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Sample records for abuse potential studies

  1. Evaluating the abuse potential of opioids and abuse-deterrent -opioid formulations: A review of clinical study methodology.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Schoedel, Kerri A; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Shram, Megan; Pixton, Glenn C; Roland, Carl L

    With the development of opioid abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs), there is a need to conduct well-designed human abuse potential studies to evaluate the effectiveness of their deterrent properties. Although these types of studies have been conducted for many years, largely to evaluate inherent abuse potential of a molecule and inform drug scheduling, methodological approaches have varied across studies. The focus of this review is to describe current "best practices" and methodological adaptations required to assess abuse-deterrent opioid formulations for regulatory submissions. A literature search was conducted in PubMed® to review methodological approaches (study conduct and analysis) used in opioid human abuse potential studies. Search terms included a combination of "opioid," "opiate," "abuse potential," "abuse liability," "liking," AND "pharmacodynamic," and only studies that evaluated single doses of opioids in healthy, nondependent individuals with or without prior opioid experience were included. Seventy-one human abuse potential studies meeting the prespecified criteria were identified, of which 21 studies evaluated a purported opioid ADF. Based on these studies, key methodological considerations were reviewed and summarized according to participant demographics, study prequalification, comparator and dose selection, route of administration and drug manipulation, study blinding, outcome measures and training, safety, and statistical analyses. The authors recommend careful consideration of key elements (eg, a standardized definition of a "nondependent recreational user"), as applicable, and offer key principles and "best practices" when conducting human abuse potential studies for opioid ADFs. Careful selection of appropriate study conditions is dependent on the type of ADF technology being evaluated.

  2. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  3. Assessing Employee Potentials for Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, M. Dean; McQueen, William M.

    1983-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to abusive (N=21) and nonabusive (N=21) employees to identify potential for institutional child abuse. Results corroborated earlier findings of institutional child abuse and demonstrated an attempt at developing an assessment tool needed to screen staff who are working with the developmentally disabled and children in…

  4. Use of Pregabalin - A Nationwide Pharmacoepidemiological Drug Utilization Study with Focus on Abuse Potential.

    PubMed

    Schjerning, O; Pottegård, A; Damkier, P; Rosenzweig, M; Nielsen, J

    2016-07-01

    Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder and neuropathic pain with a licensed dosage range of 150 mg to 600 mg/day. Growing concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin is partly based on reports of pregabalin being used in dosages that exceed the approved therapeutic range. To identify predictors of pregabalin use above recommended dosage, we conducted a pharmacoepidemological drug utilization study using the Danish nationwide registers. We deployed 4 measures of abuse: high use (≥600 mg/day) or very high use (≥1 200 mg/day) over a 6- or 12-month period, respectively. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify patient and treatment characteristics that were associated with either abuse marker. Out of 42 520 pregabalin users 4 090 (9.6%) were treated with more than 600 mg/day for 6 months and 2 765 (6.5%) for more than 12 months. Male gender and prescription of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were associated with increased risk of use of above the recommended dosage. Use of pregabalin above recommended dosages was rare but abuse may occur in susceptible patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Cross-cultural validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Greece: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Diareme, S; Tsiantis, J; Tsitoura, S

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this study was first, to provide preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of a Greek translation of the CAP Inventory (Milner, 1986), and second, to examine whether there were any differences between Greek and American scores in the CAP Inventory. A convenience sample of 320 Greek parents was recruited from the outpatient unit of a large Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece. Greek scores were compared with American scores taken from the test manual. Internal consistency reliability was high for the Abuse scale (.91), two factor scales (Distress = .93 and Rigidity = .86) and one Validity scale (Inconsistency = .80). The Greek version of the Abuse scale had a similar factorial structure with the American version. Also, 78.1% of Greek parents were classified correctly as nonabusive by the Abuse scale. This rate was increased to 88.6% when invalid questionnaires were excluded from the sample. Comparisons between Greek and American mean scale scores indicated that Greek scores were significantly higher than American scores in all but one scale. Greeks had significantly lower scores than Americans in the Problems with Child and Self scale. Current findings including the high reliability, relatively high correct classification rates and factorial structure of the Greek Abuse scale are promising and support the idea of continuation of research for the development and validation of the Greek CAP Inventory. The difference between Greek and American scores in particular indicates the need for adjustment of cut off scores in the Greek scale.

  6. Using forum play to prevent abuse in health care organizations: A qualitative study exploring potentials and limitations for learning.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, A Jelmer; Persson, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Abuse in health care organizations is a pressing issue for caregivers. Forum play, a participatory theater model, has been used among health care staff to learn about and work against abuse. This small-scale qualitative study aims to explore how forum play participants experience the potentials and limitations of forum play as an educational model for continued professional learning at a hospital clinic. Fifteen of 41 members of staff of a Swedish nephrology clinic, primarily nurses, voluntarily participated in either one or two forum play workshops, where they shared experiences and together practiced working against abuse in everyday health care situations. Interviews were conducted after the workshops with 14 of the participants, where they were asked to reflect on their own and others' participation or nonparticipation, and changes in their individual and collective understanding of abuse in health care. Before the workshops, the informants were either hesitant or very enthusiastic toward the drama-oriented form of learning. Afterward, they all agreed that forum play was a very effective way of individual as well as collective learning about abuse in health care. However, they saw little effect on their work at the clinic, primarily understood as a consequence of the fact that many of their colleagues did not take part in the workshops. This study, based on the analysis of forum play efforts at a single hospital clinic, suggests that forum play can be an innovative educational model that creates a space for reflection and learning in health care practices. It might be especially fruitful when a sensitive topic, such as abuse in health care, is the target of change. However, for the effects to reach beyond individual insights and a shared understanding among a small group of participants, strategies to include all members of staff need to be explored.

  7. The introduction of a potentially abuse deterrent oxycodone formulation: Early findings from the Australian National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Bruno, Raimondo; Ali, Robert; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Farrell, Michael; Larance, Briony

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing concern about tampering of pharmaceutical opioids. We describe early findings from an Australian study examining the potential impact of the April 2014 introduction of an abuse-deterrent sustained-release oxycodone formulation (Reformulated OxyContin(®)). Data on pharmaceutical opioid sales; drug use by people who inject drugs regularly (PWID); client visits to the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC); and last drug injected by clients of inner-Sydney needle-syringe programmes (NSPs) were obtained, 2009-2014. A cohort of n=606 people tampering with pharmaceutical opioids was formed pre-April 2014, and followed up May-August 2014. There were declines in pharmacy sales of 80mg OxyContin(®) post-introduction of the reformulated product, the dose most commonly diverted and injected by PWID. Reformulated OxyContin(®) was among the least commonly used and injected drugs among PWID. This was supported by Sydney NSP data. There was a dramatic reduction in MSIC visits for injection of OxyContin(®) post-introduction of the new formulation (from 62% of monthly visits pre-introduction to 5% of visits, August 2014). The NOMAD cohort confirmed a reduction in OxyContin(®) use/injection post-introduction. Reformulated OxyContin(®) was cheaper and less attractive for tampering than Original OxyContin(®). These data suggest that, in the short term, introduction of an abuse-deterrent formulation of OxyContin(®) in Australia was associated with a reduction in injection of OxyContin(®), with no clear switch to other drugs. Reformulated OxyContin(®), in this short follow-up, does not appear to be considered as attractive for tampering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  9. Ketamine abuse potential and use disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Deyong; Wu, Boliang; Zhou, Wenhua

    2016-09-01

    Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor and has been long used as an anesthetic agent in humans and veterinary medicine. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pharmacology, neurochemistry, and treatment of ketamine abuse. Ketamine has a unique mood controlling property and a number of studies have demonstrated a significant and rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. However, the therapeutic value of ketamine to treat psychiatric disorders faces a major challenge that ketamine also owns significant reinforcing and toxic effects. Its abuse has posted severe harms on individuals and society. Disrupted learning and memory processing has long been related with ketamine use. It is hypothesized that ketamine blocks NMDA receptors on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons inside the thalamic reticular nucleus, which leads to disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons and increased release of dopamine. Currently, there is no specific treatment for treating every ketamine patient presenting peripheral toxicity. Interestingly, ketamine psychotherapy has been suggested to be a promising approach to treat addiction of other drugs. Future research can continue to develop creative ways to investigate potential mechanism and treatments related to ketamine abuse that have posted severe individual and social harms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

  11. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  12. Six-month, open-label study of hydrocodone extended release formulated with abuse-deterrence technology: Safety, maintenance of analgesia, and abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin E; Ma, Yuju; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate long-term safety, maintenance of analgesia, and aberrant drug-related behaviors of hydrocodone extended release (ER) formulated with CIMA® Abuse-Deterrence Technology. Phase 3, multicenter, open-label extension. Fifty-six US centers. Adults with chronic low back pain completing a 12-week placebocontrolled study of abuse-deterrent hydrocodone ER were eligible. One hundred eighty-two patients enrolled and received ≥1 dose of study drug, 170 entered openlabel treatment, and 136 completed the study. Patients receiving hydrocodone ER in the 12-week, placebo-controlled study continued their previous dose unless adjustment was needed; those previously receiving placebo (n=78) underwent dose titration/adjustment to an analgesic dose (15-90 mg every 12 hours). Patients received 22 weeks of open-label treatment. adverse events (AEs). Maintenance of analgesia: worst pain intensity (WPI) and average pain intensity (API) at each study visit. Aberrant drug behavior: study drug loss and diversion. AEs were reported for 65/182 (36 percent) patients during dose titration/ adjustment and 88/170 (52 percent) during open-label treatment. No treatmentrelated serious AEs were reported. There were no clinically meaningful trends in other safety assessments, including physical examinations and pure tone audiometry. One patient receiving hydrocodone ER 30 mg twice daily experienced a severe AE of neurosensory deafness that was considered treatment related. Mean WPI and API remained steady throughout open-label treatment. Six (3 percent) patients reported medication loss, and 5 (3 percent) reported diversion. Abuse-deterrent hydrocodone ER was generally well tolerated in patients with chronic low back pain, maintained efficacy, and was associated with low rates of loss and diversion.

  13. Parenting stress and anger expression as predictors of child abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, C M; Green, A J

    1997-04-01

    To explore one potential pathway to physical child abuse, the present investigation used hierarchical regression analysis using measures of parenting stress and anger expression to jointly predict child abuse potential. The Parenting Stress Index, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were administered to two different samples of New Zealand parents. As expected, both studies revealed parenting stress and anger expression and were individually positively correlated with child abuse potential: the major finding involved the strong point contribution of parenting stress and anger expression in predicting Child Abuse Potential Inventory scores. Application of findings for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  15. Assessing abuse potential of new analgesic medications following market release: an evaluation of Internet discussion of tapentadol abuse.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Butler, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Research on substance abusers in treatment suggests that tapentadol, a prescription analgesic, may have relatively low abuse potential. Messages posted by recreational drug abusers on online forums were examined for amount of discussion and endorsement for abuse of tapentadol and comparator drugs. Internet messages posted between January 1, 2011 and September 30, 2012 on seven drug-abuse web forums were evaluated. Proportions of posts and unique authors discussing tapentadol were compared with eight comparator compounds. Postcontent was coded to compare endorsement for abuse of tapentadol with two comparators, one drug with high desirability for abuse and one with low desirability for abuse. A total of 1,940,121 messages posted during the study period were copied from selected web forums. The proportion of all posts discussing tapentadol (proportion = 0.0003) was significantly lower than any of the comparator compounds (range of odds ratios from 16.6 to 104.3; P < 0.001). The proportion of unique authors was also lower. Posts coded for endorsement (N =  2,117) yielded an endorsement ratio (Ero) of 2.14 for tapentadol, which was significantly lower than the highly desirable for abuse oxymorphone (ERo = 5.08; P = 0.0011) and was as low as tramadol (ERo = 1.66), which has a long-established profile of low abuse and desirability for abuse. Recreational abusers posting on web forums appear to be less interested in abusing tapentadol when compared with other, selected prescription analgesics based on the amount of discussion (i.e., fewer posts and authors mentioning tapentadol). Endorsement of the product for abuse was also low. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  17. Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk.

  18. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- and Active Comparator-Controlled Crossover Study Evaluating the Abuse Potential of the Antiepileptic Drug Lacosamide in Healthy Recreational Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Schoedel, Kerri A; Andreas, Jens-Otto; Doty, Pamela; Eckhardt, Klaus; Sellers, Edward M

    2017-12-01

    This phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled crossover study assessed the abuse potential of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide. After a qualification phase, 38 healthy, recreational central nervous system-depressant users were randomized to treatment sequences comprising single oral therapeutic (200 mg) and supratherapeutic (800 mg) doses of lacosamide, alprazolam (1.5 and 3 mg), and placebo. Subjective effects were assessed for 24 hours following each dose using a range of scales, with a 5- to 9-day washout between treatments. Mean subjective effects for 200 mg lacosamide were statistically similar to placebo and significantly lower than with alprazolam for most end points. Lacosamide 800 mg elicited transient, statistically significant positive effects compared with placebo, but also persistent Bad Drug Effects including statistically greater maximum effect (Emax) scores for Nausea and Dysphoria compared with other treatments (P < 0.0002). Consistent with this, the 800 mg lacosamide dose showed a significantly lower "at this moment" Drug Liking visual analog scale (VAS) Emax compared with 3 mg alprazolam, but was not different from 1.5 mg alprazolam (73.1/100, 85.4/100, and 78.9/100, respectively, where 50 is neutral). Overall Drug Liking VAS and Take Drug Again VAS Emax for 800 mg lacosamide were not significantly different from placebo and were lower than those for both alprazolam doses (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that in recreational central nervous system-depressant users, lacosamide has detectable abuse-related subjective effects, but a relatively low potential for abuse compared with alprazolam. These findings contributed toward placement of lacosamide into Schedule V of the US Controlled Substances Act.

  19. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the subjective abuse potential and cognitive effects of nabiximols oromucosal spray in subjects with a history of recreational cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Schoedel, Kerri Alexandra; Chen, Nancy; Hilliard, Annie; White, Linda; Stott, Colin; Russo, Ethan; Wright, Stephen; Guy, Geoffrey; Romach, Myroslava K; Sellers, Edward M

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the abuse potential and cognitive effects of nabiximols (Sativex, GW Pharma Ltd. Salisbury, UK), an oromucosal spray primarily containing delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). This was a single‐dose, randomized, double‐blind, crossover study comparing nabiximols (4, 8, and 16 consecutive sprays: 10.8, 21.6, and 43.2 mg THC, respectively) with dronabinol 20 and 40 mg (synthetic THC: Marinol, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Brussels, Belgium) and matching placebos in 23 recreational cannabis users. Subjective and cognitive/psychomotor measures were administered over 24 h post‐dose. Dronabinol was significantly different from placebo on abuse potential measures, thereby confirming study validity. Nabiximols 10.8 mg was not significantly different from placebo on primary measures but was different on some secondary measures. Nabiximols 21.6 mg was significantly greater than placebo on some primary/secondary measures, whereas nabiximols 43.2 mg showed significant effects on most measures. Nabiximols 10.8 mg was significantly lower than dronabinol doses on most measures ( p < 0.05). Dronabinol 20 mg effects were numerically higher than nabiximols 21.6 mg but were statistically significant only for some measures. Dronabinol 40 mg and nabiximols 43.2 mg were generally not statistically different. Both dronabinol and nabiximols had significant abuse potential compared with placebo at higher doses. Nabiximols showed similar or slightly less abuse potential compared with dronabinol. Therefore, the abuse potential of nabiximols should be no higher than that of dronabinol.

  1. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  2. Child abuse potential in mothers with early life maltreatment, borderline personality disorder and depression.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Katja; Boedeker, Katja; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Jaite, Charlotte; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fuehrer, Daniel; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Heinz, Andreas; Roepke, Stefan; Heim, Christine; Bermpohl, Felix

    2018-05-24

    Early life maltreatment (ELM), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been shown to increase the potential of abuse. Emotion regulation is an identified mediator for the association of ELM and BPD with abuse potential. Until now, there has been no study to account for the co-occurrence of these risk factors in one analysis, although BPD and MDD are known as common sequelae of ELM. This is paired with a lack of studies investigating the effects of abuse potential on child well-being.AimsOur study aims at (a) disentangling the effects of maternal ELM, MDD and BPD on abuse potential; (b) exploring the role of emotion regulation as a mediator; and (c) testing for intergenerational effects of abuse potential on child psychopathology. The research design included 114 mothers with/without ELM, BPD and MDD in remission and their children, all of which were between 5 and 12 years of age. A path analysis was conducted to investigate the multiple associations between our variables. ELM, MDD and BPD were all associated with abuse potential, with emotion regulation acting as a mediator for BPD and MDD. Furthermore, an elevated abuse potential was related to higher psychopathology in the child. History of ELM as well as the common sequelae, BPD and MDD, pose risks for child abuse. Our findings suggest improvement of emotion regulation as a potential target for intervention programs. These programs should also aim at non-substantiated cases because even an elevated abuse potential affected child mental health.Declaration of interestNone.

  3. Determining History of Victimization and Potential for Abusive Behavior in U.S. Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-20

    child abuse , spouse abuse, and sexual/physical aggression to provide a scientific basis for a study to survey Navy recruits for their history of and...been found to be associated with abusive behavior and to ascertain the reliability, validity, and appropriateness for use of relevant instruments. Child abuse , Spouse abuse, Sexual aggression, Sexual abuse.

  4. A Study in Computer Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield Inst. of Technology (Australia).

    Computer abuse is examined as both a general issue and as a specific problem. A statistical profile of computer crime lists distribution by country of reported cases, by industry of occurrence, and by amount of monetary loss. The characteristics of computer abuse are described along with the important categories of such crimes. Factors inhibiting…

  5. PREDICTING ABUSE POTENTIAL OF STIMULANTS AND OTHER DOPAMINERGIC DRUGS: OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Huskinson, Sally L.; Naylor, Jennifer E.; Rowlett, James K.; Freeman, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of a drug’s abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. PMID:24662599

  6. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development☆

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater

  7. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study to Evaluate the Intranasal Human Abuse Potential and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Extended-Release Abuse-Deterrent Formulation of Oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Ernest A.; Smith, Michael D.; Fleming, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the human abuse potential (HAP) of an experimental, microsphere-in-capsule formulation of extended-release oxycodone (oxycodone DETERx®) (herein “DETERx”). Design. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, positive- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-phase, four-treatment, crossover study. Setting. Clinical research site. Subjects. There were 39 qualifying subjects (72% male, 85% white, mean age of 27 years) with 36 completing all four Double-blind Treatment Periods. Methods. The four phases encompassed: 1) Screening; 2) Drug Discrimination; 3) Double-blind Treatment; and 4) Follow-up. Drug Discrimination tests ensured that subjects could distinguish placebo from opioid. The four Double-blind Treatments compared DETERx—administered as either a crushed intranasal (IN) or an intact oral (PO) preparation—with immediate-release oxycodone IN (OXY-IR IN) and with an intact IN and PO placebo DETERx control. Results. For primary pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments, abuse quotient (Cmax/Tmax) was lower with DETERx IN than DETERx PO; both treatments were substantially lower than OXY-IR IN (6.24, 8.60, and 69.6 ng/mL/h, respectively). For drug liking, the primary subjective pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoint, both DETERx IN and DETERx PO produced significantly lower scores than OXY-IR IN (P ≤ 0.0001 for each); DETERx IN was less liked than DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.05), mirroring the PK relationships. Objectively assessed pupillometry corroborated the more rapid and significantly greater effect of OXY-IR IN than either DETERx IN or DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.007 for each). Overall safety profiles of DETERx and OXY-IR were comparable and both were well tolerated. Conclusions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes suggest that DETERx IN has relatively low HAP; continued research in larger populations is suggested. PMID:26814256

  8. Intentional Misuse and Abuse of Loperamide: A New Look at a Drug with "Low Abuse Potential".

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Watts, Susan H; Tull, Jonathan; Baeza, Salvador; Diebold, Stephanie; Barrow, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Despite its opioid properties, loperamide has long been thought to have low abuse potential due to its poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and limited potential to cross the blood-brain barrier. A recent patient reportedly taking loperamide to avoid heroin withdrawal symptoms, at doses approximately 100 times those recommended, directed our attention to this issue. 1) Investigate number of cases of intentional loperamide abuse and misuse reported to poison centers between 2009 and 2015; 2) Compile reports of clinical effects of loperamide abuse; and 3) Search for evidence of increasing Internet interest in the central opioid effects of loperamide. For the years 2009 thru 2015, we reviewed exposure calls related to misuse/abuse of loperamide in the Texas Poison Center Network's database and the National Poison Data System. We used Google trend analysis to detect evidence of increased Internet interest in the illicit use of loperamide. Between 2009 and 2015, the number of misuse/abuse calls related to loperamide alone nearly doubled, with about one-third of cases occurring in teens and young adults in their 20s. Of particular concern are reports of significant cardiotoxic effects (∼18% of cases), including conduction defects and various dysrhythmias, sometimes leading to death. Google Trends analysis demonstrates an increasing number of searches for "loperamide high" and "loperamide withdrawal" beginning in 2011. Loperamide misuse/abuse seems to be on the rise. Given its propensity to induce conduction disturbances and dysrhythmias at very high doses, emergency physicians should be vigilant for this form of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A potential vaccine for cocaine abuse prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bagasra, O; Forman, L J; Howeedy, A; Whittle, P

    1992-01-01

    Presently, there are estimated to be 1.5 to 2.0 million individuals infected with HIV-1 in the U.S. and about 12 million worldwide. In the U.S. over 90% of reported cases of AIDS occurred among two subgroups, homosexual males and intravenous substance abusers (IVSAs). Currently, there is no anti-cocaine addiction medication available. In order to explore vaccination as an alternative means for protection against cocaine addition, we immunized inbred male Fisher rats with either cocaine emulsification in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) or with cocaine conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), as carrier plus CFA. Animals were initially immunized with 0.1 mg/animal of cocaine or cocaine-KLH. Animals were given a booster with the corresponding agents after 4 weeks. Ten animals/group were used. Controls received normal saline at the time of immunizations. These animals were injected, intraperitoneally, with 25 mg/kg of cocaine, and were examined for the analgesic effect of cocaine by the hot plate method. The average analgesic effect of cocaine was significantly reduced (p greater than 0.03) in animals immunized with cocaine-KLH (13.77 s) as compared to saline controls (21.6 s). Fifty percent of the animals (5/10) in the cocaine-KLH group and 33% of the animals (3/9) in the cocaine immunized group appeared completely resistant to the effect of cocaine on the central nervous system (CNS). We also have determined the levels of cocaine-specific antibodies produced by each animal by an ELISA method. Degree of protection from cocaine seems to correlate well with the amount of anti-cocaine antibodies produced by each animal (-0.61).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population.

  11. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  12. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  13. Effect of the market withdrawal of carisoprodol on use of other prescribed drugs with abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Bramness, J G; Furu, K; Skurtveit, S; Engeland, A

    2012-03-01

    Carisoprodol, a centrally acting muscle relaxant indicated for acute lower back pain, has been available in Europe and the United States since 1959. Studies indicating increased risk of abuse or addiction led to withdrawal of the drug from the market in Norway and other EU countries in 2008. In this nationwide longitudinal prescription study of 53,116 individuals in Norway, previous users of carisoprodol switched, to a limited extent, to other prescribed drugs with abuse potential after the withdrawal.

  14. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  15. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse.

  16. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Development of an Arabic version.

    PubMed

    Al Abduwani, Jumana; Sidebotham, Peter; Al Saadoon, Muna; Al Lawati, Mohammed; Barlow, Jane

    2017-10-01

    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a well-validated screening tool for assessing potential for child physical abuse, and has been translated into many different languages. To date the CAPI has not been translated into Arabic or used in any studies in Arabic-speaking populations. This study reports on the process of adapting the CAPI into Arabic Language which was undertaken following the International Society of Pharma-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines. The translation/adaptation process was multi-stage, and involved the use of a Delphi process, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and a pilot testing of the Arabic CAPI at two primary health care centers with a population of pregnant women (n=60). Following "literal translation" 73 out of the 160 items needed re-phrasing to adapt the items to the Oman context. No differences were found when comparing results of the translated or back-translated versions to source; however, eight items needed further amendment following translated to back-translated comparison and feedback from the pilot. Iterations were resolved following in-depth interviews. Discrepancies were due to differences in culture, parenting practices, and religion. Piloting of the tool indicated mean score value of 155.8 (SD=59.4) and eleven women (18%) scored above the cut off value of 215. This Arabic translation of the CAPI was undertaken using rigorous methodology and sets the scene for further research on the Arabic CAPI within Arabic-speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications...

  18. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications...

  19. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications...

  20. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications...

  1. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications...

  2. Home Interactive Media: An Analysis of Potential Abusers of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines potential threats to privacy posed by development of unified interaction systems in the home. Applicability of existing federal laws, constitutional provisions, and regulatory actions, and the possible technical and legislative actions that may be useful in curtailing possible privacy abuses in these systems are analyzed. (Author/MBR)

  3. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  4. Decoding the Structure of Abuse Potential for New Psychoactive Substances: Structure—Activity Relationships for Abuse-Related Effects of 4-Substituted Methcathinone Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    Many cathinone analogs act as substrates or inhibitors at dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters (DAT, NET, SERT, respectively). Drug selectivity at DAT vs. SERT is a key determinant of abuse potential for monoamine transporter substrates and inhibitors, such that potency at DAT > SERT is associated with high abuse potential, whereas potency at DAT < SERT is associated with low abuse potential. Quantitative structure—activity relationship (QSAR) studies with a series of 4-substituted methcathinone analogs identified volume of the 4-position substituent on the methcathinone phenyl ring as one structural determinant of both DAT vs. SERT selectivity and abuse-related behavioral effects in an intracranial self-stimulation procedure in rats. Subsequent modeling studies implicated specific amino acids in DAT and SERT that might interact with 4-substituent volume to determine effects produced by this series of cathinone analogs. These studies illustrate use of QSAR analysis to investigate pharmacology of cathinones and function of monoamine transporters. PMID:27696217

  5. MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John; Miller, Allison L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course.

  6. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Harrison, Joseph A.; Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. Objectives This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Methods Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a cross-over design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings, and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9 hour sessions. Results Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 minutes after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., “drug liking”) were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance) the routes were equipotent. Conclusions The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low. PMID:25199955

  7. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Chad J; Harrison, Joseph A; Carter, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-03-01

    Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, and 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, and 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a crossover design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9-h sessions. Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer-lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 min after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., "drug liking") were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance), the routes were equipotent. The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low.

  8. Predicting abuse potential of stimulants and other dopaminergic drugs: overview and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B

    2014-12-01

    Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  10. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 "Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients".

    PubMed

    Mattoo, Khurshid A; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups.

  11. Disrupted reinforcement learning and maladaptive behavior in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a high-density event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2013-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), and high-risk behaviors. Despite the epidemiological data available, the mechanisms underlying these maladaptive outcomes remain poorly understood. We examined whether a history of CSA, particularly in conjunction with a past episode of MDD, is associated with behavioral and neural dysfunction in reinforcement learning, and whether such dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavior. Participants completed a clinical evaluation and a probabilistic reinforcement task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Academic setting; participants recruited from the community. Fifteen women with a history of CSA and remitted MDD (CSA + rMDD), 16 women with remitted MDD with no history of CSA (rMDD), and 18 healthy women (controls). Three or more episodes of coerced sexual contact (mean [SD] duration, 3.00 [2.20] years) between the ages of 7 and 12 years by at least 1 male perpetrator. Participants' preference for choosing the most rewarded stimulus and avoiding the most punished stimulus was evaluated. The feedback-related negativity and error-related negativity-hypothesized to reflect activation in the anterior cingulate cortex-were used as electrophysiological indices of reinforcement learning. No group differences emerged in the acquisition of reinforcement contingencies. In trials requiring participants to rely partially or exclusively on previously rewarded information, the CSA + rMDD group showed (1) lower accuracy (relative to both controls and the rMDD group), (2) blunted electrophysiological differentiation between correct and incorrect responses (relative to controls), and (3) increased activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (relative to the rMDD group). A history of CSA was not associated with impairments in avoiding the most punished stimulus. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors correlated with poorer performance of

  12. Disrupted Reinforcement Learning and Maladaptive Behavior in Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A High-Density Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2013-01-01

    Context Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), and high-risk behaviors. Despite grave epidemiological data, the mechanisms underlying these maladaptive outcomes remain poorly understood. Objective We examined whether CSA history, particularly in conjunction with past MDD, is associated with behavioral and neural dysfunction in reinforcement learning, and whether such dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavior. Design Participants completed a clinical evaluation and a probabilistic reinforcement task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Setting Academic setting; participants recruited from the community. Participants Fifteen remitted depressed females with CSA history (CSA+rMDD), 16 remitted depressed females without CSA history (rMDD), and 18 healthy females. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ preference for choosing the most rewarded stimulus and avoiding the most punished stimulus was evaluated. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and error-related negativity (ERN)–hypothesized to reflect activation in the anterior cingulate cortex–were used as electrophysiological indices of reinforcement learning. Results No group differences emerged in the acquisition of reinforcement contingencies. In trials requiring to rely partially or exclusively on previously rewarded information, the CSA+rMDD group showed (1) lower accuracy (relative to both controls and rMDD), (2) blunted electrophysiological differentiation between correct and incorrect responses (relative to controls), and (3) increased activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (relative to rMDD). CSA history was not associated with impairments in avoiding the most punished stimulus. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors correlated with poorer performance of previously rewarded–but not previously punished–trials. Conclusions Irrespective of past MDD, women with CSA histories showed neural and

  13. Carisoprodol: update on abuse potential and legal status.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S; Kose, Samet

    2012-11-01

    Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant of which meprobamate, a controlled substance, is the primary active metabolite. The abuse of carisoprodol has increased dramatically in the last several years. A withdrawal syndrome occurs in some patients who abruptly cease carisoprodol intake. The symptoms of this syndrome are similar to those seen with meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that they may result from withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated with intake of excessive carisoprodol; however, carisoprodol is capable of modulating GABAA function, which may contribute to its abuse potential.There has been considerable debate about whether carisoprodol should be considered a controlled substance. Carisoprodol was removed from the market in Norway on May 1, 2008, but may still be used by specially approved patients. Carisoprodol was classified as a controlled substance in several US states, and effective January 11, 2012, became a schedule IV controlled substance at the US federal level. This article updates the literature on abuse potential and examines recent developments regarding the legal status of carisoprodol.

  14. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  16. NKTR-181: A Novel Mu-Opioid Analgesic with Inherently Low Abuse Potential.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takahiro; Choi, Irene Y; Rubas, Werner; Anand, Neel K; Ali, Cherie; Evans, Juli; Gursahani, Hema; Hennessy, Marlene; Kim, Grace; McWeeney, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Juergen; Quach, Phi; Gauvin, David; Riley, Timothy A; Riggs, Jennifer A; Gogas, Kathleen; Zalevsky, Jonathan; Doberstein, Stephen K

    2017-10-01

    The increasing availability of prescription opioid analgesics for the treatment of pain has been paralleled by an epidemic of opioid misuse, diversion, and overdose. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of conventional opioids such as oxycodone and morphine represents an advance in the field and has had a positive but insufficient impact, as most opioids are still prescribed in highly abusable, non-ADF forms, and abusers can tamper with ADF medications to liberate the abusable opioid within. The abuse liability of mu-opioid agonists appears to be dependent on their rapid rate of entry into the central nervous system (CNS), whereas analgesic activity appears to be a function of CNS exposure alone, suggesting that a new opioid agonist with an inherently low rate of influx across the blood-brain barrier could mediate analgesia with low abuse liability, regardless of formulation or route of administration. NKTR-181 is a novel, long-acting, selective mu-opioid agonist with structural properties that reduce its rate of entry across the blood-brain barrier compared with traditional mu-opioid agonists. NKTR-181 demonstrated maximum analgesic activity comparable to that of oxycodone in hot-plate latency and acetic-acid writhing models. NKTR-181 was distinguishable from oxycodone by its reduced abuse potential in self-administration and progressive-ratio break point models, with behavioral effects similar to those of saline, as well as reduced CNS side effects as measured by the modified Irwin test. The in vitro and in vivo studies presented here demonstrate that NKTR-181 is the first selective mu-opioid agonist to combine analgesic efficacy and reduced abuse liability through the alteration of brain-entry kinetics. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. A Study on Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seçim, Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine options to increase the supportive power of parents, teachers, school administrators, and counselors who directly interact with children and adolescents and have a fundamental responsibility to protect them from the risks of substance abuse and evaluate the effectiveness of associated training programs. The study design…

  18. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse may cause oxidative stress and potential free radical damage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun F; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Ye H; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huai H

    2003-05-01

    To investigate whether 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse (MDMA abuse) may cause oxidative stress and potential free radical damage in the bodies of MDMA abusers (MA), and to explore the mechanisms by which MDMA abuse may be causing oxidative stress. One hundred and twenty MA and 120 healthy volunteers (HV) were enrolled in a random control study design, in which the level of lipoperoxide (LPO) in erythrocytes, and the levels of Vitamin C (VC), Vitamin E (VE) and beta-carotene (beta-CAR) in plasma as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in erythrocytes were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Compared with the average values of the above biochemical parameters in the HV group, the average value of LPO in erythrocytes in the MA group was significantly increased (P < 0.0001), while the average values of VC, VE and beta-CAR in plasma as well as those of SOD and CAT in erythrocytes in the MA group were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001). The analysis of bivariate correlations suggested that with the increase of the MDMA abuse dose and the MDMA abuse duration, the level of LPO in erythrocytes in the MA was increased (P < 0.0001), while the levels of VC, VE and beta-CAR in plasma as well as the activities of SOD and CAT in erythrocytes in the MA were decreased (P < 0.0001). The findings in this study suggest that MDMA abuse may cause oxidative stress and potential free radical damage to MA.

  19. Emotional functioning, attachment style, and attributions as predictors of child abuse potential in domestic violence victims.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-04-01

    To explore cognitive and emotional factors that may exacerbate child-abuse potential among domestic violence victims, 80 participants reported on their depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and anger as well as their attachment style and attributional style. Increased emotional difficulties as well as insecure attachment styles were significantly positively correlated with child abuse potential, although depression and anxiety were the strongest predictors. Externalizing blame for the spousal abuse was not associated with abuse risk. Women residing in shelters demonstrated significantly greater abuse risk than those in transitional housing programs, suggesting that greater temporal proximity to the spousal abuse may in part account for the increased abuse potential. Depression and hopelessness, however, appeared particularly relevant to increased abuse risk in domestic violence victims in the transitional housing system. Implications of these findings for working with battered women in terms of their emotional functioning and attachment style are discussed.

  20. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol abuse in women--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J; Mullen, P E; Sibthorpe, B; Attewell, R; Bammer, G

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the association between reporting childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and alcohol abuse in a community sample of women using multivariate analysis which took into account a range of potential confounding variables (such as a family history of alcoholism) and effect modifiers (such as having an alcoholic partner). A two-stage retrospective case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between reporting CSA and alcohol abuse in women. Seven hundred and ten women randomly selected from the Australian federal electoral rolls. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure alcohol abuse. A series of questions based on those developed by Wyatt (1985) were used to ascertain the prevalence of CSA. The final model showed that the relationship between a history of CSA and alcohol abuse reflected a complex interaction between CSA and a range of other factors in a woman's background. CSA was not by itself a significant predictor of alcohol abuse (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.31-1.20). However, a history of CSA became significant in combination with co-factors which included: having a mother who was perceived as cold and uncaring; having an alcoholic partner; and believing that alcohol is a sexual disinhibitor. This study indicates that CSA alone is not a causative factor in the development of alcohol abuse among women and highlights the importance of examining the family background of women with alcohol problems.

  1. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald; Pagoto, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. Objectives . To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Methods Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m=27.64, SD=2.59) women (ages 18–45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate:protein ≥ 6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better. Results Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria following the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage, but no differential effect on vigor. Conclusion For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight. PMID:18273603

  2. MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Miller, Allison L.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. Aims To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Method Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Results Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. Conclusions The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course. PMID:21628708

  3. Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth.

    PubMed

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships.

  4. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  5. Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasal drug abuse (N = 27). Active treatments contained oxycodone (30 mg). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., Overall Drug Liking [ODL], Take Drug Again [TDA], and High Visual Analog Scales [VAS]; Subjective Drug Value [SDV]; pupillometry; intranasal irritation), and safety (e.g., adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests) were assessed to 24 hours postdose. Crushed ORF administration yielded reduced oxycodone Cmax and increased Tmax versus crushed OC and Oxy API. Peak effects for pharmacodynamic measures were delayed with ORF (1–2 hours) versus OC and Oxy API (0.5–1 hour). ODL, TDA, High VAS, and SDV Emax values were significantly lower (P ≤ .05) and some intranasal irritation ratings were greater for ORF versus OC and Oxy API. No significant or unexpected safety findings were observed. Compared with OC and Oxy API, intranasally administered ORF was associated with lower and delayed peak plasma concentrations, decreased drug-liking, and decreased intranasal tolerability. This suggests that ORF has a decreased potential for intranasal oxycodone abuse. There were no significant or unexpected safety findings. As is true for all abuse potential studies, epidemiological or other appropriate post-marketing studies are required to assess the impact of the reduction in intranasal oxycodone abuse potential observed in the present study on real-world patterns of ORF misuse, abuse, and diversion. PMID:24243216

  6. Russian perspectives on elder abuse: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, Karina; Malley-Morrison, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyze Russian perceptions of elder abuse as reflected in their examples of abusive behavior from an adult child to an aging parent. Also of interest was the possibility of gender differences in the Russian perspectives on elder abuse. The convenience sample consisted of 21 Russian participants (10 males, 10 females, and one without gender identified), who provided examples of extreme, moderate, and mild abuse from an adult child towards an aging parent. Most examples of extreme abuse were forms of physical violence. Typical examples of moderate abuse were instances of psychological aggression-particularly verbal aggression-and neglect. The most common examples of mild abuse were verbal aggression and neglect. One-way analyses of variance revealed statistically significant gender differences in the number of references to psychological aggression in general and to verbal aggression in particular in the examples of moderate abuse, with females giving more examples than males.

  7. Poison control center experience with tianeptine: an unregulated pharmaceutical product with potential for abuse.

    PubMed

    Marraffa, Jeanna M; Stork, Christine M; Hoffman, Robert S; Su, Mark K

    2018-05-25

    Interest in tianeptine as a potential drug of abuse is increasing in the United States. We performed a retrospective study of calls to the New York State Poison Control Centers (PCCs) designed to characterize one state's experience with tianeptine. Data were gathered from existing records utilizing the poison center data collection system, Toxicall® entered between 1 January 2000 through 1 April 2017. Information regarding patient demographics, reported dose and formulation of tianeptine, reported coingestants, brief narrative description of the case, disposition, and case outcome was collected. There were nine reported cases of tianeptine exposure. Seven were male with a mean age of 27. Three reported therapeutic use of tianeptine and five reported intentional abuse. One case was an unintentional pediatric exposure. Doses were reported in three cases; 12.5 mg in a pediatric unintentional exposure, and 5 and 10 g daily in the two reports of intentional abuse. Of note, five patients complained of symptoms consistent with opioid withdrawal. In one of two cases in which naloxone was administered, an improvement in mental status and the respiratory drive was noted. Outcomes reported in Toxicall® were minor in two cases, moderate in five cases, major in one case, and not reported in one case. These cases, reported to the New York State PCCs should alert readers to the potential for tianeptine abuse, dependence, and withdrawal.

  8. Brain Potentials Measured During a Go/NoGo Task Predict Completion of Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Fink, Brandi C.; Maurer, J. Michael; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Wilber, Charles H.; Jaffe, Adam J.; Sidz, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Clark, Vincent P.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Background US nationwide estimates indicate 50–80% of prisoners have a history of substance abuse or dependence. Tailoring substance abuse treatment to specific needs of incarcerated individuals could improve effectiveness of treating substance dependence and preventing drug abuse relapse. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that pre-treatment neural measures of a Go/NoGo task would predict which individuals would or would not complete a 12-week cognitive behavioral substance abuse treatment program. Methods Adult incarcerated participants (N=89; Females=55) who volunteered for substance abuse treatment performed a response inhibition (Go/NoGo) task while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were compared between individuals who completed (N=68; Females=45) and discontinued (N=21; Females=10) treatment. Results As predicted, stimulus-locked P2, response-locked error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), and response-locked error positivity (Pe), measured with windowed time-domain and principal component analysis, differed between groups. Using logistic regression and support-vector machine (i.e., pattern classifiers) models, P2 and Pe predicted treatment completion above and beyond other measures (i.e., N2, P300, ERN/Ne, age, sex, IQ, impulsivity, and self-reported depression, anxiety, motivation for change, and years of drug abuse). Conclusions We conclude individuals who discontinue treatment exhibited deficiencies in sensory gating, as indexed by smaller P2, error-monitoring, as indexed by smaller ERN/Ne, and adjusting response strategy post-error, as indexed by larger Pe. However, the combination of P2 and Pe reliably predicted 83.33% of individuals who discontinued treatment. These results may help in the development of individualized therapies, which could lead to more favorable, long-term outcomes. PMID:24238783

  9. Depression and anger as risk factors underlying the relationship between maternal substance involvement and child abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R; Caldeira, Nathilee A; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-02-01

    This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance use, diagnosis of depression, anger arousal and reactivity, and child abuse potential. Linear hierarchical regressions revealed that anger arousal and reactivity exceeded diagnostic and demographic variables in predicting maternal child abuse potential. Additionally, anger arousal and reactivity was found to be a partial mediator of the relationship between diagnostic category and child abuse potential. Findings are discussed in relation to a multifaceted model of child abuse potential which broadens the existing literature to include an examination of depression and emotion regulation in order to more fully understand how substance use and child abuse potential are linked. Models and approaches which help clients to manage and regulate difficult feeling states, specifically anger, could be helpful, and may be most readily applied in such populations. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Abuse of Incarcerated Fathers: A Study of the Measurement of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of abuse hypothesis often only examined the "existence" of abuse. The current study utilizes retrospective recalls of incarcerated male defendants (N = 414), using questions formulated from the modified Conflict Tactics Scales. Five logistic regression models are run, representing a different physical…

  11. Co-occurrence between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential: the impact of cumulative stress.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Gordis, Elana B

    2003-06-01

    Evidence suggests that marital aggression and parent-to-child aggression sometimes occur within the same family, but little is known about why certain families are vulnerable to multiple forms of family aggression. According to family systems theory, negative affect in one family relationship can spread to other family relationships. According to family stress theory, aversive circumstances increase families' vulnerability to disruption and conflict. Based on these theories, the present study tests the hypothesis that cumulative family stresses potentiate the association between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential. In a series of additive interactional models, husband-to-wife aggression was linked to husbands' and wives' child abuse potential in a context of both high financial stress and high parenting stress but was not linked in a context of low stress. Wife-to-husband aggression was linked to wives', but not husbands', child abuse potential in a context of high stress. These results highlight the potential role of contextual factors in the pervasiveness of aggressive exchanges across multiple family subsystems.

  12. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  13. Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…

  14. The abuse potential of medical psilocybin according to the 8 factors of the Controlled Substances Act.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R; Hendricks, Peter S; Henningfield, Jack E

    2018-06-05

    This review assesses the abuse potential of medically-administered psilocybin, following the structure of the 8 factors of the US Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Research suggests the potential safety and efficacy of psilocybin in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress and substance use disorders, setting the occasion for this review. A more extensive assessment of abuse potential according to an 8-factor analysis would eventually be required to guide appropriate schedule placement. Psilocybin, like other 5-HT2A agonist classic psychedelics, has limited reinforcing effects, supporting marginal, transient non-human self-administration. Nonetheless, mushrooms with variable psilocybin content are used illicitly, with a few lifetime use occasions being normative among users. Potential harms include dangerous behavior in unprepared, unsupervised users, and exacerbation of mental illness in those with or predisposed to psychotic disorders. However, scope of use and associated harms are low compared to prototypical abused drugs, and the medical model addresses these concerns with dose control, patient screening, preparation and follow-up, and session supervision in a medical facility. (1) psilocybin has an abuse potential appropriate for CSA scheduling if approved as medicine; (2) psilocybin can provide therapeutic benefits that may support the development of an approvable New Drug Application (NDA) but further studies are required which this review describes; (3) adverse effects of medical psilocybin are manageable when administered according to risk management approaches; and (4) although further study is required, this review suggests that placement in Schedule IV may be appropriate if a psilocybin-containing medicine is approved. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  16. GC-MS/MS detects potential pregabalin abuse in susceptible subjects' hair.

    PubMed

    Ianni, Federica; Aroni, Kyriaki; Gili, Alessio; Sardella, Roccaldo; Bacci, Mauro; Lancia, Massimo; Natalini, Benedetto; Gambelunghe, Cristiana

    2018-06-01

    Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognised as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals. The other 140 patients had a history of opiate dependency and were monitored to assess compliance with methadone therapy. In view of determining pregabalin in hair samples, it was extracted in methanol, successfully derivatised to give the ethyl chloroformate derivative, and finally pregabalin was analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, intra- and inter-day precision, and accuracy of the quantification procedure were appraised. Pregabalin limits of detection and quantification were 30 pg/mg and 50 pg/mg, respectively. We found 10.7% of hair samples from methadone patients and 4.29% from occasional drug users were positive to pregabalin without medical prescription. The mean pregabalin concentration in hair was higher than in consumers with medical indications (1.45 ng/mg vs 0.74 ng/mg). These results suggest that pregabalin possesses a significant abuse potential particularly among individuals attending opiate dependence services and that pregabalin abuse is a serious emerging issue, which should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disciplinary style and child abuse potential: association with indicators of positive functioning in children with behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Eden, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower dysfunctional disciplinary style and child abuse risk was associated with children's positive self-concept, adaptive attributional style, and hopefulness. Recruited from children undergoing treatment for disruptive behavior disorders, 69 mother-child dyads participated, with maternal caregivers reporting on their disciplinary style and abuse potential and children reporting independently on their positive functioning (adaptive attributional style, overall self-concept, and hopelessness). Findings supported the hypothesized association, with lower scores on mothers' dysfunctional discipline style and abuse potential significantly predicting children's reported positive functioning. Future research directions pertaining to more adaptive functioning in children with behavior problems are discussed.

  19. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  1. Emotional abuse among children: a study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elarousy, W; Al-Jadaani, M

    2013-10-01

    Emotional abuse is the most hidden and underestimated form of child maltreatment. We report an exploratory study in Saudi Arabia of the rate and types of emotional abuse among children and its association with selected variables. A convenience sample of 60 children aged 12-18 years was recruited from 3 malls in Jeddah. A specially designed, self-administered questionnaire was completed in confidence by the children with the consent of parents. Overall 90% of participants reported at least 1 form of rejecting emotional abuse and 61.7% at least 1 form of ignoring or terrorizing types of abuse. Chronic illness among parents was significantly positively correlated with terrorizing emotional abuse. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mothers' relationship with the child and ignoring and terrorizing types of emotional abuse. Further research is needed about the community prevalence, correlates and consequences of child emotional abuse in Saudi Arabia.

  2. A regulatory perspective on the abuse potential evaluation of novel stimulant drugs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Silvia N; Klein, Michael

    2014-12-01

    In the United States of America (USA), the abuse potential assessment of a drug is performed as part of the safety evaluation of a drug under development, and to evaluate if the drug needs to be subject to controls that would minimize the abuse of the drug once on the market. The assessment of the abuse potential of new drugs consists of a scientific and medical evaluation of all data related to abuse of the drug. This paper describes the regulatory framework for evaluating the abuse potential of new drugs, in general, including novel stimulants. The role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the evaluation of the abuse potential of drugs, and its role in drug control are also discussed. A definition of abuse potential, an overview of the currently accepted approaches to evaluating the abuse potential of a drug, as well as a description of the criteria that applies when recommending a specific level of control (i.e., a Schedule) for a drug under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Abuse potential and psychoactive effects of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray (Sativex), a new cannabinoid medicine.

    PubMed

    Robson, Philip

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing consensus that cannabis dependence is a substantial and underappreciated problem. The key component responsible for the euphoric effects of cannabis and its dependence potential is δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC-containing cannabinoid medicines theoretically pose a risk of abuse and dependence. In order to evaluate the potential of Sativex to cause cannabis-like psychoactivity, abuse or dependence relevant data from all published papers have been reviewed along with the integrated safety analysis for Sativex use in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on file at GW Pharmaceuticals. In clinical trials, intoxication scores have been low and euphoria reported by only 2.2% of patients. Tolerance has not occurred, abrupt withdrawal has not resulted in a formal withdrawal syndrome, and no cases of abuse or diversion have been reported to date. A formal abuse liability study of Sativex in experienced cannabis smokers showed some abuse potential in comparison with placebo at higher doses, but scores were consistently lower than equivalent doses of THC. Evidence to date suggests that abuse or dependence on Sativex is likely to occur in only a very small proportion of recipients.

  4. Evaluation of the Relative Abuse of an OROS® Extended-release Hydromorphone HCI Product: Results from three Post-market Surveillance Studies.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A; Cassidy, Theresa A

    2018-01-02

    Formulating prescription opioids to limit abuse remains a priority. OROS® extended-release (ER) hydromorphone HCl (EXALGO®) may have low abuse potential. Three post-marketing studies of the relative abuse liability of OROS hydromorphone ER were conducted. Estimates of abuse, unadjusted and adjusted for prescription volume, were generated for OROS hydromorphone ER and comparators from Q2 2010 through Q2 2014 for a high-risk, substance abuse treatment population and the general population using poison control center data. Comparators were selected for compound, market penetration, and route of administration (ROA) profile. ROA comparisons were made among the substance abuse treatment population. Internet discussion was examined to determine abusers' interest in and desire for the OROS formulation. Examination of abuse prevalence among adults within substance abuse treatment, intentional poison exposures and Internet discussion levels generally support the hypothesis that OROS hydromorphone ER may have lower abuse potential than many other opioid products. OROS hydromorphone ER also appears to be abused less often by alternate ROAs (e.g., snorting and injection). Lower levels of online discussion were observed along with relatively low endorsement for abuse. Abuse of OROS hydromorphone ER was observed in high-risk substance abuse and general population samples but at a very low relative prevalence. Evidence suggests it may be less often abused by alternate ROAs than some comparators. Online data did not find evidence of high levels of desire for OROS hydromorphone ER by recreational abusers. Continued monitoring of this product's abuse liability is warranted.

  5. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  6. A preliminary equine abuse policy with potential application to veterinary practice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract An equine abuse policy was developed as an adjunct to an equine management survey. If at least 3 of 5 categories caused concern, a report to the authorities was indicated. The policy was not used but, in the absence of other guidelines, it might assist veterinarians considering potential abuse cases. PMID:15884648

  7. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    PubMed

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  8. Abuse, cancer and sexual dysfunction in women: A potentially vicious cycle.

    PubMed

    Lees, Brittany F; Stewart, Taylor P; Rash, Joanne K; Baron, Shirley R; Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Kushner, David M

    2018-04-13

    More than 30% of women have a history of abuse. Women with cancer may be at substantially increased risk for abuse, but this issue is rarely discussed in the course of oncology care. Women with a history of abuse who present for cancer care commonly have a high prevalence of co-morbid illness. Sexual dysfunction, a highly prevalent but under-recognized condition among women of all ages, is also more common among both women with a history of abuse and women with cancer. Although common after cancer, sexual dysfunction, like abuse, can be stigmatizing and often goes undiagnosed and untreated. This review first examines the literature for evidence of a relationship between any history of abuse and cancer among women, addressing two questions: 1) How does abuse promote or create risk for developing cancer? 2) How does cancer increase a woman's susceptibility to abuse? We then examine evidence for a relationship between abuse and female sexual dysfunction, followed by an investigation of the complex relationship between all three factors: abuse, sexual dysfunction and cancer. The literature is limited by a lack of harmonization of measures across studies, retrospective designs, and small and idiosyncratic samples. Despite these limitations, it is imperative that providers integrate the knowledge of this complex relationship into the care of women with cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using in vitro models for expression profiling studies on ethanol and drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Christelle; Hassan, Sajida; Miles, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The use of expression profiling with microarrays offers great potential for studying the mechanisms of action of drugs of abuse. Studies with the intact nervous system seem likely to be most relevant to understanding the mechanisms of drug abuse-related behaviours. However, the use of expression profiling with in vitro culture models offers significant advantages for identifying details of cellular signalling actions and toxicity for drugs of abuse. This study discusses general issues of the use of microarrays and cell culture models for studies on drugs of abuse. Specific results from existing studies are also discussed, providing clear examples of relevance for in vitro studies on ethanol, nicotine, opiates, cannabinoids and hallucinogens such as LSD. In addition to providing details on signalling mechanisms relevant to the neurobiology of drugs of abuse, microarray studies on a variety of cell culture systems have also provided important information on mechanisms of cellular/organ toxicity with drugs of abuse. Efforts to integrate genomic studies on drugs of abuse with both in vivo and in vitro models offer the potential for novel mechanistic rigor and physiological relevance.

  10. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  11. Synthetic Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Behavioral Effects, and Abuse Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has been used throughout the world for centuries. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are largely attributable to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the prototypical cannabinoid that occurs naturally in the plant. More recently, chemically- and pharmacologically-distinct synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) have emerged as drugs of abuse. As compared to Δ9-THC, the distinct structures of these compounds allow them to avoid legal restrictions (at least initially) and detection in standard drug screens. This has contributed to the popularity of SCBs among drug users who seek to avoid positive drug screens. Importantly, the distinct structures of the SCBs also typically result in increased affinity for and efficacy at cannabinoid CB1 receptors, which are thought to be responsible for the psychoactive effects of Δ9-THC and its analogues. Accordingly, it seems likely that these more powerful cannabimimetic effects could result in increased adverse reactions and toxicities not elicited by Δ9-THC in cannabis. Animal models useful for the study of emerging SCBs include the cannabinoid tetrad, drug discrimination, and assays of tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. However, these in vivo procedures have not been particularly informative with regards to drug efficacy, where the majority of SCB effects are comparable to those of Δ9-THC. In contrast, essentially all in vitro measures of drug efficacy confirm Δ9-THC as a relatively weak CB1 partial agonist, while the majority of the SCBs detected in commercial preparations are full agonists at the CB1 receptor. As use of these emerging SCBs continues to rise, there is an urgent need to better understand the pharmacology and toxicology of these novel compounds. PMID:26413452

  12. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  13. The role of adverse events and related safety data in the pre-market evaluation of drug abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, Robert S; Schoedel, Kerri A; Kittrelle, Jeffrey P; Sellers, Edward M

    2010-12-01

    The scientific and regulatory assessment of abuse and dependence potential of drugs involves a multi-layered evaluation of its properties related to chemistry, formulation, pharmacology, animal behavior and clinical response. In addition to the primary laboratory-based assessment in experienced drug users, data are also reviewed from studies in healthy volunteers and in the patient population. Much of the emphasis in these latter studies is placed on adverse events that are reported by the subject or observed by the investigator. Unlike other aspects of abuse potential assessment, the evaluation of abuse- and dependence-related events has not been the subject of scholarly research. The present commentary presents recommendations for several areas that would benefit from a consensus review to result in greater standardization for the analysis and presentation of abuse- and dependence-related data from clinical trials. These include special investigator training, a system of weighted primary and secondary terms, adjudication of individual events, case report management, organization of integrated safety data, and protocols for drug accountability. Such an effort would aid in implementing the evolving efforts of health authorities to guide drug developers in the collection and presentation of data needed for the regulation of drugs with the potential for abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  15. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts atmore » harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the

  16. Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal…

  17. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  18. Parental consanguinity and susceptibility to drug abuse among offspring, a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh

    2010-11-30

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential for pregabalin abuse or diversion after past drug-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Filipetto, Frank A; Zipp, Christopher P; Coren, Joshua S

    2010-10-01

    Pregabalin, primarily used to manage neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, is categorized as a Schedule V drug (ie, lowest potential for abuse) in the US Drug Enforcement Administration's Controlled Substances Act. Because pregabalin is not recognized as a drug with high-abuse potential, data on pregabalin abuse and addiction are lacking. The authors report a case of a 35-year-old woman with a history of opioid-seeking behavior who was prescribed pregabalin for pain control. The patient requested an increase in her medication 2 months after beginning treatment and, after her physician denied her request, subsequently obtained pregabalin from other sources. Over a 28-day period, the patient received a total of 88,500 mg of pregabalin. After learning of the other prescriptions, the patient's physician became suspicious of pregabalin abuse or diversion. In accordance with state medical board guidelines, the patient was discharged from the practice and referred to a local detoxification center.

  20. Adolescent mothers and child abuse potential: an evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, T L; Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L

    1996-11-01

    This research examines maternal and child factors that place adolescent mothers at risk for abusing their children. Using a longitudinal design, relationships among four risk factors (social supports, maternal psychological adjustment, maternal preparation for parenting, and child temperament), maternal psychological predisposition for aggressive coping (perceptions of stress and endorsements of punitive parenting), and maternal abuse potential were examined in a sample of 75 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Preparation for parenting, a construct which included knowledge and attitudes about children's development, was the strongest direct predictor of abuse potential; however, its effects were also partially mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the effects of child temperament on abuse were mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and identifying at-risk adolescents, were also discussed.

  1. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  2. Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Christopher J; Wright, Charlotte M

    2014-05-27

    There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. all eligible cases from 1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35-193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10).Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse.

  3. Establishing a Short Term Program Component To Build Self-Esteem in a Small Group of Abusive and Potentially Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith

    This practicum was designed to enhance the self-esteem of abusive and potentially abusive parents. A combination of strategies was used to enhance self-esteem and to help parents solve problems in an appropriate manner. The intervention strategy included three objectives: (1) gain the confidence of the participants; (2) use a curriculum that…

  4. Detection of elder abuse: Exploring the potential use of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© by law enforcement in the field.

    PubMed

    Kurkurina, Elina; Lange, Brittany C L; Lama, Sonam D; Burk-Leaver, Erin; Yaffe, Mark J; Monin, Joan K; Humphries, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    There are no known instruments to aid law enforcement officers in the assessment of elder abuse (EA), despite officers' contact with older adults. This study aimed to identify: 1) officers' perceptions and knowledge of EA, 2) barriers in detecting EA in the field, 3) characteristics officers value in a detection tool, and to explore 4) the potential for officers to use the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI)©. Data was collected from 69 Connecticut officers who confirmed that barriers to effectively detecting EA included a lack of EA detection instruments, as well as a lack of training on warning signs and risk factors. Officers indicated that the important elements of a desirable tool for helping to detect EA included ease of use, clear instructions, and information on follow-up resources. Approximately 80% of respondents could see themselves using the EASI © in the field, and a modified version has been developed for this purpose.

  5. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Parental child abuse potential and subsequent coping competence in disadvantaged preschool children: moderating effects of sex and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Cristina M; Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; de Arellano, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of abuse potential in parents on subsequent coping competence domains in their children, using a model empirically supported in a high-risk community sample by Moreland and Dumas (2007). Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity. Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. However, child abuse potential was not predictive of subsequent coping competence in any domain after controlling for previous levels of child coping competence. No moderating effects were found for sex and ethnicity, but results showed main effects of sex and ethnicity in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  8. Mothers of children with externalizing behavior problems: cognitive risk factors for abuse potential and discipline style and practices.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Erika M; Rodriguez, Christina M

    2008-08-01

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model (Milner, 1993, 2000), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old children, who were identified by their therapist as having an externalizing behavior problem, responded to self-report measures pertaining to cognitive risk factors (empathic perspective taking, frustration tolerance, developmental expectations, parenting locus of control), abuse risk, and discipline style and practices. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) provided a confirmation of the child's externalizing behaviors independent of the therapist's assessment. The results of this study suggest several cognitive risk factors significantly predict risk of parental aggression toward children. A parent's ability to empathize and take the perspective of their child, parental locus of control, and parental level of frustration tolerance were significant predictors of abuse potential (accounting for 63% of the variance) and inappropriate discipline practices (accounting for 55% of the variance). Findings of the present study provide support for processes theorized in the SIP model. Specifically, results underscore the potential role of parents' frustration tolerance, developmental expectations, locus of control, and empathy as predictive of abuse potential and disciplinary style in an at-risk sample.

  9. Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.

  10. Important statistical considerations in the evaluation of post-market studies to assess whether opioids with abuse-deterrent properties result in reduced abuse in the community.

    PubMed

    By, Kunthel; McAninch, Jana K; Keeton, Stephine L; Secora, Alex; Kornegay, Cynthia J; Hwang, Catherine S; Ly, Thomas; Levenson, Mark S

    2018-05-01

    Abuse, misuse, addiction, overdose, and death associated with non-medical use of prescription opioids have become a serious public health concern. Reformulation of these products with abuse-deterrent properties is one approach for addressing this problem. FDA has approved several extended-release opioid analgesics with abuse-deterrent labeling, the bases of which come from pre-market studies. As all opioid analgesics must be capable of delivering the opioid in order to reduce pain, abuse-deterrent properties do not prevent abuse, nor do pre-market evaluations ensure that there will be reduced abuse in the community. Utilizing data from various surveillance systems, some recent post-market studies suggest a decline in abuse of extended-release oxycodone after reformulation with abuse-deterrent properties. We discuss challenges stemming from the use of such data. We quantify the relationship between the sample, the population, and the underlying sampling mechanism and identify the necessary conditions if valid statements about the population are to be made. The presence of other interventions in the community necessitates the use of comparators. We discuss the principles under which the use of comparators can be meaningful. Results based on surveillance data need to be interpreted with caution as the underlying sampling mechanisms can bias the results in unpredictable ways. The use of comparators has the potential to disentangle the effect due to the abuse-deterrence properties from those due to other interventions. However, identifying a comparator that is meaningful can be very difficult. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  12. Topical review on the abuse and misuse potential of tramadol and tilidine in Germany.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, Lukas; Glaeske, Gerd; Grond, Stefan; Münchberg, Frank; Scherbaum, Norbert; Storz, Elisabeth; Tholen, Kathrin; Zagermann-Muncke, Petra; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Hoffmann-Menzel, Helmut; Greve, Hendrik; Cremer-Schaeffer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Tramadol and tilidine (in combination with naloxone) are used as weak opioid analgesics in Germany. Tramadol is not scheduled in the German Narcotic Drugs Act. Tilidine is scheduled, whereas Tilidine in fixed combinations with naloxone is exempt from some of the provisions of the Narcotic Drugs Act. Recent reports on misuse of both substances led to an evaluation of their potential for misuse, abuse, and dependency by the expert advisory committee established by the German Federal Government, resident at the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. A subcommittee formulated key questions and identified available data sources for each of these questions. Additional information was solicited where necessary, including a survey among a panel of pharmacists, a survey in an addiction clinic, analysis of prescription patterns, and information from the boards of pharmacists of the federal states and the Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation. Analgesic efficiency in the treatment of acute and chronic pain has been proven for both tramadol and tilidine/naloxone. For tramadol, high evidence has been confirmed in systematic reviews, and tramadol is listed in national and international guidelines on acute and chronic pain management. Animal and human studies found a low potential for misuse, abuse, and dependency for both substances. Information from 2 tramadol safety databases allowed calculation of the incidence of abuse or dependency as 0.21 and 0.12 cases per million defined daily dosages (DDDs), with lower incidences in recent years. For tilidine/naloxone, the incidence was calculated as 0.43 cases per million DDDs for oral solution and 0.18 for slow-release tablets. In an online survey among German pharmacies as well as in the reports from state pharmacy boards, fraud attempts were repeated more frequently with tilidine/naloxone than with tramadol in the last 2 years. The Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigations reported prescription fraud only with tilidine

  13. "A morning since eight of just pure grill": a multischool qualitative study of student abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, Charlotte E; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2011-11-01

    Previous medical student abuse research employed quantitative surveys that failed to explore factors thought to contribute to abuse and students' actions in the face of abuse. This study examined medical student abuse narratives to identify types of perceived abuse, factors cited by students as contributing to abuse, and students' actions at the time of abuse. A qualitative design was adopted employing 22 individual and 32 group interviews to elicit narratives of professionalism dilemmas from 200 medical students at two 5-year undergraduate programs and one 4-year graduate entry program (England, Wales, and Australia) between 2007 and 2009. Thematic analysis of abuse narratives was conducted. Of 833 professionalism dilemma narratives, 86 (10%) involved perceived medical student abuse. Within these narratives, students reported mostly covert, status-related abuse, direct verbal abuse, and sexual harassment and discrimination. Some narrators described multiple factors contributing to abuse (individual, work, and/or organization); most cited factors focusing on individuals. Despite the abuse typically recounted with negative emotion, few participants reported resisting at the time of abuse by challenging or reporting the perpetrator. Participants gave a variety of reasons for this inaction (e.g., anxiety about receiving bad marks from the perpetrator) and for resisting (e.g., the abuse was affecting their education negatively). Although narratives focused predominantly on individual factors contributing to abuse and responses to abuse, educators should focus on the dynamic interplay between individual and organizational factors to combat abuse. Several opportunities to mitigate this continuing blight on the conscience of the profession are described.

  14. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... comments on the draft guidance by March 29, 2010. ADDRESSES: Submit written requests for single copies of...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability AGENCY: Food and... psychoactive effects such as sedation, euphoria, or mood change. DATES: Although you can comment on any...

  15. Abuse potential of carisoprodol: a retrospective review of Idaho Medicaid pharmacy and medical claims data.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Pugmire, Brooke; Salness, Ty; Culbertson, Vaughn; Force, Rex; Cady, Paul; Steiner, Joseph

    2007-10-01

    Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant indicated as adjunctive therapy in acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Case reports of drug-seeking behavior and utilization of carisoprodol in combination with opioids have suggested abuse potential. We undertook a retrospective review of claims data to identify and characterize potential indicators of abuse in long-term users of carisoprodol and to determine any continued use of the drug by former long-term users following prior authorization implementation. The Idaho Medicaid pharmacy and medical claims database was queried from January 1 to December 31, 2005, to identify long-term users of muscle relaxants. Use of concomitant opioids and coded diagnoses relating to past drug abuse were analyzed and compared between patients who used carisoprodol and patients who used other muscle relaxants. Data from 11 of 30 surveys mailed to pharmacies filling prescriptions for long-term users of carisoprodol were also collected to determine the frequency of self-pay-continued use after Medicaid coverage of the drug was discontinued. Long-term users of carisoprodol (n = 340) and other skeletal muscle relaxants (SMRs) (n = 453) were identified from among 130,000 individuals in the Idaho Medicaid pharmacy and medical claims database in calendar year 2005. Patients in both groups were similar in terms of mean age (~47 years) and sex (71.5% female). Patients using carisoprodol used concomitant opioids more frequently (81.5% vs 59.8%; P < 0.01), more commonly had past diagnoses indicating other drug abuse (34.1% vs 21.4%; P < 0.01), and in 80% of reported cases, continued to pay out of pocket for carisoprodol when third-party coverage was discontinued. Taken together, these findings are consistent with published case reports suggesting the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The results from this review suggest that, compared with long-term users of other SMRs, carisoprodol patients utilized concomitant opioids more frequently and concomitant

  16. Methamphetamine abuse and oral health: a pilot study of "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Ravenel, Michele C; Salinas, Carlos F; Marlow, Nicole M; Slate, Elizabeth H; Evans, Zachary P; Miller, Peter M

    2012-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (meth), a potent central nervous system stimulant, has been associated with significant dental disease. Current descriptions of "meth mouth" are limited in their scope and fail to illuminate the potential pathogenic mechanisms of meth for oral disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the oral health of subjects with a history of meth abuse as compared to nonabusing control subjects. A total of 28 meth abusers and 16 control subjects were enrolled. Interviews and surveys regarding meth abuse, dental history, oral hygiene, and diet were collected. A comprehensive oral cavity examination including salivary characterization was completed. We observed significantly higher rates of decayed surfaces, missing teeth, tooth wear, plaque, and calculus among meth abusers. No significant difference in salivary flow rates were noted, yet results showed significant trends for lower pH and decreased buffering capacity. These findings suggest that salivary quality may play a more important role in meth mouth than previously considered. Salivary analysis may be useful when managing a dental patient with history of methamphetamine abuse.

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Results Based on a Sample of Chinese Mothers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Y. C.; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Chun, P. K. R.; So, Moon Tong Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether or not the original six-factor structure of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory suggested by [Milner, J. S. (1986). "The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Manual" (2nd ed.). DeKalb, IL: Psytec. Inc.] can be confirmed with data from a group of Chinese mothers in Hong Kong. Method: Eight hundred and…

  18. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to maintain list of investors in... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters... the penalty for failure to maintain a list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters. Q-1: What...

  19. Men of Mexican Origin Who Abuse Women: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra W; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Gangialla, Christyn

    2018-03-01

    Current literature indicates that intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon that exists worldwide. However, little is known about why some men of Mexican origin abuse women. This descriptive study was conducted to understand the experiences of men of Mexican origin who abuse their intimate partners. A qualitative research design was used to conduct this study in a south Texas border community adjacent to the United States-Mexico border. This study builds on existing research and furthers the knowledge related to the factors contributing to intimate partner violence, including cultural factors. The results also reinforce the negative impacts of intimate partner violence on children and the family structure. Further research is needed to support the development of a culturally appropriate prevention and intervention program for men of Mexican origin who abuse women and their families.

  20. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective effects after sedation.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colonoscopy, the subjects were taken to a recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnare regarding the incidence and the content of dreams. A 5-point Likert scale was used to classify their dreams, and the content of the dreams was also recorded. To assess the subjective effects of propofol, the patients were asked to use the Hall and Van der Castle emotion scale; their biological states were also assessed. The patients' feelings regarding propofol were each rated as absent or present. We used the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale to measure the euphoric effects of propofol. At the end of the study, subjects scored their satisfaction on a five-point scale. There were no statistically significant differences in sex age, weight, propofol dose, or satisfaction ratio (p>0.05) in the groups, although male patients received a higher dose of propofol and had higher satisfaction ratio. Patients reported no residual after-effects. The incidence of dreaming was 42%. There was no statistically significant difference in dreaming between the sexes, but male patients had a higher dreaming ratio. Dreamers received higher propofol doses and had a higher satisfaction ratio (p>0.05). All dreamers reported happy dreams regarding daily life, and their mean MBG score was 10.5. There was no correlation between MBG scores and propofol doses (r= -0.044, p= 0.761). We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients enjoy its acute effects; and that no

  1. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective effects after sedation

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Methods: Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colonoscopy, the subjects were taken to a recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnare regarding the incidence and the content of dreams. A 5-point Likert scale was used to classify their dreams, and the content of the dreams was also recorded. To assess the subjective effects of propofol, the patients were asked to use the Hall and Van der Castle emotion scale; their biological states were also assessed. The patients’ feelings regarding propofol were each rated as absent or present. We used the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale to measure the euphoric effects of propofol. At the end of the study, subjects scored their satisfaction on a five-point scale. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in sex age, weight, propofol dose, or satisfaction ratio (p>0.05) in the groups, although male patients received a higher dose of propofol and had higher satisfaction ratio. Patients reported no residual after-effects. The incidence of dreaming was 42%. There was no statistically significant difference in dreaming between the sexes, but male patients had a higher dreaming ratio. Dreamers received higher propofol doses and had a higher satisfaction ratio (p>0.05). All dreamers reported happy dreams regarding daily life, and their mean MBG score was 10.5. There was no correlation between MBG scores and propofol doses (r= -0.044, p= 0.761). Conclusions: We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients

  2. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  3. Relative Bioavailability, Intranasal Abuse Potential, and Safety of Benzhydrocodone/Acetaminophen Compared with Hydrocodone Bitartrate/Acetaminophen in Recreational Drug Abusers.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Sven M; Mickle, Travis C; Barrett, Andrew C; Roupe, Kathryn Ann; Zhou, Jing; Lam, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    Benzhydrocodone is a hydrocodone prodrug that has been combined with acetaminophen (APAP) in a novel immediate-release analgesic. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability, intranasal abuse potential, and safety of benzhydrocodone/APAP compared with commercially available hydrocodone bitartrate (HB)/APAP. Single-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two-part study comprising a Dose Selection (Part A) phase and a Main Study (Part B) phase. Clinical research site. Healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users with a history of intranasal abuse. Subjects (N = 42) in Part B received five in-clinic treatments consisting of intranasal and oral benzhydrocodone/APAP (13.34/650 mg), intranasal and oral hydrocodone/APAP (15/650 mg), and placebo, with four or more days of washout between treatments. Pharmacodynamic assessments included subjective effects of Drug Liking, Overall Drug Liking, and Take Drug Again (assessed on visual analog scale [VAS]), as well as nasal irritation. Pharmacokinetics and safety were also assessed. Hydrocodone Cmax was 11% lower for intranasal benzhydrocodone/APAP vs intranasal HB/APAP (P = 0.0027). Early cumulative hydrocodone exposures for intranasal benzhydrocodone/APAP through 0.5, 1, and 2 hours were reduced by approximately 50%, 29%, and 15%, respectively (P ≤ 0.0024). Correspondingly, Drug Liking VAS values up to two hours postdose were significantly lower for intranasal benzhydrocodone/APAP vs intranasal HB/APAP (P ≤ 0.0079), although peak Drug Liking VAS (Emax) scores were not different (P = 0.2814). Adverse nasal effects were more frequent for intranasal benzhydrocodone/APAP vs intranasal HB/APAP. Reduced hydrocodone exposure and drug liking at early time intervals, coupled with adverse nasal effects, can be expected to provide a level of deterrence to the intranasal route of abuse for benzhydrocodone/APAP.

  4. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  5. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    PubMed

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  6. Brain potentials measured during a Go/NoGo task predict completion of substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Fink, Brandi C; Maurer, J Michael; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Wilber, Charles H; Jaffe, Adam J; Sidz, Anna; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Clark, Vincent P; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-07-01

    U.S. nationwide estimates indicate that 50% to 80% of prisoners have a history of substance abuse or dependence. Tailoring substance abuse treatment to specific needs of incarcerated individuals could improve effectiveness of treating substance dependence and preventing drug abuse relapse. We tested whether pretreatment neural measures of a response inhibition (Go/NoGo) task would predict which individuals would or would not complete a 12-week cognitive behavioral substance abuse treatment program. Adult incarcerated participants (n = 89; women n = 55) who volunteered for substance abuse treatment performed a Go/NoGo task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were compared between participants who completed (n = 68; women = 45) and discontinued (n = 21; women = 10) treatment. As predicted, stimulus-locked P2, response-locked error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), and response-locked error positivity (Pe), measured with windowed time-domain and principal component analysis, differed between groups. Using logistic regression and support-vector machine (i.e., pattern classifiers) models, P2 and Pe predicted treatment completion above and beyond other measures (i.e., N2, P300, ERN/Ne, age, sex, IQ, impulsivity, depression, anxiety, motivation for change, and years of drug abuse). Participants who discontinued treatment exhibited deficiencies in sensory gating, as indexed by smaller P2; error-monitoring, as indexed by smaller ERN/Ne; and adjusting response strategy posterror, as indexed by larger Pe. The combination of P2 and Pe reliably predicted 83.33% of individuals who discontinued treatment. These results may help in the development of individualized therapies, which could lead to more favorable, long-term outcomes. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  8. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  9. Abuse potential of propofol used for sedation in gastric endoscopy and its correlation with subject characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ja Hyun; Byun, Heewon; Kim, Jun Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Propofol has been widely used for an induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia, or for sedation for various procedures. Although it has many ideal aspects, there have been several cases of drug abuse and addiction. The authors investigated whether there are abuse liable groups among the general population. We surveyed 169 patients after gastric endoscopic examination, which used propofol as a sedative, with the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) questionnaire. Other characteristics of the patients, such as past history, smoking habits, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse liability and sleep disturbance, were recorded by history taking and several questionnaires before the exam. Propofol had a high Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) score (representative value for euphoria) of 6.3, which is higher than marijuana, and a Pentobarbital-Chlorpromazine-Alcohol Group (PCAG) score (representative value of sedation) of 8.1, which is lower than most opioids. The MBG score showed no statistically significant correlation between any of the characteristics of the groups. In females, the PCAG score showed a correlation with age, and in males, it showed a correlation with a sleeping problem. Propofol had relatively high euphoria and low residual sedative effects. It had a more potent sedative effect in the female group who were young, and in the male group who had a low sleep quality index. There were differences in the abuse liability from a single exposure to propofol in the general population. Further study is needed to evaluate the abuse liability of repeated exposure.

  10. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2013-03-02

    Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger. Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse. The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial in our low-risk pregnant population

  11. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger. Results Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse. Conclusion The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial

  12. Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study in Community Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Henry, James

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a collaborative approach to the case management of child sexual abuse. Data from 323 criminal court files found a sex offense confession rate of 64 percent and plea rate of 70 percent. Fifteen cases went to trial and in six the offender was convicted. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  13. Maternal antenatal attachment style and potential fetal abuse.

    PubMed

    Pollock, P H; Percy, A

    1999-12-01

    Maternal antenatal emotional attachment (MAEA) to the fetus has been proposed as an important factor for the emergence of harm to the unborn child. The present study investigated whether MAEA was associated with self-reported intent to harm the fetus. Forty pregnant women, referred for psychological evaluation, completed a self-report measure of MAEA, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-2 (MCMI-2) and confidential self-report questions on irritation with the fetus, urge to harm the fetus and predicted future loss of control with the child. Interview data was used to determine the mothers' adult attachment styles. (1) Negative preoccupied MAEA was associated with increased likelihood of reported irritation with the fetus, preoccupied adult attachment, borderline, histrionic, paranoid personality dimensions and symptoms of anxiety, mood disturbances and depression. (2) Negative disinterested MAEA was associated with a dismissing adult attachment, narcissistic, antisocial, aggressive-sadistic and passive-aggressive personality dimensions, alcohol dependence, but not self-report intention to harm the fetus. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding difficulties which may emerge in mother-fetus bonding and the identification of and interventions for mothers who report an intention to harm the fetus.

  14. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Kurrle, Susan

    2004-10-01

    Elder abuse is a common and yet often unrecognised problem in our community. With up to 5% of the community dwelling older population being victims of abuse, the general practitioner has a pivotal role in identifying this abuse. This article provides an outline of the definition of elder abuse, describes the types of abuse seen and the reasons for occurrence of abuse. It summarises the role of the GP in the identification and management of abuse and provides guidance on intervention strategies. Case studies are used to illustrate the issues discussed. Elder abuse is defined as any pattern of behaviour which causes physical, psychological, financial or social harm to an older person. The role of the GP in identifying abuse is critical. The vast majority of older people visit their GP at least once a year, and the GP often has a long standing relationship with their patient and the patient's family. They are therefore ideally placed to identify elder abuse.

  15. Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35–193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10). Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Conclusions Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse. PMID:24884914

  16. Sympathomimetic effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse on oral health: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Koerdt, Steffen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Härtel-Petri, Roland; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R

    2016-05-26

    Methamphetamine, a highly addictive sympathomimetic stimulant, is currently widely abused worldwide and has been associated with devastating effects on oral health, resulting in the term "meth mouth". However, "meth mouth" pathology is primarily based on case reports with a lack of systematic clinical evaluation. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate (1) the pharmacological impact of methamphetamine on oral health with regard to saliva function, including the parameters saliva flow rate and total saliva production (ml/5 min) and the buffering capacity of saliva; (2) the contribution of the symptoms of bruxism and muscle trismus to potential oral health damage. We assessed the data of 100 chronic methamphetamine abusers and 100 matched-pair comparison participants. Primarily, we conducted an anamnesis with all methamphetamine abusers with regard to saliva dysfunctions, jaw clenching and pain in the temporomandibular joint. Subsequently, in the first part of the clinical enquiry, we tested the saliva flow rate and the total saliva production (ml/5 min) by using the sialometry method and the buffer capacity of saliva by determining the pH-value. In the second part of the clinical enquiry, we evaluated bruxism symptoms with respect to generalized tooth attrition, dentine exposure and visible enamel cracks and examined a potential muscle trismus by measuring the maximal opening of the mouth. The majority of methamphetamine abusers reported a dry mouth (72 %) and jaw clenching (68 %). Almost half of all methamphetamine abusers experienced pain in the temporomandibular joint (47 %). With regard to the clinical findings, methamphetamine abusers showed significantly lower total saliva production (ml/5 min) (p < 0.001), lower pH-values of their saliva (p < 0.001) and more bruxism symptoms (p < 0.001). However, we found no relevant trismus symptoms on comparing the two groups (p > 0.05). The sympathomimetic effects of chronic

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptor Agonists as Analgesics without Abuse Liability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans. PMID:23421672

  18. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Examining factors associated with elevated Lie Scale responding on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    PubMed

    Costello, Amanda H; Shook, Natalie J; Wallace, Nancy M; McNeil, Cheryl B

    2018-02-01

    Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent. Using data collected via multiple methods (including a non-face valid behavioral measure, intelligence screening, and self-report) from a predominantly at-risk sample of parents, the aim of this study was to better understand factors that may predict socially desirable responding on the CAPI. Results indicated that lower parental intelligence, a "positivity bias" (i.e., the tendency to learn and attend to positive over negative information during the non-face valid behavioral task), and lower reported depressive symptoms were associated with higher socially desirable responding. These findings suggest that assessors should thoughtfully consider the possibility that invalid CAPI scores may be more related to low intelligence and a positivity bias than to psychopathy and manipulation (e.g., purposefully trying to present oneself in a positive light to gain favor in a PCA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical characteristics of cough mixture abusers referred to three substance abuse clinics in Hong Kong: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tang, A K; Tang, W K; Liang, H J; Chan, F; Mak, S C; Ungvari, G S

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVES. Cough mixture is the third most commonly abused substance in patients attending the Prince of Wales Hospital Substance Abuse Clinic. The content of the local cough mixture is not well researched. Paranoid psychosis manifesting as persecutory delusions and derogatory hallucination, as well as mood symptoms, is common in these patients. The natural history and outcome of such psychoses associated with cough mixture abuse are not well known. This study aimed to address these questions. METHODS. This was a retrospective study of cough mixture abuse in Hong Kong. Case records of cough mixture abusers currently receiving treatment at the 3 substance abuse clinics at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, and the North District Hospital were retrieved for data collection. The patients' demographic data, duration and intake pattern of cough mixture, and use of any other drugs were documented. The presenting psychopathology, first urine toxicology results, diagnosis, treatment, number of hospitalizations, and course of the illness were also recorded. RESULTS. A total of 63 patients with the diagnosis of cough mixture abuse were identified in the database; 89% were male. The mean +/- SD age of the patients was 34.4 +/- 6.2 years; 67% were single and 83% were unemployed. The mean +/- SD age of onset of cough mixture abuse was 20 +/- 5 years. Psychiatric symptoms developed a mean +/- SD of 7.6 +/- 6.0 years after onset of abuse. According to the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders criteria, the top psychiatric diagnoses were substance-induced psychotic disorder (67%), schizophrenia (19%), depressive disorder (11%), and dysthymia (10%). The most common ingredients in the urine sample at first presentation were promethazine (75%), pseudoephedrine (67%), codeine (60%), ephedrine (57%), zopiclone (17%), and hydrocodone (16%). Additionally, 16% of patients were in the priority follow-up group. The mean +/- SD follow-up period was 6

  1. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Training family therapists to assess for and intervene in partner abuse: a curriculum for graduate courses, professional workshops, and self-study.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Shelley A

    2002-04-01

    Partner abuse is an epidemic with potentially dire consequences for individuals, families, and society. Family therapists must be able to competently assess for and intervene in abuse situations. This article presents a curriculum designed to provide family therapists with introductory knowledge and skills for the assessment and intervention of partner abuse. The curriculum, which is informed primarily by feminist and multicultural theories and practices, can be used in graduate courses, professional workshops, and for self-study.

  3. Establishing "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations: A proposed development framework.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Cone, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations are one strategy for mitigating the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Regulatory guidance documents describe the requirements for developing abuse-deterrent formulations of novel drugs and formulations; however, they do not address "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic formulations. As generics may be produced with different excipients and formulations compared to reference drugs, differences in their properties may impact their abuse-deterrent features. Currently, it is unclear what specific studies are needed to support generic abuse-deterrence claims. This commentary outlines several recommendations on the in vitro and in vivo testing required, including the conditions for conducting a human abuse potential study.

  4. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  5. Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…

  6. Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Stephen F; Benoit, Christine; Budman, Simon H; Fernandez, Kathrine C; McCormick, Cynthia; Venuti, Synne Wing; Katz, Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Background The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative attractiveness of 14 opioid analgesic products. Methods First, the concept of attractiveness was empirically defined with a group of prescription opioid abusers and experts in opioid abuse using a process called Concept Mapping. Abuse liability consisted of two components: factors intrinsic to the drug formulation (e.g., speed of onset, duration) and factors extrinsic to drug formulation (e.g., availability, availability of alternatives, cost). A 17-item Opioid Attractiveness Scale (OAS) was constructed, focusing on factors intrinsic to the drug product. Results A total of 144 individuals participated in tests of validity and reliability. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.85–0.94). Drug rankings based on OAS scores achieved good inter-rater agreement (Kendall's W 0.37, p < 0.001). Agreement on drug OAS scores between the developmental sample and a confirmation sample was good (IntraClass Correlations [ICC] of 0.65–0.69). Global ratings of overall attractiveness of the 14 selected opioid products by substance abuse counselors corresponded with the rankings based on OAS ratings of the abuser group. Finally, substance abuse counselors completed the OAS, yielding a high level of correspondence with ratings by the abuser group (ICC = 0.83, p = 0.002). The OAS differentiated attractiveness among 14 selected pharmaceutical opioid products. OxyContin, Dilaudid, and Percocet were ranked highest (most attractive); Talwin NX and Duragesic were ranked lowest (least attractive). Conclusion An

  7. Development and validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: a novel measure of the attractiveness of opioid products to potential abusers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; Benoit, Christine; Budman, Simon H; Fernandez, Kathrine C; McCormick, Cynthia; Venuti, Synne Wing; Katz, Nathaniel

    2006-02-02

    The growing trends in opioid abuse, assessment of the abuse liability of prescription opioid products, and growing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop 'abuse-resistant' formulations highlight a need to understand the features that make one product more 'attractive' than another to potential abusers. We developed a scale to measure the 'attractiveness' of prescription opioids to potential abusers, and used the scale to measure the relative attractiveness of 14 opioid analgesic products. First, the concept of attractiveness was empirically defined with a group of prescription opioid abusers and experts in opioid abuse using a process called Concept Mapping. Abuse liability consisted of two components: factors intrinsic to the drug formulation (e.g., speed of onset, duration) and factors extrinsic to drug formulation (e.g., availability, availability of alternatives, cost). A 17-item Opioid Attractiveness Scale (OAS) was constructed, focusing on factors intrinsic to the drug product. A total of 144 individuals participated in tests of validity and reliability. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85-0.94). Drug rankings based on OAS scores achieved good inter-rater agreement (Kendall's W 0.37, p < 0.001). Agreement on drug OAS scores between the developmental sample and a confirmation sample was good (IntraClass Correlations [ICC] of 0.65-0.69). Global ratings of overall attractiveness of the 14 selected opioid products by substance abuse counselors corresponded with the rankings based on OAS ratings of the abuser group. Finally, substance abuse counselors completed the OAS, yielding a high level of correspondence with ratings by the abuser group (ICC = 0.83, p = 0.002). The OAS differentiated attractiveness among 14 selected pharmaceutical opioid products. OxyContin, Dilaudid, and Percocet were ranked highest (most attractive); Talwin NX and Duragesic were ranked lowest (least attractive). An initial examination of the psychometric

  8. The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-07-01

    Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse.

  9. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results: Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. Conclusion: It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural. PMID:26816425

  10. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N

    2015-01-01

    Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural.

  11. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.

  12. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426

  13. Intranasal abuse potential of an abuse-deterrent oxycodone formulation compared to oxycodone immediate release and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Schoedel, Kerri; Bartlett, Cindy; Dick, Chris; Hakim, Nasrat; Geoffroy, Pierre

    To assess the intranasal (IN) human abuse potential of ELI-200, a novel immediate-release (IR) oxycodone formulation containing sequestered naltrexone. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active and placebo-controlled, five-way crossover study. Pharmacodynamics, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PKs) were evaluated for up to 36 hours postdose. Single site in Canada (INC Research Toronto). Healthy male and female nondependent recreational opioid users underwent a naloxone challenge and drug discrimination qualification test. Single IN dose of ground ELI-200 (30-mg oxycodone hydrochloride [HCl]/3-mg naltrexone HCl), crushed 30-mg oxycodone HCl IR (Roxicodone®), placebo, fixed placebo, and single oral dose of intact ELI-200 (30mg/3mg). Peak effect (E max ) for bipolar Drug Liking (0-100 point visual analog scale). Of the 44 randomized subjects, 37 completed all five treatment periods. All active treatments showed significantly higher (p<0.001) median Drug Liking E max relative to placebo. Significant reductions (p<0.001) in median Drug Liking [E max ] were observed for IN ELI-200 [56.0] compared to IN oxycodone IR [100.0]. Secondary positive or objective measures (High, Good Drug Effects, Overall Drug Liking, Take Drug Again, and maximum pupil constriction) showed significantly lower E max for IN ELI-200 (p<0.001) compared to IN oxycodone IR. IN administration of ELI-200 demonstrated significantly decreased effects on subjective and physiologic measures, and greater nasal irritation, compared to IN oxycodone IR. These findings, along with the PK profile of naltrexone, demonstrated that when ELI-200 capsules were ground and administered intranasally, the naltrexone component was rapidly released and conferred meaningful abuse-deterrent properties.

  14. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  15. Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H

    Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.

  16. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  17. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention.

  18. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 1: Regulatory Context and Risk Management.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M

    2018-02-01

    This article brings to the attention of drug developers the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential and provides practical suggestions about compliance with the Guidance. The Guidance areas are reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk. The Guidance provides substantial new detail on what needs to be done at all stages of drug development for central nervous system-active drugs. However, because many psychopharmacologic agents have unique preclinical and clinical features, the plan for each agent needs to be not only carefully prepared but also reviewed and approved by the FDA. Examples are provided where assumptions about interpretation of the Guidance can delay development. If the expertise and experience needed for assessing abuse potential during drug development do not exist within a company, external preclinical and clinical expert should be involved. Consultation with the FDA is encouraged and important because the specific requirements for each drug will vary.

  19. Human Abuse Potential of an Abuse-Deterrent (AD), Extended-Release (ER) Morphine Product Candidate (Morphine-ADER Injection-Molded Tablets) vs Extended-Release Morphine Administered Intranasally in Nondependent Recreational Opioid Users

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R.; Smith, Michael D.; Lawler, John; Lindhardt, Karsten; Dayno, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To compare the relative human abuse potential after insufflation of manipulated morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release injection-molded tablets (morphine-ADER-IMT) with that of marketed morphine ER tablets. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled five-way crossover study was performed with adult volunteers who were experienced, nondependent, recreational opioid users. After intranasal (IN) administration of manipulated high-volume (HV) morphine-ADER-IMT (60 mg), participants were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive IN manipulated low-volume (LV) morphine ER (60 mg), IN manipulated LV morphine-ADER-IMT, intact oral morphine-ADER-IMT (60 mg), and placebo in crossover fashion. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessments included peak effect of drug liking (Emax; primary endpoint) using drug liking visual analog scale (VAS) score, Emax using overall drug liking, and take drug again (TDA) VASs scores, and mean abuse quotient (AQ), a pharmacokinetic parameter associated with drug liking. Results. Forty-six participants completed the study. After insufflation of HV morphine-ADER-IMT and LV morphine-ADER-IMT, drug liking Emax was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) compared with IN morphine ER. Overall drug liking and TDA Emax values were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) after insufflation of HV morphine-ADER-IMT and LV morphine-ADER-IMT compared with IN morphine ER. Mean AQ was lower after insufflation of HV (9.2) and LV (2.3) morphine-ADER-IMT or ingestion of oral morphine-ADER-IMT (5.5) compared with insufflation of LV morphine ER (37.2). Conclusions. All drug liking, take drug again, and abuse quotient endpoints support a significantly lower abuse potential with insufflation of manipulated morphine-ADER-IMT compared with manipulated and insufflated non-AD ER morphine. PMID:27651510

  20. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  1. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  2. Care workers' abusive behavior to residents in care homes: a qualitative study of types of abuse, barriers, and facilitators to good care and development of an instrument for reporting of abuse anonymously.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Claudia; Dow, Briony; Hay, Susan; Livingston, Deborah; Livingston, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Elder abuse in care homes is probably common but inherently difficult to detect. We developed the first questionnaire to ask care home workers to report abuse anonymously. We held qualitative focus groups with 36 care workers from four London care homes, asking about abuse they had witnessed or perpetrated. The participants reported that situations with potentially abusive consequences were a common occurrence, but deliberate abuse was rare. Residents waited too long for personal care, or were denied care they needed to ensure they had enough to eat, were moved safely, or were not emotionally neglected. Some care workers acted in potentially abusive ways because they did not know of a better strategy or understand the resident's illness; care workers made threats to coerce residents to accept care, or restrained them; a resident at high risk of falls was required to walk as care workers thought otherwise he would forget the skill. Most care workers said that they would be willing to report abuse anonymously. Care workers were sent the newly developed Care Home Conflict Scale to comment on but not to complete and to report whether it was acceptable and relevant to them. Several completed it and reported abusive behavior. Lack of resources, especially care worker time and knowledge about managing challenging behavior and dementia were judged to underlie much of the abuse described. We describe the first instrument designed to measure abuse by care home workers anonymously; field-testing is the logical next step.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Abuse Potential of Benzhydrocodone, a Novel Prodrug of Hydrocodone, After Intranasal Administration in Recreational Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Travis C; Guenther, Sven M; Barrett, Andrew C; Roupe, Kathryn Ann; Zhou, Jing; Dickerson, Daniel; Webster, Lynn R

    2017-10-28

    Developing an acetaminophen-free, immediate-release hydrocodone product remains an unmet medical need; however, new opioid analgesics should not introduce new abuse risks. Benzhydrocodone is a prodrug of hydrocodone that must be metabolized into hydrocodone by enzymes in the intestinal tract to optimally deliver its pharmacologic effects. This study evaluated the intranasal pharmacokinetics and abuse potential of benzhydrocodone active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) compared with hydrocodone bitartrate (HB) API. Single-center, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Clinical research site. Healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Subjects (N = 51 Completers) were randomized to receive 13.34 mg of intranasal benzhydrocodone API and 15.0 mg of intranasal HB API (molar-equivalent doses of hydrocodone). Blood samples were taken, and Drug Liking scores (assessed on a bipolar visual analog scale) were obtained throughout each dosing interval. Nasal irritation and safety were assessed. Peak hydrocodone plasma concentration (Cmax) was 36.0% lower, and total hydrocodone exposures (AUClast and AUCinf) were 20.3% and 19.5% lower, respectively, for benzhydrocodone API compared with HB API (P < 0.0001). All partial AUC values were lower for benzhydrocodone API, with a ≥ 75% reduction in hydrocodone exposure at all time intervals up to one hour postdose (P < 0.0001). Median Tmax of hydrocodone following benzhydrocodone API was delayed by more than one hour compared with HB. Drug Liking score, as assessed by maximal liking (Emax), was significantly lower for benzhydrocodone API vs HB API (P = 0.004), with 45% of subjects showing a ≥ 30% reduction in Drug Liking Emax. Reductions in hydrocodone exposure and associated decreases in Drug Liking relative to HB suggest that the prodrug benzhydrocodone may deter intranasal abuse. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  4. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  5. Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB2 ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB2 drugs without CB1 psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB1 receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB2 is mainly expressed in peripheral cells and tissues, and is involved in immune signal transduction. Conversely, the CB2 receptor was recently detected in the CNS, for example, in the microglial cells and the neurons. While the CB2 neurons activity remains controversial, the CB2 receptor is an attractive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, immune system, cancer and osteoporosis without psychoactivity. This review addresses CB drug abuse and therapeutic potential with a focus on the most recent advances on new CB2 ligands from the literature as well as patents. PMID:22300098

  6. Managing severe pain and abuse potential: the potential impact of a new abuse-deterrent formulation oxycodone/naltrexone extended-release product.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; LeQuang, Jo Ann; Raffa, Robert B

    2018-01-01

    Proper management of severe pain represents one of the most challenging clinical dilemmas. Two equally important goals must be attained: the humanitarian/medical goal to relieve suffering and the societal/legal goal to not contribute to the drug abuse problem. This is an age-old problem, and the prevailing emphasis placed on one or the other goal has resulted in pendulum swings that have resulted in either undertreatment of pain or the current epidemic of misuse and abuse. In an effort to provide efficacious strong pain relievers (opioids) that are more difficult to abuse by the most dangerous routes of administration, pharmaceutical companies are developing products in which the opioid is manufactured in a formulation that is designed to be tamper resistant. Such a product is known as an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF). ADF opioid products are designed to deter or resist abuse by making it difficult to tamper with the product and extracting the opioid for inhalation or injection. To date, less than a dozen opioid formulations have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to carry specific ADF labeling, but this number will likely increase in the coming years. Most of these products are extended-release formulations.

  7. Brain potentials predict substance abuse treatment completion in a prison sample.

    PubMed

    Fink, Brandi C; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, Michael J; Fede, Samantha J; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-08-01

    National estimates suggest that up to 80% of prison inmates meet diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Because more substance abuse treatment while incarcerated is associated with better post-release outcomes, including a reduced risk of accidental overdose death, the stakes are high in developing novel predictors of substance abuse treatment completion in inmate populations. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study investigated stimulus-locked ERP components elicited by distractor stimuli in three tasks (VO-Distinct, VO-Repeated, Go/NoGo) as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in a sample of male and female prison inmates. We predicted that those who discontinued treatment early would exhibit a less positive P3a amplitude elicited by distractor stimuli. Our predictions regarding ERP components were partially supported. Those who discontinued treatment early exhibited a less positive P3a amplitude and a less positive PC4 in the VO-D task. In the VO-R task, however, those who discontinued treatment early exhibited a more negative N200 amplitude rather than the hypothesized less positive P3a amplitude. The discontinuation group also displayed less positive PC4 amplitude. Surprisingly, there were no time-domain or principle component differences among the groups in the Go/NoGo task. Support Vector Machine (SVM) models of the three tasks accurately classified individuals who discontinued treatment with the best model accurately classifying 75% of inmates. PCA techniques were more sensitive in differentiating groups than the classic time-domain windowed approach. Our pattern of findings are consistent with the context-updating theory of P300 and may help identify subtypes of ultrahigh-risk substance abusers who need specialized treatment programs.

  8. Blessed be the Children: A Case-Control Study of Sexual Abusers in the Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Cynthia; Fargo, Jamison; Jeglic, Elizabeth; Terry, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Individuals working in churches and other youth-serving institutions have a unique level of access to children, yet the problem of sexual abuse in institutional settings has received scant research attention. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a large sample of clergy (N = 1,121) and applied a social-ecological model of offending to identify risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration. Using a case-control study design that compared clergy sexual abusers with three control groups of clergy, this study focuses specifically on individual-, relationship-, and community-level factors associated with a higher risk of abuse in professional populations. Findings revealed that clergy sexual abusers tended to have more truncated pre-seminary dating histories, and that their dating and sexual partners were more likely to have been male than female. Self-reported sexual abuse history was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual abuse perpetration among clergy. Clergy abusers tended to be more involved with youth and adolescents in their ministries; however, they were observed to relate less well to youth and adolescents than their clergy counterparts. Given widespread changes in our cultural understanding of abuse as well as more specific changes in the organizational approach to seminary education, these differences underscore the role that youth-serving institutions and society can have in the primary prevention of child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Risk factors for child abuse: levels of knowledge and difficulties in family medicine. A mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Regnaut, Océane; Jeu-Steenhouwer, Marie; Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime

    2015-10-30

    Family physicians (FPs) have a central role in the detection and management of child abuse. According to the literature, only 2-5% of initial reports of child abuse come from the medical profession. The objective of this study was to assess levels of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse by Family Physicians (FPs) and the attention that the physicians pay to these risk factors. We conducted a mixed-method survey based on semi-structured interviews. 50 FPs practicing in the Somme County (northern France) were interviewed with closed and open questions. The FPs' level of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse and obstacles in the detection of child abuse were assessed. The FPs' level of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse was similar to that reported in the literature. However, FPs knew little about the significant role of prematurity. Likewise, the FP's training did not seem to influence their knowledge of risk factors. Fear of an incorrect diagnosis was the main obstacle to reporting a suspected case. The FPs considered that they were often alone in dealing with a difficult situation and considered that the judicial system and the social services were not sufficiently active. Few FPs had actually received specific training in the detection and management of child abuse but many stated their need for this type of training. FPs encounter many obstacles in the detection of child abuse, which sometimes make the FP reluctant to report a suspected or potential case. Medical education need to be improved in this field.

  10. Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott-Storey, Kelly

    2011-07-01

    For women, any one type of abuse rarely occurs in isolation of other types, and a single abusive experience is often the exception rather than the norm. The importance of this concept of the cumulative nature of abuse and its negative impact on health has been well recognized within the empirical literature, however there has been little consensus on what to call this phenomenon or how to study it. For the most part researchers have operated on the premise that it is the sheer number of different types of cumulating abuse experiences that is primarily responsible for worse health outcomes among women. And although this simplistic 'more is worse' approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing cumulative abuse has proven to be a powerful predictor of poorer health, it contradicts growing empirical evidence that suggests not all victimizations are created equal and that some victimizations may have a more deleterious effect on health than others. Embedded in abuse histories are individual and abuse characteristics as well as other life adversities that need to be considered in order to fully understand the spectrum and magnitude of cumulative abuse and its impact on women's health. Furthermore, given the long-term and persistent effects of abuse on health it becomes imperative to not only evaluate recent abusive experiences, but rather all abuse experiences occurring across the lifespan. This review highlights and evaluates the conceptual, operational, and methodological challenges posed by our current methods of studying and understanding the phenomenon of cumulative abuse and suggests that this phenomenon and its relationship to health is much more complex than research is currently portraying. This paper calls for the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaboration in order to more effectively and innovatively study the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.

  11. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  12. Dextromethorphan: a case study on addressing abuse of a safe and effective drug.

    PubMed

    Spangler, David C; Loyd, Catherine M; Skor, Emily E

    2016-06-23

    Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective cough suppressant, available without a prescription in the United States since 1958. Due to a perceived prevalence of abuse of dextromethorphan by teens, in 2007 the Drug Enforcement Administration requested the Food and Drug Administration evaluate whether dextromethorphan should be recommended for scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. The Food and Drug Administration held an Advisory Committee meeting in 2010 to provide a scientific and medical evaluation of dextromethorphan and its abuse potential. To address reports of abuse, particularly by teens in the United States, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association initiated an abuse mitigation plan in 2010 with specific goals related to awareness of the behavior, perception of risk, social disapproval, and access to the products. In identifying abuse interventions, experts acknowledge that substance abuse among teens is a highly complex behavior and indicate that the best course of action is to address prevention by focusing on the factors that impact teen behavior. It is noteworthy that the annual prevalence of over-the-counter cough medicine abuse has sharply decreased since 2010. While a true cause-and-effect relationship cannot be assured, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association and its member companies believe that the increased awareness of the issue since the 2010 Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee meeting, and the subsequent implementation of a well-delivered and targeted abuse mitigation plan that addressed the levers influencing teen decisions is contributing to the observed reduction in abuse. During the period of 2010-2015, reported abuse of dextromethorphan by 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) graders decreased 35 %. The authors believe this reduction supports the view of the Consumer Healthcare Products Association at the outset of the abuse mitigation plan effort and today: Controlled substance scheduling or prescription requirements would

  13. Psychosocial characteristics of nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls: findings from a prospective, multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihyun; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2007-11-01

    This study examined psychosocial characteristics of nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls. The sample consisted of 72 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 years, and 55 mothers of girls who were demographically similar with the abused girls on age, socioeconomic status, and family constellation. The variables examined included measures of the mothers' childhood developmental histories and current functioning (e.g., depression, parenting), as well as their current family environment. The specific questions addressed were (a) whether mothers of sexually abused girls could be distinguished from mothers of comparison girls on various psychosocial characteristics and (b) whether three subgroups of mothers (i.e., mother and daughter sexually abused, daughter-only abused, neither mother nor daughter abused) would exhibit different patterns of psychosocial characteristics. Results show that nonoffending mothers of sexually abused girls may confront considerable psychosocial challenges following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse and that mother's own childhood abuse experiences may be an important factor to understand these challenges.

  14. Child Witness to Domestic Abuse: Baseline Data Analysis for a Seven-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Blair, Faye; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2015-01-01

    Children who witness the abuse of their mother by an intimate partner suffer negative effects on behavioral functioning. In this study, 300 abused women seeking services for abuse were interviewed regarding how often their child had witnessed the abuse. Baseline data for this study found that boys who witnessed abuse had externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems comparable to boys in clinical treatment. Girls did not display clinically significant behaviors. For evidence-based programs to interrupt the effect of witness to violence on children, empirical data that are gender-specific are needed. Findings support the need to screen mothers for abuse during well-child visits and offer education to all mothers on the possible effects of child witness to violence in the home.

  15. Elder Abuse in the Iberian Peninsula and Bolivia: A Multicountry Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal, Rosa; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Ruiz-Gandara, África; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, Mª Aurora

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of abuse of vulnerable older persons in the family and community environment in the following regions-Spain (Andalusia-Córdoba), Portugal (Azores), and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)-and to identify risk factors and delineate a profile of abused older persons. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of people in the age group 65 years plus living in the catchment areas of health centers. The following were used as instruments to collect data: the medical record of the patients of relevant health centers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), daily activities autonomy test, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve (APGAR) familiar test, The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and the Social Work Evaluation Form. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with abuse. Suspected abuse was identified in 6.9% of the elderly who participated in the study in Spain, 39% in Bolivia, and 24.5% in Azores. In all areas, studied psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse. In conclusion, although the prevalence of abuse to older people in the family and community environment differs in the areas studied, it is present in all countries and the data are comparable with other developing and European countries. The profile of the abused older persons appears to be similar in all countries.

  16. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-07-26

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger.

  17. Application of Attachment Theory to the Study of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory provides useful conceptual framework for understanding familial antecedents and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Themes associated with insecure parent-child attachment (rejection, role reversal/parentification, and fear/unresolved trauma) are frequently found in dynamics of families characterized by sexual abuse, and…

  18. Human Abuse Potential of an Abuse-Deterrent (AD), Extended-Release (ER) Morphine Product Candidate (Morphine-ADER Injection-Molded Tablets) versus Extended-Release Morphine Administered Orally in Nondependent Recreational Opioid Users

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R.; Lawler, John; Lindhardt, Karsten; Dayno, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare the relative human abuse potential of intact and manipulated morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release injection-molded tablets (morphine-ADER-IMT) with that of marketed morphine sulfate ER tablets Methods. This randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, active- and placebo-controlled, 4-way crossover, single-center study included adult volunteers who were experienced, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Participants were randomized 1:1:1:1 to placebo, morphine-ADER-IMT (60 mg, intact), morphine-ADER-IMT (60 mg, manipulated), and morphine ER (60 mg, manipulated) and received 1 dose of each oral agent in crossover fashion, separated by ≥5 days. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic endpoints were assessed, including the primary endpoint of peak effect of Drug Liking (Emax) via Drug Liking Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score and the secondary endpoints of time to Emax (TEmax) and mean abuse quotient (AQ; a pharmacokinetic parameter associated with drug liking). Results. Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Median Drug Liking VAS Emax was significantly lower after treatment with manipulated morphine-ADER-IMT (67) compared with manipulated morphine ER (74; P = 0.007). TEmax was significantly shorter after treatment with manipulated morphine ER compared with intact (P < 0.0001) or manipulated (P = 0.004) morphine-ADER-IMT. Mean AQ was lower after treatment with intact (5.7) or manipulated (16.4) morphine-ADER-IMT compared with manipulated morphine ER (45.9). Conclusions. Manipulated morphine-ADER-IMT demonstrated significantly lower Drug Liking Emax compared with manipulated morphine ER when administered orally. Morphine-ADER-IMT would be an important new AD, ER morphine product with lower potential for unintentional misuse by chewing or intentional manipulation for oral abuse than currently available non-AD morphine ER products. PMID:27633773

  19. A study of shame from sexual abuse within the context of a Norwegian incest center.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny

    2013-01-01

    Working with those who have experienced sexual abuse is a complicated matter because such abuse not only involves the violation of the victim's body, but it often generates shame in those involved. This article is based on empirical data from 26 hours of videotaped focus group interviews with 19 adult men and women in a Norwegian incest center who spoke openly of the shame they experienced from sexual abuse as children, parents, and employees. Findings from this study show that shame from sexual abuse can be grouped into seven major categories: (a) family, (b) emotions, (c) body, (d) food, (e) self-image, (f) sex, and (g) therapy.

  20. A case of sexual abuse by a traditional faith healer: are there potential preventions?

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.

  1. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  2. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  3. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…

  4. The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Children: A Review and Synthesis of Recent Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; And Others

    Until recently the literature on the impact of child sexual abuse has consisted disproportionately of retrospective studies of adults. Research on children allows for a developmental perspective and includes the first efforts at longitudinal studies of sexual abuse victims. This literature also has important relevance to other theory and research…

  5. Perceived Discrimination, Harassment, and Abuse in Physician Assistant Education: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    DiBaise, Michelle; Tshuma, Lisa; Ryujin, Darin; LeLacheur, Susan

    2018-06-01

    A 2014 meta-analysis found that by graduation, 16.6% of medical students had reported abuse, harassment, or discrimination and that this hostile environment caused an increase in depression and anxiety. The purpose of this research study was to increase the understanding of discrimination and psychological/physical abuse in physician assistant (PA) education programs and the potential impact on student attrition. Information was collected using an online, anonymous survey that asked about witnessed or experienced discrimination and psychological or physical abuse during the didactic and clinical years of training in PA programs in the United States. The survey received 1159 respondents, which represents 6.1% of total PA student enrollment. Up to 30% of respondents had witnessed or experienced discrimination, and up to 2.3% had experienced psychological abuse while in PA school. The majority of witnessed or experienced discrimination during PA education was not reported (<2%). Reports were not made because students feared retribution or they simply did not know who to report to, particularly if the incident involved faculty. Reducing the prevalence of discrimination in PA education requires recognition of this issue and targeted efforts to ensure that the infrastructure of every program is inclusive and values diversity of all kinds. The authors advocate that PA programs discuss their current institutional reporting structure; develop a universal curriculum on workplace violence, discrimination, and harassment; and develop value statements that explicitly identify diversity and equity as a core value as an important first step to improving the overall "climate" and culture of the program.

  6. Childhood abuse and neglect and adult intimate relationships: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Colman, Rebecca A; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2004-11-01

    The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family class with non-abused and non-neglected children and followed prospectively into adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995, 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hour in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment and a variety of standardized rating scales. Male and female abuse and neglect victims reported higher rates of cohabitation, walking out, and divorce than controls. Abused and neglected females were also less likely than female controls to have positive perceptions of current romantic partners and to be sexually faithful. Although previous research on childhood maltreatment and adult intimate relationships has emphasized outcomes for female victims of childhood sexual abuse, present findings suggest that other forms of early maltreatment (physical abuse and neglect) also have a negative effect on both males' and females' ability to establish and maintain healthy intimate relationships in adulthood.

  7. Gender abuse and major depression among transgender women: a prospective study of vulnerability and resilience.

    PubMed

    Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004-2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse.

  8. Gender Abuse and Major Depression Among Transgender Women: A Prospective Study of Vulnerability and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004–2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). Results. We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Conclusions. Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse. PMID:24328655

  9. Post-Traumatic Symptomatology and Compulsions as Potential Mediators of the Relation Between Child Sexual Abuse and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2018-05-01

    Whilst evidence is mounting that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can be a cause of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), it is unclear what factors mediate this relation. Recent evidence suggests that post-traumatic symptomatology may mediate the CSA-AVH relation in clinical populations, although this hypothesis has not yet been tested in the general population. There is also reason to believe that obsessive ideation could mediate the CSA-AVH relation. To test for evidence to falsify the hypotheses that post-traumatic symptomatology, obsessions, compulsions, anxiety and depression mediate the relation between CSA and AVH in a general population sample. Indirect effects of CSA on AVH via potential mediators were tested for, using a regression-based approach employing data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 5788). After controlling for demographics, IQ and child physical abuse, it was found that CSA, IQ, post-traumatic symptomatology and compulsions predicted lifetime experience of AVH. Mediation analyses found significant indirect effects of CSA on AVH via post-traumatic symptomatology [odds ratio (OR): 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.00-1.29] and compulsions (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28). These findings offer further support for the hypothesis that post-traumatic symptomatology is a mediator of the CSA-AVH relation. Although no evidence was found for obsessional thoughts as a mediating variable, a potential mediating role for compulsions is theoretically intriguing. This study's findings reiterate the need to ask about experiences of childhood adversity and post-traumatic symptomology in people with AVH, as well as the likely therapeutic importance of trauma-informed and trauma-based interventions for this population.

  10. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  11. Child sexual abuse is largely hidden from the adult society. An epidemiological study of adolescents' disclosures.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning sexual experiences in this study with a focus on disclosure of sexual abuse (non-contact, contact or penetrating abuse, and including peer abuse). Of the sample, 1,505 girls (65%) and 457 boys (23%) reported experience of sexual abuse. The disclosure rate was 81% (girls) and 69% (boys). Girls and boys disclosed most often to a friend of their own age. Few had disclosed to professionals. Even fewer said that the incident had been reported to the authorities. Logistic regression showed that it was less likely for girls to disclose if they had experienced contact sexual abuse with or without penetration, abuse by a family member, only a single abuse occasion or if they had perceived their parents as non-caring. Boys were less likely to disclose if they studied a vocational program, lived with both parents or had perceived their parents as either caring and overprotective or non-caring and not overprotective. Disclosing sexual abuse is a complex process. Much is hidden from the adult society, especially from professionals and the legal system. Since peers are the most common receivers of abuse information, programs for supporting peers ought to be developed. Differences in disclosure patterns for girls and boys indicate that a gender perspective is helpful when developing guidelines for professionals. Professionals, especially in the school system, need to be more aware of the finding that few sexually abused children seek help from professionals or other adults and that support offers should be directly addressed not only to the vulnerable young persons themselves but also to peers who wish to help a friend.

  12. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  13. Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drug Abuse. Research Monograph 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne, Ed.; Asghar, Khursheed, Ed.

    This monograph presents the proceedings of the first National Institute on Drug Abuse technical review related to the conduct of controlled studies on prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Papers in the monograph are categorized by session. The first session (two papers) focused on the detection and quantification of prenatal drug exposure in…

  14. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  15. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  16. Attributions about Perpetrators and Victims of Interpersonal Abuse: Results from an Analogue Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shlien-Dellinger, Rania K.; Huss, Matthew T.; Kramer, Vertrie L.

    2004-01-01

    This analogue study (written vignettes and videotapes) examines the influence of victim-perpetrator relationship (spouse or acquaintance), sex of perceiver, and type of abuse (psychological vs. physical) on attributions about victims and perpetrators of domestic abuse. College student participants (73 men, 108 women) were randomly assigned to…

  17. Healing: a qualitative study of women recovering from abusive relationships with men.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M L

    1996-01-01

    The essence of the healing phenomenon in women who had been abused A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach (N = 7) Four major themes of healing were identified: flexibility, awakening, relationship, and empowerment. Each theme became an explication of the whole healing experience for each participant. The results of this research add to the knowledge of healing in women who have encountered abuse.

  18. Genetic and pharmacological antagonism of NK1 receptor prevents opiate abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Sandweiss, A J; McIntosh, M I; Moutal, A; Davidson-Knapp, R; Hu, J; Giri, A K; Yamamoto, T; Hruby, V J; Khanna, R; Largent-Milnes, T M; Vanderah, T W

    2017-05-09

    Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK 1 R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding. Complementing our genetic approach, we demonstrate utility of a bivalent pharmacophore with dual activity as a μ/δ opioid agonist and NK 1 R antagonist in inhibiting nociception in an animal model of acute pain while lacking any positive reinforcement. These data indicate that dual targeting of the dopaminergic reward circuitry and pain pathways with a multifunctional opioid agonist-NK 1 R antagonist may be an efficacious strategy in developing future analgesics that lack abuse potential.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 9 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.102.

  19. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.

  20. Case studies of children presenting with a history of ritualistic abuse.

    PubMed

    King, G F; Yorker, B

    1996-01-01

    Ritualistic child abuse is an alarming and controversial problem. Child psychiatric nurses need to increase their awareness of the clinical picture associated with this specific form of abuse. This article reviews the literature to date on ritualistic child abuse and addresses the controversy surrounding the phenomena. A small research project using historical data collection methods reviewed hospital records of children with a documented history of ritualistic abuse. Results are organized into clusters of linked interrelated characteristics. The symptom characteristics of these children revealed medical/somatic symptoms, distortion of self-oncept and world view, and a variety of emotional disturbances. The findings of this study are presented with implications for nurses who care for clients with a history of ritualistic abuse.

  1. Dysfunctional information processing in individuals with acute exposure to sexual abuse: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Park, Minkyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-06-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after traumatic event and also cause significant life time impairment. P300 event-related potential (ERP) is a potential biological marker for PTSD and can reflect cognitive impairment in information processing and attention. Despite the usefulness of ERP, there are few attempts to reveal relationships between ASD and P300. In the present study, we aimed to determine if the P300 of the patients who were the victims of sexual abuse reflected the quantitative trait of ASD or if P300 is applicable as a state marker for predicting the risk of PTSD.Fifteen female victims of sexual abuse diagnosed with ASD and 18 healthy controls (HCs) without trauma exposure participated in this study. We investigated the P300 ERPs in patients with ASD to compare them with those of HCs. ERPs were acquired from female adults during an auditory oddball task. Between-group differences in amplitudes or latencies of P300 were investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.The ASD groups showed reduced P300 amplitudes at the midline centroparietal site as well as reduced accuracy rates during an auditory oddball task compared with the HCs.These results indicate that ASD have abnormalities in the P300 compared to those in HCs. Moreover, the reduction in P300 could be considered a candidate neurophysiological marker for ASD.

  2. The lack of selection bias in a snowball sampled case-control study on drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C S; Rodrigues, L C; Sichieri, R

    1996-12-01

    Friend controls in matched case-control studies can be a potential source of bias based on the assumption that friends are more likely to share exposure factors. This study evaluates the role of selection bias in a case-control study that used the snowball sampling method based on friendship for the selection of cases and controls. The cases selected fro the study were drug abusers located in the community. Exposure was defined by the presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatric and drug abuse/dependence diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) criteria. Cases and controls were matched on sex, age and friendship. The measurement of selection bias was made through the comparison of the proportion of exposed controls selected by exposed cases (p1) with the proportion of exposed controls selected by unexposed cases (p2). If p1 = p2 then, selection bias should not occur. The observed distribution of the 185 matched pairs having at least one psychiatric disorder showed a p1 value of 0.52 and a p2 value of 0.51, indicating no selection bias in this study. Our findings support the idea that the use of friend controls can produce a valid basis for a case-control study.

  3. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  4. Association between elder abuse and poor sleep: A cross-sectional study among rural older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Raudah Mohd; Wazid, Syeda Wasfeea; Hairi, Noran N; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Farizah M; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ahmad, Sharifah N; Razak, Inayah A; Peramalah, Devi; Aziz, Suriyati A; Mohamad, Zaiton L; Mohamad, Rosmala; Ali, Zainudin M; Bulgiba, Awang

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association between elder abuse and poor sleep using a Malay validated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the construct validity and reliability of the Malay version of PSQI. Phase II was a population-based, cross-sectional study with a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Home-based interviews were conducted by trained personnel using a structured questionnaire, to determine exposure and outcome. Kuala Pilah, a district in Negeri Sembilan which is one of the fourteen states in Malaysia. 1648 community-dwelling older Malaysians. The Malay version of PSQI had significant test re-test reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.62. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that one factor PSQI scale with three components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep disturbances) was most suitable. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.60 and composite reliability was 0.63. PSQI scores were highest among neglect (4.11), followed by physical (4.10), psychological (3.96) and financial abuse (3.60). There was a dose-response relationship between clustering of abuse and PSQI scores; 3.41, 3.50 and 3.84 for "no abuse", "1 type of abuse" and "2 types or more". Generalized linear models revealed six variables as significant determinants of sleep quality-abuse, co-morbidities, self-rated health, income, social support and gait speed. Among abuse subtypes, only neglect was significantly associated with poor sleep. The Malay PSQI was valid and reliable. Abuse was significantly associated with poor sleep. As sleep is essential for health and is a good predictor for mortality among older adults, management of abuse victims should entail sleep assessment. Interventions or treatment modalities which focus on improving sleep quality among abuse victims should be designed.

  5. The Role of Prothrombotic Factors in the Ocular Manifestations of Abusive and Non-Abusive Head Trauma: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anna; Stephens, Derek; Feldman, Brian M.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Kahr, Walter H. A.; Brandao, Leonardo R.; Shouldice, Michelle; Levin, Alex V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Retinal hemorrhage is a cardinal manifestation of abusive head injury. Thrombophilia is relatively common in the general population and in adults can be associated with retinal hemorrhage. The specificity of retinal hemorrhage for abusive head trauma in the presence of prothrombotic factors, in particular following non-abusive head…

  6. Abuse liability assessment in preclinical drug development: predictivity of a translational approach for abuse liability testing using methylphenidate in four standardized preclinical study models.

    PubMed

    Teuns, Greet B A; Geys, Helena M; Geuens, Sonja M A; Stinissen, Piet; Meert, Theo F

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical abuse liability assessment of novel clinical CNS-active candidates involves several tests, addressing different aspects characteristic for abuse potential, which are considered predictive for substance abuse of these candidates, thus ensuring an appropriate translational approach. To demonstrate how such a strategy could work, a known drug of abuse, methylphenidate was evaluated in a full rodent test battery, comprising four test models, and in accordance with the requirements of the FDA, ICH and EMA guidelines. Methylphenidate was tested orally at 2.5, 5 or 10mg/kg for its physical dependence potential in a repeated dose non-precipitated withdrawal test, for its drug profiling in a drug discrimination learning procedure (single escalating doses), and for its reinforcing properties in a conditioned place preference test (alternate dosing days) and an intravenous self-administration procedure (0.05 to 1mg/kg/IV infusion during 5 daily 1-h test sessions). The stimulant d-amphetamine served as positive control and was administered subcutaneously at 0.8mg/kg in the first three test models. In the intravenous self-administration procedure rats were habituated to intravenously self-administer d-amphetamine at 0.06mg/kg/IV infusion prior to methylphenidate substitution. Cessation of subchronic dosing up to 10mg/kg methylphenidate led to sustained or even exacerbated effects on locomotion and behavior, body temperature, body weight, food consumption, and alteration of the diurnal rhythm during withdrawal. Clear generalization to d-amphetamine was obtained in the drug discrimination test at 5 and 10mg/kg. Distinct reinforcing properties were present in the conditioned place preference test at 10mg/kg and in the intravenous self-administration study from 0.05mg/kg/IV infusion onwards. The maximum plasma exposure after oral administration of methylphenidate over the dose ranges tested in the present rat studies covered at least 1.9-fold to 18.9-fold the

  7. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  8. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781

  9. A Multivariate Examination of the Child-Abuse Potential of Parents with Children Aged 0-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Zeynep; Ozozen Danaci, Miray

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Child abuse, defined by the World Health Organization as "intentional or unintentional behavior by adults, society, or a country with negative consequences for the health and physical development of the child," is a social problem frequently encountered in all cultures and societies. It is need to this study because of…

  10. Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential: Association with Indicators of Positive Functioning in Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Eden, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower…

  11. Mental health of adolescents who abuse psychoactive substances in Enugu, Nigeria - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Igwe, Wilson C; Ojinnaka, Ngozi C

    2010-08-10

    Association between psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse among adolescent has been reported. However prevalence and pattern of such dysfunctions are unknown in our environment. To determine the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction and depressive symptoms among adolescents who abuse substance and also note the influence of socio-demographic factors and type of substance on the pattern of dysfunction. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 adolescents selected from 29 secondary schools in Enugu metropolis. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the students. The student drug use questionnaire was used to screen respondents for substance abuse. Those who were abusing substance and matched controls (non substance abusers) were assessed for psychiatric symptoms using the 35-item Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Social classification was done using the parental educational attainment and occupation. A total of 290 students were current substance abusers. The substances most commonly abused were alcohol (31.6%), cola nitida (kola nut) (20.7%) and coffee (15.7%). Using the PSC scale, 70 (24.1%) subjects compared to 29 (10.7%) of the controls had scores in the morbidity range of >or= 28 for psychosocial dysfunction. This was statistically significant (chi(2) = 17.57 p = 0.001). Fifty-four subjects (18.6%) had scores in the morbidity range of >or= 50 for depressive symptoms using the Zung SDS compared to 21 (7.7%) of controls. This was statistically significant (chi(2) = 14.43, p = 0.001). Prevalence of dysfunction was not significantly related to age in both subjects and controls (chi(2) = 4.62, p = 0.010, chi(2) = 4.8, p = 0.10 respectively). Also using both scales, there was no significant relationship between psychosocial dysfunction and gender or social class in both subjects and control. The prevalence of dysfunction using both scales was significantly higher in multiple abusers compared

  12. Abuse and deliberate self-poisoning in women: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Coll, X; Law, F; Tobías, A; Hawton, K; Tomàs, J

    2001-10-01

    Controlled studies have shown deliberate self-harm to be more common in abused populations, but no controlled studies have shown abuse to be more common in self-harming populations. This is the first controlled study to determine whether abuse experiences (sexual, physical, and psychological) occurred more commonly in women who take overdoses than in controls. The design was a matched (1:1) case-control study set in a district general hospital in England. The subjects were 36 women admitted following deliberate self-poisoning. They were matched with the next non-overdose admission to the same hospital on six variables (sex, age, ethnicity, social class, marital status, and geographical locality). The main outcome measures used were modified versions of standardized self-report questionnaires of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse, together with measures of parenting style and general psychopathology. Women who had taken an overdose were more likely (odds ratio 15.0, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 113.6) to have been sexually abused, and somewhat more likely to have been psychologically (1.02, 1.00 to 1.05) but not physically abused. They also had higher measures of psychopathology (GHQ-30: 1.19, 1.07 to 1.31), were more likely to have been abused at a younger age, exposed to the "affectionless control" style of parenting by their mothers, and to have harmed themselves in other ways. The management of women presenting to hospital after self-poisoning should include assessment of abuse experiences, and instigation of appropriate treatment in those with significant sequelae of abuse.

  13. The Abusive School Principal: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…

  14. Disclosure of Sexual Abuse in Sport Organizations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…

  15. A Feasibility Study of a Web Based Performance Improvement System for Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Kaynak, Övgü; Worley, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.; Kulaga, Agatha; Rotrosen, John; Chu, Melissa; Gallop, Robert; Potter, Jennifer; Muchowski, Patrice; Brower, Kirk; Strobbe, Stephen; Magruder, Kathy; Chellis, A’Delle H.; Clodfelter, Tad; Cawley, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the feasibility of implementing a semi-automated performance improvement system - Patient Feedback (PF) - that enables real-time monitoring of patient ratings of therapeutic alliance, treatment satisfaction, and drug/alcohol use in outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. The study was conducted in 6 clinics within the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. It involved a total of thirty-nine clinicians and 6 clinic supervisors. Throughout the course of the study (4 week training period, 4 week baseline, 12 week intervention, 4 week post-intervention assessment, 1 year sustainability phase) there was an overall collection rate of 75.5% of the clinic patient census. In general, the clinicians in these clinics had very positive treatment satisfaction and alliance ratings throughout the study. However, one clinic had worse drug use scores at baseline than other participating clinics, and showed a decrease in self-reported drug use at post-intervention. Although the implementation of the PF system proved to be feasible in actual clinical settings, further modifications of the PF system are needed to enhance any potential clinical usefulness. PMID:17499954

  16. Oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian child abuse victims: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Júnior, Ivam Freire; Hartwig, Andréia Drawanz; Stüermer, Vanessa Müller; Demarco, Giulia Tarquínio; Goettems, Marília Leão; Azevedo, Marina Sousa

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to assess and compare Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in child abuse victims and non-abused children in a Southern Brazilian city. The study compared two independent samples of children aged 8-10 years: 48 child abuse victims recruited from a centre for Child and Adolescent Psychological Support (NACA) for abused children, and 144 public and private school students. Data collection consisted of administration of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 (CPQ 8-10 ) to measure OHRQoL (dependent variable), clinical examination (dental caries), and collection of socioeconomic and demographic information (age, sex, skin colour, family income, and type of school). Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between presence of abuse and OHRQoL and subscales. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic variables, child abuse victims were found to exhibit higher CPQ scores on the overall scale and on the oral symptoms and functional limitations subscales. In conclusion, child abuse victims have a higher impact on OHRQoL. Based on the results, it is possible to suggest that greater care should be taken of these children, not only in providing treatment for oral disorders, but also in providing interdisciplinary care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. How common is domestic violence against women? The definition of partner abuse in prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, K; Roberts, G

    1998-02-01

    We systematically reviewed studies of the prevalence of domestic violence. Selected overseas community studies were compared with all Australian prevalence studies found to be published. Twelve-month prevalence estimates of partner abuse in Australia varied from 2.1 per cent to 28.0 per cent, depending mainly on the definition of domestic violence used in each study. Implications of the lack of a precise definition result in varying operationalised definitions of partner abuse, from all types of violence in relationships (including a single minor violent incident), through to only those violent incidents that are classified as a crime. Recommendations for any future prevalence studies in this field include the need to collect frequency data which reflected the fact that partner abuse against women is a complex behavioural phenomenon involving emotional, physical and sexual abuse against a partner, not just simply physical incidents.

  18. Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Bahareh; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barros, Henrique; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  20. Adverse Mental Health Outcomes Associated with Emotional Abuse in Young Rural South African Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical…

  1. A study on substance abuse among school going male adolescents of Doiwala Block, District Dehradun.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vartika; Saxena, Yogesh; Kishore, Gaurav; Kumar, Pratap

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent boys are recognized as a vulnerable group to substance abuse. The present study has the objective to study the biosocial profile and habit pattern of substance abusers. The study was conducted on 511 male adolescents, students of 10 th to 12 th class from the four intermediate schools of the Doiwala block of Dehradun district. 46.9% students accepted substance abuse. In 75.5% cases, friends were providing the substances. 80.2% substance abusers expressed their desire to quit the habit. The study is indicative of need for developing a supportive environment involving both parents and teachers so that adolescent can decide and sustain with the right choices for healthy life.

  2. Counselor Treatment of Coexisting Domestic Violence and Substance Abuse: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartas, Nicole D.; Culbreth, John R.

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the philosophical issues hindering the linkage of substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Results suggest that counselors tend to use treatment models that could not concurrently assign responsibility and address either present or past victimization. (Author)

  3. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  4. The investigation and outcome of reported cases of elder abuse: the Forsyth County Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, B; Mittelmark, M B; Wofford, J L; Anderson, R T; Walls, P; Rohrer, B

    1994-02-01

    This study summarizes the outcome of all investigations of elder abuse conducted in Forsyth County, North Carolina, during a 3-year period ending December 1991. Of the 123 cases investigated, 23 were confirmed as elder abuse. There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, race, living arrangements, mental status, mobility, or source of report between confirmed and unconfirmed cases. Unconfirmed compared to confirmed cases were more likely to reside in a nursing home and/or to be ill. The most frequently substantiated charge was exploitation of resources (46%). Only 3% of charges of physical abuse were substantiated. Among confirmed cases, 70% were offered and accepted protective services.

  5. Marriage migration, patriarchal bargains, and wife abuse: a study of South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma; Morash, Merry; Yingling, Julie

    2014-02-01

    This article contributes to the literature on wife abuse by using the patriarchal bargaining framework, which highlights the issue of agency as women strive to achieve their goals within the constraints of family and culture. Study participants were recent South Asian immigrants to the United States. Narrative analysis revealed that patriarchal constraints in natal families, culture, and expectations of benefits gained through marriage influenced many of the women to migrate for marriage. When husbands enforced extreme patriarchy with abuse, women's personal efforts to contain abuse were largely ineffective. However, advocacy agency interventions did help some women break out of extreme patriarchy.

  6. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  7. Gender abuse, depressive symptoms, and substance use among transgender women: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population.

  8. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C.; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drug-primed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse. PMID:26022268

  9. Meta-analysis of studies assessing the efficacy of projective techniques in discriminating child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    West, M M

    1998-11-01

    This meta-analysis of 12 studies assesses the efficacy of projective techniques to discriminate between sexually abused children and nonsexually abused children. A literature search was conducted to identify published studies that used projective instruments with sexually abused children. Those studies that reported statistics that allowed for an effect size to be calculated, were then included in the meta-analysis. There were 12 studies that fit the criteria. The projectives reviewed include The Rorschach, The Hand Test, The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), the Kinetic Family Drawings, Human Figure Drawings, Draw Your Favorite Kind of Day, The Rosebush: A Visualization Strategy, and The House-Tree-Person. The results of this analysis gave an over-all effect size of d = .81, which is a large effect. Six studies included only a norm group of nondistressed, nonabused children with the sexual abuse group. The average effect size was d = .87, which is impressive. Six studies did include a clinical group of distressed nonsexually abused subjects and the effect size lowered to d = .76, which is a medium to large effect. This indicates that projective instruments can discriminate distressed children from nondistressed subjects, quite well. In the studies that included a clinical group of distressed children who were not sexually abused, the lower effect size indicates that the instruments were less able to discriminate the type of distress. This meta-analysis gives evidence that projective techniques have the ability to discriminate between children who have been sexually abused and those who were not abused sexually. However, further research that is designed to include clinical groups of distressed children is needed in order to determine how well the projectives can discriminate the type of distress.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examination of a Remote Parenting Intervention: Engagement and Effects on Parenting Behavior and Child Abuse Potential.

    PubMed

    Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.

  11. Intellectual disability, sexuality and sexual abuse prevention - a study of family members and support workers.

    PubMed

    Eastgate, Gillian; Scheermeyer, Elly; van Driel, Mieke L; Lennox, Nick

    2012-03-01

    People with intellectual disability experience difficulty forming intimate relationships and are prone to sexual exploitation and abuse. This study sought information from people involved in the care of adults with intellectual disability regarding how they supported them in the areas of sexuality, relationships and abuse prevention. Semistructured interviews and focus groups were held with 28 family members and paid support workers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed qualitatively. Major themes emerging included views on sexuality and intellectual disability, consent and legal issues, relationships, sexual knowledge and education, disempowerment, exploitation and abuse, sexual health and parenting. People with intellectual disability were described as lonely, disempowered and vulnerable to abuse. The sex industry, internet and mobile telephones were identified as new forms of risk. While this study looked at the views of both family members and support workers, the sample was too small to identify any meaningful differences between the two groups.

  12. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions.

  13. [A comparative study on family perception between abused children and normal children by Kinetic Family Drawing].

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng Ja; Kim, Young Hae; Park, Nam Hee

    2006-04-01

    The study attempted to find family perception differences between abused children and normal children by Kinetic Family Drawing. The subjects of the study consisted of two groups, 143 abused who were in the upper 25th percentile, and 150 normal who were in the lower 25th percentile. Collected Kinetic Family Drawings were divided into five dimensions such as actions, human figure characteristics, dynamics, styles and symbols, and they was analyzed with SPSS/WIN 10.0. In the perception about their family in action dimension, their family in figure characteristics dimension, their family in dynamics dimensions, and their family in symbols dimension, there is a sharp contrast between the two groups. Putting these results together, abused children feel lower self-esteem and feel more sense of alienation in their family than normal children do. In addition, abused children perceive their parents as negative and aggressive people.

  14. Alcohol abuse and liver enzymes (AALE): results of an intercompany study of mortality.

    PubMed

    Titcomb, C; Braun, R; Roudebush, B; Mast, J; Woodman, H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of applicants for life insurance who have elevations of their liver function tests or an increased probability of alcohol abuse has always been difficult for underwriters. This paper reports the results of an intercompany study in which the pooled mortality experience of a group of insureds with evidence of alcohol abuse, an adverse driving record or elevations of the liver transaminases or gamma-glutamyl transferase is summarized.

  15. Individual and contextual factors for the child abuse potential of Croatian mothers: The role of social support in times of economic hardship.

    PubMed

    Ajduković, Marina; Rajter, Miroslav; Rezo, Ines

    2018-04-01

    The study assessed mothers' risk for abusing their children in middle adolescence in relation to individual and contextual factors during the economic crisis in Croatia. Socioeconomic status of mothers, family economic pressure, and mothers' exposure to stress were measured. Special attention was given to the perceived availability of social support as one of protective factors potentially buffering the negative impact of risks of child abuse. The community sample included 746 mothers (Mage = 42.85; SDage = 5.319). The results showed that the risk of child abuse is higher for mothers with lower education, those who perceive themselves as suffering greater family economic hardship, those who have experienced a higher number of stressful events, and those with lower social support. When the mothers perceive a lower availability of social support, the effects of exposure to cumulative risk, namely the combination of socioeconomic status, economic pressure, and exposure to stress, are stronger. Since social support proved to be one of the key protective factors in the relationship between adverse life circumstances and parenting, the development of effective and non-stigmatized interventions aiming to increase social support, positive social relationships, and adequate parenting practices for parents facing economic hardship is an important direction for future family policy measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  17. Control strategies and noncompliance in abusive mother-child dyads: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, L; Walters, G C; Hall, D K

    1986-06-01

    The present observational study of child abuse has isolated parental control strategies and child response as a promising area of investigation. The social interaction of 10 abusive and 10 matched control mothers and their preschool children was videotaped in a simulated home environment involving both structured and unstructured activities. A coding scheme was developed to record interactional behavior in each dyad. Particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of mother command/child compliance sequences. Compared to controls, abusive mothers employed more commands, and more power-assertive and less positively oriented control strategies. They were also more intrusive, more inconsistent in their use of parenting techniques, displayed more flattened affect throughout their control interactions, and were less flexible in their attempts to gain compliance from the child. In turn, children of abusive mothers demonstrated far more noncompliant behavior than their control counterparts.

  18. The vulnerablility for elder abuse among a sample of custodial grandfathers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Karen; Thomas, Rebecca L

    2007-01-01

    Older adults have been known to make sacrifices in their caregiving roles. Gerontology literature on custodial grandparents has primarily focused on grandmothers and the challenges they face when they assume primary care for grandchildren. Little is known about the risks that older men face when they become custodial grandparents. This article highlights types and warning signs of abuse, exploitation and neglect. Exploratory study was undertaken with a racially diverse group of custodial grandfathers to fill a gap in the literature about the vulnerability for elder abuse, exploitation and neglect as expressed by older Black, Latino and White custodial grandfathers. To provide a more inclusive understanding of elder abuse, areas of vulnerability were identified for consideration by practitioners, educators and researchers. The implications of this research point to the need to rethink elder abuse assessment, prevention and intervention strategies with older men.

  19. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment.

  20. Clinical outcomes of traumatized youth in adolescent substance abuse treatment: a longitudinal multisite study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julie K; Smith, Douglas C; An, Hyonggin; Hall, James A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of outpatient substance abuse treatment for youth with high traumatic stress compared to youth without high traumatic stress in substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. The data for this study were gathered using a longitudinal survey design with purposive sampling from nine drug treatment delivery systems across the United States participating in the cooperative grant Strengthening Communities for Youth (SCY) awarded by SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) between September 2002 and June 2006. Follow-up assessments were conducted with the youth at three,six, and 12 months following intake. Traumatized youth responded to outpatient treatment in a similar pattern when compared to nontraumatized youth, although the traumatized youth had consistently higher scores on substance use frequency and substance problems scales than nontraumatized youth throughout the study. Current empirically validated treatments for adolescent substance abuse do not prepare the practitioner for trauma-informed practice or specifically address trauma-informed recovery. Based on our results, we advocate for the development and integration of trauma-informed practice within substance abuse treatment for adolescents to help them recover from trauma and substance abuse issues.

  1. Child abuse and work stress in adulthood: Evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Nilsen, Wendy; Colman, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between child abuse and work stress in adulthood. We used data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Mental Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Canadians. This study included all participants aged 20years or older who reported being employed the past 12months (N=14,581). Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to several work stress-related indicators. Multiple linear and Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, household income, marital status, occupation group, and any lifetime mental disorder. Child abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of high work stress (IRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.43) in adulthood. More specifically, child abuse was associated with greater odds of job dissatisfaction (IRR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.31-2.18), job insecurity (IRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.27-1.91), and self-perceived low support (IRR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.22-1.46). It was also associated with high levels of psychological demand (b=0.348; 95% CI: 0.229-0.467) and job strain (b=0.031; 95% CI: 0.019-0.043). Examination of the Karasek's Demand-Control Model using multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that child abuse was significantly associated with high strain (RRR:1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.72) and active (RRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.28-1.90) jobs. These findings suggest the negative influence of child abuse on work experience. Success in preventing child abuse may help reduce work-related stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between elder abuse and poor sleep: A cross-sectional study among rural older Malaysians

    PubMed Central

    Hairi, Noran N.; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Farizah M.; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ahmad, Sharifah N.; Razak, Inayah A.; Peramalah, Devi; Aziz, Suriyati A.; Mohamad, Zaiton L.; Mohamad, Rosmala; Ali, Zainudin M.; Awang Mahmud, Awang B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between elder abuse and poor sleep using a Malay validated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Design This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the construct validity and reliability of the Malay version of PSQI. Phase II was a population-based, cross-sectional study with a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Home-based interviews were conducted by trained personnel using a structured questionnaire, to determine exposure and outcome. Setting Kuala Pilah, a district in Negeri Sembilan which is one of the fourteen states in Malaysia. Participants 1648 community-dwelling older Malaysians. Results The Malay version of PSQI had significant test re-test reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.62. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that one factor PSQI scale with three components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep disturbances) was most suitable. Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.60 and composite reliability was 0.63. PSQI scores were highest among neglect (4.11), followed by physical (4.10), psychological (3.96) and financial abuse (3.60). There was a dose-response relationship between clustering of abuse and PSQI scores; 3.41, 3.50 and 3.84 for “no abuse”, “1 type of abuse” and “2 types or more”. Generalized linear models revealed six variables as significant determinants of sleep quality–abuse, co-morbidities, self-rated health, income, social support and gait speed. Among abuse subtypes, only neglect was significantly associated with poor sleep. Conclusion The Malay PSQI was valid and reliable. Abuse was significantly associated with poor sleep. As sleep is essential for health and is a good predictor for mortality among older adults, management of abuse victims should entail sleep assessment. Interventions or treatment modalities which focus on improving sleep quality among abuse victims should be designed. PMID:28686603

  3. Cannabis abuse is associated with better emotional memory in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna; Durand, Myriam; Lakis, Nadia; Lipp, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Lalonde, Pierre; Grignon, Sylvain; Potvin, Stéphane

    2013-10-30

    In schizophrenia cannabis abuse/dependence is associated with poor compliance and psychotic relapse. Despite this, the reasons for cannabis abuse remain elusive, but emotions may play a critical role in this comorbidity. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of emotional memory in schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (dual-diagnosis, DD). Participants comprised 14 DD patients, 14 non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HC) who had to recognize positive and negative pictures while being scanned. Recognition of positive and negative emotions was prominently impaired in SCZ patients, relative to HC, while differences between DD and HC were smaller. For positive and negative stimuli, we observed significant activations in frontal, limbic, temporal and occipital regions in HC; in frontal, limbic and temporal regions in DD; and in temporal, parietal, limbic and occipital regions in the SCZ group. Our results suggest that emotional memory and prefrontal lobe functioning are preserved in DD relative to SCZ patients. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that cannabis abuse is associated with fewer negative symptoms and better cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies will need to determine whether the relative preservation of emotional memory is primary or secondary to cannabis abuse in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The cumulative burden borne by offspring whose mothers were sexually abused as children: descriptive results from a multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2009-03-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and non abused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study. Non abusing parents or caregivers and offspring were also assessed. Descriptive results indicate that offspring born to mothers with histories of sexual abuse were more likely to be born preterm, have a teenage mother, and be involved in protective services. Abused mothers were more likely to be high-school dropouts, be obese, and have experienced psychiatric problems, substance dependence, and domestic violence. Results provide evidence for the advantages of intervention and prevention programs for victims of childhood maltreatment and their families. Primary prevention/intervention efforts extending throughout development and focusing on the cumulative risk to offspring will likely improve victim outcomes and curtail intergenerational transmission of adversity.

  5. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  6. Cognitive coping styles of women sexually abused in childhood: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Perrott, K; Morris, E; Martin, J; Romans, S

    1998-11-01

    The aim was to investigate cognitive coping strategies used by a nonclinical sample of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, to examine whether cognitive appraisals affected their current coping strategies and psychological well-being. Qualitative research methods were used to enable the sample to convey their own ideas about factors and meanings they attributed to their experience of child sexual abuse. The sample of 40 was drawn from one of two stratified sub samples randomly selected from electoral rolls for interview in 1989 and re-interviewed in 1995. One sub sample had reported childhood sexual abuse and the other had reported none. Inductive content analysis and coding of themes were carried out using appropriate software and supplemented by quantitative interview data. Six main coping strategies were identified and then assessed to determine their mediating influence on psychiatric disorder, self-esteem and self reported difficulties experienced as adults. Overall, abuse characteristics did not predict outcome but women who "deliberately suppressed" the abuse incidents were more likely to have low self-esteem and women who "reframed" were significantly less likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis. Some cognitive coping strategies employed after experiencing child sexual abuse impinge on later psychological well-being or subsequent relationships with other people. One of the more challenging findings to come out of the study was that women who "reframed" the sexual abuse event were more likely to have favorable mental health outcomes but were also more likely to report that their own child had been sexually abused.

  7. Abused women's experiences of a primary care identification and referral intervention: a case study analysis.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterizing Mortality from Substance Abuse in Iran: An Epidemiological Study during March 2014 to February 2015

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Seyed Davood; Ghadirzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi-Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Barzegar, Abdolrazagh

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug abuse is a severe and chronic disorder that leaves morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the society. The study of death due to substance abuse provides useful information for local, national and international administrators. Thus, by identifying the factors that have an impact on overdose-related mortality we can provide suitable intervention for vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was an investigation of mortality rate caused by consumption of narcotic and psychoactive substances in Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, demographic and epidemiological data about all people whose cause of death was substance abuse in March 2014 to February 2015 were collected from Legal Medicine Organization (LMO). Finally, the information that was extracted from two checklists was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Findings In this study, 2986 cases died from substances abuse were evaluated. Most deaths have befallen in unmarried young men with mean age of 36.9 ± 12.3, in the private locations. The mortality rate of drug abuse in the whole country was 38.4 per 1000000 population. The proportion of mortality was higher in Iranian nationality and in people who had a diploma and less education. History of overdose, suicide, hospitalization in a psychiatric hospital, staying in prison and substance abuse in the family were investigated in the study population. Conclusion The present study revealed that mortality rate from substance abuse is more among unmarried young men aged 30-39 years with low education level and also in the self-employed group. We suggest that policies should be taken to prevent these people from accessing and using the drug. PMID:29657697

  9. Resilience and social support as protective factors against abuse of patients with dementia: A study on family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Serra, Lídia; Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Ruisoto, Pablo; Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Ramos, Francisco; Rivera-Navarro, Jesús

    2018-05-24

    Scientific literature has identified different vulnerability factors associated to abuse in people with dementia (PWD), but little is known about the psychosocial protective variables against abuse. The main objective of this study is to investigate a set of caregiver and patient factors linked to abuse-related behavior of PWD. A total of 326 primary and family caregivers, residents of the Castilla and León community (Spain), were evaluated. All participants filled out a standardized protocol, which assessed the sociodemographic characteristics, patient and care-related variables, as well as the perceived burden, resilience, and social support. Abuse-related behavior was evaluated using the Caregiver Abuse Screen. Results show that the severity of cognitive impairment and behavior disorders of PWD, a greater number of caregiving hours, a worse previous relationship with the caregiver, and perceived burden are positively related with abuse. However, resilience and social support showed a negative relationship with Caregiver Abuse Screen scores, suggesting a protective effect on abuse, even after controlling the effect of a number of covariates. Indeed, resilience was the only variable that remained significant after including the effect of burden. This paper states the role of burden in abuse of PWD, while resilience and social support are abuse protective factors. These variables should be considered in future guidelines for the prevention of abuse against PWD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The dentist's role in recognizing childhood abuses: study on the dental health of children victims of abuse and witnesses to violence.

    PubMed

    Montecchi, P P; Di Trani, M; Sarzi Amadè, D; Bufacchi, C; Montecchi, F; Polimeni, A

    2009-12-01

    Up to today, little attention and training has been paid, in the Italian dental field, to a dramatically widespread problem, childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). Our research fits into a current of thought on alerting physicians, not only paediatricians, to the problem of abused children. Violence is often part of neglect and carelessness toward children, and it often also concerns their personal hygiene and health care. Aim of our study was to verify the hypothesis that dental neglect, intended as a specific form of neglect, is often associated to other types of neglect, and therefore it could represent an important sign in identifying childhood abuse and neglect situations. These were investigated through the comparison between a group of children with psychological disorder and a control group, as far as their dental health is concerned. Our results indicate that the abused children show: a significantly higher dental plaque index (p=.02); a higher gingival inflammation (p =.2); a higher number of untreated decays (p=.004); more evidences of neglect (p = .0002). Additionally, the abused subjects were less cooperative during dental visits (p=.0005). Our data support the hypothesis that the abused children in our group are, both under the hygiene point of view and access to treatment, more neglected by their caregivers.

  11. Pornography, Sexual Coercion and Abuse and Sexting in Young People's Intimate Relationships: A European Study.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina

    2016-03-06

    New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Skeletal and radiological manifestations of child abuse: Implications for study in past populations.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ann H; Juarez, Chelsey A

    2016-10-01

    Child abuse in its various types such as physical, emotional, sexual, and neglect has been document throughout history. However, before the mid-20th century, inflicted injuries to children was overlooked in part because children were often viewed as property. According to the World Health Organization, 57,000 children were the victims of homicide in the year 2000. In this paper we present the skeletal and radiological manifestation of physical abuse and fatal neglect and provide recommendations to assess child maltreatment from past populations. Pediatric biomechanical factors and healing are discussed as it is important to keep in mind that children are not just small adults. Skeletal and radiological indicators of nonaccidental or inflicted injuries are reviewed from the literature. Inflicted injuries are presented based on specificity to identify child abuse. In addition, skeletal indicators that could help assess fatal starvation are also reviewed and metabolic diseases are proposed as potential evidence of neglect. A recent child homicide is presented and used to illustrate the difficulty in assessing child maltreatment. Present-day clinical child abuse protocols are used to provide recommendations to assess child abuse in a bioarchaeological context. Clin. Anat. 29:844-853, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images.

    PubMed

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till

    2015-02-01

    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

  15. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  16. Caffeine consumption among eating disorder patients: epidemiology, motivations, and potential of abuse.

    PubMed

    Burgalassi, A; Ramacciotti, C E; Bianchi, M; Coli, E; Polese, L; Bondi, E; Massimetti, G; Dell'osso, L

    2009-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate caffeine use in different types of eating disorders (ED) patients either using a categorical approach [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria] or a dimensional perspective. Fifty-eight ED female patients [anorexia nervosa (AN), restricting and binge-eating/purging type, N=15; bulimia nervosa (BN) purging type/nonpurging type, N=26; binge eating disorder (BED), N=17] referred to an Eating Disorder Unit and 15 non-clinical controls were administered the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Caffeine Use Test, an interview specifically developed to investigate caffeine intake. Statistical analyses were then repeated clustering patients according to the presence/absence of purging behaviors (purgers, N=22; non-purgers, N=19; BED, N=17). Current and lifetime caffeine use, measured as mg/day, were similar comparing controls and ED patients as a whole. BN patients showed a significantly higher maximum lifetime caffeine intake (817.4+/-528,9 vs 325.0+/-294.6 mg/die, F=3.246, p<0.05); the same for purgers vs controls (p<0.05). Caffeine abuse was significantly more represented among patients vs controls (p<0.01), but similar among different patients' groups. As for diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR Substance Use modified for caffeine, no significant difference was found among the different groups, for either Dependence, Intoxication or Withdrawal. Most of patients and controls reported pleasure as the main motivation for caffeine use, followed by increased vigilance and attention and appetite suppression in AN and BN patients. Note that a shift in diagnosis in the course of the ED from non-purging to purging type was associated with an increase in caffeine current, lifetime and maximum lifetime intake (F=1.667 p<0.05), except for BED patients. Severity of the ED measured as CGI score or comorbidity did not affect

  17. Sexual Identity Group Differences in Child Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Alvy, Lisa M.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse, but little is known about potential within-group variations in experiences of abuse among sexual minority women. We investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual and physical abuse among women from five sexual identity groups. Our analyses used a pooled sample of women from a national probability study and a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study’s methodology (pooled n = 953). As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. There was also considerable variability in abuse rates and characteristics, including severity of abuse, among sexual minority subgroups. To the extent that differences in reports reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity subgroup differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications. PMID:23345571

  18. Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Suvimol C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. Objective To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. Materials and methods We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Results Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Conclusion Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations. PMID:22825777

  19. Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse.

    PubMed

    Hill, Suvimol C; Dwyer, Andrew J; Kaler, Stephen G

    2012-11-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations.

  20. Mortality among elder abuse victims in rural Malaysia: A two-year population-based descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Raudah Mohd; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ahmad, Sharifah Nor; Abdul Razak, Inayah; Peramalah, Devi; Abdul Aziz, Suriyati; Mohammad, Zaiton Lal; Mohamad, Rosmala; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Bulgiba, Awang

    2017-01-01

    Our study aims at describing mortality among reported elder abuse experiences in rural Malaysia. This is a population-based cohort study with a multistage cluster sampling method. Older adults in Kuala Pilah (n = 1,927) were interviewed from November 2013 to May 2014. Mortality was traced after 2 years using the National Registration Department database. Overall, 139 (7.2%) respondents died. Fifteen (9.6%) abuse victims died compared to 124 (7.0%) not abused. Mortality was highest with financial abuse (13%), followed by psychological abuse (10.8%). There was a dose-response relationship between mortality and clustering of abuse: 7%, 7.7%, and 14.0% for no abuse, one type, and two types or more, respectively. Among abuse victims, 40% of deaths had ill-defined causes, 33% were respiratory-related, and 27% had cardiovascular and metabolic origin. Results suggest a link between abuse and mortality. Death proportions varied according to abuse subtypes and gender.

  1. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greatermore » than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.« less

  2. Evaluation of the abuse potential of lorcaserin, a serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptor agonist, in recreational polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Shram, M J; Schoedel, K A; Bartlett, C; Shazer, R L; Anderson, C M; Sellers, E M

    2011-05-01

    Lorcaserin is a selective and potent serotonin 2C receptor subtype (5-HT(2C)) agonist under development for the treatment of obesity. This study assessed the drug's abuse potential on the basis of its pharmacological profile. For this purpose, a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, randomized seven-way crossover study with single oral doses of lorcaserin (20, 40, and 60 mg), zolpidem (15 and 30 mg), ketamine (100 mg), and placebo was conducted in recreational polydrug users (N = 35). Subjective and objective measures were assessed up to 24 h after the dose. We found that zolpidem and ketamine had significantly higher peak scores relative to placebo on the primary measures as well as on most of the secondary measures. The subjective effects of a 20-mg dose of lorcaserin were similar to those of placebo, whereas supratherapeutic doses of lorcaserin were associated with significant levels of dislike by users as compared with placebo, zolpidem, and ketamine. Perceptual effects were minimal after administration of lorcaserin and significantly lower than after administration of either ketamine or zolpidem. The findings suggest that, at supratherapeutic doses, lorcaserin is associated with distinct, primarily negative, subjective effects and has low abuse potential.

  3. An Experimental Study of Implicit Racial Bias in Recognition of Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mary; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Laraque-Arena, Danielle

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated whether implicit racial bias influences pediatricians' suspicion of child abuse. Child abuse experts developed 9 injury vignettes. Pediatricians (N = 342) were randomly assigned one of 2 versions to rate for suspicion of abuse, with the child's race in each vignette varying between white and black. Data were collected online and anonymously. There were no statistically significant differences in suspicion for an abuse-related injury based on the race of the child. We adjusted for pediatrician race/ethnicity, years since graduation, location, and gender and did not find race effects. We demonstrated an experimental approach to study the influence of implicit racial bias on recognition of child abuse. Though we failed to find an effect, it is too early to conclude that none exists. The relationship among human cognition, behavior, and healthcare disparities is complex. Studies are needed that incorporate diverse approaches, clinical contexts and scenarios, patient and physician characteristics, and validated measures if we are to understand how it might be used to reduce healthcare disparities.

  4. Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2003-06-01

    The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation.

  5. Trauma complexity and child abuse: A qualitative study of attachment narratives in adult refugees with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify trauma types over the life course among adult refugees and to explore their accounts of childhood maltreatment. A sample of 43 Arabic-speaking refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) attending a treatment context in Denmark were interviewed. Using a "Trauma Coding Manual" developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information for refugee trauma treatment providers.

  6. Conducting drug abuse investigations in natural environments: potential directions for medical toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Edward W; Fay, Richard J; Cook, Aaron; Buckosh, Martin; Hibberd, Patricia L; Case, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Physician-scientists, in the eyes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are crucial to the biomedical research enterprise since the development of evidence-based practice based on cutting-edge research. At the same time, NIH has heightened the importance of research mentorship by permitting investigators to revise an application a single time. The current NIH approach, therefore, narrows the margin of error allowable in a proposal and requires that investigators fully develop research protocols for initial submission. The purpose of this manuscript, therefore, is to provide medical toxicologists with a proven research methodology that can be applied to substance abuse investigations. A secondary aim is to provide successful grant language that can be used in subsequent applications for research funding.

  7. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care.

    PubMed

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-08-05

    The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment; keeping the environment positive and comfortable; maintaining

  8. Childhood abuse as a risk factor for sleep problems in adulthood: evidence from a U.S. national study.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A; Lee, Chioun; Friedman, Elliot L; Springer, Kristen W

    2011-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that stress impairs sleep quality. Few studies, however, have examined the extent to which early life stress can jeopardize sleep in adulthood. Guided by a life course epidemiological perspective on health, this study examined associations between childhood abuse and adult sleep problems. We used data from 835 respondents in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Self-report measures assessed the frequency of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as global and component indicators of sleep problems in adulthood. Having experienced all three types of childhood abuse-even infrequently-was associated with global sleep pathology, as well as specific types of sleep problems. Reports of both frequent physical and frequent emotional abuse-even in the absence of sexual abuse-were also associated with poor sleep. Childhood abuse is a risk factor for individuals' long-term sleep problems.

  9. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  10. Views of child sexual abuse in two cultural communities: an exploratory study among African Americans and Latinos.

    PubMed

    Fontes, L A; Cruz, M; Tabachnick, J

    2001-05-01

    This exploratory study investigates knowledge and ideas about child sexual abuse among African Americans and Latinos through focus group discussions. Participants defined and described child sexual abuse, acknowledged that it occurred in their communities, and expressed their sense that family risk factors, risky institutions, and offender propensities were its root causes. Latino participants identified cultural transitions as another contributor. Responses and conversational style differed somewhat by gender and cultural identity. The authors discuss implications for child sexual abuse prevention, intervention, and research.

  11. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  12. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  13. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  14. A Study of Attitudes Toward Child Abuse and Child Rearing Among Mexican American Migrants in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Migrant Council, Inc., Laredo.

    Divided into two phases, the study investigated the attitudes toward child abuse and neglect and child rearing practices held by Mexican American migrant farmworkers. The first phase involved a brief literature review and an assessment of the problem. During this phase also, the study's broad general goals were divided into 6 categories which led…

  15. Understanding the Epistemological Development of Substance Abusing College Students: A Construct Exploration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delve into the epistemological constructs of substance abusing college students and explore whether consistencies with Baxter Magolda's (1992) epistemic constructs were indicated. The study utilized a qualitative, narrative inquiry research design framed by Baxter Magolda's interview outline. Interviews were…

  16. Paying substance abusers in research studies: where does the money go?

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen Leggett

    2012-01-01

    Research involving substance-abusing participants is often hindered by low rates of recruitment and retention. Research suggests that monetary payment or remuneration can be an effective strategy to overcome these obstacles. This article provides a brief overview of these issues and provides data reflecting how substance-abusing participants in several of our studies used their baseline and follow-up payments. We also present research findings related to how the mode of payment (i.e., cash, check, gift card) may affect how payments are used. Overall, our findings suggest that participants use their research payments in a responsible and safe manner. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  17. Paying Substance Abusers in Research Studies: Where Does the Money Go?

    PubMed Central

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Research involving substance abusing participants is often hindered by low rates of recruitment and retention. Research suggests that monetary payment or remuneration can be an effective strategy to overcome these obstacles. This paper provides a brief overview of these issues and provides data reflecting how substance abusing participants in several of our studies used their baseline and follow-up payments. We also present research findings related to how the mode of payment (i.e.., cash, check, gift card) may affect how payments are used. Overall, our findings suggest that participants use their research payments in a responsible and safe manner. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22185328

  18. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were rare in NT1 compared to controls but not to other

  19. Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gauffin, Karl; Vinnerljung, Bo; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Hjern, Anders

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether socio-economic status (SES) in childhood and school failure at 15 years of age predict illicit drug abuse in youth and young adulthood. Register study in a Swedish national cohort born 1973-88 (n = 1,405,763), followed from age 16 to 20-35 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for any indication of drug abuse. Our outcomes were hospital admissions, death and criminality associated with illicit drug abuse. Data on socio-demographics, school grades and parental psychosocial problems were collected from censuses (1985 and 1990) and national registers. School failure was defined as having mean school grades from the final year in primary school lower than -1 standard deviation and/or no grades in core subjects. School failure was a strong predictor of illicit drug abuse with an HR of 5.87 (95% CI: 5.76-5.99) after adjustment for age and sex. Childhood SES was associated with illicit drug abuse later in life in a stepwise manner. The lowest stratum had a HR of 2.28 (95% CI: 2.20-2.37) compared with the highest stratum as the reference, when adjusted for other socio-demographic variables. In the fully adjusted model, the effect of SES was greatly attenuated to an HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.19-1.28) in the lowest SES category, while the effect of school failure remained high with an HR of 4.22 (95% CI: 4.13-4.31). School failure and childhood socio-economic status predict illicit drug abuse independently in youth and young adults in Sweden. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children.

    PubMed

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E; Longo, Gregory S; Nice, Rachel

    2012-02-01

    Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Findings from the present study highlight the

  1. Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice

  2. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  3. Women with Protective Orders Report Failure to Remove Firearms from Their Abusive Partners: Results from an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.; O'Sullivan, Chris; Roehl, Janice; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of women who sought court protection orders for domestic violence (PODV) about actions to implement laws intended to disarm their abusers. Methods We identified female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in New York and Los Angeles primarily through family courts and records of police calls for domestic violence. Of these, 782 were surveyed and asked about their experiences seeking PODV from courts, judges ordering the removal of firearms from defendants, and if firearms were actually surrendered or confiscated. Results Of the 542 victims who had obtained a PODV and knew whether their abuser owned a firearm, 82 (15%) reported that their abuser owned a firearm. Although state law either allowed or mandated judges issuing PODVs to require abusers to surrender their firearms, 21 victims (26%) reported that judges used this authority. Ten victims (12% of victims with armed abusers) reported that their abuser had either surrendered all of his firearms or had the firearms seized. When victims reported that the judge ordered their abuser to surrender his firearms, victims were more likely to report that all firearms were either surrendered by the abuser or confiscated by law enforcement. Conclusions Based on the perceptions of the IPV victims in this study, laws designed to disarm domestic violence offenders were either poorly implemented or failed to inform victims when their abuser's firearms were surrendered or confiscated. PMID:20088664

  4. Women with protective orders report failure to remove firearms from their abusive partners: results from an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S; O'Sullivan, Chris; Roehl, Janice; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of women who sought court protection orders for domestic violence (PODV) about actions to implement laws intended to disarm their abusers. We identified female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in New York and Los Angeles primarily through family courts and records of police calls for domestic violence. Of these, 782 were surveyed and asked about their experiences seeking PODV from courts, judges ordering the removal of firearms from defendants, and if firearms were actually surrendered or confiscated. Of the 542 victims who had obtained a PODV and knew whether their abuser owned a firearm, 82 (15%) reported that their abuser owned a firearm. Although state law either allowed or mandated judges issuing PODVs to require abusers to surrender their firearms, 21 victims (26%) reported that judges used this authority. Ten victims (12% of victims with armed abusers) reported that their abuser had either surrendered all of his firearms or had the firearms seized. When victims reported that the judge ordered their abuser to surrender his firearms, victims were more likely to report that all firearms were either surrendered by the abuser or confiscated by law enforcement. Based on the perceptions of the IPV victims in this study, laws designed to disarm domestic violence offenders were either poorly implemented or failed to inform victims when their abuser's firearms were surrendered or confiscated.

  5. The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.

  6. Associations between Childhood Abuse and Interpersonal Aggression and Suicide Attempt among U.S. Adults in a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n = 34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse. PMID:24656711

  7. An Interprofessional Model for Serving Youth at Risk for Substance Abuse: The Team Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobia, Debra C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three models of interprofessional education appropriate for serving youth at risk for substance abuse are described. The evaluation of the team case study model indicated that the participants were more sensitive to the needs of the youths, experienced increased comfort in consulting other agents, and were more confident in their ability to select…

  8. Treatment of Incarcerated, Sexually-Abused Adolescent Females: An Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Kirk, Raymond S.; Roberts, Amelia C.; Griffith, Diane P.; Meadows, Katherine; Julian, Judy

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial functioning of 100 adolescent females (ages 12-17) sentenced to secure care in a southeastern state and the impact of a gender-specific, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention on the psychosocial functioning of subjects who reported a history of sexual abuse. The Multidimensional Adolescent Assessment…

  9. Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes: A Multi-Site Study of Male and Female Prison Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelissier, Bernadette; Motivans, Mark; Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether there were program differences with respect to post-release outcomes in 20 federal in-prison substance abuse programs which used a cognitive-behavioral treatment approach. Recidivism and post-release drug use were examined for a sample of 1,343 individuals--1,065 men and 278 women. Discrete time proportional…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect Among Mexican American Migrants: A Study of Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrios, Lex

    The exploratory study described the etiology of child abuse and neglect among Mexican American migrants and provided a brief assessment of services rendered to clients. The frequencies of specific traits and behaviors were tallied to trace some generalized social situations and trends. Data were obtained primarily from 140 files, most of which…

  11. A Pilot Study of the Relationship between Counselor Trainees' Characteristics and Attitudes toward Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, D. Shane; Sneed, Zachery; Davis, Sharon J.; Benshoff, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in this study sought to construct an instrument specifically designed to measure counselor trainee attitudes toward alcohol and drug abuse. The instrument, the "Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure" (CTAM), used for this research was developed collectively by the researchers. The CTAM gathered demographic data including undergraduate or…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  13. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  14. Substance Abuse, Parenting Styles, and Aggression: An Exploratory Study of Weapon Carrying Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvo, Kenneth; Williams, Kimberly

    2000-01-01

    Study represents one of the first undertaken exclusively with students who brought weapons to school. Questions examined measures of student and family relationships, as well as attitudes and behavior among students caught with weapons at school. Findings support the need for substance abuse assessments and family interventions that strengthen…

  15. Art Therapy with Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: Extended Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifalo, Terry

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the outcome of a four-year follow-up of a pilot study using a combination of art therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and group process to address the therapeutic issues related to childhood sexual abuse. All group participants were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere, 1995), commonly used in…

  16. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  18. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  19. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  20. Suicidal Phenomena and Abuse in Adolescents: A Review of Epidemiological Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E.; Hawton, K.; Rodham, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To conduct a systematic review of the international literature to determine whether adolescents who had experienced abuse were more likely to also experience suicidal thoughts and behaviors than other adolescents, and to investigate the nature of this association. Method:: Reports of community- or school-based studies of adolescents on…

  1. Effect of Social Support and Disclosure of Child Abuse on Adult Suicidal Ideation: Findings From a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi

    2017-11-16

    To examine the proportion of Canadian adults with a history of child abuse who disclosed the abuse to child protection services before age 16 years and identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on lifetime suicidal ideation. Data for this study came from the Statistics Canada 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N = 9,076). Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on suicidal ideation while simultaneously adjusting for the effect of type of child abuse and demographic, socioeconomic, health, and mental health factors. Of the 9,076 respondents who experienced at least one child abuse event, 21.5% reported ever experiencing suicidal ideation. Fewer than 6% of the respondents disclosed the abuse to someone from a child protection service before age 16 years. In the multivariate logistic regression model, respondents who disclosed the abuse to someone from child protection services were 1.37 times more likely to report lifetime suicidal ideation (95% CI, 1.10-1.71) than those who did not. Each additional unit increase in social support decreased the odds of lifetime suicidal ideation by a factor of 3% (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). Social support interventions that are effective in improving individuals' perception that support is available to them may help reduce suicidal ideation among those with a history of child abuse. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Associations among child abuse, mental health, and epigenetic modifications in the proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC): A study with children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Tobias; Radtke, Karl M; Hermenau, Katharin; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse is associated with a number of emotional and behavioral problems. Nevertheless, it has been argued that these adverse consequences may not hold for societies in which many of the specific acts of abuse are culturally normed. Epigenetic modifications in the genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis may provide a potential mechanism translating abuse into altered gene expression, which subsequently results in behavioral changes. Our investigation took place in Tanzania, a society in which many forms of abuse are commonly employed as disciplinary methods. We included 35 children with high exposure and compared them to 25 children with low exposure. Extreme group comparisons revealed that children with high exposure reported more mental health problems. Child abuse was associated with differential methylation in the proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC), measured both in saliva and in blood. Hierarchical clustering based on the methylation of the POMC gene found two distinct clusters. These corresponded with children's self-reported abuse, with two-thirds of the children allocated into their respective group. Our results emphasize the consequences of child abuse based on both molecular and behavioral grounds, providing further evidence that acts of abuse affect children, even when culturally acceptable. Furthermore, on a molecular level, our findings strengthen the credibility of children's self-reports.

  3. Inhalant abuse: a study from a tertiary care de-addiction clinic.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Balhara, Y P S; Deshpande, S N

    2011-12-01

    Inhalant use has been considered one of the most dangerous forms of substance abuse leading even to serious accidents and death. The current study explored the correlates of inhalant abuse in subjects from a drug de-addiction clinic. The study was conducted at a tertiary-level multi-specialty hospital in India, which entailed a chart review of patients with inhalant abuse / dependence presenting to the clinic over a 2-year period. All the treatment records of the de-addiction clinic were reviewed and information gathered regarding these patients. The study involved the records of 36 subjects, with a mean age of 16 years (standard deviation, 4; range, 11-26 years). Most subjects (86%) were adolescents; three-quarters of whom had no family history of substance abuse. The mean (standard deviation) age of initiation of inhalant use was 14 (4) years. The commonest cause of first use reported by the subjects was experimentation (94%), and 97% of them came to know of inhalant from their inhalant-using friends. These findings provide important information on a relatively under-researched area.

  4. Androgen abuse in the community.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    To provide information of the current prevalence of illicit use of androgens by individuals of the community. Prevalence of abuse of androgens in individuals of the general population has reached alarming dimensions. Use of androgens is no longer limited to competitive sports, but has spread to leisure and fitness sports, bodybuilding, and nonathletes motivated to increase muscular mass and physical attractiveness. Alarming studies from Germany demonstrated that members of the healthcare systems provide illegal androgens to 48.1% of abusers visiting fitness centers. The new trend to combine androgens with growth hormone, insulin, and insulinotropic milk protein-fortified drinks may potentiate health risks of androgen abuse. The use of androgens has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public health concern. The potential health hazards of androgen abuse are underestimated in the medical community, which unfortunately contributes to illegal distribution of androgens. Both the adverse effects of current androgen abuse especially in young men as well as the chronic toxicity from past long-term abuse of now middle-aged men has to be considered as a growing public health problem. In the future, an increasing prevalence of androgen misuse in combination with other growth-promoting hormones and insulinotropic milk protein products has to be expected, which may have further promoting effects on the prevalence of chronic western diseases.

  5. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sexually Abused Children and Educational Status in Kenya: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Mutavi, Teresia; Mathai, Muthoni; Obondo, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children who experience sexual abuse often meet the criteria of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other psychiatric disorders. This article examines Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and their educational status among children who have been sexually abused and its effects on the children's educational status. The study was carried out between June 2015 and July 2016. The study adopted a longitudinal study design. The study was conducted at Kenyatta National Teaching and Referral Hospital and Nairobi Women's Hospitals in Kenya. The children who had experienced sexual abuse and their parents/legal guardians were followed up for a period of one year after every four months interval. One hundred and ninety one children who had experienced sexual abuse and their parents/legal guardians were invited to participate in the study. Findings indicate that the children continued to experience PTSD one year after the sexual abuse incidence. PTSD was associated with the length of time taken to receive medical attention (p<0.005). Children with partial PTSD who had experienced sexual abuse were 2 times more likely to perform above average than children with full PTSD, OR=2.1 [95% CI of OR 1.2-3.8], p=0.01. Children who experience sexual abuse have negative mental health outcomes. These outcomes have detrimental effects to the normal development of children and educational status. There is need to screen for PTSD and offer psychosocial support and follow up to children who have been sexual abuse.

  7. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  8. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  9. A Quantitative Study on Gender Differences in Disclosing Child Sexual Abuse and Reasons for Nondisclosure.

    PubMed

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Despite the available literature on disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA), little is known about how gender affects disclosure. This article aims to quantitatively examine whether gender differences exist in formal (to legal or child protection authorities) and informal (to a family member or friend) disclosure of CSA and, if so, to assess whether this relation is associated with abuse characteristics and attitudes toward gender roles. The study also aimed to examine whether gender differences exist in reasons not to disclose CSA. Data of a sample of 586 participants, who reported to have experienced CSA committed by a single person, have been used for the analyses. There were no gender differences for formal disclosure, but the informal disclosure rate of CSA was 2.4 times higher for women than men, and this effect remained significant after controlling for abuse characteristics and attitudes, even though the gender difference decreased slightly. Furthermore, women and men reported different reasons for not disclosing CSA in their personal network. Women were more worried than men that family and friends would discover the abuse and reported more insecurity of what to do in this situation. Professionals in the field of CSA should consider a gender perspective when developing guidelines. Men have rarely been the subject of studies of disclosure after CSA. Professionals should focus more on general mental health outcomes of men that are not related with CSA directly, but where the effects of CSA may exert more indirectly through associations with other problems in life.

  10. Exploring dynamics of abusive lesbian relationships: preliminary analysis of a multisite, qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ristock, Janice L

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from a multisite, qualitative study on violence in lesbian relationships. A framework for conducting community-based, empowerment research that draws on theories of community psychology, feminism, and postmodernism is presented. The study was designed to understand the dynamics of abusive lesbian relationships and social service providers' responses to the abuse. Results from 80 in-depth interviews with lesbians who have experienced relationship violence are examined with a particular focus on a pattern of first relationships being abusive and a theme of shifting power dynamics. Analysis of focus group discussions with 45 feminist service providers (e.g., counselors, shelter workers, social workers, healthcare providers) reveals the difficulties in assessing the power dynamics of abusive same-sex relationships and in developing appropriate responses when relying on heterosexually gendered models developed to address men's violence against women. The preliminary results present implications both for how we theorize and research this form of violence, and for improving the practices and policies of social services that work with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered communities.

  11. Domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Depression and Self-Rated Health Among Rural Women Who Experienced Adolescent Dating Abuse: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally H; Humphreys, Janice C

    2016-03-01

    This study used mixed methods to examine the experiences and health of rural, young adult women (N = 100) who self-reported past experience of physical, emotional and verbal, sexual, and relational abuse in adolescent dating relationships. Few studies have examined the lasting health ramifications of adolescent dating abuse adolescent dating abuse in rural populations, and almost no mixed methods studies have explored adolescent dating abuse. Participants completed questionnaires on demographics, relationship behaviors, and mental health symptoms. A subsample (n = 10) of participants also completed semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the primary investigator. Results suggest that depressive symptoms and self-rating of health in these women are associated with particular kinds and severity of abusive experiences, and that adolescent dating abuse has ramifications for health and development beyond the duration of the original relationship. Self-rated health (SRH) was inversely associated with abusive behaviors in the relationship, whereas depressive symptoms were positively correlated with such behaviors. Self-rated health was also negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. The results of this study represent an important step toward establishing lifetime health risks posed by adolescent dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  15. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  16. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  17. Shrouds of Silence: A Case Study of Sexual Abuse in Schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masehela, Boledi; Pillay, Venitha

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the reasons that allow a parent, a principal and a teacher to maintain silence when young girls under their care are sexually abused. Put another way, it attempts to explain what it is about sexual abuse that makes these parties relinquish their role as protectors of innocent children. This paper, based on a larger…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse in America--A Call for School & Community Action. A Report of a National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris

    The rate of sexual abuse of children and adults in our society is appalling, and growing rapidly. This study was designed to determine trends in child sexual abuse prevention and treatment services offered by school districts across America. The questionnaire was designed to allow comparisons of urban, rural, and suburban school district programs…

  19. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet.

    PubMed

    Lindauer, Ramón J L; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H; Middeldorp, Christel M; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2014-11-08

    Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of CSA can be severe, and a variety of risk- and protective factors, may influence those effects. CSA may affect the psychosocial-, emotional-, cognitive-, and physical development of children, their relationships with their parent(s), and the relations between parents. In the so called 'the Amsterdam sexual abuse case' (ASAC), infants and very young children were victimized by a day-care employee and most of the victims were boys. Research involving the children and their parents would enable recognition of the signs of CSA in very young children and understanding the consequences the abuse might have on the long term. The proposed research project consists of three components: (I) An initial assessment to identify physical- or psychological signs of CSA in infants and very young children who are thought to have been sexually abused (n = 130); (II) A cross-sequential longitudinal study of children who have experienced sexual abuse, or for whom there are strong suspicions; (III) A qualitative study in which interviews are conducted with parents (n = 25) and with therapists treating children from the ASAC. Parents will be interviewed on the perceived condition of their child and family situation, their experiences with the service responses to the abuse, the effects of legal proceedings and media attention, and the impact of knowing that pornographic material has been disseminated on the internet. Therapists will be interviewed on their clinical experiences in treating children and parents. The assessments will extend over a period of several years. The outcome measures will be symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, age-inappropriate sexual behaviors

  20. Comorbid depression and substance abuse among safety-net clients in Los Angeles: a community participatory study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Evelyn T; Wells, Kenneth B; Gilmore, James; Tang, Lingqi; Morgan, Anna U; Sanders, Starr; Chung, Bowen

    2015-03-01

    Depression and substance abuse are common among low-income adults from racial-ethnic minority groups who receive services in safety-net settings, although little is known about how clients differ by service setting. This study examined characteristics and service use among depressed, low-income persons from minority groups in underresourced communities who did and did not have a substance abuse history. The study used cross-sectional baseline client data (N=957) from Community Partners in Care, an initiative to improve depression services in Los Angeles County. Clients with probable depression (eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire) from substance abuse programs were compared with depressed clients with and without a history of substance abuse from primary care, mental health, and social and community programs. Sociodemographic, health status, and services utilization variables were examined. Of the 957 depressed clients, 217 (23%) were from substance abuse programs; 269 (28%) clients from other sectors had a substance abuse history, and 471 (49%) did not. Most clients from substance abuse programs or with a substance abuse history were unemployed and impoverished, lacked health insurance, and had high rates of arrests and homelessness. They were also more likely than clients without a substance abuse history to have depression or anxiety disorders, psychosis, and mania and to use emergency rooms. Clients with depression and a substance abuse history had significant psychosocial stressors and high rates of service use, which suggests that communitywide approaches may be needed to address both depression and substance abuse in this safety-net population.

  1. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia: a nationwide population based register study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M; Hjorthøj, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.

  2. Adult functioning of mothers with traumatic brain injury at high risk of child abuse: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Vliet-Ruissen, Cora; McKinlay, Audrey; Taylor, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    There is little information regarding the impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the functioning of mothers at risk of child abuse. This study evaluated adult functioning (e.g. child abuse, substance use, criminal convictions, and mental health problems) of mothers, at high risk for child abuse, who also had a history of TBI compared with those without TBI. It was hypothesised that mothers with a history of TBI would engage in higher rates of dysfunctional behaviour compared to those with no history of TBI. Participants were 206 women engaged in a child abuse prevention programme for mothers who are highly socially disadvantaged, and at high risk for child abuse. Using historical data collected as part of the referral, and self report intake process, this study compared child abuse, mental health problems (depression, anxiety, substance use) and rates of criminal offending for mothers with a history of TBI versus those with no history of TBI. Mothers with TBI were no more likely than those without TBI to have engaged in child abuse. However, mothers with a history of TBI were significantly more likely to have one or more mental health problems, engage in substance use and have a history of criminal offending. Parents with TBI who have been identified as high risk for engaging in child abuse have increased risk for mental health problems and criminal offending. These issues need to be considered when designing parenting programmes in order for intervention strategies to be effective.

  3. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  4. A Forgiveness Intervention for Women With Fibromyalgia Who Were Abused in Childhood: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the efficacy of a forgiveness intervention with a fibromyalgia (FM) health intervention on women with FM who have experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and emotional or physical neglect, in childhood by one of their parents. Eleven women with FM between the ages of 21 and 68 were randomized to the forgiveness intervention (n = 5) or the FM health intervention (n = 6), and completed the once-weekly individualized program for 24 weeks. The participants completed measures assessing forgiveness, overall FM health, depression, anger, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping strategies at the pretest, the posttest, and the 12-week follow-up test. They also completed the forgiveness intervention and FM health intervention final tests at the posttest, which assessed their knowledge on forgiveness and FM health. The forgiveness intervention participants had greater improvements in forgiveness (p < .001) and overall FM health (p = .046) from the pretest to the posttest, and in forgiveness (p = .018) and state anger (p = .027) from the pretest to the follow-up test than the FM health intervention participants. Moreover, the forgiveness intervention participants scored higher on the forgiveness final test than the FM health intervention participants (p < .001), and the FM health intervention participants scored higher on the FM health final test than the forgiveness intervention participants (p < .001). The results indicate that the forgiveness intervention was potentially helpful in improving forgiveness and overall FM health, and in decreasing state anger of this particular sample of women with FM. PMID:25914886

  5. Risk factors for criminal recidivism - a prospective follow-up study in prisoners with substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Anders; Berglund, Mats

    2012-08-15

    Substance use in general has been shown to predict criminal recidivism. The present study aimed to examine potential predictors of criminal recidivism, including substance-specific substance use patterns, in prisoners with substance use. A cohort of prisoners with substance use problems (N = 4,152) were assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the Swedish criminal justice system. Clients were followed for an average of 2.7 years. Criminal recidivism was defined as any return to the criminal justice system. During follow-up, 69 percent (n = 2,862) returned to the criminal justice system. Recidivism was associated with amphetamine and heroin use, with an additive risk for injectors, and with polysubstance use. Also, recidivism was negatively associated with alcohol, other opioids than heroin/methadone and with hallucinogenic drugs, and positively associated with previous psychiatric in-patient treatment, violent behaviour, and with a shorter index sentence. Associations remained when controlling for type of crime. Even when controlling for type and severity of crime, and for psychiatric problems, risk of criminal relapse was increased by substance use variables, including amphetamine, heroin and polysubstance use, and an additional risk was shown for injection drug users. These findings have implications for the need for substance abuse treatment after release from prison.

  6. Occult abusive injuries in children brought for care after intimate partner violence: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Christian, Cindy; Berger, Rachel; Lindberg, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Children in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for physical abuse. We determined the frequency and injury patterns in children who underwent child abuse consultation after IPV exposure by retrospectively analyzing the "Examination of Siblings To Recognize Abuse" cohort of children referred for physical abuse. Children were selected who presented after IPV exposure. Among 2890 children evaluated by child abuse pediatricians, 61 (2.1%) patients presented after IPV exposure. Of the 61, 11 (18.0%) were exposed to IPV, but had no direct involvement in the IPV event, 36 (59.0%) sustained inadvertent trauma during IPV, and 14 (23.0%) were directly assaulted during IPV. Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had an injury: 31 (51.0%) had cutaneous injuries and 15 (24.6%) had internal injuries including fracture(s), intracranial or intra-abdominal injury. Of the 15 patients with internal injuries, 14 (93.3%) were less than 12 months old. Among the 36 patients with injuries, 16 (44.4%) had no report of direct injury, a report of a mechanism that did not explain the identified injuries, or a report of trauma without a specific mechanism. Five (13.9%) did not have physical examination findings to suggest the extent of their internal injuries. Injuries are present in a significant proportion of children presenting to Emergency Departments after IPV exposure. History and physical examination alone are insufficient to detect internal injuries especially in infants. These preliminary results support the need for future, prospective studies of occult injury in children exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent perspectives on social support received in the aftermath of sexual abuse: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

    2014-04-01

    The extent and quality of social support provided to young survivors of sexual abuse (SA) have only rarely been examined. This qualitative study aimed to investigate adolescent perspectives on social support received in the aftermath of SA. A total of 26 sexually victimized adolescents (15-18 years old) participated in a qualitative face-to-face, in-depth interview that focused on perceived social support. Qualitative content analysis was conducted as per Mayring (2008) using the qualitative data analysis program ATLAS.ti. In addition, quantitative correlational analyses were conducted to identify characteristics of SA and their associations with perceived social support. Although participants perceived parental support as the most necessary type of support, they were much more satisfied with support from peers. In particular, adolescents stated that they wished they had received more emotional support from their parents in order to better cope with the abuse. About half of participants reported having received counseling, and counseling was seen as very helpful in dealing with the consequences of SA. Only a few adolescents mentioned their school as a source of support. Intra-familial abuse, younger victim age at the time of abuse, an adult perpetrator, and severe abuse were all negatively associated with satisfaction with perceived support. Our results suggest that support for young survivors of SA needs to be improved. Prevention of SA needs particular focus on improving parental reactions to SA, facilitating access to professional support, and raising teacher awareness of the importance of their role in the provision of support for sexually victimized children.

  8. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  9. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  10. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series ofmore » PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.« less

  11. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  12. Stress- and glucocorticoid-induced priming of neuroinflammatory responses: potential mechanisms of stress-induced vulnerability to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthew G; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F

    2011-06-01

    Stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs) sensitize drug abuse behavior as well as the neuroinflammatory response to a subsequent pro-inflammatory challenge. Stress also predisposes or sensitizes individuals to develop substance abuse. There is an emerging evidence that glia and glia-derived neuroinflammatory mediators play key roles in the development of drug abuse. Drugs of abuse such as opioids, psychostimulants, and alcohol induce neuroinflammatory mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin (IL)-1β), which modulate drug reward, dependence, and tolerance as well as analgesic properties. Drugs of abuse may directly activate microglial and astroglial cells via ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which mediate the innate immune response to pathogens as well as xenobiotic agents (e.g. drugs of abuse). The present review focuses on understanding the immunologic mechanism(s) whereby stress primes or sensitizes the neuroinflammatory response to drugs of abuse and explores whether stress- and GC-induced sensitization of neuroimmune processes predisposes individuals to drug abuse liability and the role of neuroinflammatory mediators in the development of drug addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use: affective psychopathic personality traits as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's views on child abuse and neglect: findings from an exploratory study with Chinese children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L T; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-03-01

    This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were presented to 87 children in 12 focus groups for discussion. The process was video-taped and the data were transcribed verbatim for data analysis by NUDIST. (1) Children do not have a homogeneous view on issues about child abuse and neglect, and their awareness and sensitivity to different kinds of child abuse are also different; (2) some of their views on child abuse and neglect are uniquely their own and are markedly different from those of adults; (3) some of the views expressed by children, however, are very much akin to those of adults, such as the factors they would consider in deciding whether a case is child abuse or not; (4) children's disclosure of abuse in Hong Kong is often affected by the Chinese culture in which they live, like filial piety and loyalty to parents. Children's views on issues of child abuse and neglect, no matter they are the same or different from those of adults, serve to inform and improve child protection work. Children are not only victims in need of protection. They are also valuable partners with whom adult practitioners should closely work. Children have, and are able to give, views on child abuse. They should be listened to in any child protection work no matter their views are same with or different from those of adults. As this study suggests, the relatively low sensitivity of the children to child neglect and sexual abuse, and their reluctance to disclose abuse and neglect due to their loyalty to parents are areas to focus on in preventive child protection work in a Chinese society like Hong Kong. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pregnancy intendedness and the association with physical, sexual and emotional abuse - a European multi-country cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Laanpere, Made; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit

    2015-05-26

    Unintended pregnancies are common and when not resulting in a termination of pregnancy may lead to unintended childbirth. Unintended pregnancies are associated with increased health risks, also for women for whom pregnancy continues to childbirth. Our objective was to present the prevalence of unintended pregnancy in six European countries among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care, and to investigate the association with a history of physical, sexual and emotional abuse. A prospective cross-sectional study, of 7102 pregnant women who filled out a questionnaire during pregnancy as part of a multi-country cohort study (Bidens) with the participating countries: Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Sweden. A validated instrument, the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAq) consisting of 10 descriptive questions measured abuse. Pregnancy intendedness was assessed using a single question asking women if this pregnancy was planned. Cross-tabulation, Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Approximately one-fifth (19.2 %) of all women reported their current pregnancy to be unintended. Women with an unintended pregnancy were significantly younger, had less education, suffered economic hardship, had a different ethnic background from the regional majority and more frequently were not living with their partner. The prevalence of an unintended pregnancy among women reporting any lifetime abuse was 24.5 %, and 38.5 % among women reporting recent abuse. Women with a history of any lifetime abuse had significantly higher odds of unintended pregnancy, also after adjusting for confounding factors, AOR for any lifetime abuse 1.41 (95 % CI 1.23-1.60) and for recent abuse AOR 2.03 (95 % CI 1.54-2.68). Women who have experienced any lifetime abuse are significantly more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This is particularly true for women reporting recent abuse, suggesting that women living in a violent relationship have less control

  16. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    PubMed

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

  17. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  18. Consequences of Elder Abuse and Neglect: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Raudah Mohd; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the consequences of elder abuse and neglect (EAN). A systematic search was conducted in seven electronic databases and three sources of gray literature up to January 8, 2016, supplemented by scanning of citation lists in relevant articles and contact with field experts. All observational studies investigating elder abuse as a risk factor for adverse health outcomes, mortality, and health-care utilization were included. Of 517 articles initially captured, 19 articles met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Two reviewers independently performed abstract screening, full-texts appraisal, and quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Across 19 studies, methodological heterogeneity was a prominent feature; seven definitions of EAN and nine measurement tools for abuse were employed. Summary of results reveals a wide range of EAN outcomes, from premature mortality to increased health-care consumption and various forms of physical and psychological symptoms. Higher risks of mortality emerged as the most credible outcome, while the majority of morbidity outcomes originated from cross-sectional studies. Our findings suggest that there is an underrepresentation of older adults from non-Western populations and developing countries, and there is a need for more population-based prospective studies in middle- and low-income regions. Evidence gathered from this review is crucial in upgrading current practices, formulating policies, and shaping the future direction of research.

  19. Feasibility study for a survey measuring abuse and neglect of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mayda, Jacqueline; Magnus, Bill; Duggan, Joseph; Taylor-Butts, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This feasibility study was prepared by Statistics Canada, under arrangement with the Strategic Policy Research Directorate, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). It investigates issues associated with conducting surveys of abuse and neglect of older adults in community and institutional settings in Canada. A roadmap is provided for the work ahead, including options for a sampling frame, collection approaches, estimated costs, and an activity schedule.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Sousse, Tunisia: A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Braham, Mohamed Yassine; Jedidi, Maher; Hmila, Imene; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Tunisia. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study over a period of 10 years (January 2006-December 2015), based on the files handled by the Child Protective Services (CPS) agency in the city of Sousse, Tunisia. During the study period, 3736 referrals were received by the CPS agency of Sousse. Of the total, 2212 (59.2%) were screened in and investigated. Of the investigated cases, 317 (14,3%) were substantiated as abuse or neglect. The reports of maltreatment came mostly from parents (37.8%). Neglect was the major type of maltreatment (51.4%) and an association of 2 types of maltreatment was found in 76 cases (24%). Parents were the perpetrators in 221 cases (69.7%). The average age of the victims was 10 years and boys accounted for 56%. In the 257 cases where the marital status of the parents was noted in the files, the parents were divorced in 62 cases (24.1%) and the child lived with a single mother in 35 cases (13.6%). Alcohol addiction was found in 21 parents (6.6%) and one of the parents was incarcerated in 39 cases (12.3%). As for the socio-economic status, it was evaluated in 188 families and was low in 123 cases (65.4%). In the absence of studies related to this scourge in Tunisia, we hope to raise awareness of the abuse and alert those who come into contact with the child on the importance of detecting and reporting early maltreatment and thus to introduce more appropriate care. A comprehensive prevention strategy needs to be established by addressing risk factors, cultural norms conducive to abuse and unwanted pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Study on Subjective Experience of Elder Abuse Between Older Korean Immigrants in the United States and Older Koreans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Miya

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationship between sociodemographic factors and elder abuse among older Koreans in the United States and Korea. Survey data from older Koreans aged between 60 and 79 years from the two countries ( n = 480) were analyzed descriptively and in binary logistic regressions. This study found a similar prevalence of elder abuse in the two samples, with 26% of older Korean immigrants in the United States reporting abuse and 23% of older Koreans in Korea reporting abuse. However, there were significant differences in the types of emotional abuse experienced by older Koreans in both countries. Reports of some types of emotional abuse, such as 'name calling' and 'silent treatment,' were significantly higher in the United States than in Korea. These findings expand our knowledge of the experience of elder abuse among older Koreans in both countries.

  2. Implementing mentor mothers in family practice to support abused mothers: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Loeffen, Maartje Jw; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Wester, Fred Pjf; Laurant, Miranda Gh; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine Lm

    2011-10-18

    Intimate partner violence is highly prevalent and mostly affects women with negative consequences for their physical and mental health. Children often witness the violence which has negative consequences for their well-being too. Care offered by family physicians is often rejected because abused women experience a too high threshold. Mentor mother support, a low threshold intervention for abused mothers in family practice, proved to be feasible and effective in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The primary aim of this study is to investigate which factors facilitate or hinder the implementation of mentor mother support in family practice. Besides we evaluate the effect of mentor mother support in a different region. An observational study with pre- and posttests will be performed. Mothers with home living children or pregnant women who are victims of intimate partner violence will be offered mentor mother support by the participating family physicians. The implementation process evaluation consists of focus groups, interviews and questionnaires. In the effect evaluation intimate partner violence, the general health of the abused mother, the mother-child relationship, social support, and acceptance of professional help will be measured twice (t = 0 and t = 6 months) by questionnaires, reporting forms, medical records and interviews with the abused mothers. Qualitative coding will be used to analyze the data from the reporting forms, medical records, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. Quantitative data will be analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi square test and t-test matched pairs. While other intervention studies only evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the intervention, our primary aim is to evaluate the implementation process and thereby investigate which factors facilitate or hinder implementation of mentor mother support in family practice.

  3. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  4. [The present study situation and application prospect of nail analysis for abused drugs].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2010-10-01

    In forensic toxicology analysis, various types of biological samples have their own special characteristics and scope of applications. In this article, the physiological structure of nails, methods for collecting and pre-processing samples, and for analyzing some poisons and drugs in the nails are reviewed with details. This paper introduces the influence factors of drug abuse of the nails. The prospects of its further applications are concluded based on the research results. Nails, as an unconventional bio-sample without general application, show great potential and advantages in forensic toxicology.

  5. An exploratory study of alternative configurations of governing boards of substance abuse treatment centers

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Boards of directors are the ultimate governing authorities for most organizations providing substance abuse treatment. A governing board may establish policies, monitor and improve operations, and represent a treatment organization to the public. This paper explores alternative configurations of governing boards in a national sample of 500 substance abuse treatment centers. The study proceeds from the premise that boards may be configured with varying levels of engagement in five aspects of internal management and external connections in treatment center operating environments. Based on interviews with treatment center administrative directors, four clusters emerge, describing boards that are: (1) active and balanced across internal and external domains; (2) active boundary spanners concentrating primarily on external relationships; (3) focused primarily on internal organizational management; and (4) relatively inactive. In post hoc analysis, we found that placement in these clusters is associated with treatment center attributes such as rate of growth and financial results, use of evidence based practices and provision of integrated care. PMID:21489737

  6. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  7. Radiologists' Training, Experience, and Attitudes About Elder Abuse Detection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Harpe, Jasmin; Sanchez, Allen M; Mennitt, Kevin W; McCarthy, Thomas J; Nicola, Refky; Murphy, Kieran; LoFaso, Veronica M; Flomenbaum, Neal; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-12-01

    Elder abuse is underrecognized, and identification of subtle cases requires a high index of suspicion among all health care providers. Because many geriatric injury victims undergo radiographic imaging, diagnostic radiologists may be well positioned to identify injury patterns suggestive of abuse. Little is known about radiologists' experience with elder abuse. Our goal was to describe knowledge, attitudes, training, and practice experience in elder abuse detection among diagnostic radiologists. We conducted 19 interviews with diagnostic radiologists at a large urban academic medical center using a semistructured format. Data from these sessions were coded and analyzed to identify themes. Only two radiologists reported any formal or informal training in elder abuse detection. All subjects believed they had missed cases of elder abuse. Even experienced radiologists reported never having received a request from a referring physician to assess images for evidence suggestive of elder abuse. All subjects reported a desire for additional elder abuse training. Also, subjects identified radiographic findings or patterns potentially suggestive of elder abuse, including high-energy injuries such as upper rib fractures, injuries in multiple stages of healing, and injuries inconsistent with reported mechanism. Radiologists are uniquely positioned to identify elder abuse. Though training in detection is currently lacking, providers expressed a desire for increased knowledge. In addition, radiologists were able to identify radiographic findings suggestive of elder abuse. On the basis of these findings, we plan to conduct additional studies to define pathognomonic injury patterns and to explore how to empower radiologists to incorporate detection into their practice.

  8. Participatory Research Challenges in Drug Abuse Studies Among Transnational Mexican Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings. Especially difficult was including transnational migrants and nearby relatives as partners in the research, similar to partnerships created with others in the community. The sensitive nature of our research and associated human subject concerns did not permit a more participatory methodology. Another problem involved partnerships with members of the larger community, given the apathy and ambivalence towards drug use by transnational migrants. Finally, collaborating with community stakeholders to develop and implement research-based recommendations was also problematic. As we learned, there are more to generating substance abuse recommendations in partnership with stakeholders than simply working together on recommendations, which also require an effective implementation strategy. Based on these experiences, we elaborate useful suggestions in development and application of local-level programs aimed at curtailing substance abuse among transnational migrant workers while they are at their work sites in Pennsylvania. PMID:22003376

  9. Community and health system intervention to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Tanga Region, Tanzania: A comparative before-and-after study.

    PubMed

    Kujawski, Stephanie A; Freedman, Lynn P; Ramsey, Kate; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Mbuyita, Selemani; Moyo, Wema; Kruk, Margaret E

    2017-07-01

    Abusive treatment of women during childbirth has been documented in low-resource countries and is a deterrent to facility utilization for delivery. Evidence for interventions to address women's poor experience is scant. We assessed a participatory community and health system intervention to reduce the prevalence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Tanzania. We used a comparative before-and-after evaluation design to test the combined intervention to reduce disrespect and abuse. Two hospitals in Tanga Region, Tanzania were included in the study, 1 randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Women who delivered at the study facilities were eligible to participate and were recruited upon discharge. Surveys were conducted at baseline (December 2011 through May 2012) and after the intervention (March through September 2015). The intervention consisted of a client service charter and a facility-based, quality-improvement process aimed to redefine norms and practices for respectful maternity care. The primary outcome was any self-reported experiences of disrespect and abuse during childbirth. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate a difference-in-difference model. At baseline, 2,085 women at the 2 study hospitals who had been discharged from the maternity ward after delivery were invited to participate in the survey. Of these, 1,388 (66.57%) agreed to participate. At endline, 1,680 women participated in the survey (72.29% of those approached). The intervention was associated with a 66% reduced odds of a woman experiencing disrespect and abuse during childbirth (odds ratio [OR]: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.21-0.58, p < 0.0001). The biggest reductions were for physical abuse (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.97, p = 0.045) and neglect (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19-0.71, p = 0.003). The study involved only 2 hospitals in Tanzania and is thus a proof-of-concept study. Future, larger-scale research should be undertaken to evaluate the applicability of this approach to other

  10. Child and Adolescent Abuse in Relation to Obesity in Adulthood: The Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Boggs, Deborah A.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence with risk of adult obesity among black women in the United States. METHODS: Participants were women enrolled in the Black Women’s Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study begun in 1995. In 2005, 33 298 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on early life experiences of abuse. Log-binomial regression models were used to derive risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of child/teenager abuse with obesity (BMI ≥30) and central adiposity (waist circumference >35 inches) reported in 2005. RESULTS: The RR for BMI ≥30, a measure of overall obesity, was 1.29 (95% CI 1.20–1.38) for the highest severity of exposure to child/teenager physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse. After controlling for postulated intermediates, including reproductive history, diet, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and socioeconomic status, the RR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.08–1.21). The RR for waist circumference >35 inches, which measures central obesity, for severe physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse was 1.29 (95% CI 1.19–1.38) before adjustment for intermediates and 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27) after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Early life sexual and physical abuse was associated with an increased risk of overall and central obesity in adulthood. Although the association between abuse and obesity was explained to some extent by health behaviors, reproductive history, and mental health, these factors did not fully account for the associations. Our data suggest that early life adversity is related to adult body size and weight distribution. PMID:22753562

  11. Stroke in young adults who abuse amphetamines or cocaine: a population-based study of hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Westover, Arthur N; McBride, Susan; Haley, Robert W

    2007-04-01

    The abuse of stimulant drugs is increasing in the western United States. Although numerous case reports and animal studies suggest a link with stroke, epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To test the hypothesis that young adults who abuse amphetamines or cocaine are at a higher risk of stroke. Using a cross-sectional design and from a quality indicators' database of 3 148 165 discharges from Texas hospitals, we estimated the secular trends from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2003, in the abuse of various drugs and of strokes. We developed separate logistic regression models of risk factors for hemorrhagic (n = 937) and ischemic (n = 998) stroke discharges of persons aged 18 to 44 years in 2003, and for mortality risk in patients with stroke. Main Outcome Measure Incidence of stroke using definitions from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's stroke mortality Inpatient Quality Indicator. From 2000 to 2003, the rate of increase was greatest for abuse of amphetamines, followed by cannabis and cocaine. The rate of strokes also increased, particularly among amphetamine abusers. In 812 247 discharges in 2003, amphetamine abuse was associated with hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.24-7.55), but not with ischemic stroke; cocaine abuse was associated with hemorrhagic (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.74-3.11) and ischemic (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.48-2.79) stroke. Amphetamine, but not cocaine, abuse was associated with a higher risk of death after hemorrhagic stroke (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.07-6.50). Increases in stimulant drug abuse may increase the rate of hospital admissions for strokes and stroke-related mortality.

  12. Associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: A prospective nationally-representative twin study.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L; Jaffee, Sara R; Matthews, Timothy; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Arseneault, Louise

    2018-05-15

    Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2232 British twins, to investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also aimed to test longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders. Results indicated strong associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and also in young adulthood. In childhood, the association was concentrated among children with comorbid conduct disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that childhood ADHD predicted abuse/neglect in later years. This association was again concentrated among individuals with comorbid conduct disorder. Abuse/neglect in childhood was not associated with later ADHD in young adulthood after adjusting for childhood ADHD. Our study does not provide support of a causal link between child abuse/neglect and adult ADHD but highlights the possibility of a long-term effect of disruptive behaviors on the risk for experiencing abuse/neglect. These findings emphasize the need for clinicians treating people with ADHD, especially those with comorbid conduct disorder, to be aware of their increased risk for experiencing abuse/neglect. Interventions aimed at reducing risks of abuse/neglect should also focus on the environment of individuals with disruptive behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  14. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  15. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect in the Community: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Burnes, David; Pillemer, Karl; Caccamise, Paul L; Mason, Art; Henderson, Charles R; Berman, Jacquelin; Cook, Ann Marie; Shukoff, Denise; Brownell, Patricia; Powell, Mebane; Salamone, Aurora; Lachs, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    To estimate past-year prevalence and identify risk and protective factors of elder emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect. Cross-sectional, population-based study using random-digit-dial sampling and direct telephone interviews. New York State households. Representative (race, ethnicity, sex) sample (N = 4,156) of English- or Spanish-speaking, community-dwelling, cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older. The Conflict Tactics Scale was adapted to assess elder emotional and physical abuse. Elder neglect was evaluated according to failure of a responsible caregiver to meet an older adult's needs using the Duke Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) scale. Caseness thresholds were based on mistreatment behavior frequencies and elder perceptions of problem seriousness. Past-year prevalence of elder emotional abuse was 1.9%, of physical abuse was 1.8%, and of neglect was 1.8%, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.6%. Emotional and physical abuse were associated with being separated or divorced, living in a lower-income household, functional impairment, and younger age. Neglect was associated with poor health, being separated or divorced, living below the poverty line, and younger age. Neglect was less likely in older adults of Hispanic ethnicity. Elder abuse and neglect are common problems, with divergent risk and protective factor profiles. These findings have direct implications for public screening and education and awareness efforts designed to prevent elder mistreatment. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A) construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A) interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A) care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i) determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii) develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii) identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv) design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v) document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale. PMID:23347548

  17. Personal Contextual Characteristics and Cognitions: Predicting Child Abuse Potential and Disciplinary Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental…

  18. [New psychoactive substances abuse among patients with access to methadone maintenance treatment in Jiangsu province: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z; Chen, G H; Dai, M M; Luo, W; Lyu, P; Cao, X B

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To explore the reasons and factors associated with new psychoactive substances abuse among patients with access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: A well-developed questionnaire and urine tests were used to collect information about demographic characteristics, condition of MMT and drug abuse, family and social support of MMT clients. A 1∶1 matched case-control study was conducted, and conditional logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with new psychoactive substances abuse. Results: A total of 212 (106 pairs) clients receiving MMT were recruited, and most of them were males (78.3 % , 166/212), married or cohabitant (48.6 % , 103/212) and unemployed (63.2 % , 134/212). The average age of the clients was (45.1±7.2) years. The main types of abused new psychoactive substances were benzodiazepine (62.3 % , 66/106) and methamphetamine (39.6 % , 42/106). The proportion of abusing multi new psychoactive substances was 8.5 % (9/106). Results from multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that using opioid drug during the past 6 months of MMT treatment might increase the risk of abusing new psychoactive substances ( OR =3.25, 95 %CI : 1.35-7.79), benzodiazepine ( OR =3.25, 95 %CI : 1.11- 9.47) and methamphetamine ( OR =13.31, 95 %CI : 1.12-158.01). Moreover, MMT for more than9 years reduced the risk of abuse of new psychoactive substances ( OR =0.03, 95 %CI : 0.01-0.21), benzodiazepine ( OR =0.02, 95 %CI : 0.00-0.36) and methamphetamine ( OR =0.02, 95 %CI : 0.00-0.69). Conclusion: Less new psychoactive substances abuse might be associated with longer duration of MMT treatment. And inappropriate support from family and friends might increase the risk of abusing new psychoactive substances in MMT clients, especially in clients who used opioid.

  19. Increased Childhood Abuse in Patients With Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Turkish Sample: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Sahin, Basak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Abuse is considered to have a place in the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is one of the psychiatric disorders for which abuse could be an etiologic factor; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between abuse and PMDD. In this study, our aim was to investigate childhood abuse in patients with PMDD and compare them with healthy female subjects. Method: This cross-sectional study included 70 women with PMDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were admitted to the outpatient psychiatry clinic of Ankara Yenimahalle State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2012 and December 2013. Additionally, 78 healthy controls were included in the study. Sociodemographic, familial, and reproductive period characteristics of the women were recorded. All subjects were administered the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Among the sociodemographic characteristics, being a university graduate (76.9%) and being a public servant (70.5%) were significantly higher in the healthy control group (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively). A family history of PMDD (31.4%), a history of postpartum psychiatric disorders (11.4%), and a history of attempted suicide (7.1%) were higher in the PMDD group compared with the healthy control group (P = .001, P = .003, and P = .024, respectively). Significant differences were also found between PMDD and healthy controls in PMSS score (P ≤ .001), CTQ total scores (P = .002), and subscale scores including emotional abuse and emotional neglect (P = .004), physical abuse (P = .009), and sexual abuse (P = .012). Conclusions: To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate associations between PMDD and childhood abuse from Turkey. More comprehensive studies on this topic with larger sample sizes are required to enrich the literature and enable practitioners to be more effective in clinical practice. PMID:25664213

  20. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  1. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  2. An In Vitro Study of the Neurotoxic Effects of N-Benzylpiperazine: A Designer Drug of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Persona, Karolina; Polus, Anna; Góralska, Joanna; Gruca, Anna; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of new psychoactive substances has significantly increased. Despite the systematic introduction of prohibition in trade of medicinal products which mimic the effects of illegal drugs, the problem concerning this group of drugs is still important although knowledge about the mechanism of action of those types of substances is scarce. This study aimed to follow the neurotoxic effect of N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), the central nervous system psychostimulant, using the human cancer LN-18 cell model. The statistically significant elevation of LDH levels, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased ATP and increased ROS production, increased levels of DNA damage marker (8-OHdG) and activation of caspases: -3 and -9 confirmed by Real-Time PCR imply the activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathways induced by BZP after 24 h incubation. This study is a novel, preliminary attempt to explain the toxicity of one of the most popular designer drug of abuse at the cellular level.

  3. Somatic effects of AAS abuse: A 30-years follow-up study of male former power sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist Bagge, A S; Rosén, T; Fahlke, C; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Moberg, T; Thiblin, I

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between somatic health and former abuse of AAS in former elite male athletes 30 years after the end of their active sports career. Retrospective follow-up study. N=996 former elite male athletes were sent a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables, previous and past sport activity and lifetime prevalence of seeking professional help for health problems. N=683 (68.6%) answered the questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of AAS-abuse was 21% (n=143), while 79% (n=540) did not admit having ever used AAS. Former AAS-abuse was associated with tendon ruptures (p=0.01), depression (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.01) and lower prevalence of prostate hypertrophy (p=0.01) and decreased libido (p=0.01). Former advanced AAS-abusers had higher anxiety (p=0.004) compared to the former less advanced AAS-abusers. Moreover, former advanced AAS-abusers, compared to AAS-naïves, reported more psychiatric problems (p=0.002), depression (p=0.003) and anxiety (p=0.00). A former AAS-abuse seems to be associated with some somatic and mental health problem, although a former less advanced AAS-abuse is related to lower incidence of prostate hypertrophy. The results raise the question whether some of these associations might be dose- and frequency dependent. These findings should however be seen as hypothesis generating and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of Self-Report Screening Scale for Elder Abuse: Women's Health Australia Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Margot J.; Mishra, Gita D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the reliability and validity of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS) for the early identification of elder abuse. Results confirmed the VASS factor structure and construct validity. The Vulnerability and Coercion factors held the strongest face and construct validity for physical and psychological abuse. (Contains 52…

  5. Adult physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and postpartum depression, a population based, prospective study of 53,065 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Lukasse, Mirjam; Schei, Berit

    2014-09-08

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has detrimental consequences to the women, their infants and families. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between adult abuse and PPD. This study was based on data from 53,065 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Women were recruited through a postal invitation in relation to a routine ultra-sound invitation at week 18 of gestation. Exposure to adult emotional, sexual, physical abuse was based on self-report at week 30, also differentiating if the perpetrator was known or a stranger, and whether the abuse was recent or not (<12 month since abuse). PPD was measured with a four items version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDS) at six months postpartum. The associations between different types of adult abuse and PPD were performed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, parity, civil status, education, child abuse, social support, and depression prior to pregnancy. Altogether, 11% had PPD, and 19% had been exposed to adult abuse. Women reporting adult abuse had an 80% increased fully adjusted odds of PPD (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.7-1.9) compared to non-abused women. There was a tendency towards higher odds of PPD for women reporting combinations of adult abuse (emotional, sexual and physical), as compared with those reporting sexual, emotional or physical abuse only. Exposure from known perpetrator was more strongly associated with PPD than exposure from an unknown perpetrator. Compared with women without adult abuse, the fully adjusted odds of PPD was 2.6 (95% CI 2.4-2.9) higher for women with any recent adult abuse and 1.5 (95% CI 1.5-1.7) higher for women with any adult abuse, but not recent. The results from this large prospective population-based cohort study support initiatives aiming to assess and adequately address abuse when counseling and treating women of PPD.

  6. The experience of terminating an abusive relationship from an Anglo and African American perspective: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Moss, V A; Pitula, C R; Campbell, J C; Halstead, L

    1997-01-01

    A common question asked about abused women is, "Why don't they leave?" This qualitative study explored the experiences of 15 African American and 15 Anglo American women who had terminated abusive relationships. The constant comparative method of analysis of audiotaped interviews revealed a 3-phase process of leaving: being in, getting out, and going on. Participants endured abuse until they could relinquish the fantasy of a happy relationship. Differences in relationship power and public response to abuse distinguished the experiences of Anglo and African American participants. Findings support the notion of leaving as a social process with similarities across both groups. However, critical differences in responses suggest that leaving is a culture-bound experience.

  7. Integrated programs for mothers with substance abuse issues and their children: a systematic review of studies reporting on child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Niccols, Alison; Milligan, Karen; Smith, Ainsley; Sword, Wendy; Thabane, Lehana; Henderson, Joanna

    2012-04-01

    Integrated treatment programs (those that include on-site pregnancy-, parenting-, or child-related services with addiction services) were developed to break the intergenerational cycle of addiction, potential child maltreatment, and poor outcomes for children. To examine the impact and effects of integrated programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children, we performed a systematic review of studies published from 1990 to 2011. Literature search strategies included online bibliographic database searches, checking printed sources, and requests to researchers. Studies were included if all participants were mothers with substance abuse problems at baseline; the treatment program included at least 1 specific substance use treatment and at least 1 parenting or child treatment service; the study design was randomized, quasi-experimental, or cohort; and there were quantitative data on child outcomes. We summarized data on child development, growth, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. Thirteen studies (2 randomized trials, 3 quasi-experimental studies, 8 cohort studies; N=775 children) were included in the review. Most studies using pre-post design indicated improvements in child development (with small to large effects, ds=0.007-1.132) and emotional and behavioral functioning (with most available effect sizes being large, ds=0.652-1.132). Comparison group studies revealed higher scores for infants of women in integrated programs than those not in treatment, with regard to development and most growth parameters (length, weight, and head circumference; with all available effect sizes being large, ds=1.16-2.48). In studies comparing integrated to non-integrated programs, most improvements in emotional and behavioral functioning favored integrated programs and, where available, most effect sizes indicated that this advantage was small (ds=0.22-0.45). Available evidence supports integrated programs, as findings suggest that they are associated with

  8. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  9. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  10. Butch/Femme Differences in Substance Use and Abuse Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Examination and Potential Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of gender atypical self-presentation on the alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as symptoms of substance abuse, of an ethnically diverse sample of 76 young (ages 14 – 21 years) lesbian and bisexual women who were interviewed between 1993-95 in New York City. Even after controlling for age, sexual identity, and social desirability, young butch women reported drinking alcohol more frequently and in greater quantity, smoking more cigarettes, and using marijuana more frequently than young femme women. Experiences of gay-related stressful events, internalized homophobia, and emotional distress were found to largely account for the butch/femme differences in tobacco and marijuana use, but not in higher levels of alcohol use. Despite the small convenience sample, these findings suggest that intervention efforts to address the higher levels of substance use among young lesbian and bisexual women may increase effectiveness by also addressing experiences of gay-related stress and emotional distress of young butch women. PMID:18649226

  11. Risk factors for development of sexually abusive behaviour in sexually victimised adolescent boys: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, David; Bentovim, Arnon; Hodges, Jill; Stevenson, Jim; Andreou, Chriso; Lanyado, Monica; New, Michelle; Williams, Bryn; McMillan, Dean

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that may increase the risk of a sexually victimised adolescent boy developing sexually abusive behaviour. Design: Sexually victimised boys who had sexually abused other children were compared with sexually victimised boys who had not done so. Setting: Social services departments in south east England were invited to refer sexually abused and sexually abusing boys to a London postgraduate teaching hospital. Subjects: 25 adolescent boys aged between 11 years and 15 years and 11 months. Main outcome measures: Adjusted odds ratios estimated from unconditional logistic regression. Results: Unadjusted odds rations for witnessing (8.1) as well as experiencing (18.0) intrafamilial violence and discontinuity of care (7.2) discriminated boys who had sexually abused from others who were solely victims of sexual abuse. Only the adjusted odds ratios for witnessing intrafamilial violence (39.7) discriminated the two groups. Conclusions: The risk of adolescent boys who have been victims of sexual abuse engaging in sexually abusive behaviour towards other children is increased by life circumstances which may be unrelated directly to the original abusive experience, in particular exposure to a climate of intrafamilial violence. Our findings have implications for the management of boys found to have been sexually abused and raise important questions about the possibility of secondary prevention of subsequent abusive behaviour in those at greatest risk. Key messages The risk of sexually abused boys in early adolescence abusing other children may be associated with experiences in early life that are independent of sexual victimisation Exposure to persistent violence within the family may be a particularly important risk factor Management of sexually abused boys should take into account the impact of early life experiences that may be associated with increased risk with a view to the secondary prevention of sexually abusive behaviour PMID:9665896

  12. Genetic toxicology of abused drugs: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Li, J H; Lin, L F

    1998-11-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on abused drugs, most focus on the problems of addiction (dependence) and their neurotoxicities. Now accumulated data have demonstrated that the genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity of abused drugs can also be detrimental to our health. In this review, commonly abused substances, including LSD, opiates (diacetylmorphine, morphine, opium and codeine), cocaine, cannabis, betel quid and khat, are discussed for their potential genotoxicity/carcinogenicity. The available literature in the field, although not as abundant as for neurotoxicity, clearly indicates the capability of abused drugs to induce genotoxicity.

  13. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  14. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... investigate potential elder abuse cases Caption: Multidisciplinary Team Technical Assistance Center (MDT TAC) Prev Play Pause Next ... Office of the Inspector General Open Government Plain Writing USA.gov BusinessUSA Footer Menu Justice First Column ...

  15. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.

  16. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  17. Opioid Abuse or Dependence Increases 30-day Readmission Rates after Major Operating Room Procedures: A National Readmissions Database Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Atul; Nizamuddin, Junaid; Elmofty, Dalia; Nizamuddin, Sarah L; Tung, Avery; Minhaj, Mohammed; Mueller, Ariel; Apfelbaum, Jeffrey; Shahul, Sajid

    2018-05-01

    Although opioids remain the standard therapy for the treatment of postoperative pain, the prevalence of opioid misuse is rising. The extent to which opioid abuse or dependence affects readmission rates and healthcare utilization is not fully understood. It was hypothesized that surgical patients with a history of opioid abuse or dependence would have higher readmission rates and healthcare utilization. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed of patients undergoing major operating room procedures in 2013 and 2014 using the National Readmission Database. Patients with opioid abuse or dependence were identified using International Classification of Diseases codes. The primary outcome was 30-day hospital readmission rate. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay and estimated hospital costs. Among the 16,016,842 patients who had a major operating room procedure whose death status was known, 94,903 (0.6%) had diagnoses of opioid abuse or dependence. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with opioid abuse or dependence had higher 30-day readmission rates (11.1% vs. 9.1%; odds ratio 1.26; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.30), longer mean hospital length of stay at initial admission (6 vs. 4 days; P < 0.0001), and higher estimated hospital costs during initial admission ($18,528 vs. $16,617; P < 0.0001). Length of stay was also higher at readmission (6 days vs. 5 days; P < 0.0001). Readmissions for infection (27.0% vs. 18.9%; P < 0.0001), opioid overdose (1.0% vs. 0.1%; P < 0.0001), and acute pain (1.0% vs. 0.5%; P < 0.0001) were more common in patients with opioid abuse or dependence. Opioid abuse and dependence are associated with increased readmission rates and healthcare utilization after surgery. An online visual overview is available for this article at http://links.lww.com/ALN/B704.

  18. Abuse or dependence on cannabis and other psychiatric disorders. Madrid study on dual pathology prevalence.

    PubMed

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of

  19. Transphobic ‘Honour’-Based Abuse: A Conceptual Tool

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes that an understanding of transphobic ‘honour’-based abuse can be employed as a conceptual tool to explore trans people’s experiences of familial abuse. This conception has evolved by connecting a sociology of shame, Goffman’s work on stigma and ‘honour’-based ideology. The discussion draws upon findings of a qualitative study which explored trans people’s experiences of domestic violence and abuse. Narrative interviews were undertaken with 15 trans people who had either experienced abuse or whose perceptions were informed experientially through their support of others. Transcripts were analysed using the Listening Guide. Findings indicate that trans people can experience abuse as a result of a family’s perceptions of shame and stigma. This article offers a novel way of conceptualising trans people’s experiences of family-based abuse, but it also holds potential for understanding other relational contexts, for example, those of intimate partnerships. PMID:28490817

  20. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.

  1. Men's and Women's Childhood Sexual Abuse and Victimization in Adult Partner Relationships: A Study of Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Document the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical assault, psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in a nationally representative sample. (2) Assess the predictive value of CSA and other characteristics of the respondents and their current partners as potential risk factors for…

  2. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  3. "Even 'Daily' is Not Enough": How Well Do We Measure Domestic Violence and Abuse?-A Think-Aloud Study of a Commonly Used Self-Report Scale.

    PubMed

    Evans, Maggie; Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Howarth, Emma; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of providing a quantitative measure of domestic violence and abuse (DVA), illustrated by the Composite Abuse Scale, a validated multidimensional measure of frequency and severity of abuse, used worldwide for prevalence studies and intervention trials. Cognitive "think-aloud" and qualitative interviewing with a sample of women who had experienced DVA revealed a tendency toward underreporting their experience of abuse, particularly of coercive control, threatening behavior, restrictions to freedom, and sexual abuse. Underreporting was linked to inconsistency and uncertainty in item interpretation and response, fear of answering truthfully, and unwillingness to identify with certain forms of abuse. Suggestions are made for rewording or reconceptualizing items and the inclusion of a distress scale to measure the individual impact of abuse. The importance of including qualitative methods in questionnaire design and in the interpretation of quantitative findings is highlighted.

  4. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms ...

  5. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  6. BODY-ORIENTED THERAPY IN RECOVERY FROM CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: AN EFFICACY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Price, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Context There has been little research on body therapy for women in sexual abuse recovery. This study examines body-oriented therapy—an approach focused on body awareness and involving the combination of bodywork and the emotional processing of psychotherapy. Objective To examine the efficacy and the perceived influence on abuse recovery of body-oriented therapy. Massage therapy served as a relative control condition to address the lack of touch-based comparisons in bodywork research. Design A 2-group, repeated measures design was employed, involving randomization to either body-oriented therapy or massage group, conducted in 8, hour-long sessions by 1 of 4 research clinicians. Statistical and qualitative analysis was employed to provide both empirical and experiential perspectives on the study process. Setting Participants were seen in treatment rooms of a university in the northwestern United States and in clinician’s private offices. Participants Twenty-four adult females in psychotherapy for child sexual abuse. Interventions Body-oriented therapy protocol was delivered in three stages, involving massage, body awareness exercises, and inner-body focusing process. Massage therapy protocol was stan- dardized. Both protocols were delivered over clothes. Main Outcome Measures The outcomes reflected 3 key con-structs—psychological well being, physical well-being, and body connection. Repeated measures included: Brief Symptom Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Crime-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Medical Symptoms Checklist, Scale of Body Connection and Scale of Body Investment. Results were gathered at 6 time points: baseline, 2 times during intervention, post-intervention, and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. To examine the experiential perspective of the study process, written questionnaires were administered before and after intervention and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. Results Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA

  7. Violent Victimization Among Disadvantaged Young Adults Exposed to Early Family Conflict and Abuse: A 24-Year Prospective Study of the Victimization Cycle Across Gender.

    PubMed

    Voith, Laura A; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Significant associations between childhood victimization and later revictimization have materialized in previous literature; yet, the victimization cycle has been primarily explored with indicators of sexual assault, although insight into linkages between other forms of victimization remains limited. This study examined connections from family conflict exposure and physical abuse in childhood to violent crime victimization in adulthood, assessing also gender differences and neighborhood influences. Results from logistic regression and hierarchical linear modeling with data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel of 1,539 low-income, ethnic/racial minority children, unearthed a significant relation between family conflict exposure and later revictimization. Moderated by gender, these analyses showed girls exposed to frequent family conflict are particularly vulnerable to revictimization in adulthood. Exploratory analyses unveiled a potential linkage between childhood physical abuse and later revictimization for men. Neighborhood effects marginally influenced results in one instance. Public health implications are discussed.

  8. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  9. Epidemiologic Study on Drug Abuse among First and Second Grade High School Students in Kerman.

    PubMed

    Nakhaee, Nouzar; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Karimzadeh, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the epidemiology of drug abuse among high school students in Kerman. This was a cross-sectional study on a randomly selected sample of 652 first and second grade high school students (256 boys, 396 girls) in Kerman. They were informed that their answers would be classified and nameless before they filled questionnaires. Schools and classes were selected using stratified sampling method. From total 652 students participated in this study, 39.2% (256) were boys and 60.7% (396) were girls. Most of the students had information about opium (70.7% of boys and 79.8% of girls), and then alcohol (55.9% of boys and 53.9% of girls). Most offered substance to the students was alcohol (25% in boys and 12.4% in girls). The most effective encouragement for using drugs was through their friends (39% in boys, 16.9% in girls). The most used drug was alcohol among boys (11.4%) and sedative tablets among girls (12.2%). Boys preferred to use drugs in wedding ceremonies (11.3%) but girls proffered their houses (4.8%). The first reason for using drugs was socializing with unsavory friends (29.4%) and the second one was domestic problems (21.4%). The results of this study indicated dangerously increase of drug abuse among teenagers, who are the future of the society. If these results could be generalized, authorities must think of serious solutions for this rising problem.

  10. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  11. Sexual abuse in childhood and physical and mental health in adulthood: an Australian population study.

    PubMed

    Najman, Jake M; Nguyen, My Linh T; Boyle, Frances M

    2007-10-01

    Although childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of health problems later in life, there is also evidence of substantial individual differences. This study describes the mental and physical health of a population sample of Australians, randomly selected from the Commonwealth electoral roll, who have reported their CSA histories. Some 58% of those located from the electoral roll agreed to a telephone interview (n=1,784). Health status was measured using the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Men who had experienced non-penetrative and penetrative sexual abuse in childhood had 2.25 (95% CI=1.32-3.82) and 5.93 (95% CI=2.72-12.95) times respectively the rate of impaired mental health, but no higher rates of impaired physical health. Women who had experienced non-penetrative and penetrative sexual abuse in childhood had 1.87 (95% CI=1.19-2.95) and 3.15 (95% CI=1.87-5.33) times respectively the rate of impaired mental health and 1.87 (95% CI=1.19-2.92) and 2.31 (95% CI=1.34-3.97) times respectively the rate of impaired physical health. However, participants who had experienced CSA were no less likely than those who had not experienced CSA to be in optimum physical and mental health. None of the possible confounding or moderating variables tested appeared to mitigate the impact of CSA on health outcomes. Those with the highest levels of mental and physical health appear to be unaffected by the experience of CSA.

  12. Talking about domestic abuse: Crucial conversations for health visitors.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Domestic abuse is a serious problem across the world and it is considered a public health issue. Nurses play a crucial role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse but they sometimes lack confidence in dealing with the issue. In this article, two recently completed studies are used to extract lessons for health visiting practice. The first study investigated primary healthcare professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse. Many healthcare professionals were confident in dealing with domestic abuse. However, there was disinclination among some to discuss the issue. People who experience abuse rarely discuss it unless asked. So the study highlighted a potential dynamic of silence between health professionals and abused people in their care. The second study investigated student nurses and student midwives experiences of learning about domestic abuse. The student nurses had learned less than the student midwives. They had not been taught about domestic abuse in university and many had not had the opportunity to learn about it in clinical placement. They reported reluctance among some mentors to discuss the issue with them, with a resulting silencing of the issue. Both of these studies have important lessons for health visiting practice regarding opening up crucial conversations about domestic abuse.

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Positive Work Experiences and Women's Sense of Self in the Context of Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Shannon M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationships among partner abuse, work quality, and women's sense of self. In particular, we explored the potential for women's work to serve as an alternative source of feedback for the self in the context of partner abuse. The sample consisted of 100 working women who reported experiencing a range of partner abuse.…

  14. An HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment: pilot study findings.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, Donald A; Burlew, A Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-05-01

    We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele.

  15. Is the association between irritable bowel syndrome and abuse explained by neuroticism? A population based study

    PubMed Central

    Talley, N; Boyce, P; Jones, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—In outpatients and the community, an association between abuse (particularly sexual abuse) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been observed, but whether there is a causal link continues to be disputed. 
Aims—To test the hypothesis that psychological factors explain the apparent association between abuse and IBS. 
Methods—A sample of residents of Penrith (a Sydney suburb sociodemographically similar to the Australian population) selected randomly from the electoral rolls (that by law include the entire population of age 18 years and above) was mailed a validated self report questionnaire. Measured were gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including the Rome criteria for IBS, abuse (including the standardised Drossman questions), neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and psychological morbidity (General Health Questionnaire). 
Results—The response rate was 64% (n=730); 12% fulfilled the Rome criteria for IBS. Overall abuse in childhood (odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 3.15) but not adulthood (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.19) was associazted with IBS univariately. Neuroticism and psychological morbidity were also univariately associated with abuse in childhood, abuse in adulthood, and IBS, respectively. However, by logistic regression, abuse in childhood was not associated with IBS after controlling for age, gender, and psychological factors (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.83to 2.17). The results were not altered by restricting the analyses to more severe forms of abuse, and were not explained by interactions between abuse and psychological variables. 
Conclusion—There is an association between abuse and IBS in the community, but this may be explained in part by other psychological factors. Based on a path analysis, we postulate that abuse may induce the expression of neuroticism that in turn leads to IBS. 

 Keywords: epidemiology; irritable bowel syndrome; abuse; neuroticism PMID:9505885

  16. Are we failing to prepare nursing and midwifery students to deal with domestic abuse? Findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Broadhurst, Karen

    2015-09-01

    To investigate student nurses' and midwives' knowledge, confidence and educational needs regarding recognition and responses to domestic abuse. Domestic abuse is a serious global problem and has greater, negative effects on long-term health than more obvious diseases, such as diabetes. Nurses and midwives are well-placed to recognize and respond to domestic abuse but many lack confidence in this area. There is firm evidence that training can increase the confidence of Registered Nurses and midwives in responding to domestic abuse. But the issue of undergraduate preparation is significantly under-investigated. A qualitative study. Nursing and midwifery students were recruited using purposive sampling. We facilitated eight focus groups with a total of 55 students (student midwives N = 32; student nurses n = 23). Data were collected between May-November 2014. Students in the study viewed the issue of domestic abuse as important and they possessed sound theoretical knowledge of its nature and consequences. However, they lacked confidence in recognizing and responding to abuse and were concerned about the implications of this for their future practice as registered practitioners. Interactive learning opportunities that engaged with service users and involved experts from practice were viewed as important educational requirements. Most students in the study felt insufficiently prepared to deal with the issue of domestic abuse. They perceived this as a cyclical state of disempowerment that would impact negatively on their practice and on their own ability to support nursing and midwifery students of the future. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Framework for Conducting a National Study of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Moore, Laurie A.; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. Objectives and Methods We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n = 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Results Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. Conclusion and Scientific Significance This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies. PMID:22931088

  18. Cocaine abuse or dependency and other pyschiatric disorders. Madrid study on dual pathology.

    PubMed

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the cocaine addict subgroup from the Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, Spain. We compared 488 subjects who had a lifetime diagnosis of cocaine abuse or dependence, and 222 subjects who did not have a cocaine substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and the Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. Almost three-quarters (73.4%) of cocaine addicts had a current dual disorder. Most prevalent were mood and anxiety disorders. Almost half (49.6%) had a personality disorder. Most of them (94.9%) had other substance use disorders. Cocaine addicts did not have higher prevalence rates of dual pathology than addicts with no cocaine abuse or dependence. Cocaine addicts were associated to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, agoraphobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder, and they had an early age of onset of alcohol and cannabis use. Dual pathology is no higher in cocaine addicts in treatment than in addicts who do not use cocaine, however cocaine addicts started other drugs earlier, and were associated with specific mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual abuse in childhood and sexual dysfunction in adulthood: an Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Najman, Jake M; Dunne, Michael P; Purdie, David M; Boyle, Francis M; Coxeter, Peter D

    2005-10-01

    This study examined self-reported adult sexual functioning in individuals reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a representative sample of the Australian population. A sample of 1793 persons, aged 18-59 years, were randomly selected from the electoral roll for Australian states and territories in April 2000. Respondents were interviewed about their health status and sexual experiences, including unwanted sexual experiences before the age of 16 years. More than one-third of women and approximately one-sixth of men reported a history of CSA. Women were more likely than men to report both non-penetrative and penetrative experiences of CSA. For both sexes, there was a significant association between CSA and symptoms of sexual dysfunction. In assessing the specific nature of the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual dysfunction, statistically significant associations were, in general, evident for women only. CSA was not associated with the level of physical or emotional satisfaction respondents experienced with their sexual activity. The total number of lifetime sexual partners was significantly and positively associated with CSA for females, but not for males; however, the number of sexual partners in the last year was not related to CSA. CSA in the Australian population is common and contributes to significant impairment in the sexual functioning of adults, especially women. These consequences appear not to extend to the other areas of sexual activity considered in this study.

  20. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  1. Priorities and strategies for improving disabled women's access to maternity services when they are affected by domestic abuse: a multi-method study using concept maps.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Devaney, John; Duncan, Fiona; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie

    2015-12-28

    Domestic abuse is a significant public health issue. It occurs more frequently among disabled women than those without a disability and evidence suggests that a great deal of domestic abuse begins or worsens during pregnancy. All women and their infants are entitled to equal access to high quality maternity care. However, research has shown that disabled women who experience domestic abuse face numerous barriers to accessing care. The aim of the study was to identify the priority areas for improving access to maternity services for this group of women; develop strategies for improved access and utilisation; and explore the feasibility of implementing the identified strategies. This multi-method study was the third and final part of a larger study conducted in the UK between 2012 and 2014. The study used a modified concept mapping approach and was theoretically underpinned by Andersen's model of healthcare use. Seven focus group interviews were conducted with a range of maternity care professionals (n = 45), incorporating quantitative and qualitative components. Participants ranked perceived barriers to women's access and utilisation of maternity services in order of priority using a 5-point Likert scale. Quantitative data exploration used descriptive and non-parametric analyses. In the qualitative component of each focus group, participants discussed the barriers and identified potential improvement strategies (and feasibility of implementing these). Qualitative data were analysed inductively using a framework analysis approach. The three most highly ranked barriers to women's access and utilisation of maternity services identified in the quantitative component were: 1) staff being unaware and not asking about domestic abuse and disability; 2) the impact of domestic abuse on women; 3) women's fear of disclosure. The top two priority strategies were: providing information about domestic abuse to all women and promoting non-judgemental staff attitude. These were

  2. Understanding the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Men's Risk Behavior: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Downing, Martin J; Brown, Dominique; Steen, Jeffrey; Benoit, Ellen

    2018-02-26

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized. The objective of this study is to overcome existing limitations in the literature by drawing on perspectives of black and Latino MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), as well as relevant service providers to better understand the role of, and the need to include, sexual abuse histories (eg, CSA) in treatment and counseling settings, with the long-term goal of improving assessment and health outcomes. We will conduct mixed-methods interviews, framed by an intersectionality approach, with 80 black and Latino men (40 MSM and 40 MSMW) in New York City (NYC), exploring appraisals of their formative sexual experiences, including those described as consensual but meeting criteria for CSA. We will also interview 30 local service providers representing substance abuse treatment, mental health care, and HIV prevention and outreach. The study was launched in May 2017. This formative research will inform testable approaches to assessing and incorporating sexual abuse history into substance abuse treatment and other health and mental health services used by men with such histories. ©Martin J Downing Jr, Dominique Brown, Jeffrey Steen, Ellen Benoit. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.02.2018.

  3. Understanding the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Men’s Risk Behavior: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized. Objective The objective of this study is to overcome existing limitations in the literature by drawing on perspectives of black and Latino MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), as well as relevant service providers to better understand the role of, and the need to include, sexual abuse histories (eg, CSA) in treatment and counseling settings, with the long-term goal of improving assessment and health outcomes. Methods We will conduct mixed-methods interviews, framed by an intersectionality approach, with 80 black and Latino men (40 MSM and 40 MSMW) in New York City (NYC), exploring appraisals of their formative sexual experiences, including those described as consensual but meeting criteria for CSA. We will also interview 30 local service providers representing substance abuse treatment, mental health care, and HIV prevention and outreach. Results The study was launched in May 2017. Conclusions This formative research will inform testable approaches to assessing and incorporating sexual abuse history into substance abuse treatment and other health and mental health services used by men with such histories. PMID:29483063

  4. Elder abuse as a risk factor for psychological distress among older adults in India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane C; Qin, Min; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the association between elder abuse and psychological distress among older adults in India and explores whether this association varies by the level of psychosocial and material resources. Design The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Setting The data are drawn from a representative sample of 9589 adults aged 60 and above in seven Indian states—Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu—in 2011. Statistical analyses Secondary analysis, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, is conducted using the United Nations Population Fund project Building Knowledge Base on Ageing in India survey. Elder abuse (physical and/or emotional) emanating from family members in the previous month before the survey is examined. Multivariate models are run on the total analytical sample and for men and women separately. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress among persons aged 60 and over living in the seven Indian States is 40.6%. Among those older persons who experienced some form of physical or emotional abuse or violence in the last month, the prevalence of psychological distress is much higher than that in the general older population, at 61.6% (p<0.001). The results show that the experience of abuse is negatively associated with the mental health of older adults, and this relationship persists even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.09). The findings also suggest that household wealth has an inverse relationship with mental health, with the association between experiencing elder abuse and reporting poor mental health being strongest among older people in wealthy households. Conclusions Elder abuse in India is currently a neglected phenomenon, and greater recognition of the link between abuse and mental health is critical to improve the well-being of vulnerable older adults, some of whom may be

  5. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  6. Problematic Use of Video Games and Substance Abuse in Early Adolescence: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Rabensteiner, Andrea; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Pérez, Luis Javier Gómez; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Problematic use of video games (PUVG) is associated with substance use in middle school students. The aim of our study was to examine the association between PUVG and substance abuse in children and young adolescents. A survey was conducted during the 2014-2015 school year in Padua (northeastern Italy). The sample consisted of 1156 students in grades 6 to 8. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to seek associations between PUVG (dependent variable) and independent variables. Logistic regression showed that lifetime drunkenness, combined energy drink and alcohol consumption (lifetime), reading comics, and disrespect for rules increased the odds of PUVG, whereas playing competitive sport, eating fruit and/or vegetables daily, finding it easy to talk with fathers and being female lowered the odds of PUVG in early adolescence. Our findings show that PUVG is more likely in young adolescents at risk of substance abuse. Prevention schemes focusing on early adolescence should be based on a multicomponent intervention strategy that takes PUVG into account.

  7. Childhood abuse history, posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum mental health, and bonding: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane; Ronis, David L; Muzik, Maria; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Research is needed that prospectively characterizes the intergenerational pattern of effects of childhood maltreatment and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on women's mental health in pregnancy and on postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes. This prospective study included 566 nulliparous women in 3 cohorts: PTSD-positive, trauma-exposed resilient, and not exposed to trauma. Trauma history, PTSD diagnosis, and depression diagnosis were ascertained using standardized telephone interviews with women who were pregnant at less than 28 gestational weeks. A 6-week-postpartum interview reassessed interim trauma, labor experience, PTSD, depression, and bonding outcomes. Regression modeling indicates that posttraumatic stress in pregnancy, alone, or comorbid with depression is associated with postpartum depression (R(2) = .204; P < .001). Postpartum depression alone or comorbid with posttraumatic stress was associated with impaired bonding (R(2) = .195; P < .001). In both models, higher quality of life ratings in pregnancy were associated with better outcomes, while reported dissociation in labor was a risk for worse outcomes. The effect of a history of childhood maltreatment on both postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes was mediated by preexisting mental health status. Pregnancy represents an opportune time to interrupt the pattern of intergenerational transmission of abuse and psychiatric vulnerability. Further dyadic research is warranted beyond 6 weeks postpartum. Trauma-informed interventions for women who enter care with abuse-related PTSD or depression should be developed and tested. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  8. Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari

    2013-11-01

    Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the association between irritable bowel syndrome and abuse explained by neuroticism? A population based study.

    PubMed

    Talley, N J; Boyce, P M; Jones, M

    1998-01-01

    In outpatients and the community, an association between abuse (particularly sexual abuse) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been observed, but whether there is a causal link continues to be disputed. To test the hypothesis that psychological factors explain the apparent association between abuse and IBS. A sample of residents of Penrith (a Sydney suburb sociodemographically similar to the Australian population) selected randomly from the electoral rolls (that by law include the entire population of age 18 years and above) was mailed a validated self report questionnaire. Measured were gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including the Rome criteria for IBS, abuse (including the standardised Drossman questions), neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and psychological morbidity (General Health Questionnaire). The response rate was 64% (n = 730); 12% fulfilled the Rome criteria for IBS. Overall abuse in childhood (odds ratio (OR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 3.15) but not adulthood (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.19) was associated with IBS univariately. Neuroticism and psychological morbidity were also univariately associated with abuse in childhood, abuse in adulthood and IBS, respectively. However, by logistic regression, abuse in childhood was not associated with IBS after controlling for age, gender, and psychological factors (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.17). The results were not altered by restricting the analyses to more severe forms of abuse, and were not explained by interactions between abuse and psychological variables. There is an association between abuse and IBS in the community, but this may be explained in part by other psychological factors. Based on a path analysis, we postulate that abuse may induce the expression of neuroticism that in turn leads to IBS.

  10. WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL MEETS THE ECOLOGICAL: A STUDY OF PARENT DRINKING PATTERNS, ALCOHOL OUTLETS AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite well-known associations between heavy drinking and child physical abuse, little is known about specific risks related to drinking different amounts of alcohol in different drinking venues. This study uses a context specific dose-response model to examine how drinking in various venues (e.g., at bars or parties) are related to physically abusive parenting practices while controlling for individual and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Data were collected via a telephone survey of parents in 50 cities in California resulting in 2,163 respondents who reported drinking in the past year. Child physical abuse and corporal punishment were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent Child version. Drinking behaviors were measured using continued drinking measures. Data were analyzed using zero inflated Poisson models. Results Drinking at homes, parties or bars more frequently was related to greater frequencies of physically abusive parenting practices. The use of greater amounts of alcohol in association with drinking at bars appeared to increase risks for corporal punishment, a dose-response effect. Dose-response relationships were not found for drinking at homes or parties or drinking at bars for physical abuse nor for drinking at home and parties for corporal punishment. Conclusion Frequencies of using drinking venues, particularly bars and home or parties, are associated with greater use of abusive parenting practices. These findings suggest that a parent’s routine drinking activities place children at different risks for being physically abused. They also suggest that interventions that take into account parents’ alcohol use at drinking venues are an important avenue for secondary prevention efforts. PMID:23316780

  11. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  12. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  13. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  14. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  15. Object relations and interpersonal problems in sexually abused female patients: an empirical study with the SCORS and the IIP.

    PubMed

    Kernhof, Karin; Kaufhold, Johannes; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined how retrospective reports of experiencing traumatic sexual abuse in childhood relates to both the development of self-representations and object representations and the occurrence of interpersonal problems. A total of 30 psychosomatic female patients who reported sexual abuse in childhood were compared with a corresponding number of eating-disordered patients and a nonclinical control group. The object relations technique (ORT; Phillipson, 1955), evaluated using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, 1985, 1991b), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, & Ureno, 1988) were used to measure the groups. The patients reporting sexual abuse achieved significantly lower scores in the cognitive scales of the SCORS; in the affective scales, they differed from the control group but not from the patients with an eating disorder. Concerning interpersonal problems, the patients reporting childhood sexual abuse reported interpersonal conflicts more frequently. The results of the study support the influence of traumatic sexual abuse on the formation of self-representations and object representations and on the occurrence of interpersonal conflicts.

  16. Childhood Abuse as a Risk Factor for Sleep Problems in Adulthood: Evidence from a U.S. National Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; Friedman, Elliot L.; Springer, Kristen W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that stress impairs sleep quality. Few studies, however, have examined the extent to which early life stress can jeopardize sleep in adulthood. Purpose Guided by a life course epidemiological perspective on health, this study examined associations between childhood abuse and adult sleep problems. Methods We used data from 835 respondents in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Self-report measures assessed the frequency of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in childhood, as well as global and component indicators of sleep problems in adulthood. Results Having experienced all three types of childhood abuse—even infrequently—was associated with global sleep pathology, as well as specific types of sleep problems. Reports of both frequent physical and frequent emotional abuse—even in the absence of sexual abuse—were also associated with poor sleep. Conclusions Childhood abuse is a risk factor for individuals’ long-term sleep problems. PMID:21656087

  17. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  18. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  19. The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC): reliability and association with abuse exposure in a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Briere, J; Johnson, K; Bissada, A; Damon, L; Crouch, J; Gil, E; Hanson, R; Ernst, V

    2001-08-01

    The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC) is a 90-item caretaker-report measure of children's trauma- and abuse-related symptomatology. It contains two reporter validity scales and eight clinical scales [Post-traumatic Stress-Intrusion (PTS-I), Post-traumatic Stress-Avoidance (PTS-AV), Post-traumatic Stress-Arousal (PTS-AR), Post-traumatic Stress-Total (PTS-TOT), Sexual Concerns (SC), Dissociation (DIS), Anxiety (ANX), Depression (DEP), and Anger/Aggression (ANG)], as well as an item assessing hours per week of caretaker contact with the child. This paper introduces the TSCYC and describes its psychometric properties in a multisite validity study. A total of 219 TSCYCs administered by six clinician/researchers across the United States were analyzed for scale reliability and association with several types of childhood maltreatment. The TSCYC clinical scales have good reliability and are associated with exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence. The PTS-I, PTS-AV, PTS-AR, and PTS-TOT scales were most predictive, followed by SC in the case of sexual abuse and DIS in the case of physical abuse. There were a small number of age, sex, and race effects on TSCYC scores. The TSCYC appears to have reasonable psychometric characteristics, and correlates as expected with various types of trauma exposure. Subject to continued validation and the development of general population norms, its use as a clinical measure is supported.

  20. Perceptions of Why Women Stay in Physically Abusive Relationships: A Comparative Study of Chinese and U.S. College Students.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Brandie; Li, Luye; Sun, Ivan Y

    2018-05-01

    In both China and the United States, public attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) have shifted from viewing IPV as a tolerable, private matter to viewing it as a matter of public concern that should be dealt with as a crime. Empirical and comparative examinations of the perceptions of why women stay in physically abusive relationships are lacking. Answering this question calls for comprehensive, methodologically rigorous research. Using survey data collected from approximately 1,000 college students from two Chinese and two U.S. universities, this study empirically compared and contrasted factors that impact U.S. and Chinese students' perceptions as to why women remain in physically abusive relationships. Utilizing a theoretical framework of social constructionism, two common reasons were assessed: Women stay in physically abusive relationships because of learned helplessness and positive beliefs in the relationship/hope for the future. The results show that viewing IPV as a crime, gender, and beliefs of the causes of IPV were robust predictors of college students' perceptions toward why women stay in physically abusive relationships. U.S. college students were more likely to express sympathy and understanding toward why women remain in abusive relationships than Chinese students. Directions for future research and policy implications were discussed.

  1. PET Studies in Nonhuman Primate Models of Cocaine Abuse: Translational Research Related to Vulnerability and Neuroadaptations

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Duke, Angela N.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current review highlights the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the neurobiological substrates underlying vulnerability to cocaine addiction and subsequent adaptations following chronic cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse. Environmental (e.g., social rank) and sex-specific influences on dopaminergic function and sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine are discussed. Cocaine-related cognitive deficits have been hypothesized to contribute to high rates of relapse and are described in nonhuman primate models. Lastly, the long-term consequences of cocaine on neurobiology are discussed. PET imaging and longitudinal, within-subject behavioral studies in nonhuman primates have provided a strong framework for designing pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies to aid drug-dependent treatment seekers. Non-invasive PET imaging will allow for individualized treatment strategies. Recent advances in radiochemistry of novel PET ligands and other imaging modalities can further advance our understanding of stimulant use on the brain. PMID:23458573

  2. Survivor experience of a child sexual abuse prevention program: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barron, Ian G; Topping, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Addressing gaps in the research, the current study assesses the impact of a community-based child sexual abuse prevention program on known survivor knowledge/skills, disclosures, and subjective experience. Methodologically, novel measures of program fidelity and implementation cost are applied. A pre- posttest wait-list control design was utilized with intervention (n = 10) and comparison groups (n = 10). Measures included a standardized knowledge/skill questionnaire, coding of disclosures, subjective experience questionnaires, in-depth interviews, video analysis of program adherence, and a measure of cost. Analysis involved nonparametric tests and thematic analysis of interview and video data. Cost was calculated for the group and per survivor. Survivors achieved significant gains in knowledge/skills, made further disclosures, and were positive about their program experience. No gains were identified in the control group. Costs were small. Future studies need to explore survivor experience of programs delivered in classrooms.

  3. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  4. Are nurses verbally abused? A cross-sectional study of nurses at a university hospital, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shamlan, Nouf A.; Jayaseeli, Nithya; Al-Shawi, Moneera M.; Al-Joudi, Abdullah S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workplace violence against health-care workers is a significant problem worldwide. Nurses are at a higher risk of exposure to violence. Studies available in Saudi Arabia are few. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of verbal abuse of nurses at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and to identify consequences and the demographic and work-related characteristics associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 391 nurses by total sample was conducted between November and December 2015, using a modified self-administered questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Data was entered, and analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. The descriptive statistics were reported using frequency and percentages for all categorical variables. Chi-squared tests or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were performed to test the associations of verbal abuse with the demographic and work-related characteristics of the participants. Variables with p < 0.05 were considered significant. Logistic regression analysis performed to determine association between verbal abuse and independent variables. RESULTS: In a period of 1 year before the study, about three out of ten nurses experienced verbal abuse (30.7%). In the majority of cases, the victims did not report the incidents, mostly because they believed that reporting would yield no positive results. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male nurses, nurses in the emergency department, and nurses who indicated that there were procedures for reporting violence in their workplace were more vulnerable to workplace verbal abuse. CONCLUSION: Workplace verbal abuse is a significant challenge in KFHU. For decision makers, it is rather disturbing that a lot of cases go unreported even though procedures for reporting exist. Implementation of an efficient transparent reporting system that provides follow-up investigations is mandatory. In

  5. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  6. Neuroimaging study of sex differences in the neuropathology of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiang-shan Ray; Kemp, Kathleen; Milivojevic, Verica; Sinha, Rajita

    2005-09-01

    Female and male substance abusers differ in their disease patterns and clinical outcomes. An important question in addiction neuroscience thus concerns the neural substrates underlying these sex differences. This article aims to examine what is known of the neural mechanisms involved in the sex differences between substance abusers. We reviewed neuroimaging studies that addressed sex differences in cerebral perfusion deficits after chronic cocaine use and in regional brain activation during pharmacologic challenge and cue-induced craving. We also present results from a preliminary study in which cocaine-dependent men and women participated in script-guided imagery of stress- and drug cue-related situations while blood oxygenation level-dependent signals of their brain were acquired in a 1.5T scanner. Spatial pre-processing and statistical analysis of brain images were performed. Regional brain activation was compared between stress and drug cue trials in men versus women. The results of our study showed greater activation in the left uncus and right claustrum (both, statistical threshold of P = 0.01, uncorrected; extent = 10 voxels) in men (n = 5) during drug cue trials compared with stress trials. No brain regions showed greater activation during stress trials compared with drug cue trials. In contrast, women (n = 6) showed greater activation in the right medial and superior frontal gyri during stress trials compared with drug cue trials at the same statistical threshold. No brain regions showed more activation during drug cue trials than during stress trials. The studies reviewed underscore the need to consider sex-related factors in examining the neuropathology of cocaine addiction. Our preliminary results also suggest important sex differences in the effect of stress- and drug cue-associated brain activation in individuals with cocaine use disorder.

  7. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Félix; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Díaz, Ramon; Ibáñez, María

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS(E), enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Study of the Relationship between Child Abuse and Drug Addiction in 178 Patients: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Frederick S.; Densen-Gerber, Judianne

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire on family intactness, parental and sibling relationships, and personal physical/sexual abuse histories was completed by 178 adults in treatment for drug/alcohol addiction. Results revealed that 84 percent of the sample reported a history of child abuse/neglect. (Author/CL)

  9. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  10. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  11. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1987-01-01

    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  12. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  13. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  14. The Investigation and Outcome of Reported Cases of Elder Abuse: The Forsyth County Aging Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiferaw, Beletshachew; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Summarized outcome of all investigations of elder abuse conducted in Forsyth County, North Carolina, during three-year period ending December 1991. Of 123 cases investigated, 23 were confirmed as elder abuse. Found no statistically significant differences in age, sex, race, living arrangements, mental status, mobility, or source of report between…

  15. Discovering Physical Abuse: Insights from a Follow-Up Study of Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Abby; Lewis, Dorothy Otnow

    1992-01-01

    Incarcerated Connecticut youth (n=66) were interviewed using a protocol that elicited more self-reports of abusive experiences than did earlier direct questions about maltreatment. Conflicts underlying denial or minimization of abuse are discussed, along with interview strategies for overcoming them. (Author/DB)

  16. A Study of Multi-Cultural Alternatives to Drug Abuse in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, William G.

    Five minority alternative drug abuse prevention programs (three Indian and two Hispanic) in New Mexico were evaluated to determine which elements were successful or unsuccessful in addressing the needs of Indian and Hispanic youth regarding the relationship of substance use and abuse, cultural differences, and self-concept. The programs were…

  17. Assessment of the abuse liability of a dual orexin receptor antagonist: a crossover study of almorexant and zolpidem in recreational drug users.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Hans G; Hoever, Petra; Chakraborty, Bijan; Schoedel, Kerri; Sellers, Edward M; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-04-01

    Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) enable initiation and maintenance of sleep in patients with primary insomnia. Blockade of the orexin system has shown reduction of drug-seeking behavior in animal studies, supporting the role of orexin antagonism as a novel approach for treating substance abuse. Since hypnotics are traditionally associated with misuse, a lack of abuse liability of DORAs would offer significant benefits over current therapies for sleep disorders. In this randomized, crossover, proof-of-concept study, single oral doses of the DORA almorexant (200, 400, and 1,000 mg) were administered to healthy subjects with previous non-therapeutic experience with central nervous system depressants and were compared with placebo and single oral doses of zolpidem (20 and 40 mg), a benzodiazepine-like drug. Subjective measures of abuse potential (visual analog scales [VAS], Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Subjective Drug Value) and objective measures (divided attention [DA]) were evaluated over 24 h post-dose in 33 evaluable subjects. Drug Liking VAS peak effect (E max; primary endpoint) was significantly higher for all doses of almorexant and zolpidem compared with placebo (p<0.001). Almorexant 200 mg showed significantly less 'Drug Liking' than both zolpidem doses (p<0.01), and almorexant 400 mg had smaller effects than zolpidem 20 mg (p<0.05), while almorexant 1,000 mg was not different from either zolpidem dose. Results were similar for other subjective measures, although almorexant generally showed smaller negative and perceptual effects compared with zolpidem. Almorexant also showed less cognitive impairment compared with zolpidem on most DA endpoints. This study in humans investigating single doses of almorexant is the first to explore and show abuse liability of a DORA, a class of compounds that is not only promising for the treatment of sleep disorders, but also of addiction.

  18. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D’Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born 1960–1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also the longer duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. Conclusions We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. PMID:25158998

  19. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D'Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.84). Also, the longer the duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Elder abuse in Chinese populations: a global review.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.

  1. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  2. Genetic moderators and psychiatric mediators of the link between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A

    2011-06-01

    This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that might affect treatment planning. A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Moderators and Psychiatric Mediators of the link between Sexual Abuse and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Magnusson, Åsa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that that might affect treatment planning. Methods A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. Results The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. PMID:21193270

  4. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  5. A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Therapy Modality Outcomes for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D.; Brausch, Amy M.; Montgomery, Brad S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the independent effects of different treatment elements on a number of secondary problems related to childhood and adolescent sexual abuse, as well as investigate a number of different moderators of treatment effectiveness. Method: Twenty-eight studies that provided treatment outcome…

  6. The Costs and Benefits of Substance Abuse Treatment: Findings from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lane; Denmead, Gabrielle; Nguyen, Robert; Harrison, Margaret; Harwood, Henrick

    This study seeks to quantify the costs and benefits of alcohol and drug abuse treatment and the resulting economic benefits to society. Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), and client questionnaires, estimates were made of the average costs per client in terms of crime-related costs, health care costs, and…

  7. The Role of Sexual Abuse and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Perceived Stress and Negative Mood in Pregnant Adolescents: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Basu, Archana; Monk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective Latinas have the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy in the US. Identifying means to improve the well-being among these young women is critical. The current study examined whether a history of child sexual abuse — itself a risk factor for adolescent pregnancy — was associated with more perceived stress and negative mood over the course of pregnancy and whether dysfunctional attitudes explained these associations. Design and Setting This mixed methods study involved lab-based assessments of perceived stress, sexual abuse history, and dysfunctional attitudes as well as Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) of mood states every 30 minutes during a 24-hour period once during each trimester of pregnancy. Participants Pregnant adolescents (n = 204, 85% Latina). Main Outcome Measures EMA mood states and lab-based retrospective self–reports of perceived stress. Results One in four pregnant adolescents had a history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused adolescents reported greater perceived stress during the first trimester relative to those without, though the groups did not differ on EMA negative mood ratings. Dysfunctional attitudes explained associations between sexual abuse and perceived stress. Sexual abuse was indirectly associated with the intercept and slope of negative mood through dysfunctional attitudes. Findings were circumscribed to sexual abuse and not other types of child abuse. Conclusions Identifying sexually abused pregnant adolescents and providing support and cognitive therapy to target dysfunctional beliefs may decrease stress during the first trimester as well as negative affect throughout pregnancy. PMID:26130137

  8. A population-based Swedish Twin and Sibling Study of cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse in men.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Prior studies, utilizing interview-based assessments, suggest that most of the genetic risk factors for drug abuse (DA) are non-specific with a minority acting specifically on risk for abuse of particular psychoactive substance classes. We seek to replicate these findings using objective national registry data. We examined abuse of cannabis, stimulants (including cocaine) and sedatives ascertained from national Swedish registers in male-male monozygotic (1720 pairs) and dizygotic twins (1219 pairs) combined with near-age full siblings (76,457 pairs) to provide sufficient power. Modeling was performed using Mx. A common pathway model fitted better than an independent pathway model. The latent liability to DA was highly heritable but also influenced by shared environment. Cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse all loaded strongly on the common factor. Estimates for the total heritability for the three forms of substance abuse ranged from 64 to 70%. Between 75 and 90% of that genetic risk was non-specific, coming from the common factor with the remainder deriving from substance specific genetic risk factors. By contrast, all of the shared environmental effects, which accounted for 18-20% of the variance in liability, were non-specific. In accord with prior studies based on personal interviews, the large preponderance of genetic risk factors for abuse of specific classes of psychoactive substance are non-specific. These results suggest that genetic variation in the primary sites of action of the psychoactive drugs, which differ widely across most drug classes, play a minor role in human individual differences in risk for DA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Will peripherally restricted kappa-opioid receptor agonists (pKORAs) relieve pain with less opioid adverse effects and abuse potential?

    PubMed

    Albert-Vartanian, A; Boyd, M R; Hall, A L; Morgado, S J; Nguyen, E; Nguyen, V P H; Patel, S P; Russo, L J; Shao, A J; Raffa, R B

    2016-08-01

    Optimal utilization of opioid analgesics is significantly limited by the central nervous system adverse effects and misuse/abuse potential of currently available drugs. It has been postulated that opioid-associated adverse effects and abuse potential would be greatly reduced if opioids could be excluded from reaching the brain. We review the basic science and clinical evidence of one such approach - peripherally restricted kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists (pKORAs). Published and unpublished literature, websites and other sources were searched for basic science and clinical information related to the potential benefits and development of peripherally restricted kappa-opioid receptor agonists. Each source was summarized, reviewed and assessed. The historical development of pKORAs can be traced from the design of increasingly KOR-selective agonists, elucidation of the pharmacologic attributes of such compounds and strategies to restrict passage across the blood-brain barrier. Novel compounds are under development and have progressed to clinical trials. The results from recent clinical trials suggest that peripherally restricted opioids can be successfully designed and that they can retain analgesic efficacy with a more favourable adverse effect profile. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Child protective services utilization of child abuse pediatricians: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Girardet, Rebecca; Bolton, Kelly; Hashmi, Syed; Sedlock, Emily; Khatri, Rachna; Lahoti, Nina; Lukefahr, James

    2018-02-01

    Several children's hospitals and medical schools across Texas have child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) who work closely with child protection workers to help ensure accurate assessments of the likelihood of maltreatment in cases of suspected abuse and neglect. Since the state does not mandate which cases should be referred to a CAP center, we were interested in studying factors that may influence workers' decisions to consult a CAP. We used a mixed methods study design consisting of a focus group followed by a survey. The focus group identified multiple factors that impact workers' decision-making, including several that involve medical providers. Responses from 436 completed surveys were compared to employees' number of years of employment and to the state region in which they worked. Focus group findings and survey responses revealed frustration among many workers when dealing with medical providers, and moderate levels of confidence in workers' abilities to make accurate determinations in cases involving medical information. Workers were more likely to refer cases involving serious physical injury than other types of cases. Among workers who reported prior interactions with a CAP, experiences and attitudes regarding CAPs were typically positive. The survey also revealed significant variability in referral practices by state region. Our results suggest that standard guidelines regarding CAP referrals may help workers who deal with cases involving medical information. Future research and quality improvement efforts to improve transfers of information and to better understand the qualities that CPS workers appreciate in CAP teams should improve CAP-CPS coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carrying the pain of abuse: gender-specific findings on the relationship between childhood physical abuse and obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Sinclair, Deborah A; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR) = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 1.67). Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53). This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration.

  12. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341

  13. Health behaviors as mediators for the effect of partner abuse on infant birth weight.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Margaret H; Munro, Barbara Hazard; Kelly, Ursula; Hawkins, Joellen W

    2004-01-01

    Intimate partner abuse of pregnant women has been linked to the delivery of low-birth-weight infants. Also, abused pregnant women have reported a greater prevalence of substance abuse, poor nutrition, and demographic risk factors for poor birth outcomes. These factors may play a role in the reported relation between intimate partner violence and birth weight. To explore the role of substance abuse (smoking, alcohol, and drug use) and weight gain of less than 15 pounds during pregnancy as potential mediators of the relation between recent partner abuse and infant birth weight, and to investigate the role of demographic risk factors as potential moderators for the impact of abuse on birth weight. Data were extracted on abuse screening results, demographics, birth outcomes, and a range of medical and obstetric risks and complications from the medical records of 1969 women who had been screened by clinicians for domestic abuse during pregnancy. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis. Recent physical or psychological abuse had a small but significant effect on birth weight in this sample. Smoking and low weight gain were weak but significant mediators of the relation between recent abuse and infant birth weight. Single marital status was the strongest demographic predictor of decreased birth weight. No moderator effects were found. Although prospective studies are warranted, nursing care to reduce smoking and promote adequate weight gain in all women along with support for women's efforts to seek safety from abuse may help to improve birth outcomes and promote maternal well-being.

  14. Suicide and fatal drug overdose in child sexual abuse victims: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cutajar, Margaret C; Mullen, Paul E; Ogloff, James R P; Thomas, Stuart D; Wells, David L; Spataro, Josie

    2010-02-15

    To determine the rate and risk of suicide and accidental fatal drug overdose (ie, overdose deemed not to have been suicide) in individuals who had been medically ascertained as having been sexually abused during childhood. A historical cohort linkage study of suicide and accidental drug-induced death among victims of child sexual abuse (CSA). Forensic medical records of 2759 victims of CSA who were assessed between 1964 and 1995 were obtained from the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine and linked with coronial data representing a follow-up period of up to 44 years. Rates of suicide and accidental fatal drug overdose recorded in coronial databases between 1991 and 2008, and rates of psychiatric disorders and substance use recorded in public mental health databases. Twenty-one cases of fatal self-harm were recorded. Relative risks for suicide and accidental fatal overdose among CSA victims, compared with age-limited national data for the general population, were 18.09 (95% CI, 10.96-29.85; population-attributable risk, 0.37%), and 49.22 (95% CI, 36.11-67.09; population-attributable risk, 0.01%) respectively. Relative risks were higher for female victims. Similar to the general population, CSA victims who died as a result of self-harm were predominantly aged in their 30s at time of death. Most had contact with the public mental health system and half were recorded as being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Our data highlight that CSA victims are at increased risk of suicide and accidental fatal drug overdose. CSA is a risk factor that mediates suicide and fatal overdose.

  15. Elder abuse and socioeconomic inequalities: a multilevel study in 7 European countries.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Sílvia; Lindert, Jutta; Barros, Henrique; Torres-González, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Soares, Joaquim F

    2014-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of elder abuse using a multilevel approach that takes into account the characteristics of participants as well as socioeconomic indicators at city and country level. In 2009, the project on abuse of elderly in Europe (ABUEL) was conducted in seven cities (Stuttgart, Germany; Ancona, Italy; Kaunas, Lithuania, Stockholm, Sweden; Porto, Portugal; Granada, Spain; Athens, Greece) comprising 4467 individuals aged 60-84 years. We used a 3-level hierarchical structure of data: 1) characteristics of participants; 2) mean of tertiary education of each city; and 3) country inequality indicator (Gini coefficient). Multilevel logistic regression was used and proportional changes in Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were inspected to assert explained variance between models. The prevalence of elder abuse showed large variations across sites. Adding tertiary education to the regression model reduced the country level variance for psychological abuse (ICC=3.4%), with no significant decrease in the explained variance for the other types of abuse. When the Gini coefficient was considered, the highest drop in ICC was observed for financial abuse (from 9.5% to 4.3%). There is a societal and community level dimension that adds information to individual variability in explaining country differences in elder abuse, highlighting underlying socioeconomic inequalities leading to such behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse: a population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yamaoka, Yui; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks. Infant physical abuse during the past month was assessed by self-reports of spanking, shaking or smothering. The prevalence of infant physical abuse at 4 months of age was 9.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 7.6-10.7 %). Women living in trusting neighborhoods were less likely to report infant physical abuse compared to those living in areas with low neighborhood trust (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95 % CI 0.06-0.97). In addition, women with supportive social networks were less likely to report infant physical abuse (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99). In addition to one's personal social network, social trust in the neighborhood was independently associated with lowered risk of infant physical abuse. To prevent infant abuse, interventions should consider strengthening community social bonds in addition to strengthening the social network of isolated mothers.

  17. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  18. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680

  19. Substance abuse in heart transplant recipients: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, J S; Eberly, C; Mohanty, P K

    2001-12-01

    Active substance abuse is widely accepted as a contraindication for heart transplantation because of the theory that relapse would occur after transplantation and result in compromise of graft function, lowering long-term survival. Listing "recovering" substance abusers for heart transplantation has been controversial. To determine if substance abuse plays an unfavorable role in the outcome of heart transplantation. The medical records of all patients at our center who received a heart transplant more than 10 years ago were retrospectively reviewed for history of substance abuse. From a pool of 189 transplant recipients, 47 patients had a definite history of substance abuse (group 1) and were considered in recovery, whereas 142 patients were clearly without any history of substance abuse (group 2). Group 1 had a significantly greater percentage of patients with a pretransplantation diagnosis of idiopathic cardiomyopathy (P = .003), a higher occurrence of heart-related cause of death (P = .017), and a significant prevalence of noncompliance (P = .0001) and death because of noncompliance (P = .0004). In contrast, group 2 surprisingly had a significantly higher incidence of death related to infection (P = .0062), which is unexplained. Despite higher incidence of noncompliance in group 1, there was no significant difference in the overall survival rate between the 2 groups. These results suggest that patients with a history of substance abuse can undergo successful heart transplantation with acceptable long-term survival, though they are at greater risk for substance abuse relapse and resulting noncompliance with the treatment regimen. The extent to which relapse of substance abuse and its consequences affect the cost of posttransplantation care remains to be determined.

  20. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  2. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  3. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  4. Vicarious Trauma: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Providing Sexual Abuse Treatment on Clinicians' Trust and Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…

  5. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  6. A laboratory-based study of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance among inner-city substance users: the role of emotional nonacceptance.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Bornovalova, Marina A; Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Nick, Bettina; Lejuez, C W

    2007-09-01

    Despite the theorized centrality of experiential avoidance in abuse-related psychopathology, empirical examinations of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance remain limited. The present study adds to the extant literature on this relationship, providing a laboratory-based investigation of the relationships between childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, experiential avoidance (indexed as unwillingness to persist on 2 psychologically distressing laboratory tasks), and self-reported emotional nonacceptance among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. As hypothesized, results provide evidence for heightened experiential avoidance and emotional nonacceptance among individuals with moderate-severe sexual, physical, and emotional abuse (compared to individuals reporting none-low abuse). However, although emotional nonacceptance was associated with increased risk for experiential avoidance, it mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance only for emotional abuse. As such, results suggest that one mechanism through which emotional abuse in particular leads to experiential avoidance is emotional nonacceptance. Findings suggest the utility of interventions aimed at decreasing experiential avoidance and promoting emotional acceptance among abused individuals.

  7. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator.

  8. [Subjective parental stress as indicator for child abuse risk: the role of emotional regulation and attachment].

    PubMed

    Spangler, Gottfried; Bovenschen, Ina; Globisch, Jutta; Krippl, Martin; Ast-Scheitenberger, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is an evidence-based procedure for the assessment of the risk for child abuse in parents. In this study, a German translation of the CAPI was applied to a normal sample of German parents (N = 944). Descriptive analysis of the CAPI scores in the German provides findings comparable to the original standardization sample. The subjects' child abuse risk score was associated with demographic characteristics like education, marital status, occupation and gender. Long-term stability of the child abuse risk score and associations with individual differences in emotional regulation and attachment were investigated in a sub-sample of mothers with high and low child abuse risk scores (N = 69). The findings proved long-term stability. Furthermore associations between the child abuse risk score and anger dispositions were found which, however, were moderated by attachment differences. The findings suggest attachment security as a protective factor against child abuse.

  9. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  10. Child abuse and neglect in institutional settings, cumulative lifetime traumatization, and psychopathological long-term correlates in adult survivors: The Vienna Institutional Abuse Study.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Knefel, Matthias; Glück, Tobias M; Jagsch, Reinhold; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina

    2018-02-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) in foster care settings (i.e., institutional abuse, IA) is known to have negative effects on adult survivor's mental health. This study examines and compares the extent of CM (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and lifetime traumatization with regard to current adult mental health in a group of survivors of IA and a comparison group from the community. Participants in the foster care group (n = 220) were adult survivors of IA in Viennese foster care institutions, the comparison group (n = 234) consisted of persons from the Viennese population. The comparison group included persons who were exposed to CM within their families. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Life Events Checklist for DSM-5, the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the International Trauma Questionnaire for ICD-11, and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and completed a structured clinical interview. Participants in the foster care group showed higher scores in all types of CM than the comparison group and 57.7% reported exposure to all types of CM. The foster care group had significantly higher prevalence rates in almost all mental disorders including personality disorders and suffered from higher symptom distress in all dimensional measures of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, somatization, dissociation, and the symptom dimensions of PTSD. In both groups, adult life events and some but not all forms of CM predicted PTSD and adult life events partly mediated the association of PTSD and CM. Explanations for the severe consequences of CM and IA are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual- and County-Level Religious Participation, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse of Children: An Exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy Jo

    2016-10-01

    Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.

  12. Individual and county-level religious participation, corporal punishment, and physical abuse of children: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. Additionally, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. Method We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Results Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. Discussion This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings. PMID:29294609

  13. Other Drugs of Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  14. Screening for childhood physical and sexual abuse among outpatient substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, T L; Westerberg, V S; Little, L M; Trujillo, M

    1994-01-01

    Research demonstrates that substance-abusing individuals report substantially higher rates of childhood sexual and physical abuse than the general population. This study sought to test a method of identifying substance-abusing clients with histories of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse and to explore the differences between those reporting childhood abuse and those not. Files of substance abusing clients from two distinct time periods were examined for reports of childhood abuse. At Time 1 (n = 399) clients were not systematically asked about experiences of childhood abuse, and at Time 2 (n = 305) clients were routinely asked about this issue. Results indicate that significantly more male and female clients disclosed childhood abuse at Time 2. Additionally, male clients reporting childhood abuse appeared more distressed than those not reporting abuse; female clients reporting childhood abuse did not appear more distressed than their counterparts.

  15. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N.; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K.; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t-test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk

  16. Study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Baker, Amanda L; Deane, Frank P; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John R; Townsend, Camilla J; Ingram, Isabella; Byrne, Gerard; Keane, Carol A

    2015-05-03

    Cardiovascular disease and cancer are leading causes of mortality for people with a history of alcohol or other substance use disorders. These chronic diseases share the same four primary behavioural risk factors i.e. excessive alcohol use, smoking, low intake of fruit and vegetables and physical inactivity. In addition to addressing problematic alcohol use, there is the potential for substance abuse treatment services to also address these other behaviours. Healthy Recovery is an 8-session group-based intervention that targets these multiple behavioural health risk factors and was developed specifically for people attending substance abuse treatment. This protocol describes a Cancer Institute NSW funded study that assesses the effectiveness of delivering Healthy Recovery for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. The study uses a stepped wedge randomised controlled design, where randomisation occurs at the service level. Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs provided by The Australian Salvation Army. All participants who (1) currently smoke tobacco and (2) are expected to be in the residential program for the duration of the 5-week intervention will be asked to participate in the study. Those participants residing at the facilities assigned to the treatment condition will complete Healthy Recovery. The intervention is manual guided and will be delivered over a 5-week period, with participants attending 8 group sessions. All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based, modified therapeutic community. Participants in the control condition will complete treatment as usual. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the primary and secondary outcome assessments at baseline and then at weeks 8, 20 and 32 weeks post intervention. This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of delivering a healthy

  17. The impact of science education games on prescription drug abuse attitudes among teens: a case study.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G; Miller, Leslie M; Ramos, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated in a pretest, two game-play sessions, and a delayed posttest. Students in both groups demonstrated more negative attitudes toward prescription drug abuse after playing the game, driven by changes of students' normative beliefs and their ability to make the connection between prescription drug abuse and illicit drugs. A secondary aim was to assess gains in science knowledge; however, due to low internal consistency reliabilities of content measures, students' knowledge acquisition could not be determined.

  18. Alcohol outlets and child physical abuse and neglect: applying routine activities theory to the study of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Midanik, Lorraine T; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not alcohol access in neighborhood areas is differentially related to substantiated reports of child physical abuse and neglect. This cross-sectional ecological study uses spatial regression procedures to examine the relationship between the number of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets per population and rates of child physical abuse and neglect in 940 census tracts in California, while controlling for levels of social disorganization, population density and county of residence. The number of off-premise outlets per population was positively associated with rates of child physical abuse (b = 3.34, SE = 1.14), and the number of bars per population was positively related to rates of child neglect (b = 1.89, SE = 0.59). These results suggest that alcohol access is differentially related to type of child maltreatment, with higher densities of bars being related to higher rates of child neglect, and higher rates of off-premise outlets related to higher rates of child physical abuse. The findings suggest there is a spatial dynamic of neighborhoods that can result in child maltreatment and underscore the importance of examining the alcohol environment when developing programs to prevent child maltreatment.

  19. How Serious of a Problem is Staff Turnover in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual Turnover1

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.

    2010-01-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008–2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. PMID:20675097

  20. How serious of a problem is staff turnover in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual turnover.

    PubMed

    Eby, Lillian T; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P

    2010-10-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19% and 50% (J.A. Johnson & P.M. Roman, 2002; S.L. Gallon, R.M. Gabriel, J.R.W. Knudsen, 2003; H.K. Knudsen, J.A. Johnson, & P.M. Roman, 2003; A.T. McLellan, D. Carise, & H.D. Kleber, 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a 2-year time span (2008-2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups, the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementing drug abuse treatment services in criminal justice settings: Introduction to the CJ-DATS study protocol series.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Wiley, Tisha R A

    2013-12-01

    Despite a growing pipeline of effective clinical treatments, there remains a persistent research-to-practice gap in drug abuse services. Delivery of effective treatment services is especially lacking in the U.S. criminal justice system, where half of all incarcerated persons meet the need for drug abuse or dependence, yet few receive needed care. Structural, financial, philosophical and other barriers slow the pace of adoption of available evidence-based practices. These challenges led to the development of a multi-site cooperative research endeavor known as the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS), funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). CJ-DATS engages university-based research teams, criminal justice agencies, and community-based treatment providers in implementation research studies to test strategies for enhancing treatment service delivery to offender populations. This Introduction reviews the mission of NIDA, the structure and goals of the CJ-DATS cooperative, and the implementation studies being conducted by the participating organizations. The component Study Protocols in this article collection are then described. CJ-DATS applies implementation science perspectives and methods to address a vexing problem - the need to link offender populations with effective treatment for drug abuse, HIV, and other related conditions for which they are at high risk. Applying these principles to the U.S. criminal justice system is an innovative extension of lessons that have been learned in mainstream healthcare settings. This collection is offered as both an introduction to NIDA's work in this area, as well as a window onto the challenges of conducting health services research in settings in which improving public health is not the organization's core mission.

  2. Determining the effectiveness of an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner Curriculum: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Yang, Rebecca; Solomon, Shirley; Macdonald, Sheila

    2017-08-01

    To pilot and evaluate a novel Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner Curriculum and its associated training materials for their efficacy in improving Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE)s' knowledge of elder abuse and competence in delivering care to abused older adults. Pilot training was held with 18 SANEs from across Ontario, Canada. A 52-item pre- and post-training questionnaire was administered that assessed participants' self-reported knowledge and perceived skills-based competence related to elder abuse care. A curriculum training evaluation survey was also delivered following the training. Qualitative non-participant observational data were collected throughout the training. There were statistically significant improvements in self-reported kno