Science.gov

Sample records for abuse potential studies

  1. Visual Evoked Potential Response Among Drug Abusers- A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajeev; Thapar, Satish; Mittal, Shilekh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is important preclinical evidence that substance abuse may produce neurophysiological disturbances particularly in relation to altered neural synchronization in Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP). Aim The purpose of current study was to compare the latencies and amplitudes of different waveforms of VEP among different drug abusers and controls and also to identify early neurological damage so that proper counseling and timely intervention can be undertaken. Materials and Methods VEP was assessed by Data Acquisition and Analysis system in a sample of 58 drug abusers, all males, within age group of 15-45 years as well as in age matched 30 healthy controls. The peak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes of different waveforms were measured by applying one-way Anova test and unpaired t-test using SPSS version 16. Results In between drug abusers and controls, the difference in the duration of N75 and P100 waveform of VEP was found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.001) in both the eyes. Also the amplitude of wave P100 was found to be decreased among drug abusers in both eyes. Conclusion Chronic intoxication by different drugs has been extensively associated with amplitude reduction of P100 and prolonged latency of N75 and P100 reflecting an adverse effects of drug dependence on neural transmission within primary visual areas of brain. PMID:27042456

  2. The use and potential abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Gjerden, Pål; Bramness, Jørgen G; Slørdal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The use of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs is assumed to have shifted from the therapy of Parkinson's disease to the amelioration of extrapyramidal adverse effects induced by antipsychotic drugs. There is a considerable body of data suggesting that anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs have a potential for abuse. The aim was to investigate the use and potential abuse of this class of drugs in Norway. METHODS Data were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database on sales to a total of 73 964 patients in 2004 of biperiden and orphenadrine, and use in patients with Parkinson's disease or in patients who were also prescribed antipsychotic agents. Possible abuse of these drugs was assessed by the level of use, skewedness of use, indications of drug-seeking behaviour and concomitant use of benzodiazepine tranquillizers, a group of prescription drugs with a recognized potential for abuse. RESULTS Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were prescribed to 4.5% of all outpatients who used antipsychotic drugs. This outnumbered sales to patients with Parkinson's disease by >20 to 1. We found indications of abuse of benzodiazepine tranquillizers among patients using antipsychotics, but there were no clear indications of abuse of anticholinergics, even among patients who were strongly suspected of abuse of benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were used primarily by patients with psychotic illnesses. These patients have a very high prevalence of legal and illegal drug abuse, but the risk of abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs seemed small. PMID:19094158

  3. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed.

  4. Exercise as a Potential Treatment for Drug Abuse: Evidence from Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs. Until recently, very few studies had examined the causal influences that mediate this relationship, and it was not clear whether exercise was effective at reducing substance use and abuse. In the past few years, several preclinical studies have revealed that exercise reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. These studies have revealed that exercise produces protective effects in procedures designed to model different transitional phases that occur during the development of, and recover from, a substance use disorder (e.g., acquisition, maintenance, escalation, and relapse/reinstatement of drug use). Moreover, recent studies have revealed several behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exercise that may be responsible for its protective effects in these assays. Collectively, these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:22347866

  5. Contributions of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Understanding Development: Potential Applications in the study of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Jensen, J. Eric; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has documented structural and functional brain development during adolescence, yet little is known about neurochemical changes that occur during this important developmental period. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a well-developed technology that permits the in vivo quantification of multiple brain neurochemicals relevant to neuronal health and functioning. However, MRS technology has been underused in exploring normative developmental changes during adolescence, and the onset of alcohol and drug use and abuse during this developmental period. This review begins with a brief overview of normative cognitive and neurobiological development during adolescence, followed by an introduction to MRS principles. The subsequent sections provide a comprehensive review of the existing MRS studies of development and cognitive functioning in healthy children and adolescents. The final sections of this article address the potential application of MRS in identifying neurochemical predictors and consequences of alcohol use and abuse in adolescence. MRS studies of adolescent populations hold promise for advancing our understanding of neurobiological risk factors for psychopathology by identifying the biochemical signatures associated with healthy brain development, as well as neurobiological and cognitive correlates of alcohol and substance use and abuse. PMID:24621605

  6. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  7. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

  8. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  9. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and Drug... appears to have an abuse potential....

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Madina R; Ferrieri, Richard A; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding, Yu-Shin

    2005-02-01

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane.

  11. Genetic studies of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, M M; Tarter, R E

    2000-05-01

    Genetic studies of substance abuse indicate that variation in the risk for the disorder in the population is contributed by differences in both individual genotypes and environment. Recent developments in genetics raise the possibility of disentangling the complex system of genotype-environment interaction that determines the development of the individual behavioral phenotype. This paper reviews the concepts, methods and results pertaining to genetic investigation of substance abuse.

  12. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  13. [Misuse of substances theoretically without abuse potential--case series].

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Habrat, Bogusław; Sut, Michał; Korolkiewicz, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to present cases of misuse of different substances theoretically without abuse potential. In the last few years such behavior became an increasing problem in toxicological and emergency units. Lack of typical signs of intoxication with psychoactive substances, and negative results of standard toxicological tests may be a challenge for toxicologists and emergency medicine practitioners. PMID:19788132

  14. Ethnic Diversity and the Potential for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  16. [Misuse of substances theoretically without abuse potential--case series].

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Habrat, Bogusław; Sut, Michał; Korolkiewicz, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to present cases of misuse of different substances theoretically without abuse potential. In the last few years such behavior became an increasing problem in toxicological and emergency units. Lack of typical signs of intoxication with psychoactive substances, and negative results of standard toxicological tests may be a challenge for toxicologists and emergency medicine practitioners.

  17. Intranasal administration of crushed ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone): A randomized, controlled abuse-potential study in nondependent recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Bramson, Candace; Bass, Almasa; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Malhotra, Bimal; Matschke, Kyle; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Wolfram, Gernot; Geoffroy, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    ALO-02 is an abuse-deterrent formulation consisting of capsules filled with pellets of extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-/active-controlled, 4-way crossover study examined the abuse potential of crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to healthy, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Following drug discrimination and naloxone challenge, eligible participants (n = 32) entered a 4-way crossover treatment phase: crushed single dose of 1 of 2 placebos, ALO-02 30 mg/3.6 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) or oxycodone immediate-release (IR) 30 mg. Primary end points were Drug Liking and High, measured on visual analog scales (VAS) summarized as maximum effect (Emax ) and effect occurring over 2 hours postdose (AUE0-2  h ). Crushed ALO-02 resulted in significantly lower scores versus oxycodone IR on Drug Liking (Emax , 60.5 vs 92.8; AUE0-2  h , 105.4 vs 160.0, respectively) and High (Emax , 25.2 vs 86.9; AUE0-2  h , 27.1 vs 136.4, respectively; n = 28; P < .0001). Adverse events occurred most frequently with oxycodone IR, followed by ALO-02, then placebo, and were considered mild and consistent with opioid therapy. Crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to nondependent recreational opioid users resulted in significantly lower scores on Drug Liking/High VAS and other positive subjective measures versus crushed oxycodone IR, suggesting less abuse potential. Demonstration of actual abuse deterrence in the real world requires further research.

  18. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse history, and the method of administration of 108 IV substance abusers. During 1 year, consecutively admitted adult inpatients with substance use disorder at any detoxification center in Iceland that reported any IV substance abuse in the past 30 days were invited to participate. Abuse was defined as nontherapeutic use of a substance to gain psychological or physiological effect. Results: Prevalence of any IV MPH abuse among participants was 88% in the last 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.94) and MPH was the most commonly abused substance (65%) and the preferred substance (63%). Around one third (30%) reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. However, among those reporting a shorter history than 10 years of IV abuse, 42% reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. Conclusions: This first nationwide study on IV abuse of MPH shows that it is common among treatment-seeking IV abusers in Iceland and suggests that MPH has high abuse potential. Therefore, both the use and possible abuse of MPH in those with high abuse potential should be monitored, especially in countries where MPH prescriptions rates are on the rise. PMID:25748561

  19. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  2. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  3. Pattern-visual evoked potentials in thinner abusers.

    PubMed

    Poblano, A; Lope Huerta, M; Martínez, J M; Falcón, H D

    1996-01-01

    Organic solvents cause injury to lipids of neuronal and glial membranes. A well known characteristic of workers exposed to thinner is optic neuropathy. We decided to look for neurophysiologic signs of visual damage in patients identified as thinner abusers. Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials was performed on 34 thinner abuser patients and 30 controls. P-100 wave latency was found to be longer on abuser than control subjects. Results show the possibility of central alterations on thinner abusers despite absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:8987190

  4. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  5. A study of elder abuse in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jinjoo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Martins, Diane; Kim, Heegul

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates the state of elder abuse in Korea, and its related factors in a population-based survey. A total of 15,230 persons were interviewed at their homes in 1999. The rate of old people who experienced any one category of abuse was 6.3%, and emotional abuse was the most frequent while physical abuse was least prevalent. The experience of abuse seemed to be associated with personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational level, and economic dependency as well as the physical and mental health status. In addition, family characteristics such as the type of household, the family's economic level, and the quality of family relations were found to be associated with the presence of abuse. PMID:15913631

  6. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development☆

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater

  7. Preclinical evaluation of the abuse potential of the analgesic bicifadine.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Katherine L; Balster, Robert L; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S

    2009-07-01

    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, but doses yielding peak substitution strongly suppressed response rates. Microdialysis studies in normal waking rats indicated that d-amphetamine increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum to a much greater degree than bicifadine, but bicifadine increased 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum more than d-amphetamine. Bicifadine was also tested for intravenous self-administration in rhesus monkeys experienced with cocaine administration. Reinforcing effects of bicifadine were observed in only two of four subjects, whereas cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion served as reinforcers in all four monkeys. When evaluated under a progressive ratio procedure, no dose of bicifadine maintained responding to the extent of cocaine, d-amphetamine, or bupropion. The discriminative stimulus effects associated with bicifadine were similar, but not identical, to those of psychostimulants. Although bicifadine maintained self-administration behavior in some subjects, its reinforcing efficacy was very low relative to cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion. These results are consistent with the microdialysis findings of lower dopamine levels and higher 5-hydroxytryptamine levels after administration of bicifadine relative to d-amphetamine. Overall, the current findings support a low abuse potential of bicifadine, more resembling that of antidepressants than psychostimulants. PMID:19357320

  8. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study to Evaluate the Intranasal Human Abuse Potential and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Extended-Release Abuse-Deterrent Formulation of Oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Ernest A.; Smith, Michael D.; Fleming, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the human abuse potential (HAP) of an experimental, microsphere-in-capsule formulation of extended-release oxycodone (oxycodone DETERx®) (herein “DETERx”). Design. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, positive- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-phase, four-treatment, crossover study. Setting. Clinical research site. Subjects. There were 39 qualifying subjects (72% male, 85% white, mean age of 27 years) with 36 completing all four Double-blind Treatment Periods. Methods. The four phases encompassed: 1) Screening; 2) Drug Discrimination; 3) Double-blind Treatment; and 4) Follow-up. Drug Discrimination tests ensured that subjects could distinguish placebo from opioid. The four Double-blind Treatments compared DETERx—administered as either a crushed intranasal (IN) or an intact oral (PO) preparation—with immediate-release oxycodone IN (OXY-IR IN) and with an intact IN and PO placebo DETERx control. Results. For primary pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments, abuse quotient (Cmax/Tmax) was lower with DETERx IN than DETERx PO; both treatments were substantially lower than OXY-IR IN (6.24, 8.60, and 69.6 ng/mL/h, respectively). For drug liking, the primary subjective pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoint, both DETERx IN and DETERx PO produced significantly lower scores than OXY-IR IN (P ≤ 0.0001 for each); DETERx IN was less liked than DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.05), mirroring the PK relationships. Objectively assessed pupillometry corroborated the more rapid and significantly greater effect of OXY-IR IN than either DETERx IN or DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.007 for each). Overall safety profiles of DETERx and OXY-IR were comparable and both were well tolerated. Conclusions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes suggest that DETERx IN has relatively low HAP; continued research in larger populations is suggested. PMID:26814256

  9. Family-of-origin interaction and adolescent mothers' potential for child abuse.

    PubMed

    McCullough, M; Scherman, A

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between family-of-origin interaction and environment and the potential for young mothers to abuse their children. Females aged 14 to 21 from three teen parenting programs completed the Teen Parenting Questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Low scores on family cohesion were found to correlate with high scores on child abuse potential. This suggests that providing the teenager with an accepting and supportive atmosphere may assist her in building a positive identity as a mother. Increased understanding of how family-of-origin issues contribute to young mothers' potential to abuse their children will aid school and community professionals in providing better services for this population.

  10. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  11. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  12. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  13. Abuse potential and dopaminergic effect of alkyl nitrites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cha, Hye Jin

    2016-08-26

    The abuse of alkyl nitrites is common among adolescents and young adults worldwide. However, the information regarding the effects of alkyl nitrites on the central nervous system and the associated psychological abuse potential is scarce. The abuse potential of 3 representative alkyl nitrites - isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite - was evaluated in mice using conditioned place preference tests with an unbiased method. The dopamine levels released by synaptosomes extracted from the striatal region were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with the test substances (50mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significantly increased drug-paired place preference. Moreover, greater levels of dopamine were released by striatal region synaptosomes in response to isobutyl nitrite treatment in mice. Thus, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites could lead to psychological dependence and dopaminergic effects. Furthermore, these results provide scientific evidence to support the regulation of alkyl nitrites as psychoactive substances in the future.

  14. Measuring Potential: Uses and Abuses of Computers in School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, C. Sue; And Others

    This paper addresses the potential influence of current and projected microcomputer technological advances on the profession of school psychology. An overview of the uses and abuses of computers in school psychology is presented, followed by a brief discussion of three general uses of computers in school psychology: the computer as tool, tutor,…

  15. 26 CFR 1.1274-3 - Potentially abusive situations defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... potentially abusive situation means-— (1) A tax shelter (as defined in section 6662(d)(2)(C)(ii)); or (2) Any... of the borrower, is clearly greater than the arm's length amount of interest that would have been... this section applies to a debt instrument issued on or after November 13, 2012. (c) Other situations...

  16. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R; Rolleri, Robert L; Pixton, Glenn C; Sommerville, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users. Methods Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h), peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h). Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry. Results There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons), suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing) were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically

  17. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).

  18. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach). PMID:25267886

  19. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  20. Divorce potential and marital stability of adult women sexually abused as children compared to adult women not sexually abused as children.

    PubMed

    Gelster, K L; Feinauer, L L

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if significant differences exist between women in marital therapy who had been sexually abused as children and women in marital therapy who had not been sexually abused as children on the parameters of marital satisfaction and divorce potential. The null hypothesis was tested. No differences were found between the two groups. Both groups of women and their husbands experienced moderate marital dissatisfaction. Divorce potential for both groups and their husbands was low. The sexually abused women had significantly higher psychoticism scores on the SCL-90R than the nonabused women, generally representing moderately withdrawn, isolated lifestyle patterns.

  1. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Harrison, Joseph A.; Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. Objectives This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Methods Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a cross-over design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings, and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9 hour sessions. Results Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 minutes after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., “drug liking”) were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance) the routes were equipotent. Conclusions The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low. PMID:25199955

  2. Predicting abuse potential of stimulants and other dopaminergic drugs: overview and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B

    2014-12-01

    Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  3. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients”

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  4. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  5. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  7. Intravenous Oxycodone, Hydrocodone and Morphine in Recreational Opioid Users: Abuse Potential and Relative Potencies

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Hatton, Kevin W.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Nonmedical use and abuse of prescription opioids is an increasing public health problem. Intravenous (IV) administration of opioid analgesics intended for oral use is not uncommon, yet little is known about the relative abuse potential of these drugs when administered intravenously to recreational opioid abusers without physical dependence. Methods This inpatient study employed a double-blind, randomized, within-subject, placebo-controlled design to examine the relative abuse potential of IV doses of oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine. Nine healthy adult participants reporting recreational opioid use and histories of IV opioid use completed 11 experimental sessions, including one active-dose practice session. IV doses were infused over 5-min and included three identical doses of each opioid (5, 10 and 20 mg/10 ml) and saline placebo. Physiological, subjective and performance effects were collected before and for 6 h after drug administration. Results All three opioids produced prototypical mu agonist effects (e.g., miosis; increased ratings of liking) that were generally dose-related. Pharmacodynamic effects were observed within 5 min of IV administration. Physiological effects were more prolonged than subjective effects for all three drugs. While the magnitude of effects was generally comparable across drugs and qualitatively similar, valid potency assays indicated the following potency relationship: oxycodone > morphine > hydrocodone. Conclusions There were modest potency differences between oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine, but their overall profile of effects was similar, indicating significant abuse potential when administered intravenously. PMID:20665209

  8. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  9. Elder abuse and dementia--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cooney, C; Mortimer, A

    1995-01-01

    An anonymous postal questionnaire was distributed to 200 members of a voluntary organisation providing information and support for the carers of dementia sufferers. Carers were asked about the possible occurrence of verbal, physical abuse and neglect. Those carers who admitted to any form of abuse were compared with those who did not and risk factors in both carers and patients were analysed to determine risk factors for abuse. Fifty-five per cent of carers admitted to some form of abuse with verbal abuse being the most common form. Verbal abuse was associated with a poor premorbid relationship and social isolation of the carer and was found to be a risk factor for physical abuse. Those carers who had high GHQ scores and who had been caring for longer were more likely to physically abuse the person they cared for. This study supports the hypothesis that various categories of abuse have different correlates.

  10. Childhood Abuse and Migraine: Epidemiology, Sex Differences, and Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tietjen, Gretchen E.; Peterlin, B. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Migraine and maltreatment are both common conditions that are more prevalent in women. Epidemiological evidence supports an association between childhood abuse and headache, as well as pain in general, although some controversy exists based on methodological concerns of studying the influence of remote, traumatic, stigmatizing events in an often depressed population. There is a growing scientific body of knowledge regarding the neurobiological effects of abuse on brain function and structure that suggest a possible role of early life stress in the pathogenesis of migraine, and a differential impact based on sex. Advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms by which an adverse environment interacts with and changes the genome, may suggest new treatment strategies. PMID:21631473

  11. The assessment of child abuse potential and the prevention of child abuse and neglect: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, R A; Bogat, G A; Davidson, W S

    1988-10-01

    A frequently advocated strategy for increasing the efficiency of child abuse prevention programs is to deliver prevention services to "high-risk" populations. This article critically reviews procedures for the reliable and valid assessment of child abuse potential within an ecological perspective. Factors that limit the usefulness of child abuse risk assessment are discussed. These factors include the uncertain criteria of child abuse and neglect, the low base rate of the phenomenon, and the financial and social costs of such procedures. Finally, the prevention implications of the current and future state of the art in child abuse risk assessment are considered and preventive interventions that do not depend on individual case risk screening are advocated.

  12. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than general self-blame attributions for everyday events, explained which youth with CSA histories experienced more dissociative symptoms and clinically significant levels of dissociation. Abuse-specific stigmatization was found to operate as a prospective mechanism for subsequent dissociative symptoms but not self-esteem. PMID:20390797

  13. Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin

    1998-01-01

    The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

  14. Common skin and bleeding disorders that can potentially masquerade as child abuse.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavita; Butterfield, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Child abuse and neglect remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Over the last few decades, there has been growing research in the field of Child Abuse Pediatrics with greater recognition and research into potential diagnostic mimics of inflicted injury. This paper reviews some common skin findings and bleeding disorders that have features in common with child abuse.

  15. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald; Pagoto, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. Objectives . To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Methods Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m=27.64, SD=2.59) women (ages 18–45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate:protein ≥ 6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better. Results Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria following the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage, but no differential effect on vigor. Conclusion For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight. PMID:18273603

  16. A Pilot Study of Abuse among Vietnamese Amerasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Robert S.; Webb, John A.

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, and current levels of psychological distress correlated with a history of abuse, in 102 Vietnamese Amerasian adults bound for the United States. A history of abuse was reported by 22% of males and 18% of females. Significant psychological distress was reported by abused…

  17. Detection of conscious deception using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W K; Milner, J S

    1985-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to provide data on the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale. In Study One, 187 male and female undergraduate students were administered either the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, or the Unlikely Virtues Scale. Three instructional sets were provided: respond honestly, distort responses in a positive manner, and distort responses in a negative manner. Each scale successfully discriminated between subjects in the honest and faking good conditions. Only the Marlowe-Crowne scale discriminated subjects in the faking bad condition through their low scores. No gender differences were observed as a function of instructional set or test employed. In Study Two, 31 male and female parents were given the CAP-Inventory under the same instructional sets provided in Study One. The findings for the parent group, the population the CAP-Inventory was designed to be employed with, replicated the results found in Study One. PMID:4067804

  18. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  19. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies.

  20. Child abuse: a study of the child's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Moore, C; McPhee, J; Trought, P

    1986-01-01

    This study ascertained the child's response to various types of abuse and neglect. With interviews and questionnaires for the staff of a child psychiatric unit, the mothers and the children involved, we assessed the severity, frequency and duration of physical abuse, verbal abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect or sexual abuse of children. The physically abused children accepted blame for mild but not severe mistreatment. Verbally and sexually abused children did not believe it was their fault if the mistreatment was moderately extensive but did if it was mild or severe. The relationship between extent of abuse and blame was less clear for neglect, but children usually though it was their fault. Verbal and sexual abuse appeared to have a greater impact on the children's perception of themselves and the world. Verbally abused children were more angry and more pessimistic about their future. Although physical abuse appeared to make some children feel they were unwanted at birth, how much the mother wanted her children was not related to the extent of any type of abuse. Both the type and extent of mistreatment appear to have different effects on the child's subjective experience. The use of the visual analogue scale in this study made it possible to differentiate a continuum of severity and frequency of five types of mistreatment without the need for definition.

  1. Cyclohexane, a Potential Drug of Abuse with Pernicious Effects on the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:26779017

  2. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  3. A translational pharmacology approach to understanding the predictive value of abuse potential assessments.

    PubMed

    Horton, David B; Potter, David M; Mead, Andy N

    2013-09-01

    Within the drug development industry the assessment of abuse potential for novel molecules involves the generation and review of data from multiple sources, ranging from in-vitro binding and functional assays through to in-vivo nonclinical models in mammals, as well as collection of information from studies in humans. This breadth of data aligns with current expectations from regulatory agencies in both the USA and Europe. To date, there have been a limited number of reviews on the predictive value of individual models within this sequence, but there has been no systematic review on how each of these models contributes to our overall understanding of abuse potential risk. To address this, we analyzed data from 100 small molecules to compare the predictive validity for drug scheduling status of a number of models that typically contribute to the abuse potential assessment package. These models range from the assessment of in-vitro binding and functional profiles at receptors or transporters typically associated with abuse through in-vivo models including locomotor activity, drug discrimination, and self-administration in rodents. Data from subjective report assessments in humans following acute dosing of compounds were also included. The predictive value of each model was then evaluated relative to the scheduling status of each drug in the USA. In recognition of the fact that drug scheduling can be influenced by factors other than the pharmacology of the drug, we also evaluated the predictive value of each assay for the outcome of the human subjective effects assessment. This approach provides an objective and statistical assessment of the predictive value of many of the models typically applied within the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate abuse potential risk. In addition, the impact of combining information from multiple models was examined. This analysis adds to our understanding of the predictive value of each model, allows us to critically evaluate the

  4. Harm to Others from Substance Use and Abuse: The Underused Potential in Nationwide Registers

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bukten, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the potential in using nationwide registers to study harm to others from substance use and abuse. The advantages of using registry data include the opportunity to include the data on the entire population nationwide and continuously updated longitudinal datasets; they allow for studying small subpopulations and have little missing data. Personal identification numbers and family numbers enable linkage of data from different registers. Such datasets can include extensive information on individual and family levels. In this article, we provide an introduction to nationwide registers and explain how they can be applied to investigate two types of third-party harms: harm to children and harm to partners/spouses from substance use and abuse in parents and partners/spouses. Finally, we discuss challenges, benefits, and ethical considerations regarding the use of such data. PMID:26560694

  5. Drug abuse in Nigeria: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Pela, O A; Ebie, J C

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the available literature on the epidemiology of drug abuse in Nigeria. Depending on the definition used, substances which are abused include antibiotics, antidiarrhoeals, laxatives, pain-relieving drugs, sedatives, amphetamines and cannabis. This review is, however, limited to studies on substances which alter behaviour or mood. These drugs include cannabis, sedative-hypnotics, amphetamines and alcohol. For some classes of drugs there has been a noticeable shift in patterns of drug abuse, for example, from abuse of methaqualone to barbiturates. The abuse of volatile solvents and other substances has also been noted. The review shows that there is no age limit among drug abusers. Studies on the influence of social class have been contradictory. Factors which indicate a predisposition to initial drug use have been similar to those reported in other cultures. Although the studies agreed on the classes of drugs abused and the changing patterns of drug abuse, there has been no uniform reporting system. This situation is attributed to financial constraints. Large-scale surveys which should incorporate most of the core items in any epidemiological study on substance abuse have been suggested. PMID:6985029

  6. Evaluation of the abuse potential of AM281, a new synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Pena, Irene Joy; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Seo, Joung-Wook; Jeong, Eun Ju; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-11-01

    AM281 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) is a new synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. Similar to other cannabinoid antagonists, AM281 has been suggested to have therapeutic indications. However, recent reports have suggested that cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may share similar behavioral effects with other drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine. These reports cast doubts on the safety profile of AM281. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the abuse potential (rewarding and reinforcing effects) of AM281 through two of the most widely used animal models for assessing the abuse potential of drugs: the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Experiments were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats in various dosages [CPP (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg), SA (0.005, 0.025 or 0.1mg/kg/infusion)]. We also delved into the consequences of repeated drug exposure on the subsequent response to the drug. Thus, parallel experiments were carried out in rats pretreated with AM281 for 7 or 14 days. Our findings indicated that AM281, at any dose, did not induce CPP and SA in drug-naïve rats. Interestingly, significant CPP (0.5mg/kg of AM281), but not SA, was observed in 14 days pretreated rats. These observations suggest that AM281 per se has no or minimal rewarding and reinforcing properties, but alterations in neuronal functions and behavior due to repeated AM281 exposure may contribute in part to the abuse potential of this drug. In view of this finding, we advocate the careful use, monitoring, and dispensation of AM281.

  7. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  8. A Model for Identifying the Potential Clientele for Substance Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froland, Charles; Brodsky, Gerry

    1978-01-01

    A model is presented that estimates the rates, numbers, and sociodemographic characteristics of potential clientele for substance abuse programs. Using the synthetic estimates technique and existing bodies of information, the model has been tested and cross validated with substance abuse related problem indicators with good results. (Author/CTM)

  9. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  10. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  11. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  12. Abuse potential of intranasal buprenorphine versus buprenorphine/naloxone in buprenorphine-maintained heroin users.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D

    2015-07-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse. PMID:25060839

  13. Abuse Potential of Intranasal Buprenorphine versus Buprenorphine/Naloxone in Buprenorphine-Maintained Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Manubay, Jeanne M.; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8–9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose-dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse. PMID:25060839

  14. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  15. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  16. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Behavioral Effects, and Abuse Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has been used throughout the world for centuries. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are largely attributable to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the prototypical cannabinoid that occurs naturally in the plant. More recently, chemically- and pharmacologically-distinct synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) have emerged as drugs of abuse. As compared to Δ9-THC, the distinct structures of these compounds allow them to avoid legal restrictions (at least initially) and detection in standard drug screens. This has contributed to the popularity of SCBs among drug users who seek to avoid positive drug screens. Importantly, the distinct structures of the SCBs also typically result in increased affinity for and efficacy at cannabinoid CB1 receptors, which are thought to be responsible for the psychoactive effects of Δ9-THC and its analogues. Accordingly, it seems likely that these more powerful cannabimimetic effects could result in increased adverse reactions and toxicities not elicited by Δ9-THC in cannabis. Animal models useful for the study of emerging SCBs include the cannabinoid tetrad, drug discrimination, and assays of tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. However, these in vivo procedures have not been particularly informative with regards to drug efficacy, where the majority of SCB effects are comparable to those of Δ9-THC. In contrast, essentially all in vitro measures of drug efficacy confirm Δ9-THC as a relatively weak CB1 partial agonist, while the majority of the SCBs detected in commercial preparations are full agonists at the CB1 receptor. As use of these emerging SCBs continues to rise, there is an urgent need to better understand the pharmacology and toxicology of these novel compounds. PMID:26413452

  18. Potential Barriers to Work for Substance-Abusing Women on Welfare: Findings from the CASAWORKS for Families Pilot Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Marjorie A.; Mckay, James; Ketterlinus, Robert D.; Mclellan, A. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and relationship to later employment of potential barriers to work for substance-abusing women on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) enrolled in a multiservice welfare-to-work program. Design: A field study with repeated measures and intent-to-treat sampling. Intervention: The CASAWORKS for Families (CWF)…

  19. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  20. Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal…

  1. Validacion de una Version Espanola del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para Su Uso en Espana (Validation of a Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Use in Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory was administrated to 66 perpetrators of child maltreatment and physical abuse and a demographically representative sample (n=829) of the general population of the Pais Vasco in Spain. The measure correctly identified 98.3 percent of the physical child abuse perpetrators. (Author/DB)

  2. Adolescent mothers and child abuse potential: an evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, T L; Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L

    1996-11-01

    This research examines maternal and child factors that place adolescent mothers at risk for abusing their children. Using a longitudinal design, relationships among four risk factors (social supports, maternal psychological adjustment, maternal preparation for parenting, and child temperament), maternal psychological predisposition for aggressive coping (perceptions of stress and endorsements of punitive parenting), and maternal abuse potential were examined in a sample of 75 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Preparation for parenting, a construct which included knowledge and attitudes about children's development, was the strongest direct predictor of abuse potential; however, its effects were also partially mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the effects of child temperament on abuse were mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and identifying at-risk adolescents, were also discussed. PMID:8958454

  3. Even 6th Graders Commit Cyber Dating Abuse: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dating Abuse: Study Those with a history of bullying or who thought violence against girls was normal ... were those who had a previous history of bullying and those who thought it was normal for ...

  4. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  5. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  6. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  7. Establishing a Short Term Program Component To Build Self-Esteem in a Small Group of Abusive and Potentially Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith

    This practicum was designed to enhance the self-esteem of abusive and potentially abusive parents. A combination of strategies was used to enhance self-esteem and to help parents solve problems in an appropriate manner. The intervention strategy included three objectives: (1) gain the confidence of the participants; (2) use a curriculum that…

  8. Gamma hydroxybutyrate: an ethnographic study of recreational use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven J; Levounis, Petros

    2008-09-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a psychoactive substance with complex neurophysiological activity and significant potential for abuse, addiction, and dangerous toxicity. In this study, a semistructured interview was administered to 17 subjects to investigate GHB use, including: manner of use; setting; positive and negative consequences; other drug history; and sexual practices. Respondents were overwhelmingly male, but otherwise had a broad demographic background. Settings varied from nightclubs to private use at home. There was significant variability in the drug obtained, which subjects found problematic because of the narrow therapeutic window and ease of accidental overdose. Common positive experiences included increased sexual desire, decreased sexual inhibitions, and decreased anxiety. Common negative consequences included oversedation, loss of consciousness, motor incoordination, and mental confusion. Nine subjects reported that they would use GHB again, some despite severe negative consequences. Although most subjects reported negative experiences, only three felt their use was problematic, and none sought treatment for GHB abuse or addiction. Subjects were highly drug-experienced, most commonly using MDMA, ketamine, cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamine. Some reported that GHB could cause poor decision making in sexual situations. This effect has significant ramifications for issues such as date rape and control of sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV. PMID:19004416

  9. Child abuse potential inventory and parenting behavior: relationships with high-risk correlates.

    PubMed

    Haskett, M E; Scott, S S; Fann, K D

    1995-12-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory by comparing maltreating and high-risk parents' CAP Inventory abuse scores to their behavior during interactions with their children. A second purpose was to determine the degree to which CAP Inventory scores and parenting behavior were related to several known correlates of abuse, as measured by parent and teacher reports. Participants (n = 41) included abusive and high-risk parents and their children referred to a treatment group. Correlational analyses revealed that CAP Inventory scores and observed parenting style yielded highly related findings, supporting construct validity of the CAP Inventory. However, the CAP Inventory and observed behavior index showed a different pattern of relationships to the risk correlates. Implications for assessment of risk status are discussed and recommendations are provided for continued research.

  10. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa.

  11. A Validational Study of the Structured Interview of Symptoms Associated with Sexual Abuse (SASA) Using Three Samples of Sexually Abused, Allegedly Abused, and Nonabused Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robert; McCann, John; Adams, Joyce; Voris, Joan; Dahl, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    A study validated the use of a structured parent interview regarding emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms by comparing results among 22 sexually abused boys whose perpetrator confessed, 47 boys evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic but without a history of perpetrator confession, and 52 nonabused boys (ages 3-15). (Author/CR)

  12. Methamphetamine abuse and oral health: a pilot study of "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Ravenel, Michele C; Salinas, Carlos F; Marlow, Nicole M; Slate, Elizabeth H; Evans, Zachary P; Miller, Peter M

    2012-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (meth), a potent central nervous system stimulant, has been associated with significant dental disease. Current descriptions of "meth mouth" are limited in their scope and fail to illuminate the potential pathogenic mechanisms of meth for oral disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the oral health of subjects with a history of meth abuse as compared to nonabusing control subjects. A total of 28 meth abusers and 16 control subjects were enrolled. Interviews and surveys regarding meth abuse, dental history, oral hygiene, and diet were collected. A comprehensive oral cavity examination including salivary characterization was completed. We observed significantly higher rates of decayed surfaces, missing teeth, tooth wear, plaque, and calculus among meth abusers. No significant difference in salivary flow rates were noted, yet results showed significant trends for lower pH and decreased buffering capacity. These findings suggest that salivary quality may play a more important role in meth mouth than previously considered. Salivary analysis may be useful when managing a dental patient with history of methamphetamine abuse.

  13. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  14. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  15. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden. PMID:17890200

  16. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden.

  17. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). The following questions and answers issued under section 6708 of the Internal Revenue Code...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6708-1T - Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). 301.6708-1T Section 301.6708-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Additional Amounts § 301.6708-1T Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary). The following questions and answers issued under section 6708 of the Internal Revenue Code...

  19. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  20. Longitudinal measurement of cortisol in association with mental health and experience of domestic violence and abuse: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    will be investigated using appropriate regression models. Second, these techniques will be used to investigate the extent to which cortisol measures act as potential mediators between type, severity, duration of abuse and mental disorders. Discussion Results of the study will increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of abuse-related mental health disorders in women and inform researchers and practitioners on the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a biological marker for prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment evaluation among abuse survivors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01632553 PMID:23849084

  1. A population based study of reporting patterns and characteristics of men who abuse their female partners

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Zwerling, C; Young, T; Stromquist, A; Burmeister, L; Merchant, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study estimates the prevalence of male abusive behavior reported by men and their female partners and identifies characteristics of abusive men. Design: Baseline survey from a population based cohort study of general health. Setting: A rural county in Iowa, USA. Subjects: 572 men and their cohabitating female partners. Main outcome measures: Male-to-female physical, emotional, and sexual abuse reported by either partner. Results: In this cohort, 13.6% of men had performed at least one act of physical abuse and 34.9% emotional abuse. More than 45% of abusive men reported their own behaviors. Alcohol problems, antisocial personality characteristics, depressive symptoms, and financial stress were all positively associated with both physical and emotional abuse, but suicidal thoughts were less likely among abusers. Conclusion: Identification of common characteristics of abusive men may predict proclivity towards partner violence and barriers to behavior modification. PMID:15933412

  2. Effects of the δ opioid agonist AZD2327 upon operant behaviors and assessment of its potential for abuse.

    PubMed

    Hudzik, T J; Pietras, M R; Caccese, R; Bui, K H; Yocca, F; Paronis, C A; Swedberg, M D B

    2014-09-01

    AZD2327 is a brain-penetrant agonist at δ opioid receptors which has antidepressant and anxiolytic properties in a wide array of animal models. As part of the preclinical safety pharmacology assessment, a number of studies were conducted in order to characterize its behavioral effects and its potential for abuse, in order to enable testing in humans. AZD2327 produced only modest effects when tested in a multiple fixed-ratio differential reinforcement of low rate schedule in rats, and did not enhance the rate-suppressing effects of ethanol in the procedure. In a suppressed responding test, AZD2327 only reduced rates of unpunished responding. In drug discrimination studies, AZD2327 produced partial or no generalization from known drugs of abuse. In primates trained to self-administer cocaine, substitution with AZD2327 did not result in appreciable self-administration of AZD2327, indicating that it does not behave as a positive reinforcer under the present conditions. Following termination of repeated administration of AZD2327, no signs of physical dependence (withdrawal) were noted. Overall, the data suggest that AZD2327 does not possess a high potential for abuse, and appears to have only subtle behavioral effects as measured by operant behaviors. PMID:24857840

  3. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. PMID:25262913

  4. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug.

  5. Establishing "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations: A proposed development framework.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Cone, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations are one strategy for mitigating the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Regulatory guidance documents describe the requirements for developing abuse-deterrent formulations of novel drugs and formulations; however, they do not address "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic formulations. As generics may be produced with different excipients and formulations compared to reference drugs, differences in their properties may impact their abuse-deterrent features. Currently, it is unclear what specific studies are needed to support generic abuse-deterrence claims. This commentary outlines several recommendations on the in vitro and in vivo testing required, including the conditions for conducting a human abuse potential study. PMID:27194193

  6. Establishing "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations: A proposed development framework.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Cone, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations are one strategy for mitigating the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Regulatory guidance documents describe the requirements for developing abuse-deterrent formulations of novel drugs and formulations; however, they do not address "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic formulations. As generics may be produced with different excipients and formulations compared to reference drugs, differences in their properties may impact their abuse-deterrent features. Currently, it is unclear what specific studies are needed to support generic abuse-deterrence claims. This commentary outlines several recommendations on the in vitro and in vivo testing required, including the conditions for conducting a human abuse potential study.

  7. The complexities of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. A statewide study of the public attitudes toward child abuse.

    PubMed

    Dhooper, S S; Royse, D D; Wolfe, L C

    1991-01-01

    A statewide survey of adults revealed that they are well informed about some aspects of child abuse. They had a generally good intuitive understanding of the characteristics of abused children and child abusers, but a majority seemed to have a "deviance" perspective on child abuse. They considered abusers as abnormal and intractable. While three-quarters of the respondents were aware that they are obligated to report cases of child abuse to the authorities, one-fifth knew someone who had abused a child, but only a third of these actually reported the case.

  9. Clinical characteristics of cough mixture abusers referred to three substance abuse clinics in Hong Kong: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tang, A K; Tang, W K; Liang, H J; Chan, F; Mak, S C; Ungvari, G S

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVES. Cough mixture is the third most commonly abused substance in patients attending the Prince of Wales Hospital Substance Abuse Clinic. The content of the local cough mixture is not well researched. Paranoid psychosis manifesting as persecutory delusions and derogatory hallucination, as well as mood symptoms, is common in these patients. The natural history and outcome of such psychoses associated with cough mixture abuse are not well known. This study aimed to address these questions. METHODS. This was a retrospective study of cough mixture abuse in Hong Kong. Case records of cough mixture abusers currently receiving treatment at the 3 substance abuse clinics at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, and the North District Hospital were retrieved for data collection. The patients' demographic data, duration and intake pattern of cough mixture, and use of any other drugs were documented. The presenting psychopathology, first urine toxicology results, diagnosis, treatment, number of hospitalizations, and course of the illness were also recorded. RESULTS. A total of 63 patients with the diagnosis of cough mixture abuse were identified in the database; 89% were male. The mean +/- SD age of the patients was 34.4 +/- 6.2 years; 67% were single and 83% were unemployed. The mean +/- SD age of onset of cough mixture abuse was 20 +/- 5 years. Psychiatric symptoms developed a mean +/- SD of 7.6 +/- 6.0 years after onset of abuse. According to the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders criteria, the top psychiatric diagnoses were substance-induced psychotic disorder (67%), schizophrenia (19%), depressive disorder (11%), and dysthymia (10%). The most common ingredients in the urine sample at first presentation were promethazine (75%), pseudoephedrine (67%), codeine (60%), ephedrine (57%), zopiclone (17%), and hydrocodone (16%). Additionally, 16% of patients were in the priority follow-up group. The mean +/- SD follow-up period was 6

  10. The Polygraph, Its Use in Cases of Alleged Sexual Abuse: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    1997-01-01

    This exploratory study of 42 cases with sexual abuse allegations and polygraph results found that polygraph findings were unrelated to other evidence of likelihood of sexual abuse, including the child's statements, medical evidence, psychological symptoms, or indicators of sexual abuse. When alleged offenders passed polygraphs, criminal…

  11. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  12. Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…

  13. Sociodemographic representation in published studies of cocaine abuse pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, D A; Montoya, I D; Johnson, E O

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated: (1) the reporting of sociodemographic characteristics of research subjects in published outpatient studies of cocaine abuse pharmacotherapy; (2) the association of study characteristics with such reporting and with the distribution of characteristics; and (3) the comparison of sociodemographic characteristics in the research subjects with those of a community-based sample of cocaine abusers who had sought treatment. Medline search identified 68 articles on cocaine abuse outpatient pharmacotherapy published from 1983 to 1993 in an English language, peer-reviewed journal. Sociodemographic characteristics of research subjects (n = 1802) were compared with those of respondents (weighted n = 135) to the National Comorbidity Survey (1990-1992), who reported at least one cocaine-related problem and had sought substance abuse treatment. Only three (4.4%) articles reported all six of the following sociodemographic characteristics of their subjects: 82.4%, reported mean age; 58.8%, race/ethnicity; 85.3%, sex; 22.1%, employment status; 13.2%, educational status; and 5.9%, socioeconomic status/income. Compared to survey respondents, research subjects were significantly more likely to be African-American and live in the Northeast region of the US and marginally more likely to be male and currently unemployed. These findings indicate that many published articles do not follow currently recommended guidelines for describing sociodemographic characteristics of research subjects and that, aside from race/ethnicity and geographic location, research subjects are fairly comparable in basic sociodemographic characteristics to the larger population of treatment-seeking individuals with cocaine-related problems. PMID:9543645

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Aminoalkylindole Derivatives as Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands with Potential for Treatment of Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vasiljevik, Tamara; Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Douglas, Justin T.; Prather, Paul L.; Fantegrossi, William E.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuation of increased endocannabinoid signaling with a CB1R neutral antagonist might offer a new therapeutic direction for treatment of alcohol abuse. We have recently reported that a mono-hydroxylated metabolite of the synthetic aminoalkylindole cannabinoid JHW-073 (3) exhibits neutral antagonist activity at CB1Rs and thus may serve as a promising lead for the development of novel alcohol abuse therapies. In the current study, we show that systematic modification of an aminoalkylindole scaffold identified two new compounds with dual CB1R antagonist/CB2R agonist activity. Similar to the CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, analogues 27 and 30 decrease oral alcohol self-administration, without affecting total fluid intake and block the development of alcohol-conditioned place preference. Collectively, these initial findings suggest that design and systematic modification of aminoalkylindoles such as 3 may lead to development of novel cannabinoid ligands with dual CB1R antagonist/CB2R agonist activity with potential for use as treatments of alcohol abuse. PMID:23631463

  15. Methoxetamine, a ketamine derivative, produced conditioned place preference and was self-administered by rats: Evidence of its abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Yoon, Robin; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Yong Sup; Jang, Choon Gon; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to ketamine. Recently, there have been many reports regarding its use/misuse in humans which have resulted in serious or even fatal outcomes. Despite these reports, MXE is not controlled or regulated in many countries which may be partly due to the lack of scientific evidence regarding its abuse potential. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the abuse potential (rewarding and reinforcing effects) of MXE through the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, locomotor activity during the conditioning phase of the CPP was also analyzed. Ketamine was used as a reference drug. MXE (2.5 and 5mg/kg) induced significant CPP in rats, an effect comparable to that of ketamine (5mg/kg). Interestingly, MXE did not produce any locomotor alterations while ketamine decreased the locomotor activity of rats. In the SA test, rats showed modest self-administration of MXE (0.25, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg/infusion), while ketamine (0.5mg/kg/infusion) was robustly self-administered. These results demonstrate that MXE, similar to ketamine, has rewarding and reinforcing effects in rats. The present study strongly suggests that MXE has a potential for human abuse. In addition, the discrepant effects of MXE and ketamine on locomotor activity and rate of self-administration propose that the psychopharmacological effects of these drugs may diverge in some aspects. More importantly, this study advocates the careful monitoring and prompt regulation of MXE and its related substances.

  16. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426

  17. Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Dickey, R

    1990-12-01

    The reliability of the notion that pedophilia is caused by sexual abuse in childhood was explored by examining retrospective self-reports of 344 males. Included in the study were 77 heterosexual pedophiles, 54 homosexual pedophiles, 51 nonpedophilic sex offenders against children, 36 sex offenders against physically mature females, 75 heterosexual paid volunteers who erotically preferred mature females, and 51 homosexual clients who preferred mature males. For each sex offender the differential diagnosis of an erotic preference for minors vs. a preference for physically mature partners was made by means of the phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. The analysis of self-reports confirmed that the proportion of pedophiles who report having been sexually abused in childhood by mature persons is larger than that of men who were not charged for or accused of a sex offense against a child though the difference is relatively small (28.6 vs. 13.9 and 10.7% for the heterosexual pedophiles and the two groups of gynephiles, respectively, and 25.9 vs. 11.8% for the homosexual pedophiles and androphiles, respectively). Further analysis demonstrated, however, that pedophiles who admitted having an erotic interest in children significantly more often claimed that they had been sexually abused as children than pedophiles who did not admit having such feelings. This interdependence renders the reliability of these self-reports questionable. PMID:2082860

  18. Abused inhalants and central reward pathways: electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Arthur C; French, Edward D

    2002-06-01

    Inhalant abuse remains a significant health problem among the younger segment of society. In fact, the use of inhalants in this population trails only that of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana. Toluene is a common ingredient in many of the substances sought out for inhalation abuse, apparently for its euphorigenic and hallucinogenic effects. Because drugs of abuse share the common property of altering the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, it is reasonable to suspect that toluene-induced changes in this CNS pathway may underlie its abuse potential. Here we will provide in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological data and behavioral evidence linking toluene exposure in rats to activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Exposure of rats to 11,000 ppm of inhaled toluene produced time-dependent activation of dopamine neurons within the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the rat brain slice preparation, perfusion with toluene (23-822 microM) also evoked an increase in activity of both dopamine and nondopamine neurons within the VTA. These excitatory effects could not be found in adjacent non-VTA nuclei, nor were they sensitive to the glutamate antagonists CGS19755 or CNQX. In behavioral studies, systemic administration of toluene produced a dose-dependent locomotor hyperactivity that was attenuated by either pretreatment with the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist remoxipride or by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. These findings show that toluene can activate dopamine neurons within the mesolimbic reward pathway, an effect that may underlie the abuse potential of inhaled substances containing toluene.

  19. Comparing the abuse potential of methylphenidate versus other stimulants: a review of available evidence and relevance to the ADHD patient.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H

    2003-01-01

    The use of psychostimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been controversial for a number of reasons. In an effort to clarify the extent to which the psychostimulant methylphenidate has abuse potential, the existing published evidence has been reviewed and is summarized here, with an emphasis on delineating a number of related but independent issues that are often confused. Methylphenidate produces behavioral effects associated with abuse potential as assessed by traditional assays, but the relevance of this literature to the clinical use of the drug in the treatment of ADHD is ambiguous at best. Existing neuropharmacologic data suggest that methylphenidate has pharmacokinetic properties that reduce its abuse potential as compared with other stimulant drugs of abuse, such as cocaine.

  20. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, P P; Kawamura, T; Chen, J; Koob, G F; Roberts, A J; Vendruscolo, L F; Repunte-Canonigo, V

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new and more effective treatments for alcohol abuse remains a priority. Alcohol intake activates glucocorticoids, which have a key role in alcohol's reinforcing properties. Glucocorticoid effects are modulated in part by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) acting as pre-receptors. Here, we tested the effects on alcohol intake of the 11β-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate), which has been extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer and is active on both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoforms. We observed that CBX reduces both baseline and excessive drinking in rats and mice. The CBX diastereomer 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate (αCBX), which we found to be selective for 11β-HSD2, was also effective in reducing alcohol drinking in mice. Thus, 11β-HSD inhibitors may be a promising new class of candidate alcohol abuse medications, and existing 11β-HSD inhibitor drugs may be potentially re-purposed for alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:26978742

  1. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  2. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  3. A Qualitative Study of the Relationship Between Methamphetamine Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Male Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Dolatshahi, Behrouz; Farhoudian, Ali; Falahatdoost, Mozhgan; Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Rezaie Dogahe, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased prevalent use of methamphetamine is a global public challenge. Information on drug use can be helpful in preventing high-risk behavior related to drug abuse. Objectives This study aims to investigate the sexual function changes related to methamphetamine use in the male clients of public and private addiction treatment centers. Patients and Methods In this qualitative study, 45 men (35 methamphetamine users, 5 family members of the users, and 5 psychiatrists or physicians who were famous for treating or researching addiction) are involved. An in-depth interview was done with therapists and key individuals. Results The results show that the effects of methamphetamine on sexual function are not identical. The first usage is concomitant with the increased duration of sex, an increase in the quality and quantity of sexual pleasure, a delighted orgasm, and feeling more control of the sex act. These effects gradually decrease. A decreased libido and various sexual dysfunctions such as erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and losing control during the sex act will appear over time. Conclusions There are differences in the libido and sexual functions of methamphetamine users. Personal perceptions of one’s sexual function may be affected by cognitive changes resultant from the drug. Drug-use prevention, addiction treatments, appropriate sexual behavior education, and harm reduction are priorities. PMID:27803891

  4. Trihexyphenidyl (Artane): a Brazilian study of its abuse.

    PubMed

    Nappo, Solange Aparecida; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Sanchez, Zila van der Meer; Carlini, Elisaldo de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, the medicinal misuse of trihexyphenidyl (Artane) has been observed among several segments of society. The present study was conducted in the city of São Paulo during 2002 to characterize this abuse. A sample of 21 users and 16 ex-users was interviewed using qualitative methodology; the subjects were single, unemployed, male polydrug users, who used trihexyphenidyl in order to attain states of mental alterations, mainly hallucinations and deliriums. Trihexyphenidyl is consumed in association with alcohol, other licit drugs (benzodiazepines), or illicit drugs, impairing cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and learning, intervening with some activities of users' daily life.

  5. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  6. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  7. Elder abuse: speak out for justice.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jenna M; Hoglund, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 older adults experience abuse, but only 1 in 5 to as little as 1 in 24 cases are reported. Elder abuse is expected to increase as the population ages. Nurses are in a prime position to identify, assess, manage, and prevent elder abuse. This article explores elder abuse and its prevalence, potential causes, and risk factors offering case studies, assessment tools, resources, and interventions.

  8. Blessed be the Children: A Case-Control Study of Sexual Abusers in the Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Cynthia; Fargo, Jamison; Jeglic, Elizabeth; Terry, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Individuals working in churches and other youth-serving institutions have a unique level of access to children, yet the problem of sexual abuse in institutional settings has received scant research attention. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a large sample of clergy (N = 1,121) and applied a social-ecological model of offending to identify risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration. Using a case-control study design that compared clergy sexual abusers with three control groups of clergy, this study focuses specifically on individual-, relationship-, and community-level factors associated with a higher risk of abuse in professional populations. Findings revealed that clergy sexual abusers tended to have more truncated pre-seminary dating histories, and that their dating and sexual partners were more likely to have been male than female. Self-reported sexual abuse history was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual abuse perpetration among clergy. Clergy abusers tended to be more involved with youth and adolescents in their ministries; however, they were observed to relate less well to youth and adolescents than their clergy counterparts. Given widespread changes in our cultural understanding of abuse as well as more specific changes in the organizational approach to seminary education, these differences underscore the role that youth-serving institutions and society can have in the primary prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:26294387

  9. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  10. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  11. New Analytical Tool for the Detection of Ractopamine Abuse in Goat Skeletal Muscle by Potential Gene Expression Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luyao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Can; Cheng, Yongyou; You, Xinyong; Gu, Xu; Zhao, Zhen; Muhammad Tarique, Tunio

    2016-03-01

    In this study, quantification of mRNA gene expression was examined as biomarkers to detect ractopamaine abuse and ractopamaine residues in cashmere goats. It was focused on the identification of potential gene expression biomarkers and describing the coreletionship between gene expression and residue level by 58 animals for 49 days. The results showed that administration periods and residue levels significantly influenced mRNA expressions of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the enzymes PRKACB, ADCY3, ATP1A3, ATP2A3, PTH, and MYLK, and the immune factors IL-1β and TNF-α. Statistical analysis like principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) showed that these genes can serve as potential biomarkers for ractopamine in skeletal muscle and that they are also suitable for describing different residue levels separately.

  12. Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott-Storey, Kelly

    2011-07-01

    For women, any one type of abuse rarely occurs in isolation of other types, and a single abusive experience is often the exception rather than the norm. The importance of this concept of the cumulative nature of abuse and its negative impact on health has been well recognized within the empirical literature, however there has been little consensus on what to call this phenomenon or how to study it. For the most part researchers have operated on the premise that it is the sheer number of different types of cumulating abuse experiences that is primarily responsible for worse health outcomes among women. And although this simplistic 'more is worse' approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing cumulative abuse has proven to be a powerful predictor of poorer health, it contradicts growing empirical evidence that suggests not all victimizations are created equal and that some victimizations may have a more deleterious effect on health than others. Embedded in abuse histories are individual and abuse characteristics as well as other life adversities that need to be considered in order to fully understand the spectrum and magnitude of cumulative abuse and its impact on women's health. Furthermore, given the long-term and persistent effects of abuse on health it becomes imperative to not only evaluate recent abusive experiences, but rather all abuse experiences occurring across the lifespan. This review highlights and evaluates the conceptual, operational, and methodological challenges posed by our current methods of studying and understanding the phenomenon of cumulative abuse and suggests that this phenomenon and its relationship to health is much more complex than research is currently portraying. This paper calls for the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaboration in order to more effectively and innovatively study the phenomenon of cumulative abuse. PMID:21511684

  13. Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB2 ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB2 drugs without CB1 psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB1 receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB2 is mainly expressed in peripheral cells and tissues, and is involved in immune signal transduction. Conversely, the CB2 receptor was recently detected in the CNS, for example, in the microglial cells and the neurons. While the CB2 neurons activity remains controversial, the CB2 receptor is an attractive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, immune system, cancer and osteoporosis without psychoactivity. This review addresses CB drug abuse and therapeutic potential with a focus on the most recent advances on new CB2 ligands from the literature as well as patents. PMID:22300098

  14. Words that hurt: a qualitative study of s parental verbal abuse in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Loh, Jennifer M I; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D

    2011-07-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study is designed to address this gap in the literature. The results revealed nine categories of parental verbal abuses namely: (a) Put downs and shaming, (b) Rejection, (c) Blaming, (d) Fault Exaggerating, (e) Threat, (f) Invoking harm, (g) Regrets, (h) Unfair comparison, and (i) Negative prediction. Implications for research and practice were discussed.

  15. Gender Differences in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys. PMID:27266537

  16. Imaging brain function in animals to understand drugs of abuse and potential pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging studies can be used to enhance current understanding of how CNS drugs act. Because the brain is in reality a collection of independent, albeit interconnected, neural organs, identification of sites of brain action are critical to an appraisal of how each drug exerts its different behavioral and physiological effects. For new drugs not yet tested in humans, identification of which neuronal structures are affected by a drug can give clues as to what to expect from the drug if it is eventually exposed to clinical testing. Receptor binding autoradiography, more than any other technique, pinpoints the distribution of those sites at which a given drug acts. When combined with 2-DG autoradiography, the intensity and direction of the action at each of these sites, as well as the impact of these actions on additional sites, can be appreciated. In addition to identification of sites of drug action, brain imaging studies can be used to identify classes of drug action, interactions between drugs, and, perhaps more than any other technique, enhance the appreciation of the similarities and differences between the effects in animals and those in humans. When applied to drugs of abuse, brain imaging studies can be used to help identify key physiological events underlying drug reinforcement as well as those important for various physiological effects of each drug. Armed with such information, brain imaging techniques can play a unique role as one component of an effort to discover pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. PMID:7603543

  17. A study of shame from sexual abuse within the context of a Norwegian incest center.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny

    2013-01-01

    Working with those who have experienced sexual abuse is a complicated matter because such abuse not only involves the violation of the victim's body, but it often generates shame in those involved. This article is based on empirical data from 26 hours of videotaped focus group interviews with 19 adult men and women in a Norwegian incest center who spoke openly of the shame they experienced from sexual abuse as children, parents, and employees. Findings from this study show that shame from sexual abuse can be grouped into seven major categories: (a) family, (b) emotions, (c) body, (d) food, (e) self-image, (f) sex, and (g) therapy.

  18. Sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of treatment-seeking illicit drug abusers in Finland, 1997-2008: the Huuti study.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, Ifeoma N; Uosukainen, Hanna; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Beynon, Caryl; Bell, J Simon; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Föhr, Jaana; Tiihonen, Jari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiological part of the Huume tietokanta (HUUTI) consortium research project is the first large-scale longitudinal study of treatment-seeking illicit drug abusers in Finland. The objective of this report was to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of treatment-seeking clients at their first visit. This study analysed baseline data of 4817 clients (3365 men and 1452 women) aged 11-65 years who sought treatment for drug abuse between 1997 and 2008 at Helsinki Deaconess Institute. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The majority (56%) of clients were between 15 and 24 years, educated at elementary school level (75%), and unemployed (57%). Opiates (30%) were the primary drugs of abuse. The primary drugs were mostly injected (45%) and were abused daily during the past month (44%). Cannabis was the most common secondary drug of abuse (34%). The secondary drugs were predominantly smoked (39%) or taken orally (38%) and were abused once per week or less frequently during the past month (33%). Age at initiation of illicit drug abuse ranged from 5 to 49 years. Polydrug abuse was common, with a mean consumption of 3.5 concurrent polydrug use, which were combined from 3 or more drug classes. The prevalence of lifetime/ever intravenous drug abuse was 64% and past month intravenous drug abuse was 64%, respectively, and 13% reported sharing injecting equipment during the past month. Early initiation, polydrug abuse, and risky consumption of illicit drugs were major areas of concern among the study population. Injecting drug use could place considerable burden on health services in view of complications and transmission of infectious diseases.

  19. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-07-26

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  20. Fatal Child Abuse: A Study of 13 Cases of Continuous Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-01-01

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  1. The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Children: A Review and Synthesis of Recent Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; And Others

    Until recently the literature on the impact of child sexual abuse has consisted disproportionately of retrospective studies of adults. Research on children allows for a developmental perspective and includes the first efforts at longitudinal studies of sexual abuse victims. This literature also has important relevance to other theory and research…

  2. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…

  3. Reporting Possible Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Study on Children's Perspectives and the Context for Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Tine K.; Gulbrandsen, Wenke; Mossige, Svein; Reichelt, Sissel; Tjersland, Odd A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the context in which children were able to report their child sexual abuse experiences and the children's views as to what made it difficult to talk about abuse and what helped them in the disclosing process. The aim was to study disclosures as they were occurring in their natural settings. Method: Data…

  4. Child Deaths in Texas: A Study of Child Deaths Attributed to Abuse and Neglect (1975 - 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Region VI Resource Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.

    A study conducted to determine the characteristics and circumstances of child deaths related to abuse and neglect in Texas during 1975-77 is the subject of this document. Following an introduction providing study background and a review of related literature, the second section provides a brief description of the Child Abuse and Neglect Reprint…

  5. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  6. Gender Abuse and Major Depression Among Transgender Women: A Prospective Study of Vulnerability and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004–2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). Results. We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Conclusions. Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse. PMID:24328655

  7. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  8. The abuse potential of oxethazaine: effects of oxethazaine on drug-seeking behavior and analysis of its metabolites in plasma and hair in animal models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Yeun; You, In-Jee; Kim, Min-Jung; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jang, Moon-Hee; Oh, Seung-Min; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2013-04-01

    Oxethazaine, an over-the-counter (OTC) antacid, is a precursor of phentermine, which is the most abused anorectic by methamphetamine users in Korea. However, no studies have investigated the abuse potential of oxethazaine. Therefore, we examined and compared the consequences of oxethazaine and phentermine treatment on animal models of conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration. Furthermore, oxethazaine and its metabolites in rat plasma were monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after oxethazaine administration, and compared with phentermine itself after phentermine administration to clarify the relationship between phentermine production by oxethazaine ingestion and the possible oxethazaine dependence. Oxethazaine metabolites were also determined by LC-MS/MS in rat hair after oxethazaine administration to investigate the possibility of phentermine detection in hair from oxethazaine abusers. In the behavioral experiment, phentermine (3mg/kg) produced CPP in mice while oxethazaine (5, 10, and 15mg/kg) did not. Moreover, phentermine (0.25mg/kg/infusion) was self-administered by rats at 80% of free-feeding weight, whereas oxethazaine was not. In the analytical study, mephentermine and phentermine, both oxethazaine metabolites, were detected below the limit of quantitation or not detected in both plasma and hair from rats that had ingested oxethazaine (10mg/kg, single dose or for 2weeks). On the other hand, phentermine was detected in plasma and hair samples from rats that had ingested phentermine (10mg/kg, single dose or for 2weeks). Consequently, phentermine induced significant rewarding effects, but oxethazaine did not. Presumably, either oxethazaine does not have any abuse potential or oxethazaine metabolism to phentermine does not result in a pharmacologically active level of psychostimulant in the body. Furthermore, phentermine was not a major metabolite in hair obtained from oxethazaine abusers, which should

  9. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  10. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  11. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  12. Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drug Abuse. Research Monograph 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne, Ed.; Asghar, Khursheed, Ed.

    This monograph presents the proceedings of the first National Institute on Drug Abuse technical review related to the conduct of controlled studies on prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Papers in the monograph are categorized by session. The first session (two papers) focused on the detection and quantification of prenatal drug exposure in…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Educator and Counselor Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding Adolescent Substance Abusers' Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henegar, LaTrica Y.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…

  14. A Three-Generational Study of Transmission of Risk for Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Jacobsen, Teresa; Grossman, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This intergenerational study investigates histories of both attachment relationships and abusive experiences and domains of current functioning that distinguish families of sexually abused children from families of nonabused children. The participants included (a) 199 nonoffending African American mothers of whom approximately half had children…

  15. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  16. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Sustained relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain by a CRMP2 peptide aptamer with low abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jennifer Y; Chew, Lindsey A; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuying; Qu, Chaoling; Wang, Yue; Federici, Lauren M; Fitz, Stephanie D; Ripsch, Matthew S; Due, Michael R; Moutal, Aubin; Khanna, May; White, Fletcher A; Vanderah, Todd W; Johnson, Philip L; Porreca, Frank; Khanna, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling the protein-protein interaction between collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2) with an allosteric CRMP2-derived peptide (CBD3) is antinociceptive in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We investigated the efficacy, duration of action, abuse potential, and neurobehavioral toxicity of an improved mutant CRMP2 peptide. A homopolyarginine (R9)-conjugated CBD3-A6K (R9-CBD3-A6K) peptide inhibited the CaV2.2-CRMP2 interaction in a concentration-dependent fashion and diminished surface expression of CaV2.2 and depolarization-evoked Ca influx in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. In vitro studies demonstrated suppression of excitability of small-to-medium diameter dorsal root ganglion and inhibition of subtypes of voltage-gated Ca channels. Sprague-Dawley rats with tibial nerve injury had profound and long-lasting tactile allodynia and ongoing pain. Immediate administration of R9-CBD3-A6K produced enhanced dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens shell selectively in injured animals, consistent with relief of ongoing pain. R9-CBD3-A6K, when administered repeatedly into the central nervous system ventricles of naive rats, did not result in a positive conditioned place preference demonstrating a lack of abusive liability. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of R9-CBD3-A6K over a 24- to 72-hour period reversed tactile allodynia and ongoing pain, demonstrating a lack of tolerance over this time course. Importantly, continuous infusion of R9-CBD3-A6K did not affect motor activity, anxiety, depression, or memory and learning. Collectively, these results validate the potential therapeutic significance of targeting the CaV-CRMP2 axis for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:27537210

  18. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  19. The ecological model and the study of child abuse in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Oyelaran, E B

    1989-01-01

    Physical abuse and exploitative child labor are two common forms of child abuse in Nigeria. Exploitative child labor exists in both the formal and informal sectors where children work as hairdressers, beggars' assistants, hawkers, and as factory and agricultural workers under conditions characterized by long hours, hazardous environment, and meager remuneration. Research on the incidence of physical abuse in Nigeria is less systematic, and few empirical studies are available. Physical abuse is primarily the result of corporal punishment which has become excessive. Poverty and the existence of a dependent capitalist economy are often proffered as the primary causes of child abuse. While both explanations have some validity, their unidimensional nature limits their explanatory capacity. These explanations also lead to the belief that very little can be done to improve the quality of children's lives until the social order is restructured. The ecological model proposes that child abuse can best be understood if it is analyzed multidimensionally with emphasis on the individual, family, social environment, and cultural milieau, as well as the dynamic interaction between these levels. This model appears appropriate for the study of child abuse in Nigeria, and its application is advocated as a vehicle for improving the quality of child abuse research.

  20. Childhood Abuse and Delinquency: A Descriptive Study of Institutionalized Female Youth in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ng, Vivienne P. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood abuse experiences appear prevalent in institutionalized children and youth, but research to date has been limited. Moreover, there is no published study that has examined the issue of childhood abuse and delinquency within institutionalized children and youth in Singapore. This study was cross-sectional in design with follow-up criminal record checks. Data were collected from multiple data sources including official records, structured clinical interviews, and self-report questionnaires on 79 adolescent female residential youth. Two thirds reported having experienced childhood abuse and a higher proportion reported having previously engaged in self-harming behaviours. Participants with multiple types of abuse reported being abused at a younger age, were more likely to be subjected to repeated physical abuse, to have overdosed on medication, and to have reported more health and sexual concerns and trauma symptomatology than those who reported either experiencing one or no previous types of abuse. Fourteen (18%) of the sample had been convicted of further criminal offences over a 6½-year follow-up. The adolescents with histories of multiple types of abuse in childhood presented with more health concerns and traumatic symptomatology, self-reported delinquency, as well as past self-harming behaviour during their institutional stay. Identification of these additionally vulnerable adolescents has important clinical implications for identification, assessment and intervention planning. PMID:25892943

  1. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  2. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  3. Follow-up after acute poisoning by substances of abuse: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To chart follow-up of patients after acute poisoning by substances of abuse, register whether patients referred to specialist health services attended, and whether patients contacted a general practitioner (GP) after the poisoning episode. Design Observational cohort study. Setting A primary care emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway. Subjects Patients ≥12 years treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012. Main outcome measures Follow-up initiated at discharge, proportion of cases in which referred patients attended within three months, and proportion of cases in which the patient consulted a GP the first month following discharge. Results There were 2343 episodes of acute poisoning by substances of abuse. In 391 (17%) cases the patient was hospitalised, including 49 (2%) in psychiatric wards. In 235 (10%) cases the patient was referred to specialist health services, in 91 (4%) advised to see their GP, in 82 (3%) to contact social services, in 74 (3%) allotted place in a homeless shelter, and in 93 (4%) other follow-up was initiated. In 1096 (47%) cases, the patient was discharged without follow-up, and in a further 324 (14%), the patient self-discharged. When referred to specialist health services, in 200/235 (85%) cases the patient attended within three months. Among all discharges, in 527/1952 (27%) cases the patient consulted a GP within one month. When advised to see their GP, in 45/91 (49%) cases the patient did. Conclusion Attendance was high for follow-up initiated after acute poisoning by substances of abuse. Key Points Despite poor long-term prognosis, patients treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse are frequently not referred to follow-up.Nearly all patients referred to specialist health services attended, indicating the acute poisoning as an opportune moment for intervention.Advising patients to contact their GP was significantly associated with

  4. The Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators: A Qualitative Study of Male and Female Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual…

  5. Relationship between drug discrimination and ratings of subjective effects: implications for assessing and understanding the abuse potential of D-amphetamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (r<0.52). The current findings demonstrate that diverse subjective effects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse. PMID:23851485

  6. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  7. Preclinical evaluation of the abuse potential of Pitolisant, a histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist compared with Modafinil

    PubMed Central

    Uguen, M; Perrin, D; Belliard, S; Ligneau, X; Beardsley, PM; Lecomte, JM; Schwartz, JC

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pitolisant, a histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist is currently under Phase III clinical trials for treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness namely in narcoleptic patients. Its drug abuse potential was investigated using in vivo models in rodents and monkeys and compared with those of Modafinil, a psychostimulant currently used in the same indications. Experimental Approach Effects of Pitolisant on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion, locomotor sensitization were monitored. It was also tested in three standard drug abuse tests i.e. conditioned place preference in rats, self-administration in monkeys and cocaine discrimination in mice as well as in a physical dependence model. Key Results Pitolisant did not elicit any significant changes in dopaminergic indices in rat nucleus accumbens whereas Modafinil increased dopamine release. In rodents, Pitolisant was without any effect on locomotion and reduced the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. In addition, no locomotor sensitization and no conditioned hyperlocomotion were evidenced with this compound in rats whereas significant effects were elicited by Modafinil. Finally, Pitolisant was devoid of any significant effects in the three standard drug abuse tests (including self-administration in monkeys) and in the physical dependence model. Conclusions and Implications No potential drug abuse liability for Pitolisant was evidenced in various in vivo rodent and primate models, whereas the same does not seem so clear in the case of Modafinil. PMID:23472741

  8. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  9. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  10. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  11. Strategies to Reduce the Tampering and Subsequent Abuse of Long-acting Opioids: Potential Risks and Benefits of Formulations With Physical or Pharmacologic Deterrents to Tampering

    PubMed Central

    Stanos, Steven P.; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Barkin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Increased prescribing of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain may reflect acceptance that opioid benefits outweigh risks of adverse events for a broadening array of indications and patient populations; however, a parallel increase in the abuse, misuse, and diversion of prescription opioids has resulted. There is an urgent need to reduce opioid tampering and subsequent abuse without creating barriers to safe, effective analgesia. Similar to the “magic bullet” concept of antibiotic development (kill the bacteria without harming the patient), the idea behind reformulating opioid analgesics is to make them more difficult to tamper with and abuse by drug abusers but innocuous to the compliant patient. As antibiotics exploit differences in bacterial and human physiology, tamper-resistant formulations depend on differences in the way drug abusers and compliant patients consume opioids. Most opioid abusers tamper with tablets to facilitate oral, intranasal, or intravenous administration, whereas compliant patients usually take intact tablets. Pharmaceutical strategies to deter opioid abuse predominantly focus on tablet tampering, incorporating physical barriers (eg, crush resistance) or embedded chemicals that render tampered tablets inert, unusable, or noxious. Deterring tampering and abuse of intact tablets is more challenging. At present, only a few formulations with characteristics designed to oppose tampering for abuse have received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and none has been permitted to include claims of abuse deterrence or tamper resistance in their labeling. This review discusses the potential benefits, risks, and limitations associated with available tamper-resistant opioids and those in development. PMID:22766088

  12. Effects of Persisting Emotional Impact from Child Abuse and Norepinephrine Transporter Genetic Variation on Antidepressant Efficacy in Major Depression: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet Bhagat; Bousman, Chad A.; Ng, Chee Hong; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest child abuse and serotonergic polymorphism influence depression susceptibility and anti-depressant efficacy. Polymorphisms of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) may also be involved. Research in the area is possibly clouded by under reporting of abuse in researcher trials. Methods Adults (n=51) with major depressive disorder has 8 weeks treatment with escitalopram or venlafaxine. Abuse history was obtained, the ongoing emotional impact of which was measured with the 15-item impact of event scale (IES-15). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was applied serially. Two NET polymorphisms (rs2242446 and rs5569) were assayed, blinded to HDRS ratings and abuse history. Results No subjects reporting abuse with high impact in adulthood (IES-15 ≥26, n=12) remitted; whereas 77% reporting low impact (IES-15 <26; n=26) remitted (p<0.001). Subjects reporting high impact abuse (n=12) had a 50-fold (95% confidence interval=4.85–514.6) greater odds of carrying rs2242446-TT genotype, but the small sample size leaves this finding vulnerable to type I error. Conclusion The level of persisting impact of child abuse appears relevant to antidepressant efficacy, with susceptibility to such possibly being influence by NET rs2242446 polymorphism. Larger studies may be merited to expand on this pilot level finding given potential for biomarker utility. PMID:25912538

  13. The Role of Prothrombotic Factors in the Ocular Manifestations of Abusive and Non-Abusive Head Trauma: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anna; Stephens, Derek; Feldman, Brian M.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Kahr, Walter H. A.; Brandao, Leonardo R.; Shouldice, Michelle; Levin, Alex V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Retinal hemorrhage is a cardinal manifestation of abusive head injury. Thrombophilia is relatively common in the general population and in adults can be associated with retinal hemorrhage. The specificity of retinal hemorrhage for abusive head trauma in the presence of prothrombotic factors, in particular following non-abusive head…

  14. The use and abuse of image analysis in geophysical potential field interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Andrew J. W.

    1991-11-01

    Images of geophysical potential field data are becoming more common as a result of the increased availability of image analysis systems. These data are processed using techniques originally developed for remotely sensed satellite imagery. In general, geophysicists are not familiar with such techniques and may apply them without due consideration. This can lead to abuses of the geophysical data and reduce the validity of the interpretation. This paper describes some critical processes which can introduce errors to the data. The production of a regular grid from scattered data is fundamental to image processing. The choice of cell size is paramount and must balance the spatial distribution of the data. The necessary scaling of data from real values into a byte format for display purposes can result in small anomalies being masked. Contrast stretching of grey level images is often applied but can alter the shape of anomalies by varying degrees and should be avoided. Filters are often used to produce shaded relief images but without due regard to their frequency response and the effect on images expanded to fill the display space. The generation of spurious numerical artefacts can be reduced by ensuring that the filter is applied at real precision to the original data grid. The resultant images can then be processed for display. The use of image analysis systems for data integration requires careful consideration of the sampling strategy and information content of each dataset. It is proposed that such procedures are more appropriately conducted on a geographic information system.

  15. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... central nervous system, drugs that are chemically or pharmacologically similar to other drugs with known... Abuse (NIDA), as described in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of March 8, 1985 (50 FR 9518). When...

  16. Substance use and abuse by Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: preliminary results from four national epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rumi Kato; Risk, Nathan K.; Wong, Mamie Mee; Klingle, Renee Storm

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors analyzed four recent large national surveys to assess the degree of use and abuse of a wide range of psychoactive substances across subgroups of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and in comparison with whites. METHOD: The surveys analyzed were the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey, and the 1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health In-School and In-Home surveys. The AAPI sample sizes varied from 900 to more than 4,500 across the four surveys. RESULTS: Among major racial groups, use of major substances is lowest for AAPIs. Among disaggregated AAPI groups, Japanese Americans have the highest substance use rates. Mixed-heritage AAPIs are at high risk for substance use, even after controlling for cultural protective factors and socioeconomic measures. Differential rates correspond to the ranking of several acculturation and socioeconomic indices. CONCLUSION: The results, while preliminary, point to the importance of rethinking ethnic and racial classifications for estimating substance use and abuse, for studying substance abuse problems in mixed-heritage adolescents, and for studying socioenvironmental and potentially genetic protective factors. PMID:12435826

  17. Adverse Mental Health Outcomes Associated with Emotional Abuse in Young Rural South African Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical…

  18. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  19. Relationship Between Abuse and Neglect in Childhood and Diabetes in Adulthood: Differential Effects By Sex, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Stein, Richard I.; White, Neil H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have investigated links between child abuse and neglect and diabetes mellitus in nationally representative samples, and none have explored the role of obesity in the relationship. We sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect were associated with diabetes and if so, whether obesity mediated this relationship in a population-representative sample of young adults. Methods We used data from 14,493 participants aged 24 to 34 years from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to study associations between self-reported child abuse (sexual, physical, or emotional abuse) and neglect as children and diabetes or prediabetes in young adulthood. We conducted sex-stratified logistic regression analyses to evaluate associations in models before and after the addition of body mass index (BMI) as a covariate. Results Although the prevalence of diabetes was similar for men and women (7.0% vs 6.7%), men were more likely than women to have prediabetes (36.3% vs 24.6%; omnibus P < .001). Among men, recurrent sexual abuse (≥3 lifetime incidents) was significantly associated with diabetes (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.31–10.24), but not with prediabetes. There was no evidence of mediation by BMI. No forms of child abuse or neglect were associated with diabetes or prediabetes among women. Conclusions Recurrent sexual abuse is robustly associated with diabetes in young adult men, independently of other forms of child abuse or neglect and BMI. Future research should explore other potential mechanisms for this association to identify avenues for prevention of diabetes among men who have experienced sexual abuse. PMID:25950577

  20. Marriage migration, patriarchal bargains, and wife abuse: a study of South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma; Morash, Merry; Yingling, Julie

    2014-02-01

    This article contributes to the literature on wife abuse by using the patriarchal bargaining framework, which highlights the issue of agency as women strive to achieve their goals within the constraints of family and culture. Study participants were recent South Asian immigrants to the United States. Narrative analysis revealed that patriarchal constraints in natal families, culture, and expectations of benefits gained through marriage influenced many of the women to migrate for marriage. When husbands enforced extreme patriarchy with abuse, women's personal efforts to contain abuse were largely ineffective. However, advocacy agency interventions did help some women break out of extreme patriarchy.

  1. Marriage migration, patriarchal bargains, and wife abuse: a study of South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma; Morash, Merry; Yingling, Julie

    2014-02-01

    This article contributes to the literature on wife abuse by using the patriarchal bargaining framework, which highlights the issue of agency as women strive to achieve their goals within the constraints of family and culture. Study participants were recent South Asian immigrants to the United States. Narrative analysis revealed that patriarchal constraints in natal families, culture, and expectations of benefits gained through marriage influenced many of the women to migrate for marriage. When husbands enforced extreme patriarchy with abuse, women's personal efforts to contain abuse were largely ineffective. However, advocacy agency interventions did help some women break out of extreme patriarchy. PMID:24493153

  2. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  3. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  4. Intranasal Abuse Potential, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety of Once-Daily, Single-Entity, Extended-Release Hydrocodone (HYD) in Recreational Opioid Users

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Alessandra; Colucci, Salvatore V.; Kapil, Ram P.; Geoffroy, Pierre; Hopyan, Talar; Levy-Cooperman, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. A once-daily, extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties (Hysingla ER® [HYD]) is available for the treatment of chronic pain in appropriate patients. This study evaluated the intranasal abuse potential and pharmacokinetics of HYD coarse and fine particles vs hydrocodone powder or placebo. Design. Single-center, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled, randomized, four-treatment crossover study. Subjects. Healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users with a history of intranasal abuse. Methods. During four treatment periods, subjects (N = 31) received hydrocodone powder 60 mg, HYD coarse particles 60 mg, HYD fine particles 60 mg, or placebo, with five-to-seven-day washouts between treatments. Measures over 36 hours postdose included drug-liking and willingness to take drug again, assessed using visual analog scales (VASs), pupillometry, intranasal irritation, and pharmacokinetics. Results. Insufflation of both HYD coarse and fine particles led to lower “At this Moment” Drug Liking VAS peak values compared with hydrocodone powder, but higher values compared with placebo (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Similar results were observed for Overall Drug Liking VAS, Take Drug Again VAS, and Subjective Drug Value. Compared with hydrocodone, insufflation of HYD particles led to reduced miosis and increased nasal irritation. Mean hydrocodone Cmax following insufflation of HYD coarse particles, HYD fine particles, and hydrocodone powder was 27.5, 36.5, and 105.8 ng/mL, respectively; median Tmax was ≥2-fold longer with either HYD particle size than hydrocodone powder; and (Cmax/Tmax) was 9.5, 13.4, and 82.0 ng/mL/h, respectively. Safety was consistent with that of opioid agonists. Conclusions. HYD demonstrated reduced intranasal abuse potential compared with hydrocodone powder. PMID:26814240

  5. Prenatal Child Abuse Risk Assessment: A Preliminary Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weberling, Lara Cady; Forgays, Deborah Kirby; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Hyman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Brigid Collins Risk Screener (BCRS) to assess child abuse risk in a sample of 49 expectant mothers. Found that at 3 months postpartum, high-risk mothers scored significantly lower on the quality of infants' physical, social, and emotional environments than moderate or low-risk mothers. Concluded that the BCRS appears to…

  6. The Abusive School Principal: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…

  7. Disclosure of Sexual Abuse in Sport Organizations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…

  8. Cigarette smoking as a target for potentiating outcomes for methamphetamine abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brensilver, Matthew; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Telesca, Donatello; Furst, Benjamin A.; Shoptaw, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Cigarette smoking occurs frequently among individuals with methamphetamine dependence. Preclinical and clinical evidence has suggested that the common co-abuse of methamphetamine and cigarettes represents a pharmacologically meaningful pattern. Methods The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion treatment for methamphetamine dependence (bupropion n=36; placebo n=37). A hierarchical logistic modelling approach assessed the efficacy of bupropion for reducing MA use separately among smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, relations between cigarettes smoked and MA use were assessed. Results Smoking status did not affect treatment responsiveness in either the bupropion condition or the placebo condition. In the placebo condition, increased cigarette use was associated with an increased probability of methamphetamine use during the same time period. This effect was not observed in the bupropion condition. Discussion and Conclusions Initial smoking status did not impact treatment outcomes. Among smokers, results suggest that bupropion may dissociate cigarette and methamphetamine use. The effect was modest and a precise pharmacologic mechanism remains elusive. Cholinergic systems may be relevant for methamphetamine use outcomes. Future studies should continue to assess the role of smoking in methamphetamine treatment outcomes. PMID:22385210

  9. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions.

  10. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions. PMID:23469477

  11. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  12. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment.

  13. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  14. Physical abuse in basic-education schools in Aden governorate, Yemen: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ba-Saddik, A S; Hattab, A S

    2013-04-01

    Physical abuse in school has lifelong consequences affecting child health and educational achievements. A study was designed to assess the prevalence of physical abuse experienced by pupils in basic-education schools in Aden, Yemen, and to examine the risk factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study covering 1066 pupils in 7th-9th grades from 8 schools in different districts of Aden governorate were randomly selected. Answering an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, 55.7% of pupils reported physical abuse at least once in their school lifetime (73.2% of males versus 26.6% of females). Teachers were the main perpetrators (45.4%). A statistically significant association was found between physical abuse and sex, age group, family type and father's education. Significant predictors of physical abuse on multivariate regression were male sex (OR=7.89) and extended family type (OR=1.36). Physical abuse in basic-education schools requires serious consideration by educational authorities, families and the community at large.

  15. Sexual abuse of boys in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Collings, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child sexual abuse in a total sample of boys referred for medico-legal assessment in a peri-urban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Method - A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical and social work records for sexually abused boys presenting for medico-legal assessment at the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital (Phoenix, KwaZulu-Natal) during the period January 2001 to December 2003. Results - In the period reviewed, 131 boys reported an incident of sexual abuse with temporal trends indicating a significant increase in the incidence of reported abuse over the three year period. Most victims fell in the 4-11 year age category, anal penetration constituted the most common form of abuse (86% of cases), and perpetrators were predominantly persons who were known to the child. Conclusion - Study findings indicate that the sexual abuse of boys constitutes a sizeable and emerging problem in peri-urban communities in South Africa. Evidence suggests that increased rates of victimisation are associated with a breakdown in family support networks in the context of rapid urbanisation.

  16. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  17. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse.

  18. Teaching Personal Safety Skills for Potential Prevention of Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of various educational approaches for teaching personal safety skills to children in an effort to possibly prevent sexual abuse: (a) a filmed program ("Touch"), (b) a behavioral skills training program in which modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and social reinforcement were used to teach safety skills, (c) a combination of…

  19. Growing Old With Ice: A Review of the Potential Consequences of Methamphetamine Abuse in Australian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This review analyzes contemporary literature in the context of Australian aging methamphetamine users, service response, and challenges to provision of care to this population. The article focuses on Australian literature with comparisons made with trends arising from international scholarship. Searches of the CINAHL, ProQuest, and Scopus electronic journal databases were performed in early 2014 as part of a wider study investigating dual diagnosis in older adults. Methamphetamine abuse is common in individuals with comorbid mental illness. The literature presented in this review outlines potential neuropsychological and persistent psychiatric sequelae associated with the use of methamphetamine, along with a number of concerning behaviors prevalent in individuals with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus-positive status. Despite an abundance of literature discussing methamphetamine use in adult populations, this is the first review exploring methamphetamine use in the context of aging and older adult mental health. Contemporary literature suggests that methamphetamine dependence will be a significant challenge for services that cater to older adults, requiring further research to fully assess the impact this cohort will have on the healthcare system.

  20. The association between childhood physical abuse and dyslexia: findings from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Hooper, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a history of dyslexia and childhood physical abuse in a large population-based epidemiological sample. It was hypothesized that the prevalence of dyslexia would be significantly higher in individuals who reported a childhood history of physical abuse in comparison to those who did not report such a history. A secondary analysis examined data from respondents 18 years and older from the Saskatchewan and Manitoba sample of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). There were 13,640 respondents ages 18 and older. Due to missing data, the final sample size was 13,054 respondents. One third (34.8%) of respondents who reported they had been physically abused during their childhood or adolescence also reported being diagnosed with dyslexia in comparison with 7.2% of those who did not report being physically abused (p < .001). Initial adjustments for sociodemographic variables produced an odds ratio (OR) for dyslexia that was more than 7 times higher (OR = 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.42, 11.35]) for those who had reported being physically abused in comparison with their peers who did not report such a history; with additional adjustments for other adverse childhood experiences, these odds decreased only slightly to 6.09 times higher (95% CI = [3.58, 10.35]). Further research is needed to understand the mechanism linking physical abuse and dyslexia.

  1. Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model

    PubMed Central

    Lefever, Timothy W.; Marusich, Julie A.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2014-01-01

    Because Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a robust method suitable for substitution testing of other cannabinoids. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer WIN55,212-2 (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 3 schedule. Dose-effect curves for WIN55,212-2 were determined, followed by vehicle substitution and a dose-effect curve with THC. WIN55,212-2 self-administration was acquired; however, substitution with THC did not maintain responding above vehicle levels. Dose-dependent attenuation by rimonabant confirmed CB1 receptor mediation of WIN55,212-2’s reinforcing effects. Vehicle substitution resulted in a session-dependent decrease in responding (i.e., extinction). While this study provides systematic replication of previous studies, lack of substitution with THC is problematic and suggests that WIN55,212-2 self-administration may be of limited usefulness as a screening tool for detection of the reinforcing effects of potential cannabinoid medications. Clarification of underlying factors responsible for failure of THC to maintain self-administration in cannabinoid-trained rats is needed. PMID:24412835

  2. Offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use: affective psychopathic personality traits as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients.

  3. Child abuse registration, fetal growth, and preterm birth: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nick; Wallace, Ann; Sundrum, Ratna; Bacchus, Claire; Logan, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study the relation of intra‐uterine growth and gestational age with child protection registration in a 20 year whole population birth cohort. Setting West Sussex area of England. Study design Retrospective whole population birth cohort. Outcomes Child protection registration; individual categories of registration—sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Population and participants 119 771 infants born in West Sussex between January 1983 and December 2001 with complete data including birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, and postcode. Results In all categories of registration a linear trend was noted such that the lower the birth weight z score the higher the likelihood of child protection registration. Similar trends were noted for gestational age. All these trends were robust to adjustment for maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that lower levels of fetal growth and shorter gestational duration are associated with increased likelihood of child protection registration in all categories including sexual abuse independent of maternal age or socioeconomic status. This study does not permit comment on whether poor fetal growth or preterm birth predispose to child abuse and neglect or the association arises because they share a common pathway. PMID:16537351

  4. Opioid ligands having delayed long-term antagonist activity: potential pharmacotherapies for opioid abuse.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Stephen M; Lewis, John W

    2003-03-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the micro -opioid receptor with long duration of action and also exhibits delayed antagonist activity. Buprenorphine is finding increasing use as a treatment agent for opioid abuse, though its low efficacy is not well tolerated by all addicts. There is interest in developing a higher efficacy version of buprenorphine and in this mini-review some of the ligands recently discovered, that share with buprenorphine a profile of agonism followed by delayed antagonism, are discussed.

  5. A proposed intergenerational model of substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, M J

    1995-05-01

    Although the link between substance abuse and child maltreatment has been relatively well established, there is a general recognition that this is not a simple cause-effect relationship. The current study explored the relationships among substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect in a sample of incarcerated substance abusers. Data were gathered on the earlier life experiences of 81 men and women serving sentences in two maximum security prisons, including assessments of their parents' substance abuse problems; levels of family competence within their families-of-origin; their exposure, as children and adults, to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical/emotional neglect; and their own levels of substance abuse. Results showed generally high percentages of parental substance abuse and abuse/neglect, and relatively low levels of family competence. Correlational analyses revealed significant direct and indirect relationships among parental substance abuse, family dynamics, and exposure to both child and adult maltreatment. These four variables were also significantly associated with respondents' own substance abuse in later life, suggesting the potential for continuation of these patterns into successive generations. An intergenerational model of these family and personal functioning variables is presented and implications for service delivery with correctional clients is discussed.

  6. Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abusers: a multi-site effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Szapocznik, José; Horigian, Viviana E; Feaster, Daniel J; Puccinelli, Marc; Jacobs, Petra; Burlew, Kathy; Werstlein, Robert; Bachrach, Ken; Brigham, Greg

    2009-05-01

    Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) is a manualized treatment designed to address aspects of family functioning associated with adolescent drug use and behavior problems (J. Szapocznik, U. Hervis, S. Schwartz, (2003). Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. (NIH Publication No. 03-4751). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse). Within the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) Clinical Trials Network, BSFT is being compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a multisite, prospective randomized clinical trial for drug using adolescents and their families in outpatient settings. The effectiveness of BSFT is being compared to TAU in reducing adolescent drug use, conduct problems, and sexually risky behaviors as well as in improving family functioning and adolescent prosocial behaviors. This paper describes the following aspects of the study: specific aims, research design and study organization, assessment of primary and secondary outcomes, study treatments, data analysis plan, and data monitoring and safety reporting.

  7. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  8. Extrapyramidal Motor Dysfunction and Resultant Orofacial Dystonia Post-Cocaine Abuse: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMicken, Betty L.; Ostergren, Jennifer A.; Vento-Wilson, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigated the consequences of cocaine use and resultant extrapyramidal motor dysfunction. The study focused on a female client, post-long-term drug abuse with concomitant untreated head trauma, experiencing extraneous motor movements of the lips, tongue, jaw, and upper and lower extremities. The goals of this study were to (a)…

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect Among Children Who Drop Out of School: A Study in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sariyer, Görkem; Aydin, Fulya; Cankarde, Sinem; Kandemirci, Birsu

    2016-10-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN), and dropping out of school have long been recognized as pervasive social problems globally, and Turkey is no exception. This study aims to explore the prevalence and incidence of CAN in children who drop out of school of Turkey, using the ISPCAN Child abuse Screening Tool, Children's Version, which is an appropriate tool for multinational comparisons. Data from a convenience sample of children who drop out of school age 11, 13, and 16 from Izmir were collected either by interviews or by self-completion. The results show that, compared to children who do not drop out of school, children who drop out of school have higher rates of psychological and physical abuse and neglect within the family. This study not only highlights the need for preventive laws for CAN and dropping out of school, but also points to direction for future research. PMID:27331866

  10. The process of coping following child sexual abuse:a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Oaksford, Karen; Frude, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying the immediate and long-term coping strategies adopted by survivors of child sexual abuse, focusing on how strategies evolve over time. Qualitative findings showed that coping with child sexual abuse is not static, but changes over time. The narratives of these nonclinical survivors suggest that an adaptive outcome may be associated with a particular evolution of strategies across time, i.e., survivors reported coping predominantly by engaging in psychological escape methods initially, and then adopting cognitive appraisal and positive reframing strategies in the longer term. It appears that coping processes can affect psychological outcome following child sexual abuse. This study offers insight into the evolution of coping methods associated with an adaptive outcome.

  11. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. Design A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. Participants A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Setting Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. Results The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Conclusions Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment

  12. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help.

  13. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help. PMID:26265161

  14. Prevalence of child sexual abuse: a comparison among 4 Italian epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Beatrice; Festa, Fiorella; Di Sanzo, Maria Angela; Guala, Andrea; Pellai, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria), using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated), the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese) and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria). In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials. PMID:26429122

  15. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  16. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  17. Brief Substance Abuse Treatment with Urban Adolescents: A Translational Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Posner, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this translational research study was to test a brief, manualized adolescent substance abuse treatment protocol's effects in an urban community setting compared to a sample in an experimental study from which the treatment was first employed. One hundred two adolescents who were treated with a manualized protocol of five sessions of…

  18. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  19. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2010-09-03

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  20. Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results From a Multisite Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Block, Carolyn; Campbell, Doris; Curry, Mary Ann; Gary, Faye; Glass, Nancy; McFarlane, Judith; Sachs, Carolyn; Sharps, Phyllis; Ulrich, Yvonne; Wilt, Susan A.; Manganello, Jennifer; Xu, Xiao; Schollenberger, Janet; Frye, Victoria; Laughon, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This 11-city study sought to identify risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships. Methods. Proxies of 220 intimate partner femicide victims identified from police or medical examiner records were interviewed, along with 343 abused control women. Results. Preincident risk factors associated in multivariate analyses with increased risk of intimate partner femicide included perpetrator’s access to a gun and previous threat with a weapon, perpetrator’s stepchild in the home, and estrangement, especially from a controlling partner. Never living together and prior domestic violence arrest were associated with lowered risks. Significant incident factors included the victim having left for another partner and the perpetrator’s use of a gun. Other significant bivariate-level risks included stalking, forced sex, and abuse during pregnancy. Conclusions. There are identifiable risk factors for intimate partner femicides. PMID:12835191

  1. Elder abuse and barriers to help seeking in Chennai, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Natarajan, Aravindhan; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study attempts to understand why older persons abused by their family members in India do not seek help. In-depth interviews over three visits were conducted with six adults aged 65 years and above who had been physically abused by their sons/daughters-in-law. The interviews were transcribed and themes identified using a thematic analysis method. The barriers preventing a person from seeking help were service-related (accessibility, lack of trust); religious (Karma); family (deleterious effects on family, family members' responses to help seeking); and individual (socioeconomic dependency, self-blame). The unique findings that surfaced were fear of losing one's identity by losing one's family, attributing abuse to past sins, and concern over not attaining salvation if one's sons did not perform funeral rites. The authors propose a checklist to explore and assess the barriers to seeking help. Recommendations for geroprofessionals in overcoming barriers include implementing outreach programs and changing the misconceptions regarding Karma. PMID:24313798

  2. Contingency Management in Community Programs Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Adolescent substance abuse remains a public health problem, and more effective treatment approaches are needed. PURPOSE The study aims to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of implementing a cost-effective contingency management (CM) intervention in community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. METHODS Thirty-one adolescents with primary marijuana use disorder enrolled in a community treatment program were randomized. FINDINGS There were no significant group differences in percent negative UDS, sustained negative UDS, or retention in treatment. CONCLUSIONS CM was difficult to integrate into community treatment programs and did not seem to be an effective adjunct to standard community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. Modifying the CM procedure for adolescents, changing staff attitudes toward CM, and/or combining CM with other evidence-based psychosocial treatment may improve outcomes. PMID:22299805

  3. Associations between childhood abuse and interpersonal aggression and suicide attempt among U.S. adults in a national study.

    PubMed

    Harford, Thomas C; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n=34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse.

  4. A Child in Our Midst: A Study Course on Keeping Children Safe From Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This Leader's Guide prepared for the Salvation Army's Home League aims at helping community groups (particularly those which are church related) recognize the symptoms of child abuse and determine their course of action in preventing such abuse. Six forms of child abuse are cited: physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional…

  5. Art Therapy with Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: Extended Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifalo, Terry

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the outcome of a four-year follow-up of a pilot study using a combination of art therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and group process to address the therapeutic issues related to childhood sexual abuse. All group participants were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere, 1995), commonly used in…

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  7. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  9. A Study of Volunteers in Drug Abuse Programs. Treatment Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Liona S.; And Others

    Volunteers have made significant contributions to mental health by assisting with institutional care, outpatient counseling, aftercare, and research. To describe the use of volunteers in drug abuse treatment programs, volunteers were studied by a telephone survey of administrators in 123 programs that had at least five volunteers and a single…

  10. In Their Own Voices: A Qualitative Study of Men Abused as Children by Catholic Clergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…

  11. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  12. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  13. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Culture, and Coping: A Qualitative Study of Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligiero, Daniela P.; Fassinger, Ruth; McCauley, Moira; Moore, Jessica; Lyytinen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to articulate a model of how Latinas cope with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the ways in which personal and cultural variables influence their coping strategies. Nine women who identified as Latina and as survivors of CSA participated in an in-depth interview. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory…

  15. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  18. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  19. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  20. A Qualitative Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Taiwan: Toward a Transactional and Ecological Model of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of 10 female Taiwanese childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (age range = 20-39 years) to broaden our understanding of the post-abuse coping process in a Chinese sociocultural context. This investigation was grounded on a feminist paradigm, and the consensual qualitative research method (Hill et…

  1. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  2. The Influence of Case and Professional Variables on Identification and Reporting of Physical Abuse: A Study with Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-Rogers, Jody E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study, with 60 medical students and 15 pediatricians, found that a delay in seeking medical attention and an explanation for the presenting injuries that was discrepant from the physical findings impacted the identification and reporting of child abuse. Positive correlations were found between identification and reporting of abuse. (CR)

  3. Shrouds of Silence: A Case Study of Sexual Abuse in Schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masehela, Boledi; Pillay, Venitha

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the reasons that allow a parent, a principal and a teacher to maintain silence when young girls under their care are sexually abused. Put another way, it attempts to explain what it is about sexual abuse that makes these parties relinquish their role as protectors of innocent children. This paper, based on a larger…

  4. Risk Behaviors and Resiliency within Physically Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and several risk behaviors, and thriving behaviors, and the relationship between potential protective factors and engagement in risk and thriving behaviors among victims of physical abuse. Three categories of potential protective factors were examined: (1) individual…

  5. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  6. [Study on risk factors of suicidal ideation in people with drug abuse].

    PubMed

    Morita, Nobuaki; Kouda, Minoru; Umeno, Mitsuru; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Yabe, Yohko; Endo, Keiko; Abe, Yukie; Hirai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aikawa, Yuzo; Senoo, Eiichi

    2012-02-01

    In Japan, the target mental disorders of preventive strategies for suicide had been limited to be mood disorder, but recently drug abuse are known to be significant as a cause of suicide because some researches has found the association between substance use disorder and suicidal behavior in Japan. However, the preventive plans for suicide of drug abusers has not been developed yet. In this study we would like to examine the risk factors of suicide ideation in Japanese drug abusers. We analyzed the data of 445 drug addicts from the Nationwide Research of Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Centers by Tokyo DARC and compared many variables including demographic factors, drug use status, family history, psychopathologies, treatment and daily life satisfactions between people with suicide ideations and without ideations. It was found that 182 cases (43.8%) had suicide ideations in a recent month, and that addicts who had suicide ideations had significantly shorter abstinence time, higher prevalence of victimized experiences before 15 years age, and more mental symptoms such as insomnia, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and more tendencies to use prescribed psychotropic drug than those without suicide ideation. These results suggested that to prevent suicide of drug abusers, we should pay attention to family histories, insomnia and abstinence periods, and help them recovery from psychological damages caused by childhood trauma without inappropriate medications. PMID:22586940

  7. Predictors of Treatment Outcomes for Substance-Abusing Women: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Marilee; Kaltenbach, Karol A.

    2000-03-01

    This study examined whether client characteristics at admission predict Retention, Abstinence, and utilization of Required Services and Specialized Services for pregnant women in outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment. Retrospective data were collected with the Psychosocial History (PSH), a structured clinical interview that is an expansion of the Addiction Severity Index, designed specifically to assess substance abusing women. The PSH was administered at intake for 183 pregnant women admitted to outpatient (n = 133) or residential (n = 50) treatment. Factor analysis reduced predictors to five factors with composite scores, and multiple regression procedures determined client characteristics that predict treatment outcomes. The findings suggest the complexity of predicting treatment outcomes for pregnant women. Significant predictors were composites of variables that encompassed all aspects of women's personal and family lives including medical and psychiatric needs, family and parenting issues, housing, victimization, and clients' perceived needs for treatment and assistance in all of these areas. The results suggest the need for a holistic approach to substance abuse treatment and continued exploration of a broad range of psychosocial assessments at intake in order to develop substance abuse treatment programs that effectively address multiple aspects of women's lives. PMID:12466646

  8. Detection of endogenous steroid abuse in cattle: results from population studies in the UK.

    PubMed

    Scarth, J P; Clarke, A; Teale, P; Mill, A; Macarthur, R; Kay, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of steroids as growth-promoting agents in food production is banned under European Union legislation. Detecting the abuse of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, oestradiol and progesterone is complicated by the fact that these steroids are known to be endogenous in certain situations. In this study, the concentrations of characteristic metabolites of each of these steroids were quantified in populations of untreated steers and heifers. Steroid concentration population data were then used by a statistical model (the Chebyshev inequality) to produce threshold concentrations for screening and confirming the abuse of these steroids in steer and non-pregnant heifer urine. In addition to thresholds based on testing one animal (a '1 out of 1' approach), new methods based on testing multiple animals from a herd (a 'y out of n' approach) allowed threshold concentrations to be significantly reduced and hence false compliances to be minimised. In the majority of cases, the suggested thresholds were found to be capable of confirming the abuse of endogenous steroids in steers and heifers. In the case of oestradiol abuse in the female, however, confirmation based on a threshold is not possible and alternative methods such as gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry are required. In addition to the steer and heifer populations, a small number of pregnant animals were also tested, yielding insights into the biosynthetic pathways of some of the steroids.

  9. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Wang, Yao-Hsing; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Ching

    2015-01-01

    Objective The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. This pilot study investigated the effects of a family-oriented treatment program for ketamine-using youths and their caregivers. Methods To carry out this study, 42 youths with ketamine use (mean age 16.6±1.1 years) who were referred to take part in a 10-week treatment program based on motivational enhancement principles were selected, as were their principal caregivers (mean age 46.4±7.1 years), who were similarly referred to take part in a 10-week training program for parenting skills. The study had the youths complete the Chinese Craving Beliefs Questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Behavior problem Scale, and the Family APGAR both immediately before and after the program. Likewise, the youths’ caregivers completed the Family APGAR, the 12-item version of the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results Of the 42 youth–caregiver pairs that took part in this study, 37 (88%) completed the 10-week program and both sets of assessments. After the treatment, the participating youths’ substance cravings declined (t=3.88, P<0.001), while family function, as perceived by the participating caregivers, significantly increased (t=2.22, P=0.033). The improvement in caregivers’ perceptions of family function were positively related to the improvement of the caregivers’ health status (r=−0.36, P=0.022). Conclusion According to its results, this pilot study submits that family-oriented treatment programs may be considered a potentially effective treatment option for youths who abuse ketamine. Additional studies with larger sample sizes, as well as longer follow-up periods, are necessary to verify whether this type of treatment also prevents youths using ketamine from relapsing. PMID:26261419

  10. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  11. A Forgiveness Intervention for Women With Fibromyalgia Who Were Abused in Childhood: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the efficacy of a forgiveness intervention with a fibromyalgia (FM) health intervention on women with FM who have experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and emotional or physical neglect, in childhood by one of their parents. Eleven women with FM between the ages of 21 and 68 were randomized to the forgiveness intervention (n = 5) or the FM health intervention (n = 6), and completed the once-weekly individualized program for 24 weeks. The participants completed measures assessing forgiveness, overall FM health, depression, anger, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping strategies at the pretest, the posttest, and the 12-week follow-up test. They also completed the forgiveness intervention and FM health intervention final tests at the posttest, which assessed their knowledge on forgiveness and FM health. The forgiveness intervention participants had greater improvements in forgiveness (p < .001) and overall FM health (p = .046) from the pretest to the posttest, and in forgiveness (p = .018) and state anger (p = .027) from the pretest to the follow-up test than the FM health intervention participants. Moreover, the forgiveness intervention participants scored higher on the forgiveness final test than the FM health intervention participants (p < .001), and the FM health intervention participants scored higher on the FM health final test than the forgiveness intervention participants (p < .001). The results indicate that the forgiveness intervention was potentially helpful in improving forgiveness and overall FM health, and in decreasing state anger of this particular sample of women with FM. PMID:25914886

  12. Methamphetamine and cannabis abuse in adolescence: a quasi-experimental study on specific and long-term neurocognitive effects

    PubMed Central

    Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791

  13. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  14. Executive Dysfunction and Reward Dysregulation: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study in Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Morie, Kristen P.; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Garavan, Hugh; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function deficits and reward dysregulation, which mainly manifests as anhedonia, are well documented in drug abusers. We investigated specific aspects of executive function (inhibitory control and cognitive control), as well as anhedonia, in a cohort of current cocaine abusers in order to ascertain to what extent these factors are associated with more severe drug dependence. Participants filled out questionnaires relating to anhedonia and their addiction history. Participants also performed a response inhibition task while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses to successful inhibitions (N2/P3 components) and to commission errors (ERN/Pe components) were compared between 23 current users of cocaine and 27 non-using controls. A regression model was performed to determine the association of our measures of reward dysregulation and executive function with addiction severity. As expected, cocaine users performed more poorly than controls on the inhibitory control task and showed significant electrophysiological differences. They were also generally more anhedonic than controls. Higher levels of anhedonia were associated with more severe substance use, whereas the level of executive dysfunction was not associated with more severe substance use. However, N2 amplitude was associated with duration of drug use. Further, inhibitory control and anhedonia were correlated, but only in controls. These data suggest that while executive dysfunction characterizes drug abuse, it is anhedonia, independent of executive dysfunction, that is most strongly associated with more severe use. PMID:24911989

  15. Developmental, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cahill, L T; Kaminer, R K; Johnson, P G

    1999-10-01

    There is growing interest in the neurologic, behavioral, and cognitive effects of child abuse and neglect. This article explores the literature on the short and long term sequelae of physically and sexually abused and neglected children, along with controversies generated by the studies themselves. Recommendations are made for swift and ongoing intervention in cases of child abuse to protect young victims from potentially devastating effects. PMID:10553206

  16. Exploring the effect of N-substitution in nor-lobelane on the interaction with VMAT2: discovery of a potential clinical candidate for treatment of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangrong; Horton, David B; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2013-03-01

    A series of N-substituted lobelane analogues was synthesized and evaluated for their [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding affinity at the vesicular monoamine transporter and for their inhibition of vesicular [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Compound 19a, which contains an N-1,2(R)-dihydroxypropyl group, had been identified as a potential clinical candidate for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse.

  17. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  18. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  19. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  20. An exploratory study of alternative configurations of governing boards of substance abuse treatment centers

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Boards of directors are the ultimate governing authorities for most organizations providing substance abuse treatment. A governing board may establish policies, monitor and improve operations, and represent a treatment organization to the public. This paper explores alternative configurations of governing boards in a national sample of 500 substance abuse treatment centers. The study proceeds from the premise that boards may be configured with varying levels of engagement in five aspects of internal management and external connections in treatment center operating environments. Based on interviews with treatment center administrative directors, four clusters emerge, describing boards that are: (1) active and balanced across internal and external domains; (2) active boundary spanners concentrating primarily on external relationships; (3) focused primarily on internal organizational management; and (4) relatively inactive. In post hoc analysis, we found that placement in these clusters is associated with treatment center attributes such as rate of growth and financial results, use of evidence based practices and provision of integrated care. PMID:21489737

  1. Risk, resilience, and the rorschach: a longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Douglas; Heinze, Hillary J; Arble, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment. PMID:23941130

  2. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    PubMed

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  3. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  4. Participatory Research Challenges in Drug Abuse Studies Among Transnational Mexican Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings. Especially difficult was including transnational migrants and nearby relatives as partners in the research, similar to partnerships created with others in the community. The sensitive nature of our research and associated human subject concerns did not permit a more participatory methodology. Another problem involved partnerships with members of the larger community, given the apathy and ambivalence towards drug use by transnational migrants. Finally, collaborating with community stakeholders to develop and implement research-based recommendations was also problematic. As we learned, there are more to generating substance abuse recommendations in partnership with stakeholders than simply working together on recommendations, which also require an effective implementation strategy. Based on these experiences, we elaborate useful suggestions in development and application of local-level programs aimed at curtailing substance abuse among transnational migrant workers while they are at their work sites in Pennsylvania. PMID:22003376

  5. Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A) construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A) interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A) care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i) determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii) develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii) identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv) design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v) document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale. PMID:23347548

  6. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  7. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse. PMID:19102471

  8. Increased Childhood Abuse in Patients With Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Turkish Sample: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Sahin, Basak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Abuse is considered to have a place in the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is one of the psychiatric disorders for which abuse could be an etiologic factor; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between abuse and PMDD. In this study, our aim was to investigate childhood abuse in patients with PMDD and compare them with healthy female subjects. Method: This cross-sectional study included 70 women with PMDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were admitted to the outpatient psychiatry clinic of Ankara Yenimahalle State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2012 and December 2013. Additionally, 78 healthy controls were included in the study. Sociodemographic, familial, and reproductive period characteristics of the women were recorded. All subjects were administered the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Among the sociodemographic characteristics, being a university graduate (76.9%) and being a public servant (70.5%) were significantly higher in the healthy control group (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively). A family history of PMDD (31.4%), a history of postpartum psychiatric disorders (11.4%), and a history of attempted suicide (7.1%) were higher in the PMDD group compared with the healthy control group (P = .001, P = .003, and P = .024, respectively). Significant differences were also found between PMDD and healthy controls in PMSS score (P ≤ .001), CTQ total scores (P = .002), and subscale scores including emotional abuse and emotional neglect (P = .004), physical abuse (P = .009), and sexual abuse (P = .012). Conclusions: To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate associations between PMDD and childhood abuse from Turkey. More comprehensive studies on this topic with larger sample sizes are required to enrich the literature and enable practitioners to be more effective in clinical practice. PMID:25664213

  9. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  10. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL.

  11. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  12. A multiple case study comparison of normal private preparatory school and substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L S; Hedgespeth, J

    1995-01-01

    This multiple case study of ten families of normal private preparatory school adolescents and five families of substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents was an effort to identify factors that may suggest a relationship between the abuse of substances in adolescents who also have mood disorders and the following family factors: parental marital discord, degree of family satisfaction, and family problem-solving styles. The fifteen families completed four assessment instruments and participated in a videotaped problem-solving exercise. The results of this study showed that all members of the substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents' families rated themselves as dysfunctional in all major areas of family life. In contrast, the normal private preparatory school families reported satisfaction with most areas of family functioning. Communication styles also differed considerably between the two small groups of families. These results appear to support the importance of family evaluation and treatment when addressing the issue of adolescent substance abusers with mood disorders.

  13. Thymus and adrenal glands in elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Bunai, Yasuo; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Ogata, Mamoru

    2011-12-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoid-induced thymic involution is generally considered to be an important finding for determining child abuse. The present study investigated the weight of the thymus and the adrenal glands in elder abuse cases to identify a potential marker for elder abuse. There was no significant difference in the thymus and the adrenal weight between elder abuse and control cases. However, the elder abuse cases in which the duration of abuse was less than 3 months showed a significant increase in the adrenal weight in comparison to control cases. In such cases, histopathological findings showed a loss of intracellular light granules from the zona fasciculata, which might indicate a loss of cholesterol due to the overproduction of glucocorticoid. These results might imply that the elderly, who were maltreated for less than 3 months, were in the early phase of a long-term stress state during which stress-induced overproduction of glucocorticoid was observed in adrenal glands as indicated by Selye. Our results suggest that an increase in adrenal weight may be a potential marker for elder abuse of relatively short periods, especially less than a few months.

  14. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  15. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  16. An In Vitro Study of the Neurotoxic Effects of N-Benzylpiperazine: A Designer Drug of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Persona, Karolina; Polus, Anna; Góralska, Joanna; Gruca, Anna; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of new psychoactive substances has significantly increased. Despite the systematic introduction of prohibition in trade of medicinal products which mimic the effects of illegal drugs, the problem concerning this group of drugs is still important although knowledge about the mechanism of action of those types of substances is scarce. This study aimed to follow the neurotoxic effect of N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), the central nervous system psychostimulant, using the human cancer LN-18 cell model. The statistically significant elevation of LDH levels, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased ATP and increased ROS production, increased levels of DNA damage marker (8-OHdG) and activation of caspases: -3 and -9 confirmed by Real-Time PCR imply the activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathways induced by BZP after 24 h incubation. This study is a novel, preliminary attempt to explain the toxicity of one of the most popular designer drug of abuse at the cellular level. PMID:26861955

  17. An In Vitro Study of the Neurotoxic Effects of N-Benzylpiperazine: A Designer Drug of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Persona, Karolina; Polus, Anna; Góralska, Joanna; Gruca, Anna; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of new psychoactive substances has significantly increased. Despite the systematic introduction of prohibition in trade of medicinal products which mimic the effects of illegal drugs, the problem concerning this group of drugs is still important although knowledge about the mechanism of action of those types of substances is scarce. This study aimed to follow the neurotoxic effect of N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), the central nervous system psychostimulant, using the human cancer LN-18 cell model. The statistically significant elevation of LDH levels, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased ATP and increased ROS production, increased levels of DNA damage marker (8-OHdG) and activation of caspases: -3 and -9 confirmed by Real-Time PCR imply the activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathways induced by BZP after 24 h incubation. This study is a novel, preliminary attempt to explain the toxicity of one of the most popular designer drug of abuse at the cellular level.

  18. The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect: a partnership.

    PubMed

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Health Canada's Family Violence Prevention Unit commissioned a study to assess the possibility of collecting child maltreatment data from child welfare agencies across Canada. A Health Canada group responsible for maternal and child health surveillance built on the results of this study. This group consulted widely with provincial and territorial partners to build a surveillance system, resulting in a truly collaborative effort that led to the implementation of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). This was a remarkable accomplishment considering the challenge of working with multiple partners, different legislative frameworks and the stigma that often accompanies the experience of child maltreatment.

  19. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  20. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  1. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  2. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  3. Recall of Childhood Trauma: A Prospective Study of Women's Memories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    1994-01-01

    Of the 129 women interviewed, a large portion (38%) did not recall abuse reported 17 years earlier. Those who were younger when abuse occurred or were molested by an acquaintance were more likely to have no recall. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Periods with no memory should not suggest abuse never occurred. (52 references)…

  4. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.

  5. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765

  6. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  7. Violent Victimization Among Disadvantaged Young Adults Exposed to Early Family Conflict and Abuse: A 24-Year Prospective Study of the Victimization Cycle Across Gender.

    PubMed

    Voith, Laura A; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Significant associations between childhood victimization and later revictimization have materialized in previous literature; yet, the victimization cycle has been primarily explored with indicators of sexual assault, although insight into linkages between other forms of victimization remains limited. This study examined connections from family conflict exposure and physical abuse in childhood to violent crime victimization in adulthood, assessing also gender differences and neighborhood influences. Results from logistic regression and hierarchical linear modeling with data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel of 1,539 low-income, ethnic/racial minority children, unearthed a significant relation between family conflict exposure and later revictimization. Moderated by gender, these analyses showed girls exposed to frequent family conflict are particularly vulnerable to revictimization in adulthood. Exploratory analyses unveiled a potential linkage between childhood physical abuse and later revictimization for men. Neighborhood effects marginally influenced results in one instance. Public health implications are discussed. PMID:27301843

  8. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  9. ADHD, stimulant treatment in childhood and subsequent substance abuse in adulthood - a naturalistic long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Frydenberg, Morten; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the risk of substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol abuse in adulthood among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to the background population. Furthermore, to examine whether the age at initiation and duration of stimulant treatment in childhood predicts SUD and alcohol abuse in adulthood. 208 youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of SUD and alcohol abuse were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of SUD and alcohol abuse for cases with ADHD, compared to the background population was 7.7 (4.3-13.9) and 5.2 (2.9-9.4), respectively. Female gender, conduct disorder in childhood and older age at initiation of stimulant treatment increased the risk of later SUD and alcohol abuse. Our results warrant increased focus on the possibly increased risk of substance abuse in females with ADHD compared to males with ADHD.

  10. Personal Contextual Characteristics and Cognitions: Predicting Child Abuse Potential and Disciplinary Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental…

  11. Potential Drug Abuse Therapeutics Derived from the Hallucinogenic Natural Product Salvinorin A

    PubMed Central

    Prevatt-Smith, Katherine M.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Simpson, Denise S.; Day, Victor W.; Douglas, Justin T.; Bosch, Peter; Dersch, Christina M.; Rothman, Richard B.; Kivell, Bronwyn; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies of salvinorin A have shown that modification of the acetate functionality off the C-2 position to a methoxy methyl or methoxy ethyl ether moiety leads to increased potency at KOP receptors. However, the reason for this increase remains unclear. Here we report our efforts towards the synthesis and evaluation of C-2 constrained analogs of salvinorin A. These analogs were evaluated at opioid receptors in radioligand binding experiments as well as in the GTP-γ-S functional assay. One compound, 5, was found to have affinity and potency at κ opioid (KOP) receptors comparable to salvinorin A. In further studies, 5 was found to attenuate cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior in rats comparably to salvinorin A. This finding represents the first example of a salvinorin A analog that has demonstrated anti-addictive capabilities. PMID:22442751

  12. Men's and Women's Childhood Sexual Abuse and Victimization in Adult Partner Relationships: A Study of Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Document the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical assault, psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in a nationally representative sample. (2) Assess the predictive value of CSA and other characteristics of the respondents and their current partners as potential risk factors for…

  13. Exploring the effect of N-substitution in nor-lobelane on the interaction with VMAT2: discovery of a potential clinical candidate for treatment of methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guangrong; Horton, David B.; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Nickell, Justin R.; Culver, John P.; Deaciuc, Agripina G.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    A series of N-substituted lobelane analogues was synthesized and evaluated for their [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding affinity at the vesicular monoamine transporter and for their inhibition of vesicular [3H]dopamine uptake. Compound 19a, which contains an N-1,2(R)-dihydroxypropyl group, had been identified as a potential clinical candidate for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse. PMID:23527317

  14. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  15. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  16. A Framework for Conducting a National Study of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Moore, Laurie A.; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. Objectives and Methods We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n = 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Results Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. Conclusion and Scientific Significance This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies. PMID:22931088

  17. [Sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an incidence study].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Aded, Naura Liane; Galluzzi da Silva Dalcin, Bruno Luís; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares

    2007-08-01

    We present an incidence analysis of forensic medical examinations at the Afrânio Peixoto Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2000. A sample of 124 cases of suspected sexual abuse was selected, both male and female, aged 0 to 17 years. Minors from 0 to 14 years of age represented 81.45% of the sample, coinciding with rates from a former study spanning the first quarter of 2000. Other than vaginal rape, young male subjects prevailed in cases of suspected anal, oral, or other forms of sexual violence and comprised 20.97% of the total sample, with no such cases, either male or female, in the 15-17-year group. Most cases of alleged vaginal sexual abuse were detected in the 10-17-year group. 44.36% of the alleged aggressors were related to the victims; non-related aggressors represented 13.71% of the study group. 30.65% of all cases lacked information about the aggressor. Most police complaints were recorded in the North and East Sides of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The present study did not analyze the victims' social, economic, or cultural characteristics. PMID:17653415

  18. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  19. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  20. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  1. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  2. Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari

    2013-11-01

    Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse.

  3. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  4. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  5. The Potential Role of an Extended-Release, Abuse-Deterrent Oxycodone/Acetaminophen Fixed-Dose Combination Product for the Treatment of Acute Pain.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Acute pain, prevalent as part of postoperative and traumatic pain, is often sub-optimally or inadequately treated. Fixed-dose combination analgesic products that combine a reduced amount of opioid with a nonopioid analgesic such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a single tablet offer potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic benefits, and may also result in an opioid-sparing effect. A new analgesic product (XARTEMIS™ XR, Mallinckrodt Brand Pharmaceuticals, Dublin, Ireland) combines oxycodone (7.5 mg) with acetaminophen (325 mg) in an immediate-release/extended-release (ER) formulation that is indicated for the treatment of acute pain. The ER formulation of this product provides stable serum drug concentrations that in this case lasts 12 h. Oxycodone/acetaminophen is a drug combination that offers safe and effective pain relief in a variety of acute pain syndromes such as postoperative pain. The combination formulation allows a smaller amount of oxycodone per tablet and the biphasic-layered matrix of the pill for ER may present obstacles to potential abusers. No opioid is totally abuse resistant, but the lower opioid content and tamper-resistant formulation of this product might discourage abuse. Clinicians must still be mindful of the acetaminophen part of this product in the patient's overall daily intake (in light of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity). The new product appears to provide an important new choice in the armamentarium against acute pain.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Web Based Performance Improvement System for Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    PubMed Central

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; McClure, Bridget; Temes, Christina; Kulaga, Agatha; Gallop, Robert; Forman, Robert; Rotrosen, John

    2010-01-01

    We report here on the results of a randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a semi-automated performance improvement system (“Patient Feedback”) that enables real-time monitoring of patient outcomes in outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. The study involved 118 clinicians working at 20 community-based outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics in the northeast United States. Ten clinics received 12 weeks of the Patient Feedback performance improvement intervention and ten clinics received no intervention during the 12 weeks. Over 1500 patients provided anonymous ratings of therapeutic alliance, treatment satisfaction, and drug/alcohol use. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the primary drug and alcohol use scales. There was also no evidence of an intervention effect on secondary measures of therapeutic alliance. Clinician-rated measures of organizational functioning and job satisfaction also showed no intervention effect. Possible insights from these findings, and alternative methods of utilizing feedback reports to enhance clinical outcomes are proposed. PMID:20116964

  7. Children of treated substance-abusing mothers: a 10-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hser, Y-I; Evans, E; Li, L; Metchik-Gaddis, A; Messina, N

    2014-04-01

    This study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers' admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000-2002. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each mother reported on one child 6-17 years of age. All of the children had been exposed to drugs, either in utero or postnatally. At follow-up about 22% of the children demonstrated borderline or clinical range problem behaviors. Child behavior problems were related significantly to the mothers' ethnicity (lower among Hispanics relative to white), and problem severity in family/social relationship and mental health, marginally related to her prior medical/health problem, and not related to severity of alcohol, drug, legal and employment problems. Assisting mothers to address their family/social relationship and psychological problems may have an added value to prevent or reduce behavioral problems of their children.

  8. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  9. Emotional abuse towards children by schoolteachers in Aden Governorate, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional abuse is central to other forms of abuse. The primary objective of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse among pupils in basic education schools and the risk factors associated with it in Aden governorate, Yemen. Methods Four districts were randomly selected from across the governorate of Aden, 2 schools were selected at random in each district, and then 1066 pupils were randomly selected from the 8 schools. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver.15. Mean, standard deviation and chi square were used for descriptive statistics. Univariate and Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between emotional abuse with pupils/parents characteristics. Results Pupils reported high rates of emotional abuse 55.2% at least once in their school lifetime. Male pupils had higher prevalence of emotional abuse 72.6% than females 26.1%. Teachers constituted the highest proportion of perpetrators 45.6%. Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) showed statistically significant association between emotional abuse and pupils' gender, family type and father education: 9.94 (7.19-13.74), 1.40 (1.02-1.91), .58 (.39-.86) respectively. Conclusion Emotional child abuse was highly prevalent in pupils in basic school education. Pupils' gender, family type and father education were the main risk factors associated with emotional abuse. PMID:22888950

  10. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  11. Elder abuse in Chinese populations: a global review.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.

  12. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D’Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born 1960–1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also the longer duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. Conclusions We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. PMID:25158998

  13. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  14. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  15. PET Studies in Nonhuman Primate Models of Cocaine Abuse: Translational Research Related to Vulnerability and Neuroadaptations

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Duke, Angela N.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current review highlights the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the neurobiological substrates underlying vulnerability to cocaine addiction and subsequent adaptations following chronic cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse. Environmental (e.g., social rank) and sex-specific influences on dopaminergic function and sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine are discussed. Cocaine-related cognitive deficits have been hypothesized to contribute to high rates of relapse and are described in nonhuman primate models. Lastly, the long-term consequences of cocaine on neurobiology are discussed. PET imaging and longitudinal, within-subject behavioral studies in nonhuman primates have provided a strong framework for designing pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies to aid drug-dependent treatment seekers. Non-invasive PET imaging will allow for individualized treatment strategies. Recent advances in radiochemistry of novel PET ligands and other imaging modalities can further advance our understanding of stimulant use on the brain. PMID:23458573

  16. Evaluating the association between childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide across the lifespan: Findings from a nationwide study of women in jail.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; DeHart, Dana D; Belknap, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have found childhood sexual abuse to predict suicidal behavior in adulthood. Women in jail suffer disproportionately high rates of childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide relative to women in the general population. Thus, better understanding the association between childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide among women in jail may inform prevention, assessment, and treatment initiatives for this at-risk population. This study examined the association between childhood sexual abuse and the onset of attempted suicide across the life span in a nationwide sample of women in jail. Participants included a randomly selected subsample of women (N = 115), drawn from a larger probability sample (N = 491), who completed Life History Calendars, which were coded for the presence/absence of attempted suicide and childhood sexual abuse across life history stages. Survival analysis and Cox regression indicated that women with histories of childhood sexual abuse perpetrated by an adult or a peer were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide across the life span, including increased risk for the onset of attempted suicide in adulthood. This study demonstrates the salience of childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of suicidal behavior among women in jail, and extends previous research by demonstrating the temporal sequence of childhood sexual abuse relative to attempted suicide across the life span. Given these findings, researchers, clinicians, and policymakers should consider further the influence of childhood sexual abuse with regard to the high rates of attempted and completed suicide among women in jail. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322516

  17. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  18. Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Sexual Abuse in Foster Children and Children Who Return Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; And Others

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of being placed in foster care versus remaining at home upon the psychological functioning of 64 black, sexually abused girls aged 5 to 16 years. Only subjects molested by persons well known to them were included in this study. The children were initially evaluated using a multi-method assessment…

  19. The Costs and Benefits of Substance Abuse Treatment: Findings from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lane; Denmead, Gabrielle; Nguyen, Robert; Harrison, Margaret; Harwood, Henrick

    This study seeks to quantify the costs and benefits of alcohol and drug abuse treatment and the resulting economic benefits to society. Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), and client questionnaires, estimates were made of the average costs per client in terms of crime-related costs, health care costs, and…

  20. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  1. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  2. An Exploratory Study of a Computer-Assisted Abuse Awareness and Safety Planning Program for Men With Disabilities: The Men's Safer and Stronger Program.

    PubMed

    Oschwald, Mary; Lund, Emily M; Latorre, Allyn; Shelton, Rollin; Hughes, Rosemary B; Liston, Bob; Flaherty, Michael C; Powers, Laurie E

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is a serious and often unrecognized problem for men with disabilities (MWD). However, abuse awareness programs and outcome measures have not been systematically evaluated in MWD. This article reports findings from an exploratory study (n = 31) of the Safer and Stronger Program for Men with Disabilities (Men's SSP), an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) abuse awareness program. Preliminary findings suggest it is sensitive toward detecting abuse and it allows MWD to privately and independently self-identify IPV experiences. Preliminary psychometric data on a battery of abuse and safety awareness outcome measures suggest that they are reliable in this population. PMID:25671458

  3. An Exploratory Study of a Computer-Assisted Abuse Awareness and Safety Planning Program for Men With Disabilities: The Men's Safer and Stronger Program.

    PubMed

    Oschwald, Mary; Lund, Emily M; Latorre, Allyn; Shelton, Rollin; Hughes, Rosemary B; Liston, Bob; Flaherty, Michael C; Powers, Laurie E

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is a serious and often unrecognized problem for men with disabilities (MWD). However, abuse awareness programs and outcome measures have not been systematically evaluated in MWD. This article reports findings from an exploratory study (n = 31) of the Safer and Stronger Program for Men with Disabilities (Men's SSP), an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) abuse awareness program. Preliminary findings suggest it is sensitive toward detecting abuse and it allows MWD to privately and independently self-identify IPV experiences. Preliminary psychometric data on a battery of abuse and safety awareness outcome measures suggest that they are reliable in this population.

  4. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  5. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1987-01-01

    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  6. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  7. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  8. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  9. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  11. Adolescent Clients of Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andris, Lydia M.; And Others

    Many adolescent clients of the Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse (DASA) in Washington come also with psychiatric problems, are involved with the legal system, live with someone who abuses drugs or alcohol, have poor social support networks, or live in poverty. This report describes a sample of adolescent clients who received treatment and/or…

  12. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  13. Effects of Physical and Emotional Child Abuse and Its Chronicity on Crime Into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Klika, J Bart; Skinner, Martie L

    2015-01-01

    Analyses tested hypotheses that pertain to direct and indirect effects of parent-reported physical and emotional abuse on later self-reported criminal behavior in a sample of 356 adults of a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. Childhood antisocial behavior was included in analyses as a potential mediator. Physical abuse only predicted adult crime indirectly through childhood antisocial behavior, whereas emotional abuse predicted adult outcome both directly and indirectly. Chronicity of physical abuse was indirectly related to later crime in a subsample test for those who had been physically abused (n=318), whereas chronicity of emotional abuse was neither directly nor indirectly related to adult crime in a test of those who had been emotionally abused (n=225). Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  14. Elder abuse in residential long-term care: an update to the 2003 National Research Council report.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas; Ferguson-Rome, Jamie C; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2015-06-01

    A synthesis of the last decade of literature on elder abuse in residential long-term care (i.e., Nursing Homes and Assisted Living) is discussed. Presented are definitions of abuse, theoretical and conceptual models, prevalence rates of abuse, outcomes and costs, and sources of abuse. The synthesis represents an update to the literature in the influential 2003 National Research Council report. We identify many of the same issues and concerns exist that were surfaced in this prior report. Many theoretical and conceptual models need further elaboration. Conflicting definitions of abuse are pervasive. Rates of abuse are generally inaccurate, and probably under-reported. However, we also identify progress in many areas. An increase in empirical studies that exist in this area (although very few in Assisted Living). Other forms and types of abuse have also been identified as important, such as resident-to-resident abuse. These areas are discussed, along with potential suggestions for additional research.

  15. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  16. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24793872

  17. Spiritual abuse.

    PubMed

    Purcell, B C

    1998-01-01

    Spiritual abuse is the act of making people believe--whether by stating or merely implying--that they are going to be punished in this life and/or tormented in hell-fire forever for failure to live life good enough to please God and thus earn admission to heaven. Spiritual terrorism is the most extreme form of spiritual abuse and may cause serious mental health problems. Those people who have not been spiritually terrorized have not necessarily been spared from spiritual abuse and therefore may still be in need of competent, spiritual counseling. Spiritual abuse, which may be active or passive, can best be conceptualized on a continuum from terroristic to zero abuse. Severity is determined by intensity, age of onset, duration, and individual reaction. The underlying issue in all forms of abuse is control. PMID:9729974

  18. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over five years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome studies (DATOS). Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first year follow-up. However, results of the application of growth mixture models for both sets of trajectories indicated a subgroup of individuals reverted to a high-risk behavior over time, with a higher level of risk at the 5-year follow-up than their original risk level at intake. Of clients who were engaged in regular injection drug use at intake, 76% continued to inject drug at a Moderate/stable or Increased rate over the 5-year follow-up. PMID:18198171

  19. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680

  20. A laboratory-based study of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance among inner-city substance users: the role of emotional nonacceptance.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Bornovalova, Marina A; Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Nick, Bettina; Lejuez, C W

    2007-09-01

    Despite the theorized centrality of experiential avoidance in abuse-related psychopathology, empirical examinations of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance remain limited. The present study adds to the extant literature on this relationship, providing a laboratory-based investigation of the relationships between childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, experiential avoidance (indexed as unwillingness to persist on 2 psychologically distressing laboratory tasks), and self-reported emotional nonacceptance among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. As hypothesized, results provide evidence for heightened experiential avoidance and emotional nonacceptance among individuals with moderate-severe sexual, physical, and emotional abuse (compared to individuals reporting none-low abuse). However, although emotional nonacceptance was associated with increased risk for experiential avoidance, it mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance only for emotional abuse. As such, results suggest that one mechanism through which emotional abuse in particular leads to experiential avoidance is emotional nonacceptance. Findings suggest the utility of interventions aimed at decreasing experiential avoidance and promoting emotional acceptance among abused individuals.

  1. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  2. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  3. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse through a Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Results of a 3-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students (N=4,466) in 56 schools participated in 3-year study on effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Students who received at least 60 percent of prevention program (N=3,684) were included in analyses of program effectiveness. Significant prevention effects were found for cigarette smoking, marijuana use,…

  4. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  5. Vicarious Trauma: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Providing Sexual Abuse Treatment on Clinicians' Trust and Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…

  6. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  7. A Qualitative Study Using a Systemic Perspective Exploring the Remediation of Abusive Interactions in Intimate Heterosexual Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Elizabeth; Vetere, Arlene Louise

    2012-01-01

    Very little attention has been paid to both partners beliefs about why violence in their previously abusive relationship has stopped or significantly reduced despite well-documented details in the research literature outlining the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators. This study aimed to provide some understanding of how each partner…

  8. The Experience of Trauma Recovery: A Qualitative Study of Participants in the Women Recovering from Abuse Program (WRAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alyson; Fourt, Anne; Langmuir, Judith I.; Dalton, E. Jane; Classen, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of intensive group treatment programs for child maltreatment has been established. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand how women with a history of child maltreatment experienced the Women Recovering from Abuse Program (WRAP), an existing intensive group treatment program. Seven women were interviewed following their…

  9. Is managed care closing substance abuse treatment units?

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca; Harris Lemak, Christy; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Roddy, Brian L; Nahra, Tammie A

    2007-03-01

    Despite high levels of unmet need for outpatient substance abuse treatment, a significant percentage of outpatient units have closed over the past several years. This study drew on 1999-2000 and 2005 national surveys to determine if managed care was associated with outpatient substance abuse treatment units' likelihood of surviving. Each substance abuse unit director was asked about the presence of any managed care contracts, percentage revenues from managed care, percentage of clients for whom prior authorization was required, and percentage of clients for whom concurrent review was required. A multiple logistic regression revealed that none of these factors was associated with substance abuse treatment unit survival. At this point, neither the presence nor the structure of managed care appears to affect the survival of outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Given the need for these facilities, however, and their vulnerability to closure, continued attention to managed care's potential influence is warranted. PMID:17458479

  10. Summary of an eleven-country study of socio-legal measures to combat drug abuse and related crime.

    PubMed

    Asuni, T; Bruno, F

    1984-01-01

    In a comparative study of a group of experimental and control subjects in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Japan, Jordan, Italy, Malaysia, Singapore and the United States of America (State of New York), and of the results of independent studies conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a rather close association was found to exist between drug abuse, criminal behaviour and social attitudes to such problems. Both drug abuse and the socio-legal systems varied greatly in the countries involved. No correlation was found between the level of foreseen or actual harshness of the socio-legal system and the level of seriousness of drug abuse and its associated criminality, but there was a significant correlation between knowledge of the law and the efficacy of the socio-legal system. In each country informal control systems, such as the family, church, school, neighbourhood and work environment, were active. Approximately one half of the subjects that were interviewed from countries with the most punitive socio-legal systems perceived informal controls as harsh and punitive while in the other countries such controls were generally perceived as positive. The study encouraged the review, testing and implementation of alternative measures to penal sanctions, particularly with a view to creating a genuine therapeutic approach to correcting the deviant behaviour of drug abusers.

  11. Toward Excellence in Treatment Services for Adolescents. Submitted by Adolescent Study Group to the Center for Substance Abuse Services, Michigan Department of Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Center for Substance Abuse Services.

    An Adolescent Study Group was established by the Michigan Department of Public Health/Center for Substance Abuse Services (MCPH/CSAS) to examine the current delivery system of substance abuse treatment services for adolescents. The primary focus was on treatment services for alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) problems among adolescents in…

  12. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  13. The Role of Substance Abuse in Psychotic versus Personality Disordered Offenders Detained under the Dutch Entrustment Act (TBS): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Kris; Buitelaar, Jan; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2008-01-01

    Mentally disordered patients that abuse drugs or alcohol have a larger number of criminal convictions. Early starters who had their first conviction before the age of 18, especially, more often have a diagnosis of substance abuse and are more often intoxicated at the time of the offense compared to late starters. The present study involved four…

  14. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    PubMed

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment.

  15. A pilot study of factors associated with resilience to substance abuse in adolescent sons of alcoholic fathers.

    PubMed

    Springer, S A; Gastfriend, D R

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the association between substance abuse outcome and putative protective factors in sons of alcoholic fathers. A battery of questionnaires was anonymously self-administered to 24 sons of alcoholic fathers ages 16-19 years to identify relationships between alcohol and/or drug abuse and factors hypothesized to be related to parental alcoholism. Of the 24 subjects, 13 were categorized through self-identification and self-report screening measures as having alcohol and/or drug problems and 11 were categorized as not having substance abuse problems. Boys without substance problems: (1) had significantly higher maternal occupational status (p = .01); (2) experienced more good life events (p < .001), and (3) had a more internally oriented locus of control (p < .001). Good events and internal locus of control were highly correlated with each other (r = .620, p < .01). The fact that these preliminary findings are consistent with other literature despite marked methodologic and sample differences indicates that these putative components of resilience are robust and deserve further study towards improved substance abuse prevention in those at high risk.

  16. Physical abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D E; Cecutti, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of physical abuse during late pregnancy and to investigate how abused and nonabused pregnant women differ in demographic characteristics, health habits, psychologic distress and attitudes about fetal health. DESIGN: Survey of women attending for prenatal health care or admitted to hospital for delivery. The information was obtained on one occasion from self-report questionnaires, completed with the option of anonymity. SETTINGS: Community-based prenatal clinic, private obstetricians' offices in a large city, private family physicians' offices in a large city, family physicians' offices in a small town, and a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: English-speaking women at 20 weeks' or more gestation attending or admitted consecutively. INTERVENTIONS: Three self-report questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) and the study questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirteen women (2.4%) refused to participate in the survey. Of the 548 women who completed the questionnaires 36 (6.6%) reported physical abuse during the current pregnancy and 60 (10.9%) before it. There were no significant differences in rates of abuse between settings. Of the women abused during the pregnancy 23 (63.9%) reported increased abuse during the pregnancy, and 28 (77.8%) remained with the abuser. Twenty-four pregnant women (66.7%) received medical treatment for abuse, but only 1 (2.8%) told her prenatal care provider of the abuse. Factor analysis revealed three factors associated with physical abuse in pregnancy: "social instability" (comprising low age, unmarried status, lower level of education, unemployment and unplanned pregnancy), "unhealthy lifestyle" (comprising poor diet, alcohol use, illicit drug use and emotional problems) and "physical health problems" (comprising health problems and prescription drug use). The GHQ scores showed that the abused women were significantly more emotionally distressed than the

  17. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  18. FKBP5 polymorphisms, childhood abuse, and PTSD symptoms: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; Han, Shizhong; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Mota, Natalie P; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Gelernter, Joel; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Polymorphisms in the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene may interact with childhood abuse to increase risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of four previously identified FKBP5 putative risk SNPs (rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, rs947008), childhood abuse, and lifetime PTSD symptoms, including contemporary phenotypic models of PTSD symptoms, in two nationally representative samples of European-American (EA) U.S. military veterans. The main sample included 1585 EA veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), and the replication sample included 577 EA veterans who participated in a second baseline cohort survey of the NHRVS. Outcome variables were lifetime PTSD symptom severity and a 4-factor phenotypic model of PTSD symptoms that included re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing/negative cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal/alterations in arousal and reactivity symptoms. Results revealed that the four FKBP5 SNPs were associated with PTSD symptom severity in both samples (p values ranged from 0.001 to 0.012). Further, SNP rs9470080 in the main sample, and all four SNPs in the replication sample interacted with childhood abuse to predict PTSD severity (p values ranged from 0.002 to 0.006). In both samples, all four FKBP5 SNPs predicted hyperarousal/alterations in arousal and reactivity (p values ranged from<0.001 to 0.002). Results of this study suggest that FKBP5 polymorphisms, directly and interactively with childhood abuse, predict severity of lifetime PTSD symptoms, most notably hyperarousal symptoms, in two nationally representative samples of EA veterans. They further indicate that FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse may contribute to vulnerability for PTSD symptoms and may be most strongly associated with trauma-related hyperarousal symptoms that comprise this phenotype.

  19. The impact of science education games on prescription drug abuse attitudes among teens: a case study.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G; Miller, Leslie M; Ramos, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated in a pretest, two game-play sessions, and a delayed posttest. Students in both groups demonstrated more negative attitudes toward prescription drug abuse after playing the game, driven by changes of students' normative beliefs and their ability to make the connection between prescription drug abuse and illicit drugs. A secondary aim was to assess gains in science knowledge; however, due to low internal consistency reliabilities of content measures, students' knowledge acquisition could not be determined.

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Policy Concerns and Implications for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser-Stuart, Joan E.; Skibinski, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines public opinion regarding intervention options for intrafamilial child sexual abuse offenders, victims, and families. Investigates the public's willingness to support strategies of victim protection, offender control, and treatment services. Respondents generally supported established, adversarial intervention strategies, and had mixed…

  1. Theatre-in-Education and Child Sexual Abuse: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezseran, Catherine; Katz, Barbara Myerson

    1985-01-01

    Describes the planning, implementing, and evaluating stages of "Choices," a theatre-in-education program on intrafamilial child sexual abuse produced by the Louisville Children's Theatre for third grade students in Jefferson County, Kentucky. (PD)

  2. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  3. Skeletal trauma in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2013-11-01

    Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries.

  4. Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

    2015-03-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points

  5. Neural Correlates of Craving in Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shahmohammadi, Fanak; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Riahi Kashani, Mohammad Mansour; Sangi, Mehrdad; Yoonessi, Ahmad; Yoonessi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. Methods: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content. A total of 10 methamphetamine abusers and 10 age-gender matched controls participated in the experiments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared using a time window analysis method. The ERPs were divided into 19 time windows of 100 ms with 50 ms overlaps. The area of positive sections below each window was calculated to measure the differences between the two groups. Results: Significant differences between two groups were observed from 250 to 500 ms (P300) in response to methamphetamine-related visual stimuli and 600 to 800 ms in response to neutral stimuli. Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse. PMID:27563415

  6. Personal, Familial and Environmental Determinants of Drug Abuse: A Causal-Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Homeira; Harouni, Gholamreza Ghaedamini; Sani, Maryam Sharifian

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Two purposes were followed in this study: 1) comparing case and control group in eight factors separately and 2) performing a multivariate analysis for identifying risk and protective factors in relation to drug abuse. Methods: A casual-comparative study was conducted to investigate the study goals. Fifty Cases in a convenient sampling of addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers and fifty eligible controls (recruited in a randomly sampling) were identified. One-sample independent T-Test for a univariate and Logistic regression model for a multivariate was conducted. Results: Univariate analysis: addicted group compared with control group, in terms of aggression, easy access to drugs and depression had higher scores and of other factors (self-esteem, religious affiliation, socioeconomic status, family environment and responsibility) cases had lower scores (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis: Easy access to drugs and depression identified as risk factors (OR>1) and high self-esteem, family socioeconomic status and responsibility as protective (OR<1). Conclusions: Addiction is a multivariate phenomenon and before any intervention, we have to consider personal, familial and environmental factors and separate subjects by them. We can’t give all of addicts the same prescription and follow a drug therapy approach to treat them. Any addict has a unique profile that should be taken into consideration. PMID:25946942

  7. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  8. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder. PMID:21660818

  9. Metabonomic Study of Biochemical Changes in Human Hair of Heroin Abusers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pu; Wang, Tie-jie; Yin, Guo; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Li-he; Li, Qing; Bi, Kai-shun

    2016-01-01

    Hair analysis is with the advantage of non-invasive collection and long surveillance window. The present study employed a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry method to study the metabonomic characters in the hair of 58 heroin abusers and 72 non-heroin abusers. Results indicated that certain endogenous metabolites, such as sorbitol and cortisol, were accelerated, and the level of arachidonic acid, glutathione, linoleic acid, and myristic acid was decreased in hair of heroin abusers. The metabonomic study is helpful for further understanding of heroin addiction and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26445826

  10. Metabonomic Study of Biochemical Changes in Human Hair of Heroin Abusers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pu; Wang, Tie-jie; Yin, Guo; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Li-he; Li, Qing; Bi, Kai-shun

    2016-01-01

    Hair analysis is with the advantage of non-invasive collection and long surveillance window. The present study employed a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry method to study the metabonomic characters in the hair of 58 heroin abusers and 72 non-heroin abusers. Results indicated that certain endogenous metabolites, such as sorbitol and cortisol, were accelerated, and the level of arachidonic acid, glutathione, linoleic acid, and myristic acid was decreased in hair of heroin abusers. The metabonomic study is helpful for further understanding of heroin addiction and clinical diagnosis.

  11. Abuse in Family Foster Homes: Characteristics of the Vulnerable Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Emily Jean; Ryan, Patricia

    This paper briefly reviews current knowledge about child abuse in foster care, and presents preliminary findings from a study identifying characteristics of abused children by type of abuse, and type of abuse by behavior of the child. Research indicates that foster children at risk for abuse exhibit specific characteristics, such as having…

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  13. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic and Epigenetic Variations: Association with Child Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date…

  14. Child abuse and neglect as seen in General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur--a two year study.

    PubMed

    Kassim, M S; George, R; Kassim, K; Begum, M; Cherian, M P; Tajudin, A K; Chandran, V; Anan, A; Reddy, R; Singh, J

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-six children diagnosed as child abuse and/or neglect were admitted to the Paediatric wards of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur during 1985 and 1986. Of these cases, 62 were of physical abuse, six of sexual abuse, one case of both physical and sexual abuse and 17 of neglect. There were 25 boys and 61 girls. Thirty-four of these children were Malays, 16 Chinese, 26 Indians, three mixed and seven illegal immigrants. Twenty-one were below the age of one year, 24 from one to four years, 25 from five to nine years and 16 were ten years and above. The abusers were mainly close members of the family. Of these children, 24 were sent back to their parents and 11 to their relatives home. Twenty-seven were taken into care by the Ministry of Social Welfare and the remaining seven children who were illegal immigrants, were deported with their parents. Only one child was successfully fostered. Eleven children were taken away from the hospital by their parents or guardians without the knowledge of the health staff. There were five deaths in the series.

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  16. Challenges and strategies in recruiting, interviewing, and retaining recent Latino immigrants in substance abuse and HIV epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Mario; Babino, Rosa; Rosario, Adelaida; Martinez, Natalia Valiente; Aijaz, Lubna

    2012-01-01

    The growth of immigrant populations in the United States over the past 20 years has increased the need to enhance understanding about the risk factors that influence their substance abuse and HIV risk behaviors. Today, Latinos account for the largest majority of immigrants gaining entry into the United States. As the largest and fastest growing minority subgroup in the United States, they bear a disproportionate burden of disease and death compared to non-Latinos. Latinos are confronted with escalating HIV and substance-abuse problems, particularly Latinos between the ages of 18-34. This paper is based on our longitudinal study on the drug using and HIV risk behaviors of 527 recent Latino immigrants between the ages of 18-34 who have lived in the United States less than 1 year. The data collection activities of this study have provided insights in identifying, recruiting, interviewing, and retaining Latinos in community-based studies. Strategies, such as utilizing a combination of translation techniques, ensured the development and implementation of culturally appropriate questionnaires. Respondent-driven sampling facilitated identifying participants. Establishing rapport and trust was critical for interviewing, and maintaining a tracking protocol was most important for retention. The lessons learned from this study can guide substance abuse and HIV researchers when recruiting, interviewing, and retaining recent Latino immigrants in future epidemiologic studies. 

  17. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH

  18. My life is a longing: child abuse and its adult sequelae. Results of the Brody longitudinal study from birth to age 30.

    PubMed

    Massie, Henry; Szajnberg, Nathan

    2006-04-01

    The psychoanalytically oriented Brody longitudinal study has followed the psychological development of 76 individuals from birth to age 30. Ten suffered severe maltreatment in childhood in the form of rejection and/or physical abuse at the hands of one or both parents. This report describes the effects of child abuse on the emerging personalities of the children, as well as on their adult personalities and mental health. Specifically, as adults the maltreated children had significantly more psychiatric illness (typically depressions and anxiety disorders), less mature psychological defense mechanisms, more insecure mental representations of attachment to their parents as indicated by the adult attachment interview, and a lower Global Assessment of Functioning than their well-treated counterparts. Additionally, their prevailing moods were joyless. Case examples show the emergence of symptoms, personality disorders, and defenses over time, as well as the workings of ameliorating influences. Several of the maltreated children made relatively successful adaptations as adults, indicating children's potential for resilience. Resilience, however, may be a superficial concept, for, in this series of cases, seemingly adequate coping in formerly mistreated children always came at the price of emotional vulnerability and compromised potential.

  19. Gender identification and sex role attribution in sexually abused adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Aiosa-Karpas, C J; Karpas, R; Pelcovitz, D; Kaplan, S

    1991-03-01

    An exploratory study of the association between child sexual abuse and subsequent gender identification and sex role attribution was conducted with 93 adolescent females. Victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse with a history of psychotherapeutic treatment were compared with nonabused subjects with a history of treatment and nonabused control subjects with no treatment history. Measures of gender identity found that sexually abused and nonabused treatment groups differed significantly from the no-treatment controls. Distinct patterns of gender identification emerged for the sexually abused victims. Hypothesized differences in sex role attribution were not found. Potential directions for future research are proposed and implications and recommendations for treatment are discussed.

  20. Tests of the Mitigating Effects of Caring and Supportive Relationships in the Study of Abusive Disciplining Over Two Generations

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Brown, Eric C.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine evidence of the continuity in abusive discipline across two generations (G1 and G2) and the role of Safe, Stable, and Nurturing Relationships (SSNRs) as protective factors. Methods Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of the causes and consequences child maltreatment that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 children and their parents. Data were most recently collected in 2008 - 2010 from 80% of the original child sample (N = 357) when they were adults age 36 years on average. Of those assessed as adults, 268 participants (G2s) were parenting children and thus comprise the analysis sample. Analyses examined the association between physical discipline practices by G1 parents and G2’s reports of similarly severe discipline practices used in parenting their own children. Analyses also investigated the direct and interactive (protective) effects of SSNR variables that pertain to the care, warmth, and support children received from their mothers, fathers, and siblings over their lifetimes. A measure of an adult partner’s warmth and support was also included. A case-level examination of G2 harsh discipliners was included to examine other forms of past and more recent forms of abuse exposure. Results Results show a significant predictive association between physical discipline by G1 and G2 parents (Beta = .30, p < .05, OR: 1.14 [1.04 - 1.26]), after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status and gender. While being physically disciplined as a child was inversely related to reports of having had a caring relationship with one’s mother (r = -.25, p < .01), only care and support from one’s father predicted a lower risk of harsh physical discipline by G2s (Beta = -.24, p < .05, OR: .74 [.59 -.92]). None of the SSNR variables moderated the effect of G1 discipline on G2 discipline. A case-level examination of the abusive histories of G2 harsh discipliners found they had in some cases been exposed to physical

  1. Risk and resilience for substance abuse among adolescents and adults with LD.

    PubMed

    Cosden, M

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major problem affecting the health and well-being of many people in our society. Although anecdotal evidence concerning linkages between learning disabilities (LD) and substance abuse has been common, this association is not well documented or understood. This article reviews the current research on substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD, interpreting findings within a risk and resilience framework. Integrating these studies with the broader literatures on substance abuse and the needs of individuals with LD, the author develops hypotheses regarding specific risk and protective factors that could affect the occurrence of substance abuse for adolescents and adults with LD. Potential risk factors include a poor understanding of one's disability, a lack of skills for developing peer relationships, and the need for prolonged family support. Future directions for research in relation to prevention of and intervention regarding substance abuse among individuals with LD are discussed.

  2. A national study on the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Suriname.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Inger W; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L; Graafsma, Tobi L G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence of all forms of child maltreatment in Suriname. One thousand three hundred and ninety-one (1,391) adolescents and young adults of different ethnicities completed a questionnaire about child maltreatment. The study sample, obtained by random probability sampling, consisted of students (ages 12 through 22) from five districts in Suriname. A significant proportion of Surinamese children experienced maltreatment. In total, 86.8% of adolescents and 95.8% of young adults reported having been exposed to at least one form of child maltreatment during their lives. Among the adolescents, 57.1% were exposed to child maltreatment in the past year. When the definition of the National Incidence Study was applied, 58.2% of adolescents and 68.8% of young adults had been exposed to at least one form of maltreatment. Among adolescents, 36.8% reported having experienced at least one form of maltreatment in the past year. The results indicate the (extremely) high lifetime and year prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname. The serious and often lifelong consequences of such maltreatment indicate that a national approach to child abuse and neglect, including the development of a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system and changes to the state's programmatic and policy response, is urgently needed.

  3. The relationship between socio-economic inequalities, intimate partner violence and economic abuse: a national study of women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy; Antai, Justina; Anthony, David Steven

    2014-01-01

    Economic abuse against women has for too long remained a relatively 'unseen' part of interpersonal violence, in spite of intimate partner violence (IPV) being a public health problem. Most studies on economic abuse derive especially from the USA and amongst women in shelters, and their findings are not easily generalisable to low-middle-income countries. Socio-economic inequalities render women vulnerable to control and risk of abuse. We investigated the role of socio-economic inequalities in the association between IPV and economic abuse. Logistic regression analyses were performed on cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of 8478 women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys. Results indicated strong positive associations between both physical IPV and emotional IPV and all four forms of economic abuse. Measures of socio-economic inequalities and other covariates such as no education, primary education, unemployment and justifying wife beating were also statistically significant. Findings suggest the increased need for health care practitioners to include economic abuse during the assessment of and response to IPV, the implementation of a multidimensional approach to providing tangible support and women-centred responses in reported cases of economic abuse, as well as measures that enhance socio-economic equality and increase economic opportunities for women.

  4. A Psychometric Study of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3; Miller & Lazowski, 1999) is a popular screening instrument used to assist professionals in the assessment of individuals who may be substance dependent. Many researchers have reported reliability and validity results on this instrument with mixed results, which at times have contradicted…

  5. A comparative study of attitudes toward child sexual abuse among social work and judicial system professionals.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E J

    1988-01-01

    To meet the needs of mutual clients, perpetrators and victims, social service and judicial system professionals share an obligation to collaborate in cases of child sexual abuse. Unknown is the extent to which individuals in counter professions share common beliefs about perpetrators and victims of child sexual abuse. This paper reports an inquiry into the attitudes of five professional groups within an urban criminal justice system specific to victim credibility, victim culpability, offender culpability, and the crime and punishment of child sexual abuse. As predicted, statistically significant differences in attitudes were found among child welfare social workers, police officers, district attorneys, public defenders, and judges. In particular, groups differed in their beliefs about victim credibility and punishment of offenders, suggesting conflict in addressing two fundamental questions in these cases: (1) Can a child be believed when he or she reports sexual abuse? and (2) How should the system deal with offenders? Both questions beg the continuing attention of all professionals invested in these cases, ultimately benefiting victims and offenders. Both quantitative and qualitative findings are provided in this report.

  6. Improving Session Attendance in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Settings: A Review of Controlled Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefforge, Noelle L.; Donohue, Brad; Strada, Marilyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Patient nonattendance to scheduled sessions results in excessive costs to mental health and substance abuse providers and compromises the care of clients. This paper presents a comprehensive review of interventions that have been shown to increase session attendance rates in these settings. Unique to other review papers, reliability estimates were…

  7. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health.

  8. The Doubles: A Case Study on Developing a Technology-Based Substance Abuse Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joel; Collins, Karen Kadela; Pancella, Thom

    2004-01-01

    The Doubles, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is a seven-episode series of media tools designed to teach third and fourth grade students about the science of drug addiction. The program's curriculum is delivered via a set of videos, interactive CD-ROMs, workbooks, or an Internet site. This article examines the process used to…

  9. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health. PMID:18798442

  10. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  11. Students' Reactions to Manual-Based Treatments for Substance Abuse: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lori; Jacobucci, Raymond; Houston, Hank

    2006-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research design with quantitative and qualitative methodologies was conducted to explore reactions of 21 students to treatment manuals for substance abuse. Students were randomized to experimental (n = 11) and attention-control (n = 10) groups involving exposure to one of two manual-based therapy interventions. Quantitative…

  12. A prospective study of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on nicotine inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Adams, E; Franzon, M; Maguire, M; Guary, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on prescription nicotine inhaler. Design: Prospective telephone and internet interviews for six months. Participants: 535 new inhaler users. Main outcome: Structured interview about off-label use (that is, use of inhaler for non-cessation reasons or concurrent use of inhaler and cigarettes) and Diagnostic and statistical manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and International classification of diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) criteria for abuse and dependence Results: Although many used inhaler and cigarettes concurrently at some time (43–55%), few used inhaler for non-cessation reasons (4–9%) and few persisted in off label use (8–16%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5% to 19%). No participant met ICD-10 criteria for harmful use/abuse (95% CI 0% to 3.3%). Eight subjects (1.4%) appeared to meet DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria for dependence on inhaler, but none were found dependent in a clinical expert interview (95% CI 0% to 3.3%). Conclusions: Although transient concurrent use of inhaler and cigarettes often occurs, use for non-cessation reasons, abuse and dependence are rare. PMID:15735300

  13. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. [The role of conjugal relations in the abuse and neglect of children: towards an ecological study].

    PubMed

    Dubé, J; Provost, M A

    1991-06-01

    The phenomenon of child abuse and neglect has always existed in Western society. Yet, it is only recently that clinicians and researchers have taken a serious look at these problems. This ever growing interest has come about from not only the stunning number of cases identified each year, but also by the extent and gravity of consequences observed among children. Several professionals interested by the issue have put forward a great number of etiological factors to try to explain abuse and neglect within the family unit. However, when assessing the proposed theoretical models (psychiatric/psychological, sociological, systemic), it appears that certain simple factors can play a large role, for instance the history behind parental development, the quality of marital relations, the child-parent relation, the stress and the extent of the social network, but none of these can clearly differentiate abusive families from non abusive families. It seems however that these different explicative factors would be even more valuable if they were considered in interaction rather than taken individually. Inspired by the ecological framework proposed by Bronfenbrenner (1977, 1979), Belsky (1980, 1984) as well as Cicchetti and Rizley (1981) have also developed a model that simultaneously takes into account all of these factors and their interaction.

  15. Improving Fraud and Abuse Detection in General Physician Claims: A Data Mining Study

    PubMed Central

    Joudaki, Hossein; Rashidian, Arash; Minaei-Bidgoli, Behrouz; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Geraili, Bijan; Nasiri, Mahdi; Arab, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the indicators of healthcare fraud and abuse in general physicians’ drug prescription claims, and to identify a subset of general physicians that were more likely to have committed fraud and abuse. Methods: We applied data mining approach to a major health insurance organization dataset of private sector general physicians’ prescription claims. It involved 5 steps: clarifying the nature of the problem and objectives, data preparation, indicator identification and selection, cluster analysis to identify suspect physicians, and discriminant analysis to assess the validity of the clustering approach. Results: Thirteen indicators were developed in total. Over half of the general physicians (54%) were ‘suspects’ of conducting abusive behavior. The results also identified 2% of physicians as suspects of fraud. Discriminant analysis suggested that the indicators demonstrated adequate performance in the detection of physicians who were suspect of perpetrating fraud (98%) and abuse (85%) in a new sample of data. Conclusion: Our data mining approach will help health insurance organizations in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) in streamlining auditing approaches towards the suspect groups rather than routine auditing of all physicians. PMID:26927587

  16. 75 FR 79008 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study of Substance Abuse doc.com Module Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... patients who abuse substances. The overall goal of this project is to assess the efficacy of an educational intervention, which should result in an increase in the involvement of primary care providers in the screening... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF......

  17. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving

  18. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

  19. Prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in veterans with psychiatric diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J

    2013-04-01

    We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤ 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p < 0.0001). More patients with depressive disorders reported sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.

  20. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers’ and fathers’ reports of corporal punishment and children’s reports of their parents’ neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers’ and fathers’ use of corporal punishment and children’s perceptions of their parents’ neglect were predicted by parents’ belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents’ perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents’ progressive parenting attitudes, parents’ endorsement of aggression, parents’ education, children’s externalizing problems, and children’s internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  1. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.

  2. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  3. Length of Time to Resolve Criminal Charges of Child Sexual Abuse: A Three-County Case Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Lippert, Tonya; Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to examine the court culture of three Oregon counties and their timelines for resolving felony child sexual abuse cases. Specifically, we examined (a) case outcomes, churning (i.e., the extent to which four court events were rescheduled), the length of time to reach a criminal case resolution, and how this length of time compared to that for felonies generally; (b) whether mandatory minimum sentences affected resolution timeliness; and (c) key stakeholders' perceptions about their local court culture. Data included retrospective case-file abstraction (N = 532) on all felony child sex crimes for a 2-year period and interviews with legal professionals (N = 23). Across all three counties, a minority of child sexual abuse cases (18% to 47%) were resolved within the target timeframe of 4 months. In contrast, most felonies (65% to 77%) were resolved within this timeframe. The rescheduling of trials and the requirement of mandatory minimum sentences for some felony child sexual abuse crimes increased the time until case resolution. Results suggest that court cultures that are hierarchical and cooperative may lead to longer case resolution times than court cultures that are self-managing or autonomous. Implications of these results and other results are discussed. PMID:26206709

  4. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669

  5. Abuse of war zone detainees: veterans' perceptions of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Holmes, William C; Gariti, Katherine O; Sadeghi, Leila; Joisa, Sowmya D

    2007-02-01

    We assessed detainee abuse acceptance and variables associated with it. Outpatients from a veterans' hospital were administered questionnaires with three increasingly severe scenarios of a U.S. soldier abusing a detainee. Three questionnaire versions differed in the final line of each version's scenarios, describing abuse either as: soldier initiated, superior ordered, or wrong by a "whistleblower" soldier. Three hundred fifty-one veterans participated, 80% with service during the Vietnam War. Zero tolerance for abuse--"completely unacceptable" regardless of who the detainee was--increased with abuse severity (16% for exposure, 31% for humiliation, and 48% for rape of detainee) and with soldier initiation. The strongest, most consistently significant odds were of depressed veterans, veterans with comorbid depression/post-traumatic stress disorder, and men being approximately 2, 3, and 4 to 20 times more tolerant of abuse than those without depression/post-traumatic stress disorder and women, respectively. There may be potential value to using similar scenario-based questionnaires to study active duty military perceptions of detainee abuse. Results may inform prevention policies.

  6. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  7. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. Methods The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. Results We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1%) and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5%) and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%). We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5%) and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%); however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. Conclusion The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously constructed feedback

  8. Moving toward a "third generation" of contingency management studies in the abuse treatment field: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    McLellan, A T

    2001-02-01

    The power of positively reinforced contingency management procedures has been definitively proven in the drug abuse field-even among the most severely affected clients. This study by K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow (2001) and other studies like it have clearly moved the contingency management work out of controlled, contrived settings and into the real world. Suggestions are offered for moving the next generation of studies toward less complicated populations and using more robust reinforcements within the constraints of contemporary financial and administrative boundaries.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  10. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    to be inflicted. For femoral fractures, the probability was between 0.28 (0.15 to 0.44) and 0.43 (0.32 to 0.54), depending on the definition of abuse used, and the developmental stage of the child was an important discriminator. The probability for skull fractures was 0.30 (0.19 to 0.46); the most common fractures in abuse and non-abuse were linear fractures. Insufficient comparative studies were available to allow calculation of a probability of abuse for other fracture types. Conclusion When infants and toddlers present with a fracture in the absence of a confirmed cause, physical abuse should be considered as a potential cause. No fracture, on its own, can distinguish an abusive from a non-abusive cause. During the assessment of individual fractures, the site, fracture type, and developmental stage of the child can help to determine the likelihood of abuse. The number of high quality comparative research studies in this field is limited, and further prospective epidemiology is indicated. PMID:18832412

  11. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  12. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.

  13. [Clinical study of butane gas abuse: in comparison with toluene-based solvent and marihuana].

    PubMed

    Tohhara, S; Tani, N; Nakajima, T; Tsuda, E

    1989-12-01

    We reported 2 cases of patients who abused butane gas, toluene-based solvent and marihuana. They showed different signs in the each substance, respectively. Butane gas was easier to make visual hallucinations and distorted perception of body form, and was less potent and addictive than toluene-based solvent. Spontaneous laughter and the most amotivational state were characterized by marihuana intoxication. Alteration of auditory perception that simple music sounded wonderful was also experienced. Furthermore, the above symptoms were thought to change by the order of taking the substance. Therefore, it is needed to examine the order of the use of drugs and clarify differences of symptoms in abuse among drugs, respectively. PMID:2627172

  14. Violence Against Women in Mexico: A Study of Abuse Before and During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Ruiz, Agustin

    2003-01-01

    Objective. We identified the prevalence and types of violence experienced by pregnant women, the ways victimization changed during pregnancy from the year prior to pregnancy, and factors associated with violence during pregnancy. Methods. We interviewed 914 pregnant women treated in health clinics in Mexico about violence during and prior to pregnancy, violence during childhood and against their own children, and other socioeconomic indicators. Results. Approximately one quarter of the women experienced violence during pregnancy. The severity of emotional violence increased during pregnancy, whereas physical and sexual violence decreased. The strongest predictors of abuse were violence prior to pregnancy, low socioeconomic status, parental violence witnessed by women in childhood, and violence in the abusive partner’s childhood. The probability of violence during pregnancy for women experiencing all of these factors was 61%. Conclusions. Violence is common among pregnant women, but pregnancy does not appear to be an initiating factor. Intergenerational violence is highly predictive of violence during pregnancy. PMID:12835194

  15. Assessment of the abuse potential of MDMA in the conditioned place preference paradigm: role of CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Valverde, Olga; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2013-12-01

    Numerous reports have highlighted the role of the endocannabinoid system in the addictive potential of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine). A previous report showed that CB1 knockout (KOCB1) mice do not acquire MDMA self-administration, despite developing conditioned place preference (CPP). This contradiction could be due to the particular procedure of place conditioning used. The present work compares MDMA-induced CPP in KOCB1 mice using unbiased and biased procedures of place conditioning. In the unbiased procedure, MDMA induced CPP and reinstatement of the extinguished preference in wild type (WT) mice, but not in KOCB1 mice. In contrast, in a biased protocol of CPP, MDMA produced preference in both types of mice. The anxiolytic response induced by MDMA in the elevated plus maze (EPM) was observed only in KOCB1 mice and may have been responsible, at least partially, for the CPP in the biased procedure. A neurochemical analysis revealed that KOCB1 mice presented higher striatal DA and DOPAC levels in response to MDMA, but no alterations in their levels of monoamine transporters. In line with previous self-administration studies, our data suggest that CB1 receptors play an important role in the reinforcing effects of MDMA, and that the experimental procedure of CPP employed should be taken into account when drawing conclusions. PMID:23959085

  16. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

  17. Parents who abuse: what are they thinking?

    PubMed

    Seng, Alexandra C; Prinz, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered cognitions as potentially critical correlates of abusive behavior. The development of dysfunctional cognitions is also explored. Cognitive vulnerabilities alone are typically not sufficient for the occurrence of abuse. Interactions with additional factors, such as an ability to inhibit aggression, problem-solving capabilities, parenting skills, social isolation, and societal context are examined. PMID:18548348

  18. A pilot study of low-cost contingency management to increase attendance in an adolescent substance abuse program.

    PubMed

    Branson, Christopher E; Barbuti, Anna Maria; Clemmey, Philip; Herman, Lisa; Bhutia, Phintso

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for improving patient outcomes, yet it is rarely used in treatment settings due to the high cost of implementation. This quasi-experimental study (N = 52) examined the effect of a low-cost "Fishbowl" CM intervention on attendance/retention in an early intervention adolescent substance abuse program. The CM group attended significantly more sessions compared to the control group. Furthermore, the CM intervention costs $3.27 per patient per session. Our findings support the use of low-cost CM to improve adolescent attendance in clinical settings.

  19. Sibling Maltreatment: The Forgotten Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Morrill-Richards, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the study of family violence in the past 30 years. However, sibling abuse and its prevalence in the family have largely been overlooked. In this article, the major issues associated with sibling maltreatment are highlighted, and strategies for helping the victims and perpetrators of sibling abuse and their families…

  20. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  1. Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. PMID:27380625

  2. The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: a community study.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; Romans, S E; Herbison, G P

    1996-01-01

    The associations between giving a history of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in children and a range of mental health, interpersonal, and sexual problems in adult life were examined in a community sample of women. Abuse was defined to establish groups giving histories of unequivocal victimization. A history of any form of abuse was associated with increased rates of psychopathology, sexual difficulties, decreased self-esteem, and interpersonal problems. The similarities between the three forms of abuse in terms of their association with negative adult outcomes was more apparent than any differences, though there was a trend for sexual abuse to be particularly associated to sexual problems, emotional abuse to low self-esteem, and physical abuse to marital breakdown. Abuse of all types was more frequent in those from disturbed and disrupted family backgrounds. The background factors associated with reports of abuse were themselves often associated to the same range of negative adult outcomes as for abuse. Logistic regressions indicated that some, though not all, of the apparent associations between abuse and adult problems was accounted for by this matrix of childhood disadvantage from which abuse so often emerged.

  3. The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: a community study.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; Romans, S E; Herbison, G P

    1996-01-01

    The associations between giving a history of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in children and a range of mental health, interpersonal, and sexual problems in adult life were examined in a community sample of women. Abuse was defined to establish groups giving histories of unequivocal victimization. A history of any form of abuse was associated with increased rates of psychopathology, sexual difficulties, decreased self-esteem, and interpersonal problems. The similarities between the three forms of abuse in terms of their association with negative adult outcomes was more apparent than any differences, though there was a trend for sexual abuse to be particularly associated to sexual problems, emotional abuse to low self-esteem, and physical abuse to marital breakdown. Abuse of all types was more frequent in those from disturbed and disrupted family backgrounds. The background factors associated with reports of abuse were themselves often associated to the same range of negative adult outcomes as for abuse. Logistic regressions indicated that some, though not all, of the apparent associations between abuse and adult problems was accounted for by this matrix of childhood disadvantage from which abuse so often emerged. PMID:8640429

  4. Changing Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Substance Abusers through the Use of an Abstinence Assignment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Wanda M.; Squires, Stuart P.

    2005-01-01

    Per se, increased knowledge about substance abuse has not been effective in altering social workers' negative attitudes towards substance abusers or their failure to recognize or address substance abuse problems among clients. In this paper, we describe an experiential abstinence assignment integrated with the content of an elective substance…

  5. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  6. Child abuse and aggression among seriously emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa A; Connor, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be classified as reactively aggressive than boys with no physical abuse history. Proactive aggression was unrelated to physical or sexual abuse history. The association of physical abuse and reactive aggression warrants further scientific study and attention in clinical assessment and treatment with seriously emotionally disturbed children.

  7. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  8. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH

  9. Self-reported physical and emotional abuse among youth offenders and their association with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Teresa C; Graña, José Luis; González-Cieza, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was twofold. First, the severity of physical and emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and its association with internalizing and externalizing problems were explored in a sample of 104 male and female youth offenders. Second, we tested the moderate effect of callous-unemotional traits on the relation between physical and emotional victimization and internalizing and externalizing problems in boys. The analyses revealed that a high percentage of youth offenders reported having been physically abused. More severe physical abuse was not related to higher levels of internalizing or externalizing problems. Young offenders' emotional abuse levels were low; however, this type of abuse was positively associated with externalizing problems among boys, regardless of the level of callous-unemotional traits. Thus, we suggest that youth offenders must be assessed using measures of physical and emotional abuse, and their case management should integrate specific programs to focus on the family environment to which the adolescents will most likely return after their sentence. PMID:23378520

  10. Attitudes of Jordanian Society toward Wife Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Btoush, Rula; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study among a convenience sample of 260 Jordanian men and women, using self-administered open and closed questions to examine the participants' approach toward wife abuse. In general, there was high awareness of wife abuse and the different types of abuse (mainly physical and psychological), a general tendency…

  11. A multicenter, primary care-based, open-label study to identify behaviors related to prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion in opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain

    PubMed Central

    Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Pixton, Glenn C; Berke, Robert; Calkins, Anne; Goli, Veeraindar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion with patient self-reports of these activities in a population with chronic pain. Methods As a secondary objective of an open-label, multicenter, primary care-based clinical study to evaluate the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic pain to morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride, risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion was assessed using two nonvalidated questionnaires: one was completed by the investigator and another by the patient (Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion [SR-MAD]). In addition, the validated Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) test and urine drug test were used. Results Of the 684 patients assessed by the investigators, 537 returned the self-assessment, SR-MAD. Most patients were assigned by the investigator as low risk for misuse (84.2%), abuse (89.3%), and diversion (94.3%). Of the patients who returned SR-MAD, 60% indicated having taken more opioids than prescribed and 10.9% reported chewing or crushing their opioids in the past. Of the patients who completed COMM, 40.6% were deemed as having aberrant behaviors. COMM results correlated with the risk levels from the investigator assessment. One-third of patients (33.8%) had at least one abnormal urine drug test result. Conclusion More research is needed to better understand the gap between the investigator assessment of potential risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion and the actual extent of these behaviors among patients with chronic pain. PMID:26185467

  12. A multi-site, randomized study of strengths-based case management with substance-abusing parolees.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Michael; Frisman, Linda; Sacks, Joann Y; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Greenwell, Lisa; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Cartier, Jerry

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test whether strengths-based case management provided during an inmate's transition from incarceration to the community increases participation in community substance abuse treatment, enhances access to needed social services, and improves drug use, crime, and HIV risk outcomes. METHODS: In a multi-site trial, inmates (men and women) in four states (n = 812) were randomly assigned (within site) to receive either Transitional Case Management (TCM group), based on strengths-based principles, or standard parole services (SR group). Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 9 months following release from prison. Analyses compared the two groups with respect to services received and to drug use, crime, and HIV risk behavior outcomes. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between parolees in the TCM group and the SR group on outcomes related to participation in drug abuse treatment, receipt of social services, or drug use, crime, and HIV risk behaviors. For specific services (e.g., residential treatment, mental health), although significant differences were found for length of participation or for number of visits, the number of participants in these services was small and the direction of effect was not consistent. CONCLUSION: In contrast to positive findings in earlier studies of strengths-based case management with mental-health and drug-abuse clients, this study found that case management did not improve treatment participation or behavioral outcomes for parolees with drug problems. The discussion includes possible reasons for the findings and suggestions for modifications to the intervention that could be addressed in future research.

  13. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  14. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse. PMID:18207099

  15. Substance abuse by men in partner abuse intervention programs: current issues and promising trends.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Larry W

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses key studies linking intervention for co-occurring substance abuse and partner abuse. Findings are grouped into three areas: (a) the effect of addictions treatment on partner violence; (b) application of transtheoretical, motivational, and culturally focused approaches to improve engagement and prevent attrition; and (c) assessment-based matching of services. Finally, the relative value of serial, coordinated, and integrated substance abuse programs and partner abuse intervention programs are considered. We reached three primary conclusions: (a) Addiction treatment alone reduces the risk for future domestic violence in a subset of men who batter, (b) screening and assessment for substance abuse by all men in partner abuse intervention programs is a standard of practice but needs to extend beyond "intake" and occur periodically, and (c) coordinated and integrated substance abuse and domestic violence programs probably offer more safety than traditional serial substance abuse treatment followed by partner abuse intervention.

  16. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  17. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  18. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424

  19. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  20. What factors determine Belgian general practitioners’ approaches to detecting and managing substance abuse? A qualitative study based on the I-Change Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) are considered to play a major role in detecting and managing substance abuse. However, little is known about how or why they decide to manage it. This study investigated the factors that influence GP behaviours with regard to the abuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics, and tranquilisers among working Belgians. Methods Twenty Belgian GPs were interviewed. De Vries’ Integrated Change Model was used to guide the interviews and qualitative data analyses. Results GPs perceived higher levels of substance abuse in urban locations and among lower socioeconomic groups. Guidelines, if they existed, were primarily used in Flanders. Specific training was unevenly applied but considered useful. GPs who accepted abuse management cited strong interpersonal skills and available multidisciplinary networks as facilitators. GPs relied on their clinical common sense to detect abuse or initiate management. Specific patients’ situations and their social, psychological, or professional dysfunctions were cited as cues to action. GPs were strongly influenced by their personal representations of abuse, which included the balance between their professional responsibilities toward their patients and the patients’ responsibilities in managing their own health as well the GPs’ abilities to cope with unsatisfying patient outcomes without reaching professional exhaustion. GPs perceived substance abuse along a continuum ranging from a chronic disease (whose management was part of their responsibility) to a moral failing of untrustworthy people. Alcohol and cannabis were more socially acceptable than other drugs. Personal experiences of emotional burdens (including those regarding substance abuse) increased feelings of empathy or rejection toward patients. Multidisciplinary practices and professional experiences were cited as important factors with regard to engaging GPs in substance abuse management. Time constraints and personal investments were

  1. When the struggle against dejection becomes a part of everyday life: a qualitative study of coping strategies in older abused people

    PubMed Central

    Sandmoe, Astrid; Hauge, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life. Methods A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Results Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience. Conclusion Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience. PMID:25045272

  2. Stimulant Use as Correlate of Abusive Behavior among Nigerian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbochuku, E. O.; Akerele, J. O.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulant use and abusive behaviour have been associated with the phenomenon of "out of control" tendency with the potential for self-destruction. This study presents a report on frequency of use by Nigerian undergraduates of five stimulants: amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine, cola-nut and tobacco. The population of the study was made up of all the…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  4. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    PubMed

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance.

  5. Food scarcity, neuroadaptations, and the pathogenic potential of dieting in an unnatural ecology: binge eating and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Carr, Kenneth D

    2011-07-25

    In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food restriction is self-imposed in an ecology of abundant appetitive rewards. For example, episodes of loss of control during weight-loss dieting, use of drugs with addictive potential as diet aids, and alternating fasting with alcohol consumption in order to avoid weight gain, may induce synaptic plasticity that increases the risk of enduring maladaptive reward-directed behavior. In the present mini-review, representative basic research findings are outlined which indicate that food restriction alters the function of mesoaccumbens dopamine neurons, potentiates cellular and behavioral responses to D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptor stimulation, and increases stimulus-induced synaptic insertion of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens. Possible mechanistic underpinnings of increased drug reward magnitude, drug-seeking, and binge intake of sucrose in food-restricted animal subjects are discussed and possible implications for human weight-loss dieting are considered.

  6. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  7. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  9. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  10. Ecological Predictors of Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential in a Hispanic and Anglo-American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent attention to multicultural issues has sparked recognition that parenting is also a culturally construed phenomenon. The present study involved a diverse sample of 90 Anglo-American and Hispanic parents examining predictors based on distal/proximal levels as conceptualized in the ecological model. The study examined background…

  11. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.

  12. The abuse of dextromethorphan-based cough syrup: a pilot study of the community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Darboe, M N; Keenan, G R; Richards, T K

    1996-01-01

    Drug abuse has been a national social problem in the United States for decades and is often complicated by the emergence of new types of abused drugs or new forms of abuse. In the late 1980s, the community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania began to detect behavior among its teenagers that suggested a new form of drug abuse and thus a new social problem. The drug was dextromethorphan, used in cough syrup-principally Robitussin DM. The form of abuse is often referred to as "roboing" or "robo-copping." This paper presents the results of the first phase of a comprehensive investigation of this phenomenon in the Waynesboro school district. Data from a survey of school personnel indicate that abuse of cough syrup (Robitussin or other brands) has increased over the years and is increasingly perceived as a problem by the community.

  13. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease. PMID:27561118

  14. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  15. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  16. Emotion Dysregulation and Affective Intensity Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Suicide-Related Behaviors Among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kathryn H; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Dhankikar, Swati; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Kwan, Mun Yee; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm and suicide attempts occur at elevated rates among individuals with bulimia nervosa, particularly among those who have experienced childhood abuse. This study investigated the potential mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and affective intensity in the relationship between these variables in 125 women with bulimia nervosa. Analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between sexual and emotional abuse with both self-harm and suicide attempts. Negative affective intensity mediated the relationship between abuse and suicide attempts. The findings may advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying suicide-related behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa who experienced abuse and suggest potential clinical targets.

  17. Examination of genetic variation in GABRA2 with conduct disorder and alcohol abuse and dependence in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Melroy, Whitney E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Kamens, Helen M.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hewitt, John K.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown associations between SNPs in GABRA2 and adolescent conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol dependence in adulthood, but not adolescent alcohol dependence. The present study was intended as a replication and extension of this work, focusing on adolescent CD, adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD), and adult AAD. Family based association tests were run using Hispanics and non-Hispanic European American subjects from two independent longitudinal samples. Although the analysis provided nominal support for an association with rs9291283 and AAD in adulthood and CD in adolescence, the current study failed to replicate previous associations between two well replicated GABRA2 NPs and CD and alcohol dependence. Overall, these results emphasize the utility of including an independent replication sample in the study design, so that the results from an individual sample can be weighted in the context of its reproducibility. PMID:24687270

  18. Determining the clinically important difference in visual analog scale scores in abuse liability studies evaluating novel opioid formulations

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Thomas A.; Comer, Sandra D.; Revicki, Dennis A.; van Inwegen, Richard G.; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study determined how the magnitude of change in positive subjective responses predicts clinical outcome in a treatment setting. Specifically, we attempted to define what constitutes a clinically important difference (CID) in subjective responses. Methods A 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) measured subjective ratings of drug “high,” calculated via an anchor-based method with published data from participants receiving sustained-release naltrexone (NTX) and heroin in a laboratory setting. The data were then compared to clinical outcomes in a treatment trial with sustained-release naltrexone. A distribution-based method subsequently analyzed data from participants who received ALO-01 (extended-release morphine with sequestered NTX) to predict its abuse liability. Results Differences in ratings of drug high of approximately 10 mm on a 100-mm line were clinically significant. By extrapolation, CIDs were also found between crushed or intact ALO-01 and immediate-release morphine sulfate (IRMS). No CIDs were found between intact and crushed ALO-01. Conclusions From laboratory and treatment trial data involving naltrexone, calculation of CIDs in subjective ratings of high is possible. Consequently, crushing/swallowing or injecting ALO-01 produces clinically significantly less drug high than oral or intravenous morphine alone, suggesting that ALO-01 has lower abuse liability by those routes than morphine formulations. PMID:21964915

  19. Opium and opioid abuse in orthopedic inpatients: a cross sectional study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Asadzadeh, Mina; Kargar, Hakimeh; Aghdashi, Mir Mosa; Mirzatolooei, Fardin

    2012-01-01

    During a cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to the orthopedic department of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences were asked about opium/opioid abuse. Demographic characteristics, the pattern of consumption, the substance, the duration of the use, the duration of hospital stay and the cause of their injuries were recorded. Among 2,867 patients, 74 (2.5%) patients (71 men and 3 women) with the mean age of 38 were opium/opioid users. Most of the patients used opium through inhalation. The mean duration of the substance use was 7.4 years. The mean duration of hospital stay between the regular orthopedic patients and the opium/opioid abuser orthopedic patients was statistically significant. (P=000). Among four Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients, three subjects were injection users and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also infected two of them. Road traffic accidents (37.8%), and work related injuries (17.5%) were the two most common reasons for the patient's injuries.

  20. Cue reactivity in smokers: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson and Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N = 21) and non-smokers (N = 21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers' evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  1. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  2. Does Having Children Moderate the Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Depression?

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; DeRaedt, Mary R; Lanthier, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 20 boys under the age of 18 will be the victim of child sexual abuse. As adults, these individuals are more likely to report myriad mental illnesses including depression. Testing the hypothesis that having children would moderate the depressive effects of child sexual abuse, the authors used public-use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave IV (n = 5,114; mean age = 29.00 years; SD = 1.78). Results indicate that having children significantly moderates the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression for females. Though the risk of depression is increased for all females with a child sexual abuse history, this increase is less dramatic for mothers. Two potential explanations of this effect are presented: biological and psychosocial. The possible implications for mental health professionals working with mothers with a child sexual abuse history include highlighting the role of their children as possible support. PMID:26340070

  3. Comparative study of silicon empirical interatomic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamane, H.; Halicioglu, T.; Tiller, W. A.

    1992-07-01

    We have performed a comparative study of six classical many-body potentials for silicon (Pearson, Takai, Halicioglu, and Tiller; Biswas and Hamann; Stillinger and Weber; Dodson, Tersoff 2, and Tersoff 3). Extensive static calculations have been performed using these potentials on Sin clusters (n=2-6), bulk point defects, elastic constants, polytypes, pressure-induced phase transformations, and surfaces [(111), (100), and (110)]. Similarities and differences between the six potentials have been identified, and their transferability as well as their accuracy with respect to experiment and first-principles methods have been assessed. In general, all of these potentials do a relatively poor job of modeling the energetics of small clusters as well as the various reconstructions of the Si(111) surface. They provide a fair to good description of the properties of bulk diamond cubic silicon, its intrinsic defects, and the Si(100) surface. Besides the fact that none of them models π bonding, their inability to be more transferable lies in their inadequate description of the angular forces. Each potential has its strengths and limitations, but none of them appears to be clearly superior to the others, and none is totally transferrable. However, despite their shortcomings we feel that some of these potentials will be useful in large-scale simulations of materials-related problems. They can give valuable insights into phenomena that are otherwise intractable to investigate either experimentally or via first-principles methods.

  4. Stress, substance abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Duffing, Tiffany M; Greiner, Stefanie G; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing stressful life events is reciprocally associated with substance use and abuse. The nature of these relationships varies based on the age of stress exposure and stage of substance use involvement. This chapter reviews the developmental and biological processes involved in the relationship of stress exposure and substance use initiation, substance use maintenance and relapse, and response to substance abuse treatment. Special emphasis is given to describing the various stress-related mechanisms involved in substance use and abuse, highlighting the differences between each of these phases of drug use and drawing upon current research to make suggestions for treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Stress is inherent to the experience of life and, in many situations, unavoidable. Through ongoing research and treatment development, there is the potential to modify the relationship of stress with ongoing substance use and abuse. PMID:24510301

  5. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents.

  6. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents. PMID:11981294

  7. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  8. [Child abuse in the family].

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  9. A study of multiple behavioral addictions in a substance abuse sample.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa; Lung, John; Froias, Autumn; Paull, Nancy; Bailey, Genie

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral addictions (BAs) are underrecognized, even in addiction programs. We assessed BAs in a substance abuse sample (n = 51; data collection 2011-2012). A self-report Behavioral Addictions Screen, assessing eight BAs, was administered using an automated telephone system. Most endorsed at least one BA, with the most common shopping/spending; eating; work; computer/internet; and sex/pornography. Lowest were gambling, self-harm, and exercise. Some BAs were correlated with others. Gender, ethnicity, age, and positive depression and posttraumatic stress disorder screens were associated with specific BAs. Future research could address interpretation of "addiction," comparison to diagnostic interviews, relationship to substance use disorders, and larger samples. PMID:24304172

  10. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  11. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  12. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother-fetus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be modulated by a number of cofactors, including drugs of abuse. Opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, methamphetamine (METH), alcohol, and other substances of abuse have been implicated as risk factors for HIV infection, as they all have the potential to compromise host immunity and facilitate viral replication. Although epidemiologic evidence regarding the impact of drugs of abuse on HIV disease progression is mixed, in vitro studies as well as studies using in vivo animal models have indicated that drugs of abuse have the ability to enhance HIV infection/replication. Drugs of abuse may also be a risk factor for perinatal transmission of HIV. Because high levels of viral load in maternal blood are associated with increased risk of HIV vertical transmission, it is likely that drugs of abuse play an important role in promoting mother-fetus transmission. Furthermore, because the neonatal immune system differs qualitatively from the adult system, it is possible that maternal exposure to drugs of abuse would exacerbate neonatal immunity defects, facilitating HIV infection of neonate immune cells and promoting HIV vertical transmission. The availability and use of antiretroviral therapy for women infected with HIV increase, there is an increasing interest in determining the impact of drug abuse on efficacy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) -standardized treatment regimens for woman infected with HIV in the context of HIV vertical transmission. PMID:21056582

  13. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  14. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  15. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  16. Within-family environmental transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish national study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Drug abuse (DA) strongly runs in families. Does this result solely from genetic factors or does the family environment contribute? OBJECTIVE To determine the familial environmental contribution to the risk for DA. DESIGN Follow-up in 9 public databases (1961-2009) in siblings and spouses. SETTING Sweden. PARTICIPANTS A total of 137 199 sibling pairs and 7561 spousal pairs containing a proband with DA and matched control probands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. RESULTS In the best-fit model, which contained significant linear, quadratic, and cubic effects, among full sibling pairs containing a proband with DA, the relative risk for DA in the sibling declined from more than 6.0 for siblings born within 2 years of each other to less than 4.5 when born 10 years apart. Controlling for age differences in full sibling pairs, the hazard rate for DA in a sibling when the affected proband was older vs younger was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.31-1.54). In the best-fit model, which contained significant linear, quadratic, and cubic effects, among spousal pairs containing a proband with DA, the relative risk for DA in the spouse declined from more than 25.0 within 1 year of proband DA registration to 6.0 after 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Controlling for genetic effects by examining only full siblings, sibling resemblance for the risk for DA was significantly greater in pairs closer vs more distant in age. Older siblings more strongly transmitted the risk for DA to their younger siblings than vice versa. After one spouse is registered for DA, the other spouse has a large short-lived increase in DA risk. These results support strong familial environmental influences on DA at various life stages. A complete understanding of the familial transmission of DA will require knowledge of how genetic and familial environmental risk factors act and interact over development.

  17. Contemporaneous relationship between substance abuse treatment and poly-substance use: evidence from the Persistent Effect of Treatment Studies.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Kawata, Jennifer H; Campbell, Bernadette; Tseng, Ching-Wei Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Data from the Persistent Effect of Treatment Studies (PETS) are used to explore the relationship between duration of substance use treatment and simultaneous poly-substance using behaviors. Studying such contemporaneous relationships is especially important given the chronic nature of the substance-using population (McLellan, 2002) in the PETS study. Data were collected at intake to treatment programs and follow-up interviews were performed periodically at treatment program sites. One of the features of the analysis was the development of a poly-substance scale to measure multiple substance use. Multilevel models were implemented to examine the relationship between three levels of care (i.e., intensive outpatient, outpatient, and residential) and simultaneous poly-substance use. Contemporaneous effects of treatment were obtained such that higher duration of treatment was associated with drops in substance-using behaviors. This result supports the need for sustaining treatment for a population of chronic substance abusers. PMID:15797642

  18. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  19. Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the age when drug use begins. Many cultural factors affect drug abuse trends. Research has shown that addiction often begins in childhood or adolescence. NIH-funded studies have found that prevention programs targeting this time ...

  20. Childhood Abuse and Early Menarche among Peruvian Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Nicolaidis, Christina; Garcia, Pedro J.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood abuse has been associated with age of menarche in some studies, but not all, and few have assessed the independent associations of sexual and physical abuse with early menarche. We examined the association between childhood abuse and early menarche among pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Methods Multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early menarche (≤11 years) in relation to any physical or sexual childhood abuse, physical abuse only, sexual abuse only and both physical and sexual abuse in a cohort of 1,499 pregnant (first trimester) women. Results Approximately 69% of participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The frequencies of physical abuse only, sexual abuse only and both physical and sexual abuse were 37.4%, 7.7% and 24.5%, respectively. Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported any childhood abuse had a 1.38-fold increased odds of early menarche (95% CI: 1.01–1.87). Compared to no abuse, the odds of early menarche was 1.60-fold among women with childhood sexual abuse only (OR=1.60; 95% CI 0.93–2.74) and 1.56-fold for those with both physical and sexual abuse (OR=1.56; 95% CI 1.07–2.25) during childhood. Isolated physical abuse was weakly associated with early menarche (OR=1.23; 95% CI 0.87–1.74). There was no clear evidence of association of childhood abuse with late menarche (≥15 years). Conclusion Childhood abuse, particularly joint physical and sexual abuse, is associated with early menarche. Our findings add to an expanding body of studies documenting the enduring adverse health consequences of childhood abuse. PMID:25620302

  1. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  2. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  3. Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

  4. Understanding cycles of abuse: A multimotive approach.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lauren S; Hurst, Charlice; Kelley, Ken; Judge, Timothy A

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental to the definition of abusive supervision is the notion that subordinates are often victims of a pattern of mistreatment (Tepper, 2000). However, little research has examined the processes through which such destructive relational patterns emerge. In this study, we draw from and extend the multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal threat (Smart Richman & Leary, 2009) to formulate and test hypotheses about how employees' emotional and behavioral responses may ameliorate or worsen supervisors' abuse. To test this model, we collected 6 waves of data from a sample of 244 employees. Results revealed reciprocal relationships between abusive supervision and both supervisor-directed counterproductive behavior and supervisor-directed avoidance. Whereas the abusive supervision--counterproductive behavior relationship was partially driven by anger, the abusive supervision--avoidance relationship was partially mediated by fear. These findings suggest that some may find themselves in abusive relationships, in part, because their own reactions to mistreatment can, perhaps unknowingly, reinforce abusive behavior.

  5. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  6. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  8. Childhood sexual abuse and syringe sharing among people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William; Ti, Lianping; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the impact of sexual abuse on HIV risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (IDU) has not been thoroughly characterized. We therefore sought to identify whether childhood sexual abuse was associated with syringe sharing among a sample of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. We assessed sexual abuse among two cohorts of IDUs via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and syringe sharing. In total, 1380 IDU were included in the study, and 426 (30.9%) IDU reported childhood sexual abuse. Syringe sharing (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.28–2.60) remained independently associated with childhood sexual abuse after adjustment for potential confounders. Given that a history of childhood sexual abuse appears to be elevated among IDU who engage in HIV risk behaviors (i.e., syringe sharing), HIV prevention efforts should include efforts to address historical trauma in this population. PMID:25428283

  9. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  10. Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.

  11. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and pharmacodynamics of 2nd generation dopamine transporter selective benztropine analogs developed as potential substitute therapeutics for treatment of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq A; Newman, Amy H; Othman, Ahmed A; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-05-01

    A second generation of N-substituted 3alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropanes (GA 1-69, JHW 005 and JHW 013) binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and are highly selective toward DAT compared to muscarinic receptor binding (M1). The objective of this study was to characterize brain distribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics [extracellular brain dopamine (DA) levels] of three novel N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BZT analogs displayed a higher distribution (Vd = 8.69-34.3 vs. 0.9 L/kg) along with longer elimination (t l/2: 4.1-5.4 vs. 0.5 h) than previously reported for cocaine. Brain-to-plasma partition coefficients were 1.3-2.5 vs. 2.1 for cocaine. The effect of the BZT analogs on extracellular brain (DA) levels ranged from minimal effects (GA 1-69) to several fold elevation (approximately 850% of basal DA for JHW 013) at the highest dose evaluated. PK/PD analysis of exposure-response data resulted in lower IC50 values for the BZT analogs compared to cocaine indicating their higher potency to inhibit DA reuptake (0.1-0.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L). These BZT analogs possess significantly different PK and PD profiles as compared to cocaine suggesting that further evaluation as cocaine abuse therapeutics is warranted.

  13. The Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup: A Pilot Study of the Community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momodou, N. Darboe; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new type of abused drug, dextromethorphan, which is used in cough syrup. Presents the results of the first phase of a comprehensive investigation of this phenomenon in the Waynesboro, Pa. school district. Survey data indicate abuse of cough syrup has increased over the years and is increasingly perceived as a problem…

  14. Identifying and Evaluating Teachers' Knowledge in Relation to Child Abuse and Neglect: A Qualitative Study with Australian Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…

  15. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  16. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at Me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; Chalela, P

    1999-01-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican-American youth aged 9-13 years. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-min videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers.

  17. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; McAlister, A; Chalela, P

    1997-10-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican American youth 9 to 13 years of age. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-minute videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers.

  18. The Nature, Extent and Causes of Abuse of Children with Disabilities in Schools in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumba, Almon; Abosi, Okey C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the exact number of children with disabilities in Botswana is unknown. A study on child abuse sought to determine: the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of children with disabilities. A questionnaire on child abuse was adapted and used to…

  19. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco

    2006-08-01

    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  20. Differentiating physical discipline from abuse: Q findings from Chinese American mothers and pediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Grace W K; Gross, Deborah A

    2015-05-01

    The perception and use of physical discipline (PD) is culture-based, and the differentiation between PD and abuse is subjective and complex. The purpose of this study was to understand how Chinese American mothers and one group of mandated reporters of child abuse (i.e. pediatric nurses) differentiate PD from abuse. Using Q-methodology, 3 viewpoints on PD and abuse differentiation were uncovered from a sample of 35 Chinese American mothers and 48 pediatric nurses. Although there was wide consensus on the most acceptable and most unacceptable parent discipline behaviors across the 3 views, the acceptability of punishments differed by their potential to inflict injury, pain, or incite fear and uncertainty. This was the first study to examine PD and abuse differentiation based on 5 definable domains of PD (i.e. specific behavior, intention, delivery, outcome, and pattern of use). Findings point to important nuances in how some mothers and nurses differentiate abuse from acceptable discipline, and the potential for using Q-methodology for exploring PD and abuse differentiations across diverse cultural, social, and professional groups.