abuse and neglect compared with non-abused or neglected subsamples sharing relevant population features (MAbuse = 23.5, MNeglect = 18.8, MControl = 13.8) with highest scores for sexual and physical abuse. An earlier age of onset, a longer duration of abuse, and parental abuse significantly predicted higher dissociation scores. This meta-analysis underlines the importance of childhood abuse/neglect in the etiology of dissociation. The identified moderators may inform risk assessment and early intervention to prevent the development of dissociative symptoms.
Diagnosis of Elder Abuse in US Emergency Departments
Evans, Christopher S.; Hunold, Katherine M.; Rosen, Tony; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.
OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion of visits to United States emergency departments (EDs) receiving a diagnosis of elder abuse using two nationally representative datasets. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING U.S. ED visits recorded in either the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), or the 2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). PARTICIPANTS All ED visits by patients aged 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was elder abuse as defined by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. The proportion of visits with elder abuse was estimated using survey weights. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to identify patient demographics and common ED diagnoses associated with elder abuse. RESULTS In 2012, NEDS contained 6,723,667 ED visits by older adults, representing an estimated 29,056,673 ED visits. Elder abuse was diagnosed in an estimated 3,846 visits, corresponding to a weighted diagnosis period prevalence of elder abuse in U.S. EDs of 0.013% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.012– 0.015%). Neglect and physical abuse were the most common types diagnosed, accounting for 32.9% and 32.2% of cases, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed increased weighted odds of elder abuse diagnosis in females (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.68–2.26), and patients with contusion (OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.36–3.57), urinary tract infection (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.84–2.65), or septicemia (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.44–2.55). In the 2011 NHAMCS dataset, zero cases of elder abuse were recorded among the 5,965 older adult ED visits. CONCLUSION Among US ED visits by older adults, the proportion of visits receiving a diagnosis of elder abuse is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated prevalence in the population. Efforts to improve the identification of elder abuse in EDs may be warranted. PMID:27753066
Radiological and forensic medicine aspects of traumatic injuries in child abuse.
Solarino, M; De Filippi, C; Solarino, B
Child abuse is a topical issue in modern society and has social and medical implications which directly concern the doctor, both as a private citizen and as a health professional. Abuse injuries can be of very different types, e.g. physical, psychological or sexual. Hence they require a multidisciplinary and multispecialty approach, which must begin with an accurate medical examination, conducted in compliance with the lege artis principles and with respect for the victim's dignity. Diagnostic imaging becomes essential, together with epicrisis, which is useful to distinguish between accidental and abusive injuries. This paper describes the radiologist's key role in identifying physical injuries due to child abuse, in accordance with current regulations.
Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa
Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…
Do adult mental health services identify child abuse and neglect? A systematic review.
Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela
Child abuse and neglect play a causal role in many mental health problems. Knowing whether users of mental health services were abused or neglected as children could be considered essential for developing comprehensive formulations and effective treatment plans. In the present study we report the findings of a systematic review, using independent searches of three databases designed to discover how often mental health staff find out whether their clients were abused or neglected as children. Twenty-one relevant studies were identified. Most people who use mental health services are never asked about child abuse or neglect. The majority of cases of child abuse or neglect are not identified by mental health services. Only 28% of abuse or neglect cases identified by researchers are found in the clients' files: emotional abuse, 44%; physical abuse, 33%; sexual abuse, 30%; emotional neglect, 17%; and physical neglect, 10%. Between 0% and 22% of mental health service users report being asked about child abuse. Men and people diagnosed with psychotic disorders are asked less than other people. Male staff ask less often than female staff. Some improvement over time was found. Policies compelling routine enquiry, training, and trauma-informed services are required. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population
Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.
Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results: Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. Conclusion: It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural. PMID:26816425
Parental employment status and symptoms of children abused during a recession.
Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina
Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after surviving child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and/or neglect. We found that child abuse survivors whose mothers were unemployed showed higher symptom severity. Larger differences were found when participants were broken down by age, ethnicity, and living situation. Father's employment status did not affect symptom severity probably because many children lived with single mothers. We concluded that child abuse survivors whose mothers are unemployed have increased risk for psychological symptoms.
Elder Abuse Awareness Project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen
The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…
Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.
Rodriguez, Christina M
The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.
A Child Abuse Assessment Center: Alternative Investigative Approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiester, Douglas S.
A child abuse assessment center was created in Dade County, Florida, and was funded by state and local government sources. Staff includes a project director, two clinical social workers, a follow-up case monitor, clerical support, and a psychologist. The center attempts to minimize trauma to the child victim of sexual and physical abuse by a…
Understanding elder abuse in family practice
Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir
Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889
Traumatic experiences and re-victimization of female inmates undergoing treatment for substance abuse.
Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela
In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = <.001). In physical abuse, the figure was 82.17%. Differences were observed between women who were revictimized through physical abuse before and after the age of 18 (x(2) = 5.91, df 112/1, p = <.01), and those who had not experienced any kind of revictimization. Significant differences were found between women who had suffered a traumatic sexual event as a child and subsequently physical violence from their parents, and women who had not undergone either of these events (x(2) = 3.48, df 112/1, p = <.05). Investment in treatment in these areas during the prison
An Examination of the Partner Cyber Abuse Questionnaire in a College Student Sample.
Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Brem, Meagan; Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L
To examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a newly developed measure of an understudied form of partner abuse, cyber abuse, and to examine the prevalence of, and gender differences in, victimization by cyber abuse. College students in a dating relationship ( N = 502) completed the Partner Cyber Abuse Questionnaire (Hamby, 2013), as well as measures of partner abuse victimization and depression. Using exploratory factor analysis, we determined a one-factor solution was the most statistically and conceptually best fitting model. The cyber abuse victimization factor was correlated with depressive symptoms and physical, psychological, and sexual partner abuse victimization, supporting the convergent validity of the measure. The overall prevalence of victimization by cyber abuse was 40%, with victimization by specific acts ranging from 2-31%. Men and women did not differ in their victimization by cyber abuse. Cyber abuse is prevalent among college students and occurs concurrently with other partner abuse forms and depressive symptoms. Given the interrelated nature of partner abuse forms, prevention and intervention programs should address partner abuse occurring in-person and through technology. Cyber abuse should also be considered in the conceptualization and measurement of partner abuse to more fully understand this social problem.
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801
Forensic and family psychiatry in abuse dwarfism: Munchausen's syndrome by proxy, atonement, and addiction to abuse.
Money, J; Annecillo, C; Hutchison, J W
The syndrome of abuse dwarfism is characterized by gross impairment of statural and intellectual growth and social maturation while the abused child remains in the domicile of abuse. The parents collude as child abusers, and are medical impostors regarding the symptoms of abuse. The syndrome as a whole is appropriately named Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. Though the mother typically initiates abuse, she cannot give a rational explanation for doing so. In her own history there is a sin that is expiated or atoned for symbolically by the sacrifice of the child--explainable in terms of the theory of opponent-process learning. In the two cases presented, the sin was the mother's own birth out of wedlock, in one case as a sequel to incest. The child's addiction to abuse is a challenge to the program of rehabilitation. With respect to parents at risk, the data of this paper are relevant to the prevention of a predisposition toward, or the actual implementation of child abuse, though a program of prevention needs still to be formulated. The sexological relevance of this paper is that the data demonstrate that the effects of sexual abuse may be transmitted to the next generation and manifested as child abuse which is not necessarily sexual in content.
Youth Self-Report of Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott
Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…
Parenting stress and anger expression as predictors of child abuse potential.
Rodriguez, C M; Green, A J
To explore one potential pathway to physical child abuse, the present investigation used hierarchical regression analysis using measures of parenting stress and anger expression to jointly predict child abuse potential. The Parenting Stress Index, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were administered to two different samples of New Zealand parents. As expected, both studies revealed parenting stress and anger expression and were individually positively correlated with child abuse potential: the major finding involved the strong point contribution of parenting stress and anger expression in predicting Child Abuse Potential Inventory scores. Application of findings for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.
Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira
This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maternal abuse history, postpartum depression, and parenting: links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.
Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer
The current study examined a temporal cascade linking mothers' history of abuse with their children's internalizing difficulties through proximal processes such as maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and responsive parenting. Participants consisted of 490 mother-child dyads assessed at three time points when children were, on average, 2 months old at Time 1 (T1), 18 months at Time 2 (T2), and 36 months at Time 3 (T3). Maternal abuse history and depressive symptoms were assessed via questionnaires at T1. Observations of responsive parenting were collected at T2 and were coded using a validated coding scheme. Children's internalizing difficulties were assessed in the preschool period using averaged parental reports. Path analysis revealed that maternal physical abuse was associated with depressive symptoms postnatally, which were in turn associated with children's internalizing behavior at 36 months of age. We also found that the association between physical abuse history and responsive parenting operated indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms. These findings remained after controlling for covariates including socioeconomic status, child gender, and age. After accounting for physical abuse history, sexual abuse history was not associated with child internalizing problems either directly or indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms and/or parenting behavior. Thus, mothers' physical abuse history is a risk factor for relatively poor mental health, which is itself predictive of both later parenting behavior and children's internalizing problems. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Adult physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and postpartum depression, a population based, prospective study of 53,065 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Lukasse, Mirjam; Schei, Berit
Postpartum depression (PPD) has detrimental consequences to the women, their infants and families. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between adult abuse and PPD. This study was based on data from 53,065 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Women were recruited through a postal invitation in relation to a routine ultra-sound invitation at week 18 of gestation. Exposure to adult emotional, sexual, physical abuse was based on self-report at week 30, also differentiating if the perpetrator was known or a stranger, and whether the abuse was recent or not (<12 month since abuse). PPD was measured with a four items version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDS) at six months postpartum. The associations between different types of adult abuse and PPD were performed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, parity, civil status, education, child abuse, social support, and depression prior to pregnancy. Altogether, 11% had PPD, and 19% had been exposed to adult abuse. Women reporting adult abuse had an 80% increased fully adjusted odds of PPD (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.7-1.9) compared to non-abused women. There was a tendency towards higher odds of PPD for women reporting combinations of adult abuse (emotional, sexual and physical), as compared with those reporting sexual, emotional or physical abuse only. Exposure from known perpetrator was more strongly associated with PPD than exposure from an unknown perpetrator. Compared with women without adult abuse, the fully adjusted odds of PPD was 2.6 (95% CI 2.4-2.9) higher for women with any recent adult abuse and 1.5 (95% CI 1.5-1.7) higher for women with any adult abuse, but not recent. The results from this large prospective population-based cohort study support initiatives aiming to assess and adequately address abuse when counseling and treating women of PPD.
Self-harm intentions: can they be distinguished based upon a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse?
Santa Mina, Elaine E
A non-experimental, comparative design is used to measures self-harm intention in clients with and without a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse (CP/SA) presenting to an emergency department with an episode of self-harm behaviour. The traditional suicide literature identifies the key intention concepts of wish-to-die, lethality, hopelessness, and depression. However, the trauma literature understands self-harm behaviour to be an adaptive response to CP/SA and as such possibly helpful for managing intense affect and dissociation. The findings of this study demonstrate that a CP/SA history is not a distinguishing factor in self-harm intention. Almost all participants, regardless of abuse history, gave multiple reasons for their self-harm behaviour, in addition to or other than the wish-to-die. The striking similarity between the non-abused and abused groups with regard to self-harm intention challenges clinicians to assess for the full range of intentions of people who engage in self-harm and suicidal behaviour.
Emotional availability in a sample of mothers with a history of abuse.
Moehler, Eva; Biringen, Zeynep; Poustka, Luise
Maternal history of abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for child maltreatment, but the background of this "cycle of abuse" is as yet poorly understood. As a contribution toward a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this study analyzed whether emotional availability is altered by maternal experiences of physical or sexual abuse during their upbringing. Mothers were contacted by mail and presented with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. To form the index group, women who reached a cutoff for severe sexual and/or physical abuse and whose children were term babies with APGAR scores 7 were included in the study. The women were invited to the laboratory when their infants were 5 months old. Emotional availability was compared with a group of mother-infant pairs matched for infant gender, maternal education, marital status, number of infants, and birth weight. The results show that 5-month postnatal mothers with a history of physical or sexual abuse were significantly more intrusive toward their children than were control mothers.
Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Orphaned and abused youth are vulnerable to pregnancy and suicide risk.
Zapata, Lauren B; Kissin, Dmitry M; Bogoliubova, Olga; Yorick, Roman V; Kraft, Joan Marie; Jamieson, Denise J; Marchbanks, Polly A; Hillis, Susan D
Little is known about the magnitude and consequences of violence against children for those living outside family care. We sought to estimate the frequency of childhood abuse and examine its association with lifetime pregnancy involvement (LPI) and past year suicide ideation among orphaned youth. We analyzed data collected via cross-sectional interviewer-administered surveys completed by 293 orphaned youth aged 16-23 years living outside of family care in St. Petersburg, Russia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of LPI and past year suicide ideation associated with childhood physical and sexual abuse. Other risk factors were also examined (e.g., social vulnerability, sexual and substance use behaviors), and characteristics of orphaned youth with LPI and past year suicide ideation were described. The prevalence of childhood abuse was higher among females than among males (23.3% versus 15.6% for physical abuse, and 20.3% versus 5.6% for sexual abuse), as was the prevalence of LPI and past year suicide ideation among those with histories of abuse. Experiences of childhood abuse were strong risk factors for both LPI and past year suicide ideation, with significant variation by gender. While both types of abuse were significantly associated with LPI and past year suicide ideation among females, physical abuse was significantly associated with LPI and sexual abuse was associated with suicide ideation for males. Of the other characteristics examined, strong modifiable risk factors included having no one to turn to for help and no involvement in activities outside of class. Among those with LPI (n=36), nearly 20% had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant ≥2 times, most (61.8%) reported at least one induced abortion, and current use of effective contraception was nearly non-existent. Among those with past year suicide ideation (n=30), nearly half (44.8%) reported attempting suicide. There is an urgent need for
A normal ano-genital exam: sexual abuse or not?
Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are at the forefront of providing care to children and families. The PNP is in a unique position to educate patients and families regarding sexual abuse and dispel common myths associated with sexual abuse. One such myth is that a normal ano-genital examination is synonymous with the absence of sexual abuse. This article will provide primary care providers, including PNPs, with a framework for understanding why a normal ano-genital examination does not negate the possibility of sexual abuse/assault. Normal ano-genital anatomy, changes that occur with puberty, and physical properties related to the genitalia and anus will be discussed. Photos will provide visualization of both normal variants of the pre-pubertal hymen and genitalia as well as changes that occur with puberty. Implications for practice for PNPs will be discussed.
What causes domestic abuse and how can nurses effectively support abused women?
Domestic abuse is a significant public health problem in the UK, primarily perpetrated against women. Nurses can play a vital role in identifying patients who have experienced abuse, and in offering them emotional, psychological and practical support. This article explores the causes of domestic abuse, and nurses' role in caring for those affected. It emphasises the need for enhanced nurse education and awareness to enable nurses to provide holistic care for women.
Interns’ perceived abuse during their undergraduate training at King Abdul Aziz University
Iftikhar, Rahila; Tawfiq, Razaz; Barabie, Salem
Background and objectives Abuse occurs in all workplaces, including the medical field. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of perceived abuse among medical students, the types of abuse experienced during medical training, the source of abuse, and the perceived barriers to reporting abuse. Method This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2013 and January 2014 among medical graduates of King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. The survey questionnaire was designed to gather information regarding the frequency with which participants perceived themselves to have experienced abuse, the type of abuse, the source of abuse, and the reasons for nonreporting of perceived abuse. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Result Of the 186 students enrolled in this study, 169 (90.9%) reported perceiving some form of abuse during medical school training. Perceived abuse was most often verbal (86.6%), although academic abuse (73.1%), sex discrimination (38.7%), racial or ethnic discrimination (29.0%), physical abuse (18.8%), religious discrimination (15.1%), and sexual harassment (8.6%) were also reported. Professors were most often cited as the sources of perceived abuse, followed by associate professors, demonstrators (or assistant teaching staff), and assistant professors. The Internal Medicine Department was the most frequently cited department where students perceived themselves to have experienced abuse. Only 14.8% of the students reported the abuse to a third party. Conclusion The self-reported prevalence of medical student abuse at King Abdul Aziz University is high. A proper system for reporting abuse and for supporting victims of abuse should be set up, to promote a good learning environment. PMID:24904225
Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N
To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.
Attributional style as a mediator between parental abuse risk and child internalizing symptomatology.
Rodriguez, Christina M
This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.
Association of abuse history with symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.
Jiao, Juan; Vincent, Ann; Cha, Stephen S; Luedtke, Connie A; Oh, Terry H
A high prevalence of abuse has been reported in patients with fibromyalgia. We aimed to examine the association between self-reported abuse history and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in 962 patients with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. In total, 289 patients (30%) reported a history of abuse. Of those who specified abuse types, 161 patients (59%) reported more than 1 type of abuse (36% emotional, 32% physical, 25% sexual, and 7% verbal). Patients in the abuse group were younger and more likely to be female, unemployed, unmarried, and current smokers compared with patients who reported no abuse. After adjusting for these differences, abuse history was associated with worse symptoms, as indicated by a higher FIQ total score (P < .001) and higher FIQ subscale scores in physical function (P = .001), work missed (P < .001), job ability (P < .001), pain (P = .02), depression (P < .001), and anxiety (P < .001). Similarly, abuse history was associated with worse QOL, with lower SF-36 scores in all domains except the physical component summary. In conclusion, abuse history in patients with fibromyalgia was associated with worse symptoms and QOL compared with those patients without abuse history. Future studies are needed to assess whether additional tailored interventions as part of fibromyalgia treatment are helpful for patients with a history of abuse.
Physiological markers of anxiety are increased in children of abused mothers.
Jovanovic, Tanja; Smith, Ami; Kamkwalala, Asante; Poole, James; Samples, Tara; Norrholm, Seth D; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh
A growing number of studies indicate that low income, African American men and women living in urban environments are at high risk for trauma exposure, which may have intergenerational effects. The current study employed psychophysiological methods to describe biomarkers of anxiety in children of traumatized mothers. Study participants were recruited from a highly traumatized urban population, comprising mother-child pairs (n=36) that included school-age children. Mothers were assessed for childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, as well as symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The children were measured for dark-enhanced startle responses and heart-rate variability. Dark-enhanced startle was found to be higher in children whose mothers had high levels of childhood physical abuse, as compared to children whose mothers had low levels of physical abuse. During the habituation phase of the startle experiment, children whose mothers had high levels of childhood emotional abuse had higher sympathetic system activation compared to children of mothers with low emotional abuse. These effects remained significant after accounting for maternal symptoms of PTSD and depression, as well as for the child's trauma exposure. These results demonstrate that children of mothers who have history of childhood physical and emotional abuse have higher dark-enhanced startle as well as greater sympathetic nervous system activation than children of mothers who do not report a history of childhood physical and emotional abuse, and emphasize the utility of physiological measures as pervasive biomarkers of psychopathology that can easily be measured in children. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Racial differences in treatment effect among men in a substance abuse and domestic violence program.
Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J
It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.
Gender abuse and major depression among transgender women: a prospective study of vulnerability and resilience.
Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey
We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004-2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abu