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Sample records for abuse potential studies

  1. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  2. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  3. Visual Evoked Potential Response Among Drug Abusers- A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajeev; Thapar, Satish; Mittal, Shilekh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is important preclinical evidence that substance abuse may produce neurophysiological disturbances particularly in relation to altered neural synchronization in Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP). Aim The purpose of current study was to compare the latencies and amplitudes of different waveforms of VEP among different drug abusers and controls and also to identify early neurological damage so that proper counseling and timely intervention can be undertaken. Materials and Methods VEP was assessed by Data Acquisition and Analysis system in a sample of 58 drug abusers, all males, within age group of 15-45 years as well as in age matched 30 healthy controls. The peak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes of different waveforms were measured by applying one-way Anova test and unpaired t-test using SPSS version 16. Results In between drug abusers and controls, the difference in the duration of N75 and P100 waveform of VEP was found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.001) in both the eyes. Also the amplitude of wave P100 was found to be decreased among drug abusers in both eyes. Conclusion Chronic intoxication by different drugs has been extensively associated with amplitude reduction of P100 and prolonged latency of N75 and P100 reflecting an adverse effects of drug dependence on neural transmission within primary visual areas of brain. PMID:27042456

  4. Moderating effects of physical abuse and perceived social support on the potential to abuse.

    PubMed

    Litty, C G; Kowalski, R; Minor, S

    1996-04-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of perceived prepubertal social support on the relationship between prepubertal childhood physical abuse and child abuse potential as well as on the relationship between a childhood history of abuse and conflict and depth in adult relationships. Three hundred and sixty-nine undergraduate men and women were classified as abused or nonabused based on their responses to the Childhood History Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed interactions of social support and a childhood history of physical abuse on both the potential to abuse and the quality of participants' relationships with their parents. Differences between abused and nonabused individuals were obtained only under conditions of low perceived social support. When social support was perceived to be high, abused and nonabused individuals did not differ in the potential to abuse or in the ratings of the depth of their relationships with parents. Implications of these findings for the intergenerational transmission of abuse are discussed. PMID:8730766

  5. Assessment of the Abuse Potential of the Orexin Receptor Antagonist, Suvorexant, Compared With Zolpidem in a Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Schoedel, Kerri A; Sun, Hong; Sellers, Edward M; Faulknor, Janice; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Li, Xiaodong; Kennedy, William P; Cha, Jang-Ho; Lewis, Nicole M; Liu, Wen; Bondiskey, Phung; McCrea, Jacqueline B; Panebianco, Deborah L; Troyer, Matthew D; Wagner, John A

    2016-08-01

    Suvorexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved in the United States and Japan for the treatment of insomnia at a maximum dose of 20 mg. This randomized double-blind crossover study evaluated the abuse potential of suvorexant in 36 healthy recreational polydrug users with a history of sedative and psychedelic drug use. Single doses of suvorexant (40, 80, and 150 mg: 2-7.5 × maximum dose), zolpidem (15 and 30 mg: 1.5-3 × maximum dose), and placebo were administered, with a 10-day washout between treatments. Subjective and objective measures, including visual analog scales (VASs), Addiction Research Center Inventory, and cognitive/psychomotor tests, were evaluated for 24-hour postdose. Suvorexant had significantly greater peak effects on "drug liking" VAS (primary endpoint) than placebo. Although effects of suvorexant on abuse potential measures were generally similar to zolpidem, they remained constant across doses, whereas zolpidem often had greater effects at higher doses. Suvorexant (all doses) had significantly fewer effects than zolpidem 30 mg on secondary measures, such as "high" VAS, Bowdle VAS, and Addiction Research Center Inventory morphine-benzedrine group. The overall incidence of abuse-related adverse events, such as euphoric mood and hallucination, was numerically lower with suvorexant than zolpidem. In agreement with its classification as a schedule IV drug, suvorexant demonstrated abuse potential, compared with placebo. The abuse potential was similar to zolpidem using certain measures, but with a reduced incidence of abuse-related adverse events. Although this suggests that the overall abuse liability of suvorexant may be lower than zolpidem, the actual abuse rates will be assessed with the postmarketing experience. PMID:27253658

  6. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed. PMID:25772048

  7. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330

  8. Exercise as a Potential Treatment for Drug Abuse: Evidence from Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs. Until recently, very few studies had examined the causal influences that mediate this relationship, and it was not clear whether exercise was effective at reducing substance use and abuse. In the past few years, several preclinical studies have revealed that exercise reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. These studies have revealed that exercise produces protective effects in procedures designed to model different transitional phases that occur during the development of, and recover from, a substance use disorder (e.g., acquisition, maintenance, escalation, and relapse/reinstatement of drug use). Moreover, recent studies have revealed several behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exercise that may be responsible for its protective effects in these assays. Collectively, these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:22347866

  9. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  10. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying. PMID:24985489

  11. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

  12. Carisoprodol: abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S

    2010-03-01

    Carisoprodol (N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; N-isopropylmeprobamate) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose primary active metabolite is meprobamate, a substance with well established abuse potential similar to that of benzodiazepines. A number of reports show that carisoprodol has been abused for its sedative and relaxant effects, to augment or alter the effects of other drugs, and by the intentional combination of carisoprodol and other noncontrolled medications because of the relative ease (as compared to controlled substances) of obtaining prescriptions. The diversion and abuse of carisoprodol and its adverse health effects appear to have dramatically increased over the last several years. Clinicians have begun to see a withdrawal syndrome consisting of insomnia, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, anxiety, and ataxia in patients who abruptly cease intake of large doses of carisoprodol. Hallucinations and delusions may also occur. The withdrawal symptoms are very similar to those previously described for meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that what may actually be occurring is withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated as a result of intake of excessive amounts of carisoprodol. However carisoprodol itself is capable of modulating GABA(A) function, and this may contribute both to the drugs abuse potential and to the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation of intake. Carisoprodol has been classified as a controlled substance in several states in the US and restrictions on the use of the drug have been imposed in some European countries. Carisoprodol is metabolized to a controlled substance, has clear evidence of abuse potential and increasing incidence of abuse, and has shown evidence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation from intake. This article will discuss the abuse potential of carisoprodol and the associated withdrawal syndrome, and consider implications for future use of the drug. PMID

  13. 26 CFR 1.1274-3 - Potentially abusive situations defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potentially abusive situations defined. 1.1274... § 1.1274-3 Potentially abusive situations defined. (a) In general. For purposes of section 1274, a potentially abusive situation means-— (1) A tax shelter (as defined in section 6662(d)(2)(C)(ii)); or (2)...

  14. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  16. [Misuse of substances theoretically without abuse potential--case series].

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Habrat, Bogusław; Sut, Michał; Korolkiewicz, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to present cases of misuse of different substances theoretically without abuse potential. In the last few years such behavior became an increasing problem in toxicological and emergency units. Lack of typical signs of intoxication with psychoactive substances, and negative results of standard toxicological tests may be a challenge for toxicologists and emergency medicine practitioners. PMID:19788132

  17. Intranasal administration of crushed ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone): A randomized, controlled abuse-potential study in nondependent recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Bramson, Candace; Bass, Almasa; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Malhotra, Bimal; Matschke, Kyle; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Wolfram, Gernot; Geoffroy, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    ALO-02 is an abuse-deterrent formulation consisting of capsules filled with pellets of extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-/active-controlled, 4-way crossover study examined the abuse potential of crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to healthy, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Following drug discrimination and naloxone challenge, eligible participants (n = 32) entered a 4-way crossover treatment phase: crushed single dose of 1 of 2 placebos, ALO-02 30 mg/3.6 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) or oxycodone immediate-release (IR) 30 mg. Primary end points were Drug Liking and High, measured on visual analog scales (VAS) summarized as maximum effect (Emax ) and effect occurring over 2 hours postdose (AUE0-2  h ). Crushed ALO-02 resulted in significantly lower scores versus oxycodone IR on Drug Liking (Emax , 60.5 vs 92.8; AUE0-2  h , 105.4 vs 160.0, respectively) and High (Emax , 25.2 vs 86.9; AUE0-2  h , 27.1 vs 136.4, respectively; n = 28; P < .0001). Adverse events occurred most frequently with oxycodone IR, followed by ALO-02, then placebo, and were considered mild and consistent with opioid therapy. Crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to nondependent recreational opioid users resulted in significantly lower scores on Drug Liking/High VAS and other positive subjective measures versus crushed oxycodone IR, suggesting less abuse potential. Demonstration of actual abuse deterrence in the real world requires further research. PMID:26011742

  18. Formulation considerations for the development of medications with abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, Robert S; Moore, Richard A

    2006-06-01

    The availability of increasingly sophisticated drug formulations and delivery devices has created new opportunities in drug development. These newer approaches can result in improved drug bioavailability, or they can alter key pharmacokinetic parameters in such a way as to decrease dosing interval, decrease variability, or blunt maximal concentrations that are associated with adverse events of particular concern. Special formulations or devices can also provide for easier or more convenient dosing in subpopulations of interest, such as children or the elderly. Although the key principles of abuse potential assessment and the underlying neurochemistry and pharmacology are relatively well understood, evaluation of the influences of drug formulation have received much less study. Because dose and formulation - and even the therapeutic indication - are refined over the course of development, it is usually difficult to conduct more than a cursory evaluation of the influence of formulation on the underlying abuse potential of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Industrial sponsors would benefit from further research in areas of formulation science and pharmacokinetics that would improve the predictability of prescription drug abuse. In particular, validation of new pharmacokinetic parameters and standardization of methods to understand the consequences of product tampering could assist in gaining a better assessment of risk for controlled release formulations. Such methods could apply not only to innovator products, but also to those wishing to develop generic versions with similar pharmaceutical performance. This article proposes several factors that may be of use to industrial sponsors in making formulation choices for drugs with the potential for abuse. PMID:16472940

  19. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse history, and the method of administration of 108 IV substance abusers. During 1 year, consecutively admitted adult inpatients with substance use disorder at any detoxification center in Iceland that reported any IV substance abuse in the past 30 days were invited to participate. Abuse was defined as nontherapeutic use of a substance to gain psychological or physiological effect. Results: Prevalence of any IV MPH abuse among participants was 88% in the last 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.94) and MPH was the most commonly abused substance (65%) and the preferred substance (63%). Around one third (30%) reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. However, among those reporting a shorter history than 10 years of IV abuse, 42% reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. Conclusions: This first nationwide study on IV abuse of MPH shows that it is common among treatment-seeking IV abusers in Iceland and suggests that MPH has high abuse potential. Therefore, both the use and possible abuse of MPH in those with high abuse potential should be monitored, especially in countries where MPH prescriptions rates are on the rise. PMID:25748561

  20. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

    PubMed

    Kollins, S H; MacDonald, E K; Rush, C R

    2001-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays. PMID:11325419

  1. The Measurement Integrity of Data Collected Using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Brenda; And Others

    The present study investigated the reliability and validity of scores from the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory. The CAP is a screening device for physical abuse potential in adults; it is a self-administered test written on a third-grade reading level. Subjects were 113 mothers, including 53 (46.9%) mothers of young children with handicaps,…

  2. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  3. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  4. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  6. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  7. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  8. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  9. Pattern-visual evoked potentials in thinner abusers.

    PubMed

    Poblano, A; Lope Huerta, M; Martínez, J M; Falcón, H D

    1996-01-01

    Organic solvents cause injury to lipids of neuronal and glial membranes. A well known characteristic of workers exposed to thinner is optic neuropathy. We decided to look for neurophysiologic signs of visual damage in patients identified as thinner abusers. Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials was performed on 34 thinner abuser patients and 30 controls. P-100 wave latency was found to be longer on abuser than control subjects. Results show the possibility of central alterations on thinner abusers despite absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:8987190

  10. Educational Attainment and Child Abuse Potential: Implications for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…

  11. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haz, Ana Maria; Ramirez, Valeria

    1998-01-01

    The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 134 Chilean adults. The scale was able to discriminate between abusing and nonabusing individuals. The items which had the greatest discriminating power were related to feelings of depression, loneliness, anxiety, and family problems. (CR)

  12. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  13. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  14. Abuse and Intellectual Disability: A Potential Link or an Inescapable Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Robert N. F.

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of abuse of people with intellectual disabilities notes the varieties of abusive actions found, including sexual abuse; the possible incidence of such abuse; and reasons why this population is especially vulnerable to abuse. A current study to examine the incidence of abuse and reporting mechanisms is briefly described. (Author/DB)

  15. PREDICTING ABUSE POTENTIAL OF STIMULANTS AND OTHER DOPAMINERGIC DRUGS: OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Huskinson, Sally L.; Naylor, Jennifer E.; Rowlett, James K.; Freeman, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of a drug’s abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. PMID:24662599

  16. A Study in Computer Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caulfield Inst. of Technology (Australia).

    Computer abuse is examined as both a general issue and as a specific problem. A statistical profile of computer crime lists distribution by country of reported cases, by industry of occurrence, and by amount of monetary loss. The characteristics of computer abuse are described along with the important categories of such crimes. Factors inhibiting…

  17. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development☆

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater

  18. Preclinical evaluation of the abuse potential of the analgesic bicifadine.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Katherine L; Balster, Robert L; Golembiowska, Krystyna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Tizzano, Joseph P; Skolnick, Phil; Basile, Anthony S

    2009-07-01

    The abuse liability of the analgesic bicifadine was investigated in animal models used to predict the abuse potential of psychostimulants in humans. Bicifadine, cocaine, d-amphetamine, bupropion, and desipramine were evaluated for the production of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats. Cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion dose-dependently and fully substituted for cocaine. Bicifadine and desipramine produced a maximum mean cocaine-lever selection of 80 and 69%, respectively, but doses yielding peak substitution strongly suppressed response rates. Microdialysis studies in normal waking rats indicated that d-amphetamine increased dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum to a much greater degree than bicifadine, but bicifadine increased 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum more than d-amphetamine. Bicifadine was also tested for intravenous self-administration in rhesus monkeys experienced with cocaine administration. Reinforcing effects of bicifadine were observed in only two of four subjects, whereas cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion served as reinforcers in all four monkeys. When evaluated under a progressive ratio procedure, no dose of bicifadine maintained responding to the extent of cocaine, d-amphetamine, or bupropion. The discriminative stimulus effects associated with bicifadine were similar, but not identical, to those of psychostimulants. Although bicifadine maintained self-administration behavior in some subjects, its reinforcing efficacy was very low relative to cocaine, d-amphetamine, and bupropion. These results are consistent with the microdialysis findings of lower dopamine levels and higher 5-hydroxytryptamine levels after administration of bicifadine relative to d-amphetamine. Overall, the current findings support a low abuse potential of bicifadine, more resembling that of antidepressants than psychostimulants. PMID:19357320

  19. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study to Evaluate the Intranasal Human Abuse Potential and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Extended-Release Abuse-Deterrent Formulation of Oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Ernest A.; Smith, Michael D.; Fleming, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the human abuse potential (HAP) of an experimental, microsphere-in-capsule formulation of extended-release oxycodone (oxycodone DETERx®) (herein “DETERx”). Design. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, positive- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-phase, four-treatment, crossover study. Setting. Clinical research site. Subjects. There were 39 qualifying subjects (72% male, 85% white, mean age of 27 years) with 36 completing all four Double-blind Treatment Periods. Methods. The four phases encompassed: 1) Screening; 2) Drug Discrimination; 3) Double-blind Treatment; and 4) Follow-up. Drug Discrimination tests ensured that subjects could distinguish placebo from opioid. The four Double-blind Treatments compared DETERx—administered as either a crushed intranasal (IN) or an intact oral (PO) preparation—with immediate-release oxycodone IN (OXY-IR IN) and with an intact IN and PO placebo DETERx control. Results. For primary pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments, abuse quotient (Cmax/Tmax) was lower with DETERx IN than DETERx PO; both treatments were substantially lower than OXY-IR IN (6.24, 8.60, and 69.6 ng/mL/h, respectively). For drug liking, the primary subjective pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoint, both DETERx IN and DETERx PO produced significantly lower scores than OXY-IR IN (P ≤ 0.0001 for each); DETERx IN was less liked than DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.05), mirroring the PK relationships. Objectively assessed pupillometry corroborated the more rapid and significantly greater effect of OXY-IR IN than either DETERx IN or DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.007 for each). Overall safety profiles of DETERx and OXY-IR were comparable and both were well tolerated. Conclusions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes suggest that DETERx IN has relatively low HAP; continued research in larger populations is suggested. PMID:26814256

  20. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  1. Potential mediators between child abuse and both violence and victimization in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population. PMID:22924801

  2. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  3. Abuse potential and dopaminergic effect of alkyl nitrites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cha, Hye Jin

    2016-08-26

    The abuse of alkyl nitrites is common among adolescents and young adults worldwide. However, the information regarding the effects of alkyl nitrites on the central nervous system and the associated psychological abuse potential is scarce. The abuse potential of 3 representative alkyl nitrites - isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite - was evaluated in mice using conditioned place preference tests with an unbiased method. The dopamine levels released by synaptosomes extracted from the striatal region were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with the test substances (50mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significantly increased drug-paired place preference. Moreover, greater levels of dopamine were released by striatal region synaptosomes in response to isobutyl nitrite treatment in mice. Thus, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites could lead to psychological dependence and dopaminergic effects. Furthermore, these results provide scientific evidence to support the regulation of alkyl nitrites as psychoactive substances in the future. PMID:27369324

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R; Rolleri, Robert L; Pixton, Glenn C; Sommerville, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users. Methods Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h), peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h). Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry. Results There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons), suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing) were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically

  5. Measuring Potential: Uses and Abuses of Computers in School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, C. Sue; And Others

    This paper addresses the potential influence of current and projected microcomputer technological advances on the profession of school psychology. An overview of the uses and abuses of computers in school psychology is presented, followed by a brief discussion of three general uses of computers in school psychology: the computer as tool, tutor,…

  6. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach). PMID:25267886

  7. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  8. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    PubMed

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695

  9. Authenticity of recovered sexual abuse memories: a Rorschach study.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, F; Labott, S M

    1996-07-01

    Distinguishing authentic abuse from false memory among adults who recover memories of childhood sexual trauma has far-reaching significance. This study initially examined 13 previously reported Rorschach signs of sexual abuse in women not abused, and women sexually abused (and not amnestic). The abuse signs were more prevalent in the abused group. A sexual abuse index composed of 8 signs correctly classified 93% of the abused, and 98% of the nonabused group. The index was then applied to women who recovered memories of abuse; some had analogues of dissociation in their protocols and others did not. Those exhibiting dissociative signs produced more signs of sexual abuse. The index classified 88% of the dissociative group as abused, but only 24% of the nondissociative group. The relevance of these findings for assessing authenticity of recovered memories is explored. PMID:8827651

  10. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Harrison, Joseph A.; Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. Objectives This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Methods Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a cross-over design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings, and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9 hour sessions. Results Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 minutes after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., “drug liking”) were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance) the routes were equipotent. Conclusions The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low. PMID:25199955

  11. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients”

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  12. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  13. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  14. [Preliminary study of early sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F

    1991-08-01

    The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  16. Carisoprodol: update on abuse potential and legal status.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S; Kose, Samet

    2012-11-01

    Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant of which meprobamate, a controlled substance, is the primary active metabolite. The abuse of carisoprodol has increased dramatically in the last several years. A withdrawal syndrome occurs in some patients who abruptly cease carisoprodol intake. The symptoms of this syndrome are similar to those seen with meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that they may result from withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated with intake of excessive carisoprodol; however, carisoprodol is capable of modulating GABAA function, which may contribute to its abuse potential.There has been considerable debate about whether carisoprodol should be considered a controlled substance. Carisoprodol was removed from the market in Norway on May 1, 2008, but may still be used by specially approved patients. Carisoprodol was classified as a controlled substance in several US states, and effective January 11, 2012, became a schedule IV controlled substance at the US federal level. This article updates the literature on abuse potential and examines recent developments regarding the legal status of carisoprodol. PMID:23128807

  17. Child Abuse Potential among Mothers of Substance-Exposed and Nonexposed Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tina M. Smarsh; Myers, Barbara J.; Elswick, R. K., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine whether there were differences in child abuse potential among mothers who were nonusers, drug users who accepted treatment, and drug users who rejected offers of treatment, over the first 2 years of their children's lives. Method: Participants were mothers of 140 infants,…

  18. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  19. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than general self-blame attributions for everyday events, explained which youth with CSA histories experienced more dissociative symptoms and clinically significant levels of dissociation. Abuse-specific stigmatization was found to operate as a prospective mechanism for subsequent dissociative symptoms but not self-esteem. PMID:20390797

  20. Testing the sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis: A prospective longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leach, Chelsea; Stewart, Anna; Smallbone, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis posits that persons, especially males, who are sexually abused as children are at particular risk of sexually abusing others later in life. We tested this hypothesis by prospectively examining associations between maltreatment and offending in a birth cohort of 38,282 males with a maltreatment history and/or at least one finalized offense. We examined these associations within the context of the wider birth population. Proportionally few boys were the subject of official notifications for sexual abuse (14.8% of maltreated boys, and 1.4% of the birth population); proportionally very few of these sexually abused boys (3%) went on to become sexual offenders; and, contrary to findings typically reported in retrospective clinical studies, proportionally few sexual offenders (4%) had a confirmed history of sexual abuse. Poly-victimization (exposure to multiple types of maltreatment) was significantly associated with sexual offending, violent offending, and general (nonsexual, nonviolent) offending. We found no specific association between sexual abuse and sexual offending, and nor did we find any association between sexual abuse and sexual offending specifically within the poly-victimized group. The total number of sexual abuse notifications did make a small unique contribution to the variance in sexual offending compared to other offending. Implications concerning maltreated boys and male sexual offenders are discussed. PMID:26615777

  1. Abuse Potential of Soma®: the GABAA Receptor as a Target

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Lorie A.; Gatch, Michael B.; Forster, Michael J.; Dillon, Glenn H.

    2010-01-01

    Soma® (carisoprodol) is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABAAR function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated. PMID:20419052

  2. [Validation of a Spanish version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory administered in Spain].

    PubMed

    de Paúl, J; Arruabarrena, I; Milner, J S

    1991-01-01

    A translation into Spanish of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory was administered to a group of perpetrators of maltreatment and physical abuse (n = 66) and to a demographically representative sample (n = 829) of the general population of the País Vasco (Spain). Results were studied with item analysis, regression, factorial analysis with the total sample so as to determine the descriptive characteristic of the Spanish version. Since this inventory is designed specifically for the detection of physical maltreatment, similar analyses were carried out with a subgroup of physical child abuse perpetrators (n = 24) and with a similar comparison group (n = 156). For the total number of perpetrators and the representative comparative group a differential analysis indicated that 91.7% had correct classification. For the group of physical child abuse perpetrators and the similar comparative group, the percentage was 98.3%. For these two comparative groups, the variance for the total of items in the abuse scale was 64.8%. Factorial analysis revealed that both English and Spanish versions of this inventory have a similar factorial structure. This preliminary data sustained the idea of working in the development and validation of a Spanish version of this inventory for the detection of physical maltreatment. PMID:1959081

  3. Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth.

    PubMed

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships. PMID:23148553

  4. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald; Pagoto, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. Objectives . To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Methods Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m=27.64, SD=2.59) women (ages 18–45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate:protein ≥ 6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better. Results Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria following the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage, but no differential effect on vigor. Conclusion For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight. PMID:18273603

  5. Sexual abuse, physical abuse, chronic fatigue, and chronic fatigue syndrome: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R R; Jason, L A

    2001-10-01

    Using a randomly selected community-based sample, this investigation examined whether histories of childhood sexual, physical, and death threat abuse predicted adulthood outcomes of specific medical and psychiatric conditions involving chronic fatigue. This study also tested prior suggestions that most individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome report a past history of interpersonal abuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between abuse history and chronic fatigue group outcomes while controlling for the effects of sociodemographics. Compared with healthy controls, childhood sexual abuse was significantly more likely to be associated with outcomes of idiopathic chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue explained by a psychiatric condition, and chronic fatigue explained by a medical condition. None of the abuse history types were significant predictors of chronic fatigue syndrome. A closer examination of individuals in the chronic fatigue syndrome group revealed that significantly fewer individuals with CFS reported abuse as compared with those who did not. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11708672

  6. Promoting Effective Interviewing of Sexually Abused Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Monit

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study is centered on interviewing techniques with alleged child sexual abuse victims who do and do not disclose sexual abuse. Method: Ninety randomly selected videotapes are reviewed, and the interviewing techniques are recorded on a 69-item Child Sexual Abuse Interviewing Skills Instrument. Results: The nondisclosure children are…

  7. Detection of conscious deception using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W K; Milner, J S

    1985-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to provide data on the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory lie scale. In Study One, 187 male and female undergraduate students were administered either the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, or the Unlikely Virtues Scale. Three instructional sets were provided: respond honestly, distort responses in a positive manner, and distort responses in a negative manner. Each scale successfully discriminated between subjects in the honest and faking good conditions. Only the Marlowe-Crowne scale discriminated subjects in the faking bad condition through their low scores. No gender differences were observed as a function of instructional set or test employed. In Study Two, 31 male and female parents were given the CAP-Inventory under the same instructional sets provided in Study One. The findings for the parent group, the population the CAP-Inventory was designed to be employed with, replicated the results found in Study One. PMID:4067804

  8. Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…

  9. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Abuse of Incarcerated Fathers: A Study of the Measurement of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of abuse hypothesis often only examined the "existence" of abuse. The current study utilizes retrospective recalls of incarcerated male defendants (N = 414), using questions formulated from the modified Conflict Tactics Scales. Five logistic regression models are run, representing a different physical…

  11. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  12. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  13. Cyclohexane, a Potential Drug of Abuse with Pernicious Effects on the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:26779017

  14. Cyclohexane, a Potential Drug of Abuse with Pernicious Effects on the Brain.

    PubMed

    Campos-Ordonez, Tania; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:26779017

  15. Early Life Emotional, Physical, and Sexual Abuse and the Development of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies have suggested that violence victimization is prevalent among women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, it is unclear whether early life abuse contributes directly to PMS or whether associations are explained by the high prevalence of PMS risk factors including smoking and obesity among women reporting childhood abuse. Methods: We have assessed the relation of early life abuse and the incidence of moderate-to-severe PMS in a study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study 2. Participants were aged 27–44 years and free from PMS at baseline, including 1,018 cases developing PMS over 14 years and 2,277 comparison women experiencing minimal menstrual symptoms. History of early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was self-reported in 2001. Results: After adjustment for obesity, smoking, and other factors, emotional abuse was strongly related to PMS (pTrend<0.0001); women reporting the highest level of emotional abuse had 2.6 times the risk of PMS as those reporting no emotional abuse (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.9). Women reporting severe childhood physical abuse had an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–2.9; pTrend<0.001) compared with those reporting no physical abuse. Sexual abuse was less strongly associated with risk. Adjustment for childhood social support minimally affected findings. Conclusions: Findings from this large prospective study suggest that early life emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of PMS in the middle-to-late reproductive years. The persistence of associations after control for potential confounders and mediators supports the hypothesis that early life abuse is importantly related to PMS. PMID:25098348

  16. Drug Scene Syllabus, A Manual on Drugs and Volatile Chemical of Potential Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert B.; And Others

    A brief historical review of attempts to control the abuse of drugs introduces a series of tables listing pertinent information about drugs of potential abuse. Each table provides the common commercial and slang names for the drugs, their medical and legal classification, their potential for emotional and physical dependence, whether the user…

  17. Testing the "Sexually Abused-Abuser Hypothesis" in Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths. PMID:25981223

  18. Harm to Others from Substance Use and Abuse: The Underused Potential in Nationwide Registers

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bukten, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the potential in using nationwide registers to study harm to others from substance use and abuse. The advantages of using registry data include the opportunity to include the data on the entire population nationwide and continuously updated longitudinal datasets; they allow for studying small subpopulations and have little missing data. Personal identification numbers and family numbers enable linkage of data from different registers. Such datasets can include extensive information on individual and family levels. In this article, we provide an introduction to nationwide registers and explain how they can be applied to investigate two types of third-party harms: harm to children and harm to partners/spouses from substance use and abuse in parents and partners/spouses. Finally, we discuss challenges, benefits, and ethical considerations regarding the use of such data. PMID:26560694

  19. A Study of the Cycle of Abuse among Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2001-01-01

    This study of 147 sex offenders on probation explores whether there is support for the cycle of abuse theory among child molesters. Results indicate that being abused as a child is related to being a child molester. It was also found that the MMPI-2 did not predict the status of the subjects in regard to being abused as a child and having a victim…

  20. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  1. Physical Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Girls: Associations With Psychopathology, Maltreatment, and Attitudes Toward Child-Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. Method: The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. Results: CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD. PMID:24881128

  2. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  3. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  4. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  5. Library Abuse in Academic Institutions: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiagwu, Marcel C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the abuse of library materials through theft, mutilation, unauthorized borrowing, and vandalism at the University of Port Harcourt (Nigeria) and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia). Motivations for abuse are discussed, and recommendations for improved collection protection are…

  6. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  7. Abuse Potential of Intranasal Buprenorphine versus Buprenorphine/Naloxone in Buprenorphine-Maintained Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jermaine D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Manubay, Jeanne M.; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8–9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose-dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse. PMID:25060839

  8. Abuse Potential of Soma: the GABA(A) Receptor as a Target.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Lorie A; Gatch, Michael B; Forster, Michael J; Dillon, Glenn H

    2009-01-01

    Soma(®) (carisoprodol) is an increasingly abused, centrally-acting muscle relaxant. Despite the prevalence of carisoprodol abuse, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Its sedative effects, which contribute to its therapeutic and recreational use, are generally attributed to the actions of its primary metabolite, meprobamate, at GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R). Meprobamate is a controlled substance at the federal level; ironically, carisoprodol is not currently classified as such. Using behavioral and molecular pharmacological approaches, we recently demonstrated carisoprodol, itself, is capable of modulating GABA(A)R function in a manner similar to central nervous system depressants. Its functional similarities with this highly addictive class of drugs may contribute to the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The site of action of carisoprodol has not been identified; based on our studies, interaction with benzodiazepine or barbiturate sites is unlikely. These recent findings, when coupled with numerous reports in the literature, support the contention that the non-controlled status of carisoprodol should be reevaluated. PMID:20419052

  9. Abuse potential of intranasal buprenorphine versus buprenorphine/naloxone in buprenorphine-maintained heroin users.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Metz, Verena; Comer, Sandra D

    2015-07-01

    In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse. PMID:25060839

  10. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  11. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  12. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  13. Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results and the predictive value of both are discussed. Overall, there was substantial agreement between animal and human data, with each having predictive value. Nonetheless, it is suggested that abuse-potential screening of new medications would benefit from an organized, integrated cross-species program. PMID:16497429

  14. Potential Barriers to Work for Substance-Abusing Women on Welfare: Findings from the CASAWORKS for Families Pilot Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Marjorie A.; Mckay, James; Ketterlinus, Robert D.; Mclellan, A. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and relationship to later employment of potential barriers to work for substance-abusing women on Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) enrolled in a multiservice welfare-to-work program. Design: A field study with repeated measures and intent-to-treat sampling. Intervention: The CASAWORKS for Families (CWF)…

  15. Depression and Anger as Risk Factors Underlying the Relationship between Maternal Substance Involvement and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, Denise; Cohen, Lisa R.; Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Flom, Peter; Wasserman, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how emotion regulation deficits in the area of anger arousal and reactivity are associated with child abuse potential in mothers with substance use and depressive disorders in order to identify targeted areas for prevention and treatment. Methods: A sample of 152 urban mothers was interviewed on measures of substance…

  16. Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal…

  17. Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Cynthia K

    2015-01-01

    This article presents qualitative findings of a study that examined the role of financial issues and economic factors in the lives of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Eight themes emerged in discussions with women about the ways in which money and economic issues played a role in their experiences of abuse. Taken together, women's discussions clearly support an "economic abuse" dimension of IPV. Implications for safely advancing the economic well-being of low-income survivors are discussed. PMID:25548376

  18. Adolescent mothers and child abuse potential: an evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, T L; Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L

    1996-11-01

    This research examines maternal and child factors that place adolescent mothers at risk for abusing their children. Using a longitudinal design, relationships among four risk factors (social supports, maternal psychological adjustment, maternal preparation for parenting, and child temperament), maternal psychological predisposition for aggressive coping (perceptions of stress and endorsements of punitive parenting), and maternal abuse potential were examined in a sample of 75 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Preparation for parenting, a construct which included knowledge and attitudes about children's development, was the strongest direct predictor of abuse potential; however, its effects were also partially mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the effects of child temperament on abuse were mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and identifying at-risk adolescents, were also discussed. PMID:8958454

  19. Child Physical Abuse and Adult Mental Health: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701

  20. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  1. Establishing a Short Term Program Component To Build Self-Esteem in a Small Group of Abusive and Potentially Abusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith

    This practicum was designed to enhance the self-esteem of abusive and potentially abusive parents. A combination of strategies was used to enhance self-esteem and to help parents solve problems in an appropriate manner. The intervention strategy included three objectives: (1) gain the confidence of the participants; (2) use a curriculum that…

  2. Gamma hydroxybutyrate: an ethnographic study of recreational use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven J; Levounis, Petros

    2008-09-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a psychoactive substance with complex neurophysiological activity and significant potential for abuse, addiction, and dangerous toxicity. In this study, a semistructured interview was administered to 17 subjects to investigate GHB use, including: manner of use; setting; positive and negative consequences; other drug history; and sexual practices. Respondents were overwhelmingly male, but otherwise had a broad demographic background. Settings varied from nightclubs to private use at home. There was significant variability in the drug obtained, which subjects found problematic because of the narrow therapeutic window and ease of accidental overdose. Common positive experiences included increased sexual desire, decreased sexual inhibitions, and decreased anxiety. Common negative consequences included oversedation, loss of consciousness, motor incoordination, and mental confusion. Nine subjects reported that they would use GHB again, some despite severe negative consequences. Although most subjects reported negative experiences, only three felt their use was problematic, and none sought treatment for GHB abuse or addiction. Subjects were highly drug-experienced, most commonly using MDMA, ketamine, cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamine. Some reported that GHB could cause poor decision making in sexual situations. This effect has significant ramifications for issues such as date rape and control of sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV. PMID:19004416

  3. Evaluation of the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of a C8-C9 isoparaffin solvent.

    PubMed

    Balster, R L; Bowen, S E; Evans, E B; Tokarz, M E

    1997-07-01

    We hypothesized that the abuse potential of certain types of inhalants could be evaluated in animals by determining the overlap in their profile of behavioral effects with that of CNS depressant drugs and other depressant-like abused inhalants. For our first attempt in evaluating a solvent with an unknown abuse potential we tested ISOPAR-E. ISOPAR-E is a mixture of predominantly C8-C9 isoparaffinic hydrocarbons that is being used more and more frequently as a solvent in industrial and consumer products, including, but not limited to, typewriter correction fluids. Presently, nothing is known about the potential for abuse of products containing this solvent. In the present studies, we compared the volatility of ISOPAR-E and the abused solvent 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) in our exposure systems. Additionally, five behavioral procedures were conducted in mice to compare the effects of the two compounds. The results demonstrate that: (1) ISOPAR-E was less volatile than TCE; (2) ISOPAR-E produced a somewhat different profile of effects than did TCE as assessed with a functional observational battery; (3) unlike TCE, ISOPAR-E did not affect performance on tests of motor coordination; (4) TCE and ISOPAR-E produced concentration-related decreases in schedule-controlled operant performance with recovery from TCE being somewhat more rapid; (5) ISOPAR-E produced cross dependence in TCE-dependent mice; and (6) both TCE and ISOPAR-E produced substantial levels of ethanol-lever responding in a drug discrimination procedure, although the ethanol-like effects of ISOPAR-E only occurred at response rate decreasing concentrations. Overall, there was a poorer separation of behavioral and lethal concentrations for ISOPAR-E than for TCE. Although a somewhat different profile of behavioral effects was obtained with ISOPAR-E and TCE, we cannot say with certainty if enough similarities exist with abused inhalants to predict that ISOPAR-E would be subject to depressant-like abuse

  4. Borderline personality features and emotion regulation deficits are associated with child physical abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael F; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2016-02-01

    The present study extends prior research examining the association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and child physical abuse (CPA) risk. We hypothesized that: (1) high CPA risk parents (compared to low CPA risk parents) would more often report clinically elevated levels of BPD features; (2) high CPA risk parents with elevated BPD features would represent a particularly high-risk subgroup; and (3) the association between elevated BPD features and CPA risk would be partially explained by emotion regulation difficulties. General population parents (N=106; 41.5% fathers) completed self-report measures of BPD features, CPA risk, and emotion regulation difficulties. Results support the prediction that BPD features are more prevalent among high (compared to low) CPA risk parents. Among the parents classified as high CPA risk (n=45), one out of three (33.3%) had elevated BPD features. In contrast, none of the 61 low CPA risk parents reported elevated BPD symptoms. Moreover, 100% of the parents with elevated BPD features (n=15) were classified as high-risk for CPA. As expected, high CPA risk parents with elevated BPD features (compared to high CPA risk parents with low BPD features) obtained significantly higher scores on several Child Abuse Potential Inventory scales, including the overall abuse scale (d=1.03). As predicted, emotion regulation difficulties partially explained the association between BPD features and CPA risk. Findings from the present study suggest that a subset of high CPA risk parents in the general population possess clinically significant levels of BPD symptoms and these parents represent an especially high-risk subgroup. Interventions designed to address BPD symptoms, including emotion regulation difficulties, appear to be warranted in these cases. PMID:26754570

  5. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa. PMID:12295438

  6. A retrospective study of risk to siblings in abusing families.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine E; Browne, Kevin D

    2005-12-01

    Relatively little research has considered the risk to siblings within maltreating families. The sample in the present study consisted of the 795 siblings from a cohort of 400 "index" children who had been referred to police child protection units in England for abuse and/or neglect. In 44% of families (valid cases), the index child was scapegoated, in 37% maltreatment was nonspecific to all siblings, and in 20% maltreatment was specifically directed at some but not all siblings. Scapegoated children were more likely to be older and to experience physical or sexual abuse, whereas younger children and index child referrals for neglect, emotional abuse, or mixed abuse were associated with risk to some or all siblings. Parental difficulties and family stressors increased the risk of maltreatment to all siblings. There was no evidence of increased risk to stepsiblings or children with difficulties, suggesting that the special victim model has limited application. PMID:16402877

  7. Predicting child abuse potential: an empirical investigation of two theoretical frameworks.

    PubMed

    Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; Hanson, Rochelle F

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument rather than occurrence rates (e.g., reports to child protective services, observations). Results indicated Belsky's developmental-ecological model, in which risk markers were organized into three separate conceptual domains, provided a poor fit to the data. In contrast, the cumulative risk model, which included the accumulation of risk markers, was significant in predicting child abuse potential. PMID:20390812

  8. Prospective Study in Child Abuse: The Child Study Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadol, Roger V.; And Others

    Presented is the final report of the Child Study Program, in which the following objectives were investigated with 140 abused children (from birth to 72-months-old) -- whether abused children are developmentally different from non-abused children, whether there are differences between children who sustained non-accidental trauma (NAT) and children…

  9. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  10. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children. PMID:1475698

  11. Abuse and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease among Midlife Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Chang, Yuefang; Derby, Carol A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban D.; Janssen, Imke; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Some evidence suggests that abuse may be related to CVD risk among women. However, this relation has largely been addressed using self-reported measures of CVD. We tested whether a history of abuse was related to subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) among midlife women without clinical CVD. Methods The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a longitudinal cohort study of women transitioning through the menopause. 1402 Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Chinese SWAN participants completed measures of childhood and adult physical and sexual abuse, underwent a blood draw, completed physical measures, and underwent a carotid artery ultrasound at SWAN study visit 12. Associations between abuse and IMT and plaque were tested in linear and multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, site, race/ethnicity, financial strain, education, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, measures of insulin resistance, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and medication use. Results Findings indicated that a history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher IMT controlling for standard CVD risk factors and other confounders (beta (standard error)=0.022 (0.010), p<0.05; adjusted means, childhood sexual abuse: 0.800 mm vs. no childhood sexual abuse: 0.782 mm). Conclusions Childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher IMT controlling for CVD risk factors and other confounders. These findings indicate the importance of considering the potential impact of early life stressors on women’s later cardiovascular health. PMID:25034715

  12. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  13. Longitudinal measurement of cortisol in association with mental health and experience of domestic violence and abuse: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    will be investigated using appropriate regression models. Second, these techniques will be used to investigate the extent to which cortisol measures act as potential mediators between type, severity, duration of abuse and mental disorders. Discussion Results of the study will increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of abuse-related mental health disorders in women and inform researchers and practitioners on the possibility of using salivary cortisol as a biological marker for prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment evaluation among abuse survivors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01632553 PMID:23849084

  14. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  15. Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35–193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10). Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Conclusions Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse. PMID:24884914

  16. Drug abuse in Nepal: a rapid assessment study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Uprety, L; Chapagain, M; Kafle, K

    1996-01-01

    A rapid assessment of drug abuse in Nepal was conducted at different sites, including eight municipalities in the five development regions of the country. To interview various groups of key informants, such methods as semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. A snowball sampling strategy for respondents who were drug abusers and a judgemental sampling strategy for the non-drug-using key informants were applied. About one fifth of the sample was recruited from the treatment centres and the rest from the community. Drug abusers in prison were interviewed, and secondary data from treatment centres and prisons analysed. The study revealed that the sample of drug abusers had a mean age of 23.8 years and was overwhelmingly male. Most respondents lived with their families and were either unemployed or students. About 30 per cent of the sample was married. A large majority of the sample had a family member or a close relative outside the immediate family who smoked or drank alcohol and a friend who smoked, drank or used illicit drugs. Apart from tobacco and alcohol, the major drugs of abuse were cannabis, codeine-containing cough syrup, nitrazepam tablets, buprenor-phine injections and heroin (usually smoked, rarely injected). The commonest sources of drugs were other drug-using friends, cross-border supplies from India or medicine shops. The commonest source of drug money was the family. There has been a clear trend towards the injection of buprenorphine by abusers who smoke heroin or drink codeine cough syrup. The reasons cited for switching to injections were the unavailability and rising cost of non-injectable drugs and the easy availability and relative cheapness of injectables. About a half of the injecting drug users (IDUs) commonly reported sharing injecting equipment inadequately cleaned with water. Over a half of IDUs reported visiting needle-exchange programmes at two of the study sites where such programmes were

  17. A Follow-Up Study of Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, James T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigated in a followup study of 219 NAT (non-accidental trauma) children and 159 NEG (gross neglect) children were the specific effects of abusive environments on psychosocial development and the possible reversibility of these effects with intervention through foster home placement. Available from: EC 090 265. (Author/IM)

  18. A population based study of reporting patterns and characteristics of men who abuse their female partners

    PubMed Central

    Peek-Asa, C; Zwerling, C; Young, T; Stromquist, A; Burmeister, L; Merchant, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study estimates the prevalence of male abusive behavior reported by men and their female partners and identifies characteristics of abusive men. Design: Baseline survey from a population based cohort study of general health. Setting: A rural county in Iowa, USA. Subjects: 572 men and their cohabitating female partners. Main outcome measures: Male-to-female physical, emotional, and sexual abuse reported by either partner. Results: In this cohort, 13.6% of men had performed at least one act of physical abuse and 34.9% emotional abuse. More than 45% of abusive men reported their own behaviors. Alcohol problems, antisocial personality characteristics, depressive symptoms, and financial stress were all positively associated with both physical and emotional abuse, but suicidal thoughts were less likely among abusers. Conclusion: Identification of common characteristics of abusive men may predict proclivity towards partner violence and barriers to behavior modification. PMID:15933412

  19. Abuse potential of propofol used for sedation in gastric endoscopy and its correlation with subject characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja Hyun; Byun, Heewon

    2013-01-01

    Background Propofol has been widely used for an induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia, or for sedation for various procedures. Although it has many ideal aspects, there have been several cases of drug abuse and addiction. The authors investigated whether there are abuse liable groups among the general population. Methods We surveyed 169 patients after gastric endoscopic examination, which used propofol as a sedative, with the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) questionnaire. Other characteristics of the patients, such as past history, smoking habits, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse liability and sleep disturbance, were recorded by history taking and several questionnaires before the exam. Results Propofol had a high Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) score (representative value for euphoria) of 6.3, which is higher than marijuana, and a Pentobarbital-Chlorpromazine-Alcohol Group (PCAG) score (representative value of sedation) of 8.1, which is lower than most opioids. The MBG score showed no statistically significant correlation between any of the characteristics of the groups. In females, the PCAG score showed a correlation with age, and in males, it showed a correlation with a sleeping problem. Conclusions Propofol had relatively high euphoria and low residual sedative effects. It had a more potent sedative effect in the female group who were young, and in the male group who had a low sleep quality index. There were differences in the abuse liability from a single exposure to propofol in the general population. Further study is needed to evaluate the abuse liability of repeated exposure. PMID:24363842

  20. Effects of the δ opioid agonist AZD2327 upon operant behaviors and assessment of its potential for abuse.

    PubMed

    Hudzik, T J; Pietras, M R; Caccese, R; Bui, K H; Yocca, F; Paronis, C A; Swedberg, M D B

    2014-09-01

    AZD2327 is a brain-penetrant agonist at δ opioid receptors which has antidepressant and anxiolytic properties in a wide array of animal models. As part of the preclinical safety pharmacology assessment, a number of studies were conducted in order to characterize its behavioral effects and its potential for abuse, in order to enable testing in humans. AZD2327 produced only modest effects when tested in a multiple fixed-ratio differential reinforcement of low rate schedule in rats, and did not enhance the rate-suppressing effects of ethanol in the procedure. In a suppressed responding test, AZD2327 only reduced rates of unpunished responding. In drug discrimination studies, AZD2327 produced partial or no generalization from known drugs of abuse. In primates trained to self-administer cocaine, substitution with AZD2327 did not result in appreciable self-administration of AZD2327, indicating that it does not behave as a positive reinforcer under the present conditions. Following termination of repeated administration of AZD2327, no signs of physical dependence (withdrawal) were noted. Overall, the data suggest that AZD2327 does not possess a high potential for abuse, and appears to have only subtle behavioral effects as measured by operant behaviors. PMID:24857840

  1. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. PMID:25262913

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Olfson, Mark; Villegas, Laura; Morcillo, Carmen; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric disorders of adults with history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population. More that 34,000 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were face-to-face interviewed in a survey conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors and other axis I psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 10.14% (24.8% in men, and 75.2% in women). Child physical abuse, maltreatment, and neglect was more prevalent among individuals with CSA than among those without it. Adults with child sexual abuse history had significantly higher rates of any Axis I disorder and suicide attempts. The frequency, type and number of CSA were significantly correlated with psychopathology. Conclusions The high correlation rates of CSA with psychopathology and increased risk for suicide attempts in adulthood suggest the need for a systematic assessment of psychiatric disorders and suicide risk in these individuals. The risk factors for CSA emphasize the need for health care initiatives geared towards increasing recognition and development of treatment approaches for the emotional sequelae CSA as well as early preventive approaches. PMID:22854279

  3. Selected Results from a Study of Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alan L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate personality characteristics of child abusers, utilizing the results of the Melnick-Hurley (1969) study. Subjects were 40 mothers receiving Aid to Dependent Children in Ingham County, Michigan. Each of the 20 "abusive" mothers had abused at least one of her children within six months prior to testing. To…

  4. The Relationship between Major Life Events and the Potential for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdsal, Jeanne

    High risk parenting and child abuse are the consequences of multiple and interactive factors. The occurrence of major life events such as death, divorce, marriage, and pregnancy frequently presents stressors that may ignite an already volatile family situation. This study was conducted to examine the incidence of reported major life events in…

  5. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381

  6. Sexual abuse of children. A comparative study of intra and extra-familial cases.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Teresa; Taveira, Francisco; Jardim, Patrícia; Santos, Liliana; Matos, Eduarda; Santos, Agostinho

    2009-11-01

    The existing data suggest that individuals experiencing intra-familial abuse are affected more significantly than those experiencing extra-familial abuse. This study aims to identify possible differences between these types of abuse. A retrospective study was performed based on medico-legal reports related to children suspected of being sexually abused (n=1054). The results revealed that 40.2% of the suspected abuses were intra-familial and were significantly different than extra-familial cases with respect to the following: (a) the complainants were younger; (b) their relationship to the alleged abuser was closer; (c) the alleged abusers had higher rates of previous sexual abuse; (d) the suspected abuses were less intrusive physically; (e) there was less physical but more psychological violence; (f) the delay between the last abuse and the medico-legal examination was greater; and (g) there were fewer physical signs and DNA evidence (none in the great majority of cases). These results highlight aspects of intra-familial abuse that have been identified as factors influencing the severity of its consequences - physically, these instances of abuse were less intrusive but psychologically they were more intrusive than extra-familial abuse. This justifies the use of different strategies in the diagnosis and support for victims within the family. PMID:19782315

  7. A Statewide Study of the Public Attitudes toward Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooper, Surjit Singh; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 742 Kentucky adults revealed that they had a good understanding of the characteristics of abused children and child abusers, but a majority considered abusers as abnormal and intractable. Only a third of those aware of instances of child abuse actually reported it to authorities. (Author/JDD)

  8. The Polygraph, Its Use in Cases of Alleged Sexual Abuse: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    1997-01-01

    This exploratory study of 42 cases with sexual abuse allegations and polygraph results found that polygraph findings were unrelated to other evidence of likelihood of sexual abuse, including the child's statements, medical evidence, psychological symptoms, or indicators of sexual abuse. When alleged offenders passed polygraphs, criminal…

  9. Words that Hurt: A Qualitative Study of Parental Verbal Abuse in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Jennifer; Calleja, Flora; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigated opinions on what constitute parental abuse with interviews of 30 high school students, 30 parents, and 28 counselors. Despite increased reported cases of emotional abuses and child maltreatments in the Philippines, few empirical studies have explored the exact nature of parental verbal abuses in this country. This study…

  10. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  11. Psychological Disturbance and Child Sexual Abuse: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calam, Rachel; Horne, Louise; Glasgow, David; Cox, Antony

    1998-01-01

    A study of 144 English children who had been sexually abused investigated risk factors for the development of psychological disturbance in sexually abused children. Results found age, gender, abuse, and perpetrator characteristics did not show strong effects initially. Children involved in criminal proceedings were at particular risk. (Author/CR)

  12. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach. PMID:25660988

  13. Sociodemographic representation in published studies of cocaine abuse pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, D A; Montoya, I D; Johnson, E O

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated: (1) the reporting of sociodemographic characteristics of research subjects in published outpatient studies of cocaine abuse pharmacotherapy; (2) the association of study characteristics with such reporting and with the distribution of characteristics; and (3) the comparison of sociodemographic characteristics in the research subjects with those of a community-based sample of cocaine abusers who had sought treatment. Medline search identified 68 articles on cocaine abuse outpatient pharmacotherapy published from 1983 to 1993 in an English language, peer-reviewed journal. Sociodemographic characteristics of research subjects (n = 1802) were compared with those of respondents (weighted n = 135) to the National Comorbidity Survey (1990-1992), who reported at least one cocaine-related problem and had sought substance abuse treatment. Only three (4.4%) articles reported all six of the following sociodemographic characteristics of their subjects: 82.4%, reported mean age; 58.8%, race/ethnicity; 85.3%, sex; 22.1%, employment status; 13.2%, educational status; and 5.9%, socioeconomic status/income. Compared to survey respondents, research subjects were significantly more likely to be African-American and live in the Northeast region of the US and marginally more likely to be male and currently unemployed. These findings indicate that many published articles do not follow currently recommended guidelines for describing sociodemographic characteristics of research subjects and that, aside from race/ethnicity and geographic location, research subjects are fairly comparable in basic sociodemographic characteristics to the larger population of treatment-seeking individuals with cocaine-related problems. PMID:9543645

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Aminoalkylindole Derivatives as Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands with Potential for Treatment of Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vasiljevik, Tamara; Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Douglas, Justin T.; Prather, Paul L.; Fantegrossi, William E.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuation of increased endocannabinoid signaling with a CB1R neutral antagonist might offer a new therapeutic direction for treatment of alcohol abuse. We have recently reported that a mono-hydroxylated metabolite of the synthetic aminoalkylindole cannabinoid JHW-073 (3) exhibits neutral antagonist activity at CB1Rs and thus may serve as a promising lead for the development of novel alcohol abuse therapies. In the current study, we show that systematic modification of an aminoalkylindole scaffold identified two new compounds with dual CB1R antagonist/CB2R agonist activity. Similar to the CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, analogues 27 and 30 decrease oral alcohol self-administration, without affecting total fluid intake and block the development of alcohol-conditioned place preference. Collectively, these initial findings suggest that design and systematic modification of aminoalkylindoles such as 3 may lead to development of novel cannabinoid ligands with dual CB1R antagonist/CB2R agonist activity with potential for use as treatments of alcohol abuse. PMID:23631463

  15. Bath Salts Abuse leading to New Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    PubMed

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    2014-06-20

    Background: Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States.Objective: To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients.Method: This is a case report on a 40 year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current US public health legislation on bath salts.Results: The presented case illustrates a new onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms.Discussion: To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and US legislation by Ohio state law to current US federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts.Conclusion: It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder. PMID:24951715

  16. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Jasbir; Sujata, N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members. Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package. Results: Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent. Conclusion: It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural. PMID:26816425

  17. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426

  18. Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Dickey, R

    1990-12-01

    The reliability of the notion that pedophilia is caused by sexual abuse in childhood was explored by examining retrospective self-reports of 344 males. Included in the study were 77 heterosexual pedophiles, 54 homosexual pedophiles, 51 nonpedophilic sex offenders against children, 36 sex offenders against physically mature females, 75 heterosexual paid volunteers who erotically preferred mature females, and 51 homosexual clients who preferred mature males. For each sex offender the differential diagnosis of an erotic preference for minors vs. a preference for physically mature partners was made by means of the phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. The analysis of self-reports confirmed that the proportion of pedophiles who report having been sexually abused in childhood by mature persons is larger than that of men who were not charged for or accused of a sex offense against a child though the difference is relatively small (28.6 vs. 13.9 and 10.7% for the heterosexual pedophiles and the two groups of gynephiles, respectively, and 25.9 vs. 11.8% for the homosexual pedophiles and androphiles, respectively). Further analysis demonstrated, however, that pedophiles who admitted having an erotic interest in children significantly more often claimed that they had been sexually abused as children than pedophiles who did not admit having such feelings. This interdependence renders the reliability of these self-reports questionable. PMID:2082860

  19. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, P P; Kawamura, T; Chen, J; Koob, G F; Roberts, A J; Vendruscolo, L F; Repunte-Canonigo, V

    2016-01-01

    The identification of new and more effective treatments for alcohol abuse remains a priority. Alcohol intake activates glucocorticoids, which have a key role in alcohol's reinforcing properties. Glucocorticoid effects are modulated in part by the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) acting as pre-receptors. Here, we tested the effects on alcohol intake of the 11β-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate), which has been extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer and is active on both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 isoforms. We observed that CBX reduces both baseline and excessive drinking in rats and mice. The CBX diastereomer 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid 3β-O-hemisuccinate (αCBX), which we found to be selective for 11β-HSD2, was also effective in reducing alcohol drinking in mice. Thus, 11β-HSD inhibitors may be a promising new class of candidate alcohol abuse medications, and existing 11β-HSD inhibitor drugs may be potentially re-purposed for alcohol abuse treatment. PMID:26978742

  20. Drug abuse in Costa Rica: a review of several studies.

    PubMed

    Alfaro Murillo, E

    1990-01-01

    This article provides a review of drug use surveys conducted by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence during the years 1983-1987. These studies dealt with a wide range of subjects--residents of marginal neighborhoods, juvenile male and adult female detainees, and high school students--as well as with the general population. Overall, the studies indicated that the most commonly used illicit drug was marijuana, that the bulk of the drug users (excluding alcohol and tobacco users) were young males, that relevant levels of cocaine use were starting to occur, and that the country's general drug abuse picture poses a problem in need of immediate attention. PMID:2331555

  1. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims. PMID:26075920

  2. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period. Method Women, who had reported substantial suffering as a result of a previous experience of abuse within the healthcare system, were purposefully selected from a Danish sample of a multinational cohort study on negative life events among pregnant women (the BIDENS Study). Eleven women were interviewed individually by means of a semi-structured interview guide. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed by means of qualitative systematic text condensation analysis. Results Four categories were identified to describe the women’s experience of AHC and its consequences on pregnancy and childbirth: abusive acts of unintentional harm, dehumanization, bodily remembrance, and finding the strength to move on. Abuse in health care may have profound consequences on the reproductive lives of the women, among others affecting sexuality, the desire to have children and the expectations of mode of delivery. However, the women described constructive ways to manage the experience, to which healthcare professionals could also contribute significantly. Conclusions Regardless of whether AHC is experienced in childhood or adulthood, it can influence the lives of women during pregnancy and childbirth. By recognising the potential existence of AHC, healthcare professionals have a unique opportunity to support women who have experienced AHC. PMID:23521853

  3. The relationship between child abuse and handicapping conditions.

    PubMed

    Mullins, J B

    1986-04-01

    This article discusses the relationship of child abuse, including neglect and sexual abuse, to the presence of handicapping conditions, both physical and psychological. Child abuse can cause physical and psychological disabilities in children who otherwise would have been normal. Studies show that children who are handicapped, or otherwise perceived as different by potentially abusive parents, are at high risk for abuse. Evidence also indicates that the handicaps of some children who were diagnosed originally as disabled are exacerbated by abuse. While cause and effect are not easily determined in specific cases, researchers agree that a pervasive relationship exists between handicapping conditions and abuse. Abused children are overrepresented in special education classes and handicapped children are overrepresented in the abused population. Many abused children become abusers as adults. Several suggestions concerning the problem are offered for school personnel. PMID:2937963

  4. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  5. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  6. Blessed be the Children: A Case-Control Study of Sexual Abusers in the Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Cynthia; Fargo, Jamison; Jeglic, Elizabeth; Terry, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Individuals working in churches and other youth-serving institutions have a unique level of access to children, yet the problem of sexual abuse in institutional settings has received scant research attention. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a large sample of clergy (N = 1,121) and applied a social-ecological model of offending to identify risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration. Using a case-control study design that compared clergy sexual abusers with three control groups of clergy, this study focuses specifically on individual-, relationship-, and community-level factors associated with a higher risk of abuse in professional populations. Findings revealed that clergy sexual abusers tended to have more truncated pre-seminary dating histories, and that their dating and sexual partners were more likely to have been male than female. Self-reported sexual abuse history was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual abuse perpetration among clergy. Clergy abusers tended to be more involved with youth and adolescents in their ministries; however, they were observed to relate less well to youth and adolescents than their clergy counterparts. Given widespread changes in our cultural understanding of abuse as well as more specific changes in the organizational approach to seminary education, these differences underscore the role that youth-serving institutions and society can have in the primary prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:26294387

  7. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  8. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  9. Childhood Maltreatment, Childhood Social Support, and Child Abuse Potential in a Basque Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of a Basque (Spain) sample with a similar U.S. sample found similar overall rates of physical child abuse, though rates of physical abuse sequelae were lower in the Basque sample and sexual abuse of Basque males was twice that reported for U.S. males. Level of father support was important in both groups. (Author/DB)

  10. New Analytical Tool for the Detection of Ractopamine Abuse in Goat Skeletal Muscle by Potential Gene Expression Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luyao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Can; Cheng, Yongyou; You, Xinyong; Gu, Xu; Zhao, Zhen; Muhammad Tarique, Tunio

    2016-03-01

    In this study, quantification of mRNA gene expression was examined as biomarkers to detect ractopamaine abuse and ractopamaine residues in cashmere goats. It was focused on the identification of potential gene expression biomarkers and describing the coreletionship between gene expression and residue level by 58 animals for 49 days. The results showed that administration periods and residue levels significantly influenced mRNA expressions of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), the enzymes PRKACB, ADCY3, ATP1A3, ATP2A3, PTH, and MYLK, and the immune factors IL-1β and TNF-α. Statistical analysis like principal components analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) showed that these genes can serve as potential biomarkers for ractopamine in skeletal muscle and that they are also suitable for describing different residue levels separately. PMID:26886866

  11. Child Witness to Domestic Abuse: Baseline Data Analysis for a Seven-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Blair, Faye; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2015-01-01

    Children who witness the abuse of their mother by an intimate partner suffer negative effects on behavioral functioning. In this study, 300 abused women seeking services for abuse were interviewed regarding how often their child had witnessed the abuse. Baseline data for this study found that boys who witnessed abuse had externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems comparable to boys in clinical treatment. Girls did not display clinically significant behaviors. For evidence-based programs to interrupt the effect of witness to violence on children, empirical data that are gender-specific are needed. Findings support the need to screen mothers for abuse during well-child visits and offer education to all mothers on the possible effects of child witness to violence in the home. PMID:26281272

  12. Latest advances in novel cannabinoid CB2 ligands for drug abuse and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The field of cannabinoid (CB) drug research is experiencing a challenge as the CB1 antagonist Rimonabant, launched in 2006 as an anorectic/anti-obesity drug, was withdrawn from the European market due to the complications of suicide and depression as side effects. There is interest in developing CB2 drugs without CB1 psychotropic side effects for drug-abuse treatment and therapeutic medication. The CB1 receptor was discovered predominantly in the brain, whereas the CB2 is mainly expressed in peripheral cells and tissues, and is involved in immune signal transduction. Conversely, the CB2 receptor was recently detected in the CNS, for example, in the microglial cells and the neurons. While the CB2 neurons activity remains controversial, the CB2 receptor is an attractive therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, immune system, cancer and osteoporosis without psychoactivity. This review addresses CB drug abuse and therapeutic potential with a focus on the most recent advances on new CB2 ligands from the literature as well as patents. PMID:22300098

  13. Wife abuse: a hidden problem. A study among Saudi women attending PHC centres.

    PubMed

    Tashkandi, A; Rasheed, F P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure the prevalence, severity and type of wife abuse experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Women were interviewed in private at health centres using a questionnaire which included items from the Modified Conflict Tactic Scale, Kansas Marital Scale and the lie scale of the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory. Of 689 eligible women, 25.7% reported physical abuse and 32.8% emotional abuse without physical violence. Of those physically abused, 36.7% suffered minor and 63.3% severe incidents. The lifetime prevalence of abuse among the women was 57.7%. Only 36.7% of 109 abused women had informed and discussed the issue with their primary care physician. PMID:20214138

  14. Gender Differences in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Multicenter Study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gökten, Emel Sarı; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Özcan, Özlem Özel; Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender-based differences in abuse-related characteristics and post-abuse psychiatric disorders among sexually abused children and adolescents. The researchers retrospectively examined files, judicial reports, and social examination reports of 1,250 sexually abused youth cases. Results showed that boys were more often victimized by penetration, force, and physical violence. Incidence of sexual abuse by family members, familiar persons, and multiple persons was higher among girls. In addition, a higher rate of major depressive disorder as well as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were found in sexually abused girls. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of post-traumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, and other mental disorders. Intellectual disability was more frequent in boys. PMID:27266537

  15. A study of shame from sexual abuse within the context of a Norwegian incest center.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny

    2013-01-01

    Working with those who have experienced sexual abuse is a complicated matter because such abuse not only involves the violation of the victim's body, but it often generates shame in those involved. This article is based on empirical data from 26 hours of videotaped focus group interviews with 19 adult men and women in a Norwegian incest center who spoke openly of the shame they experienced from sexual abuse as children, parents, and employees. Findings from this study show that shame from sexual abuse can be grouped into seven major categories: (a) family, (b) emotions, (c) body, (d) food, (e) self-image, (f) sex, and (g) therapy. PMID:23924177

  16. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  17. The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Children: A Review and Synthesis of Recent Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; And Others

    Until recently the literature on the impact of child sexual abuse has consisted disproportionately of retrospective studies of adults. Research on children allows for a developmental perspective and includes the first efforts at longitudinal studies of sexual abuse victims. This literature also has important relevance to other theory and research…

  18. A Multivariate Model for the Study of Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; Rohner, Evelyn C.

    This paper proposes a multivariate strategy for the study of parental acceptance-rejection and child abuse and describes a research study on parental rejection and child abuse which illustrates the advantages of using a multivariate, (rather than a simple-model) approach. The multivariate model is a combination of three simple models used to study…

  19. Predictors of Trauma Symptomatology in Sexually Abused Adolescents: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Sarah; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Van Oost, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the natural course of trauma-specific symptoms 6 months after disclosure. Furthermore, this study investigates whether severity and type of abuse (intrafamilial or extrafamilial sexual abuse), negative appraisals, coping strategies, and crisis support measured at time of disclosure can be predictive of trauma symptoms 6 months…

  20. Child Deaths in Texas: A Study of Child Deaths Attributed to Abuse and Neglect (1975 - 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Region VI Resource Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.

    A study conducted to determine the characteristics and circumstances of child deaths related to abuse and neglect in Texas during 1975-77 is the subject of this document. Following an introduction providing study background and a review of related literature, the second section provides a brief description of the Child Abuse and Neglect Reprint…

  1. Case studies in the family treatment of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Noone, R J; Reddig, R L

    1976-09-01

    This article, with case illustrations, attempts to demonstrate that drug-abuse behavior can be understood more clearly in the light of family loyalties and unresolved family crises than from the perspective that drug abusers are social deviates.1 Drug abuse is viewed as symptomatic, as a signal that both drug abuser and his or her family are having difficulty in getting past a particular stage in the natural unfolding life cycle of a family. Treatment of drug abuse is seen primarily as helping the family to become "unstuck," thereby freeing the individual's and family's energy for the task of self-development and growth rather than expending it to maintain rigid patterns of interaction in an attempt to prevent change. PMID:1026451

  2. Fatal child abuse: a study of 13 cases of continuous abuse.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-07-26

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  3. Hypertension in Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Observations from the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Riley, EH; Wright, RJ; Jun, HJ; Hibert, EN; Rich-Edwards, JW

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited research has shown a possible association between exposure to physical or sexual abuse prior to age 18 and the risk of developing hypertension as an adult. The factors mediating this relationship are unknown. Methods We analyzed questionnaire data from 68 505 female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II regarding exposure to physical and sexual abuse prior to age 18. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between abuse exposure and hypertension. Results Sixty-four percent of the participants (n = 41 792) reported physical and/or sexual abuse prior to age 18; 17% reported hypertension. All forms of abuse had a dose-response relationship with hypertension. Adjustments for smoking, alcohol, family history of hypertension, exercise, and oral contraceptives did not alter risk estimates. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) significantly attenuated the associations between abuse and risk of hypertension and accounted for approximately 50% of the observed association between abuse exposure and hypertension. Women experiencing forced sexual activity as a child and as an adolescent had a 20% increased risk for developing hypertension (95% CI 8–32%) that was independent of BMI. Similarly, women reporting severe physical abuse in childhood and/or adolescence had risk estimates ranging from 14% (95% CI 5–24%) to 22% (95% CI 11–33%). Conclusion Early interpersonal violence may be a widespread risk factor for the development of hypertension in women. BMI is a significant mediator in the relationship between early abuse and adult hypertension. PMID:20445210

  4. Gender Abuse and Major Depression Among Transgender Women: A Prospective Study of Vulnerability and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004–2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). Results. We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Conclusions. Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse. PMID:24328655

  5. Self-reported methods of cessation of adult male child abusers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Booxbaum, Amy; Burton, David L

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explored the pre-arrest self-selected cessation attempts of sexual offenders (N = 109) who abused children and often others. Four participants were dropped because of invalid responding (N = 104). While 74.3% of sample participants reported attempts to decrease or stop their sexual offending prior to arrest, 56% out of 100 who responded to the cessation question reported that they were able to do so. Self-efficacy was examined as a potential predictive variable of cessation attempts and success of attempts; however, no relationship was found between self-efficacy and attempts. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:23330623

  6. The Long-Term Sequelae of Child and Adolescent Abuse: A Longitudinal Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Amy B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 17-year longitudinal study of 375 individuals found that, at age 21, almost 11% reported physical or sexual abuse before age 18. Compared to nonabused counterparts, abused subjects demonstrated significant impairments in functioning at ages 15 and 21, including more depressive symptomatology, anxiety, psychiatric disorders, emotional-behavioral…

  7. A Three-Generational Study of Transmission of Risk for Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Jacobsen, Teresa; Grossman, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This intergenerational study investigates histories of both attachment relationships and abusive experiences and domains of current functioning that distinguish families of sexually abused children from families of nonabused children. The participants included (a) 199 nonoffending African American mothers of whom approximately half had children…

  8. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  9. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  10. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  12. Attributions about Perpetrators and Victims of Interpersonal Abuse: Results from an Analogue Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shlien-Dellinger, Rania K.; Huss, Matthew T.; Kramer, Vertrie L.

    2004-01-01

    This analogue study (written vignettes and videotapes) examines the influence of victim-perpetrator relationship (spouse or acquaintance), sex of perceiver, and type of abuse (psychological vs. physical) on attributions about victims and perpetrators of domestic abuse. College student participants (73 men, 108 women) were randomly assigned to…

  13. A Qualitative Study of Educator and Counselor Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding Adolescent Substance Abusers' Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henegar, LaTrica Y.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drug Abuse. Research Monograph 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne, Ed.; Asghar, Khursheed, Ed.

    This monograph presents the proceedings of the first National Institute on Drug Abuse technical review related to the conduct of controlled studies on prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Papers in the monograph are categorized by session. The first session (two papers) focused on the detection and quantification of prenatal drug exposure in…

  16. Studies of the Effectiveness of Treatments for Drug Abuse, Based on the Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP): 1974. IBR Report 74-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth. Inst. of Behavioral Research.

    The papers included in this volume are part of a programmatic investigation involving the evaluation of treatments for drug abuse. The studies are based on treatment outcome criteria for the patient sample representing all admissions during year 3 (June 1, 1971 to May 31, 1972) of the Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP). The overall strategy of…

  17. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group. PMID:18326483

  18. Sustained relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain by a CRMP2 peptide aptamer with low abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jennifer Y; Chew, Lindsey A; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuying; Qu, Chaoling; Wang, Yue; Federici, Lauren M; Fitz, Stephanie D; Ripsch, Matthew S; Due, Michael R; Moutal, Aubin; Khanna, May; White, Fletcher A; Vanderah, Todd W; Johnson, Philip L; Porreca, Frank; Khanna, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling the protein-protein interaction between collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2) with an allosteric CRMP2-derived peptide (CBD3) is antinociceptive in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We investigated the efficacy, duration of action, abuse potential, and neurobehavioral toxicity of an improved mutant CRMP2 peptide. A homopolyarginine (R9)-conjugated CBD3-A6K (R9-CBD3-A6K) peptide inhibited the CaV2.2-CRMP2 interaction in a concentration-dependent fashion and diminished surface expression of CaV2.2 and depolarization-evoked Ca influx in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. In vitro studies demonstrated suppression of excitability of small-to-medium diameter dorsal root ganglion and inhibition of subtypes of voltage-gated Ca channels. Sprague-Dawley rats with tibial nerve injury had profound and long-lasting tactile allodynia and ongoing pain. Immediate administration of R9-CBD3-A6K produced enhanced dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens shell selectively in injured animals, consistent with relief of ongoing pain. R9-CBD3-A6K, when administered repeatedly into the central nervous system ventricles of naive rats, did not result in a positive conditioned place preference demonstrating a lack of abusive liability. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of R9-CBD3-A6K over a 24- to 72-hour period reversed tactile allodynia and ongoing pain, demonstrating a lack of tolerance over this time course. Importantly, continuous infusion of R9-CBD3-A6K did not affect motor activity, anxiety, depression, or memory and learning. Collectively, these results validate the potential therapeutic significance of targeting the CaV-CRMP2 axis for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:27537210

  19. Childhood Abuse and Delinquency: A Descriptive Study of Institutionalized Female Youth in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ng, Vivienne P. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood abuse experiences appear prevalent in institutionalized children and youth, but research to date has been limited. Moreover, there is no published study that has examined the issue of childhood abuse and delinquency within institutionalized children and youth in Singapore. This study was cross-sectional in design with follow-up criminal record checks. Data were collected from multiple data sources including official records, structured clinical interviews, and self-report questionnaires on 79 adolescent female residential youth. Two thirds reported having experienced childhood abuse and a higher proportion reported having previously engaged in self-harming behaviours. Participants with multiple types of abuse reported being abused at a younger age, were more likely to be subjected to repeated physical abuse, to have overdosed on medication, and to have reported more health and sexual concerns and trauma symptomatology than those who reported either experiencing one or no previous types of abuse. Fourteen (18%) of the sample had been convicted of further criminal offences over a 6½-year follow-up. The adolescents with histories of multiple types of abuse in childhood presented with more health concerns and traumatic symptomatology, self-reported delinquency, as well as past self-harming behaviour during their institutional stay. Identification of these additionally vulnerable adolescents has important clinical implications for identification, assessment and intervention planning. PMID:25892943

  20. The ecological model and the study of child abuse in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Oyelaran, E B

    1989-01-01

    Physical abuse and exploitative child labor are two common forms of child abuse in Nigeria. Exploitative child labor exists in both the formal and informal sectors where children work as hairdressers, beggars' assistants, hawkers, and as factory and agricultural workers under conditions characterized by long hours, hazardous environment, and meager remuneration. Research on the incidence of physical abuse in Nigeria is less systematic, and few empirical studies are available. Physical abuse is primarily the result of corporal punishment which has become excessive. Poverty and the existence of a dependent capitalist economy are often proffered as the primary causes of child abuse. While both explanations have some validity, their unidimensional nature limits their explanatory capacity. These explanations also lead to the belief that very little can be done to improve the quality of children's lives until the social order is restructured. The ecological model proposes that child abuse can best be understood if it is analyzed multidimensionally with emphasis on the individual, family, social environment, and cultural milieau, as well as the dynamic interaction between these levels. This model appears appropriate for the study of child abuse in Nigeria, and its application is advocated as a vehicle for improving the quality of child abuse research. PMID:2776046

  1. A case of sexual abuse by a traditional faith healer: are there potential preventions?

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems. PMID:23194137

  2. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  3. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  4. Deaths from abuse of volatile substances: a national epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H R; Macnair, R S; Ramsey, J D

    1985-01-26

    A survey of the United Kingdom detected 282 deaths from abuse of volatile substances during 1971-83. Deaths appeared to have increased in the most recent years, reaching 80 in 1983. Age at death ranged from 11 to 76 years but most deaths (72%) occurred under 20 years. Ninety five per cent of the subjects were male, and in 1983 deaths from volatile substance abuse accounted for 2% of all deaths in males aged 10-19. All areas of the United Kingdom were affected, the rates being highest in Scotland and urban areas. All social classes were affected, though rates were highest in social class V and the armed forces. The volatile substances abused were gas fuels (24%), mainly butane; aerosol sprays (17%); solvents in glues (27%); and other volatile substances, such as cleaning agents (31%). In 51% of cases death was attributed to the direct toxic effects of the substance abused, in 21% to plastic bag asphyxia, in 18% to inhalation of stomach contents, and in 11% to trauma. Deaths associated with the abuse of glues were more likely to be traumatic, but all substances appeared capable of killing directly by their toxic effects, probably by a cardiac mechanism. Only a small proportion of deaths (6%) were due to the abuse of glues among children under 16; hence current attempts to limit access of children to glues will probably have little impact on overall mortality. PMID:3917795

  5. Abuse of people with cognitive impairment by family caregivers in Japan (a cross-sectional study).

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuki; Terada, Seishi; Takeda, Naoya; Oshima, Etsuko; Honda, Hajime; Yoshida, Hidenori; Yokota, Osamu; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2013-10-30

    Caregiving is often stressful in an aging society. Our research questions were two. First, In Japan, how often does abusive behavior by the caregivers of elders with clinically mild cognitive dysfunction (mild cognitive impairment and clinically mild dementia) occur? Second, what risk factors affect the abusive behavior? We studied 123 Japanese caregivers and care recipients who had been referred to the Memory Clinic at Okayama University Hospital. We used the Japanese version of the modified Conflict Tactics Scale (m-CTS) to measure abusive behaviors. We estimate the prevalence of abusive behavior meeting threshold (m-CTS score of 2 or higher) for abuse case on the modified m-CTS. The prevalence of abusive behavior was 15.4%. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the sex of caregivers and scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Zarit Caregiver Burden scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination had significant effects on the m-CTS scores. We demonstrated that in Japan, caregivers of the elderly with even clinically mild cognitive dysfunction exhibit abusive behavior toward them. The severity of the disease might reflect the prevalence of and factors that affect the abusive conflict score. PMID:23462386

  6. Theoretical perspectives of male sexual abuse: conceptualization of a case study.

    PubMed

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E; Tysinger, P Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light on the impact that sexual abuse can have on the development of a young boy. These perspectives include early family relationships and attachment theory, developmental psychopathology, and trauma theory. These theoretical lenses provide a conceptual understanding into why some victims are vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Each theoretical view is applied to a case study of an adolescent male with a history of early trauma and sexual abuse. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22452298

  7. The cognitive impact of sexual abuse and PTSD in children: a neuropsychological study.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Mauricio; Calderón, Liliana; Bell, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Sexual abuse is known to have an impact on both child and adult mental health, but the neuropsychological basis of this effect is still largely unknown. This study compared neuropsychological test results from a group of 76 children, 13 of them sexual abuse victims with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, 26 victims of sexual abuse who showed no symptoms post-traumatic stress disorder, and 37 controls. The groups were matched by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educational level. Child sexual abuse was associated with reduced ability to inhibit automatic responses measured by the Stroop test regardless of post-traumatic stress disorder status. These findings indicate possible attentional inhibition difficulties in child victims of sexual abuse, which may help explain psychopathology associated with the experience. PMID:23924174

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators: A Qualitative Study of Male and Female Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual…

  9. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  10. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  11. Dissociation, PTSD, and Substance Abuse: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Najavits, Lisa; Walsh, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD) and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. Discussion addresses methodology, the “chemical dissociation” hypothesis, and the need for more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena. PMID:22211445

  12. Dissociation, PTSD, and substance abuse: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M; Walsh, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder, and dissociation. We studied 77 women with current PTSD and substance dependence, classified into high- versus low-dissociation groups per the Dissociative Experiences Scale. They were compared on trauma- and substance-related symptoms, cognitions, coping skills, social adjustment, trauma history, psychiatric symptoms, and self-harm/suicidal behaviors. We found the high-dissociation group consistently more impaired than the low-dissociation group. Also, the sample overall evidenced relatively high levels of dissociation, indicating that even in the presence of recent substance use, dissociation remains a major psychological phenomenon. Indeed, the high-dissociation group reported stronger expectation that substances could manage their psychiatric symptoms. The high-dissociation group also had more trauma-related symptoms and childhood histories of emotional abuse and physical neglect. The discussion addresses methodology, the "chemical dissociation" hypothesis, and the need for a more nuanced understanding of how substances are experienced in relation to dissociative phenomena. PMID:22211445

  13. Effects of Persisting Emotional Impact from Child Abuse and Norepinephrine Transporter Genetic Variation on Antidepressant Efficacy in Major Depression: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet Bhagat; Bousman, Chad A.; Ng, Chee Hong; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest child abuse and serotonergic polymorphism influence depression susceptibility and anti-depressant efficacy. Polymorphisms of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) may also be involved. Research in the area is possibly clouded by under reporting of abuse in researcher trials. Methods Adults (n=51) with major depressive disorder has 8 weeks treatment with escitalopram or venlafaxine. Abuse history was obtained, the ongoing emotional impact of which was measured with the 15-item impact of event scale (IES-15). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was applied serially. Two NET polymorphisms (rs2242446 and rs5569) were assayed, blinded to HDRS ratings and abuse history. Results No subjects reporting abuse with high impact in adulthood (IES-15 ≥26, n=12) remitted; whereas 77% reporting low impact (IES-15 <26; n=26) remitted (p<0.001). Subjects reporting high impact abuse (n=12) had a 50-fold (95% confidence interval=4.85–514.6) greater odds of carrying rs2242446-TT genotype, but the small sample size leaves this finding vulnerable to type I error. Conclusion The level of persisting impact of child abuse appears relevant to antidepressant efficacy, with susceptibility to such possibly being influence by NET rs2242446 polymorphism. Larger studies may be merited to expand on this pilot level finding given potential for biomarker utility. PMID:25912538

  14. Strategies to Reduce the Tampering and Subsequent Abuse of Long-acting Opioids: Potential Risks and Benefits of Formulations With Physical or Pharmacologic Deterrents to Tampering

    PubMed Central

    Stanos, Steven P.; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Barkin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Increased prescribing of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain may reflect acceptance that opioid benefits outweigh risks of adverse events for a broadening array of indications and patient populations; however, a parallel increase in the abuse, misuse, and diversion of prescription opioids has resulted. There is an urgent need to reduce opioid tampering and subsequent abuse without creating barriers to safe, effective analgesia. Similar to the “magic bullet” concept of antibiotic development (kill the bacteria without harming the patient), the idea behind reformulating opioid analgesics is to make them more difficult to tamper with and abuse by drug abusers but innocuous to the compliant patient. As antibiotics exploit differences in bacterial and human physiology, tamper-resistant formulations depend on differences in the way drug abusers and compliant patients consume opioids. Most opioid abusers tamper with tablets to facilitate oral, intranasal, or intravenous administration, whereas compliant patients usually take intact tablets. Pharmaceutical strategies to deter opioid abuse predominantly focus on tablet tampering, incorporating physical barriers (eg, crush resistance) or embedded chemicals that render tampered tablets inert, unusable, or noxious. Deterring tampering and abuse of intact tablets is more challenging. At present, only a few formulations with characteristics designed to oppose tampering for abuse have received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and none has been permitted to include claims of abuse deterrence or tamper resistance in their labeling. This review discusses the potential benefits, risks, and limitations associated with available tamper-resistant opioids and those in development. PMID:22766088

  15. Strategies to reduce the tampering and subsequent abuse of long-acting opioids: potential risks and benefits of formulations with physical or pharmacologic deterrents to tampering.

    PubMed

    Stanos, Steven P; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Barkin, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Increased prescribing of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain may reflect acceptance that opioid benefits outweigh risks of adverse events for a broadening array of indications and patient populations; however, a parallel increase in the abuse, misuse, and diversion of prescription opioids has resulted. There is an urgent need to reduce opioid tampering and subsequent abuse without creating barriers to safe, effective analgesia. Similar to the "magic bullet" concept of antibiotic development (kill the bacteria without harming the patient), the idea behind reformulating opioid analgesics is to make them more difficult to tamper with and abuse by drug abusers but innocuous to the compliant patient. As antibiotics exploit differences in bacterial and human physiology, tamper-resistant formulations depend on differences in the way drug abusers and compliant patients consume opioids. Most opioid abusers tamper with tablets to facilitate oral, intranasal, or intravenous administration, whereas compliant patients usually take intact tablets. Pharmaceutical strategies to deter opioid abuse predominantly focus on tablet tampering, incorporating physical barriers (eg, crush resistance) or embedded chemicals that render tampered tablets inert, unusable, or noxious. Deterring tampering and abuse of intact tablets is more challenging. At present, only a few formulations with characteristics designed to oppose tampering for abuse have received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and none has been permitted to include claims of abuse deterrence or tamper resistance in their labeling. This review discusses the potential benefits, risks, and limitations associated with available tamper-resistant opioids and those in development. PMID:22766088

  16. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  17. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  18. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  19. The Role of Prothrombotic Factors in the Ocular Manifestations of Abusive and Non-Abusive Head Trauma: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anna; Stephens, Derek; Feldman, Brian M.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Kahr, Walter H. A.; Brandao, Leonardo R.; Shouldice, Michelle; Levin, Alex V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Retinal hemorrhage is a cardinal manifestation of abusive head injury. Thrombophilia is relatively common in the general population and in adults can be associated with retinal hemorrhage. The specificity of retinal hemorrhage for abusive head trauma in the presence of prothrombotic factors, in particular following non-abusive head…

  20. Substance use and abuse by Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: preliminary results from four national epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rumi Kato; Risk, Nathan K.; Wong, Mamie Mee; Klingle, Renee Storm

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors analyzed four recent large national surveys to assess the degree of use and abuse of a wide range of psychoactive substances across subgroups of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and in comparison with whites. METHOD: The surveys analyzed were the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey, and the 1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health In-School and In-Home surveys. The AAPI sample sizes varied from 900 to more than 4,500 across the four surveys. RESULTS: Among major racial groups, use of major substances is lowest for AAPIs. Among disaggregated AAPI groups, Japanese Americans have the highest substance use rates. Mixed-heritage AAPIs are at high risk for substance use, even after controlling for cultural protective factors and socioeconomic measures. Differential rates correspond to the ranking of several acculturation and socioeconomic indices. CONCLUSION: The results, while preliminary, point to the importance of rethinking ethnic and racial classifications for estimating substance use and abuse, for studying substance abuse problems in mixed-heritage adolescents, and for studying socioenvironmental and potentially genetic protective factors. PMID:12435826

  1. Adverse Mental Health Outcomes Associated with Emotional Abuse in Young Rural South African Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical…

  2. A Feasibility Study of a Web Based Performance Improvement System for Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Robert; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Kaynak, Övgü; Worley, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.; Kulaga, Agatha; Rotrosen, John; Chu, Melissa; Gallop, Robert; Potter, Jennifer; Muchowski, Patrice; Brower, Kirk; Strobbe, Stephen; Magruder, Kathy; Chellis, A’Delle H.; Clodfelter, Tad; Cawley, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the feasibility of implementing a semi-automated performance improvement system - Patient Feedback (PF) - that enables real-time monitoring of patient ratings of therapeutic alliance, treatment satisfaction, and drug/alcohol use in outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. The study was conducted in 6 clinics within the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. It involved a total of thirty-nine clinicians and 6 clinic supervisors. Throughout the course of the study (4 week training period, 4 week baseline, 12 week intervention, 4 week post-intervention assessment, 1 year sustainability phase) there was an overall collection rate of 75.5% of the clinic patient census. In general, the clinicians in these clinics had very positive treatment satisfaction and alliance ratings throughout the study. However, one clinic had worse drug use scores at baseline than other participating clinics, and showed a decrease in self-reported drug use at post-intervention. Although the implementation of the PF system proved to be feasible in actual clinical settings, further modifications of the PF system are needed to enhance any potential clinical usefulness. PMID:17499954

  3. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... central nervous system, drugs that are chemically or pharmacologically similar to other drugs with known... Abuse (NIDA), as described in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of March 8, 1985 (50 FR 9518). When...

  4. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

  5. Substance Abuse Recovery after Experiencing Homelessness and Mental Illness: Case Studies of Change Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper addresses how consumers with dual diagnosis, who were formerly homeless but are now living in supportive housing, understand their recovery from substance abuse (i.e., substance abuse or dependence). Specifically, this study examined: What can be learned about substance abuse recovery from consumers considered to be doing well; how past substance abuse fits into their present-day narratives; and how (if at all) policies of harm reduction versus abstinence are regarded as affecting recovery efforts. Methods As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 38 individuals who met criteria for having achieved a measure of success in mental health recovery were purposively sampled from two supportive housing agencies – one using a harm reduction and the other an abstinence model. Researchers conducted in-depth interviews and used case study analysis, the latter including the development of case summaries and data matrices, to focus on substance abuse recovery in the larger context of participants’ lives. Results Recovery from substance abuse was depicted as occurring either through discrete decisions or gradual processes; achieving recovery was distinct from maintaining recovery. Emergent themes related to achievement included: (a) pivotal events and people (b) maturation, and (c) institutionalization. Central themes to maintaining recovery were: (a) housing, (b) self-help, and (c) the influence of significant others. Conclusions These findings capture a complex picture of overcoming substance abuse that largely took place outside of formal treatment and was heavily dependent on broader contexts. Equally important is that consumers themselves did not necessarily view substance abuse recovery as a defining feature of their life story. Indeed, recovery from substance abuse was seen as overcoming one adversity among many others during their troubled life courses. PMID:22962547

  6. Counselor Treatment of Coexisting Domestic Violence and Substance Abuse: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartas, Nicole D.; Culbreth, John R.

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the philosophical issues hindering the linkage of substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Results suggest that counselors tend to use treatment models that could not concurrently assign responsibility and address either present or past victimization. (Author)

  7. Marriage migration, patriarchal bargains, and wife abuse: a study of South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Soma; Morash, Merry; Yingling, Julie

    2014-02-01

    This article contributes to the literature on wife abuse by using the patriarchal bargaining framework, which highlights the issue of agency as women strive to achieve their goals within the constraints of family and culture. Study participants were recent South Asian immigrants to the United States. Narrative analysis revealed that patriarchal constraints in natal families, culture, and expectations of benefits gained through marriage influenced many of the women to migrate for marriage. When husbands enforced extreme patriarchy with abuse, women's personal efforts to contain abuse were largely ineffective. However, advocacy agency interventions did help some women break out of extreme patriarchy. PMID:24493153

  8. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it. PMID:11778708

  9. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  10. Intranasal Abuse Potential, Pharmacokinetics, and Safety of Once-Daily, Single-Entity, Extended-Release Hydrocodone (HYD) in Recreational Opioid Users

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Alessandra; Colucci, Salvatore V.; Kapil, Ram P.; Geoffroy, Pierre; Hopyan, Talar; Levy-Cooperman, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. A once-daily, extended-release hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties (Hysingla ER® [HYD]) is available for the treatment of chronic pain in appropriate patients. This study evaluated the intranasal abuse potential and pharmacokinetics of HYD coarse and fine particles vs hydrocodone powder or placebo. Design. Single-center, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled, randomized, four-treatment crossover study. Subjects. Healthy adult, nondependent, recreational opioid users with a history of intranasal abuse. Methods. During four treatment periods, subjects (N = 31) received hydrocodone powder 60 mg, HYD coarse particles 60 mg, HYD fine particles 60 mg, or placebo, with five-to-seven-day washouts between treatments. Measures over 36 hours postdose included drug-liking and willingness to take drug again, assessed using visual analog scales (VASs), pupillometry, intranasal irritation, and pharmacokinetics. Results. Insufflation of both HYD coarse and fine particles led to lower “At this Moment” Drug Liking VAS peak values compared with hydrocodone powder, but higher values compared with placebo (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Similar results were observed for Overall Drug Liking VAS, Take Drug Again VAS, and Subjective Drug Value. Compared with hydrocodone, insufflation of HYD particles led to reduced miosis and increased nasal irritation. Mean hydrocodone Cmax following insufflation of HYD coarse particles, HYD fine particles, and hydrocodone powder was 27.5, 36.5, and 105.8 ng/mL, respectively; median Tmax was ≥2-fold longer with either HYD particle size than hydrocodone powder; and (Cmax/Tmax) was 9.5, 13.4, and 82.0 ng/mL/h, respectively. Safety was consistent with that of opioid agonists. Conclusions. HYD demonstrated reduced intranasal abuse potential compared with hydrocodone powder. PMID:26814240

  11. Retention of Under-represented Minorities in Drug Abuse Treatment Studies

    PubMed Central

    Magruder, Kathryn M; Ouyang, Bichun; Miller, Scott; Tilley, Barbara C

    2009-01-01

    We excluded those of multi-race/ethnicity and those from minority groups other than Hispanic or African American due to small numbers. Additionally, only three therapy types were represented among the six studies. Some potential variables that would influence retention, such as client housing, and client comorbidities, the race/ethnicity and gender of the staff who conducted study follow-up assessments, and reasons for loss to follow-up, were not collected by the CTN. Conclusions Although in our client model older African Americans and Caucasians had the greatest odds of retention and younger African Americans the lowest, in our final model, only age was significantly related to study retention. Additionally, primary drug of abuse, having HIV risk screening as a program benefit, and lower percentages of female admissions were significantly related to study retention. Efforts should be made to increase the study retention of younger participants to improve the validity and generalizability of drug abuse treatment study results. PMID:19528134

  12. The Abusive School Principal: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Corene

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…

  13. Disclosure of Sexual Abuse in Sport Organizations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…

  14. Psychological mechanism linking abusive supervision and compulsory citizenship behavior: a moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Han, Yong; Sheard, Geoff; Hudson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the "dark side" of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and, specifically, compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB). The study focuses on the mediating role of psychological safety underpinning the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB, and the moderating role of Chinese traditionality in influencing the mediation. The authors tested the model with data of 434 dyads (employee-coworker pairs) in a large Chinese service company. Results indicated that psychological safety fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and CCB. The authors also found that Chinese traditionality moderated the strength of the mediated relationship between abusive supervision and CCB via psychological safety, such that the mediated relationship is weaker under high Chinese traditionality than under low Chinese traditionality. The article also discusses the implications, limitations, and future research directions. PMID:23469477

  15. Synthesis and hydrolytic behavior of two novel tripartate codrugs of naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol with hydroxybupropion as potential alcohol abuse and smoking cessation agents.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohamed O; Kiptoo, Paul K; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Crooks, Peter A

    2006-10-15

    A codrug approach for simultaneous treatment of alcohol abuse and tobacco dependence is considered as very desirable because of substantial evidence that smoking is increased significantly during drinking, and that smoking is regarded as a behavioral 'cue' for the urge to consume alcohol. The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize codrugs for simultaneous treatment of alcohol abuse and tobacco dependence. Two novel tripartate codrugs of naltrexone (NTX) and naltrexol (NTXOL) covalently linked to hydroxybupropion (BUPOH) were synthesized (25 and 26, respectively), and their hydrolytic cleavage to the parent drugs was determined. These codrugs were generally less crystalline when compared to NTX, or NTXOL, as indicated by their lower melting points, and were expected to be more lipid-soluble. Also, the calculated clogP values were found to be higher for the codrugs compared to those for NTX and NTXOL. The studies on the hydrolysis of the codrugs provided good evidence that they could be efficiently converted to the parent drugs in buffer at physiological pH. Thus, these codrugs are likely to be cleaved enzymatically in vivo to generate the parent drugs, and are considered to be potential candidates for simultaneous treatment of alcohol abuse and tobacco dependence. PMID:16798000

  16. An exploratory study of group therapy for sexually abused adolescents and nonoffending guardians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda P; Kelly, Adrian B

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific group intervention with a nonoffending parent/caregiver component. Participants (aged 11 16 years) consisted of six adolescents with severe abuse histories, and their caregivers. Participants completed pre-, post-, and 1-month follow-up measures. The results were consistent with the possibility that the program produced clinically meaningful reductions in abuse-related psychological sequelae, the program had excellent face validity with participants, and there were no dropouts. PMID:19042240

  17. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment. PMID:15851510

  18. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  19. Physical abuse in basic-education schools in Aden governorate, Yemen: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ba-Saddik, A S; Hattab, A S

    2013-04-01

    Physical abuse in school has lifelong consequences affecting child health and educational achievements. A study was designed to assess the prevalence of physical abuse experienced by pupils in basic-education schools in Aden, Yemen, and to examine the risk factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study covering 1066 pupils in 7th-9th grades from 8 schools in different districts of Aden governorate were randomly selected. Answering an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, 55.7% of pupils reported physical abuse at least once in their school lifetime (73.2% of males versus 26.6% of females). Teachers were the main perpetrators (45.4%). A statistically significant association was found between physical abuse and sex, age group, family type and father's education. Significant predictors of physical abuse on multivariate regression were male sex (OR=7.89) and extended family type (OR=1.36). Physical abuse in basic-education schools requires serious consideration by educational authorities, families and the community at large. PMID:23882958

  20. The Role of Key Informants and Direct Patient Interviews in Epidemiological Studies of Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Theodore J.; Ellis, Matthew S.; Paradis, Alethea; Ortbal, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The present study was undertaken to assess the degree to which key informants’ perceptions of relative abuse liability of opioids in their communities correspond to actual drug use in their patients. Methods Key Informants (N=49), and their patients (N=738) were asked to complete anonymous, independent paper surveys about perceived or actual abuse of nine targeted opioid drugs: buprenorphine, fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone and tramadol. Results There was a strong correspondence (R=.98) between KI rankings of relative abuse of opioids in their patient population and the actual rank order calculated from their patient’s selection of a primary euphorigenic opioid. The patient surveys not only validated the KI’s conclusions, but also provided a great deal of important information about the nature of the abuse patterns. Notably, significant co-morbidity was found in the patient population: 55% had a history of psychiatric problems; chronic pain of moderate intensity was common; 67% were nicotine dependent; and 43% were diagnosed alcoholics. Discussion Our results demonstrate that KI’s perceived rank order of drugs of choice correlated almost perfectly with their patients’ choice of a primary drug. These data suggest that key informants, as they have for decades in epidemiological research, provide a reliable, high-level view of substance abuse in their catchment area. As such, KIs provide valid and reliable information on scope and patterns of abuse, but if more detail is required about the characteristics of abuse, such as that required for FDA-mandated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS), then direct interviews with the abusers themselves seem more appropriate. PMID:21351313

  1. [Study of mechanisms and factors related to sexual abuse in female children and adolescents

    PubMed

    Drezett, J; Caballero, M; Juliano, Y; Prieto, E T; Marques, J A; Fernandes, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of sexual abuse in children and adolescents and its related factors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 617 cases of sexual abuse, assisted between July 1994 and August 1999 at the Womeńs Health Reference Center, divided into two groups: 71 children (age <10 years), and 546 adolescents (age > or =10 and <20 years). The analyzed variables were: sexual crime; embarrassment; presumption of violence; characteristics and number of abusers; the victimacute;s situation at the moment of the crime; and occurrence of physical traumas. Epi Info 6 software was utilized to gather data, and the results were analyzed by the chi-square test. RESULTS: Significant statistic results were found. 90.8% of the adolescents were victims of rape, and 46.5% of the children suffered sexual assault. The presupposed violence (PV) was more frequent in the group of children (63.4%) and a serious threat in the group of adolescents (63.2%). Innocentia consilli was exclusive PV among 100% of children and 59.5% of adolescents. 84.5% of children were molested by identifiable abusers, most frequently family members. Perpetrators were unknown in 72.3% of the cases of adolescent abuse. 42.3% of sexual abuse of children occurred in their homes, and 28.2% at the abusers. Adolescents were approached during daily activities (34.8%) and on their way to work or school (28.4%). Most patients did not have genital or extragenital trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Children suffered sexual assault, perpetrated by a known abuser through presupposed violence in private places. Adolescents were raped by unknown individuals, under serious threat, in nondomestic places. PMID:14647847

  2. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  3. Women's experiences leaving abusive relationships: a shelter-based qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Baholo, Masemetse; Christofides, Nicola; Wright, Anne; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Shai, Nwabisa Jama

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a worldwide problem. South Africa has one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence and therefore requires effective and sustainable approaches to prevention and response. For abused women, the process of leaving an intimate partner is difficult and mired in an abundance of complex factors that influence decision making. This qualitative study explored women's experiences of leaving abusive homes and relationships and the critical factors that pushed them to leave. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 adult women who had experienced partner abuse and were residents of a shelter in Gauteng Province, South Africa. All interviews were audio-taped with consent, translated where necessary and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of interviews was carried out. Two themes emerged as being instrumental to leaving: 'a phase of change' and the 'process of leaving the abusive relationship'. Leaving an abusive relationship was found to be a complex process that did not necessarily imply the end of the relationship and it reflected women's changing attitudes over time. Awareness of shelters and social support was found to be critical in facilitating departure from abusive relationships. PMID:25470526

  4. Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model

    PubMed Central

    Lefever, Timothy W.; Marusich, Julie A.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2014-01-01

    Because Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a robust method suitable for substitution testing of other cannabinoids. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer WIN55,212-2 (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 3 schedule. Dose-effect curves for WIN55,212-2 were determined, followed by vehicle substitution and a dose-effect curve with THC. WIN55,212-2 self-administration was acquired; however, substitution with THC did not maintain responding above vehicle levels. Dose-dependent attenuation by rimonabant confirmed CB1 receptor mediation of WIN55,212-2’s reinforcing effects. Vehicle substitution resulted in a session-dependent decrease in responding (i.e., extinction). While this study provides systematic replication of previous studies, lack of substitution with THC is problematic and suggests that WIN55,212-2 self-administration may be of limited usefulness as a screening tool for detection of the reinforcing effects of potential cannabinoid medications. Clarification of underlying factors responsible for failure of THC to maintain self-administration in cannabinoid-trained rats is needed. PMID:24412835

  5. Evaluation of WIN 55,212-2 self-administration in rats as a potential cannabinoid abuse liability model.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Antonazzo, Kateland R; Wiley, Jenny L

    2014-03-01

    Because Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been a false negative in rat intravenous self-administration procedures, the evaluation of the abuse potential of candidate cannabinoid medications has proved difficult. One lab group has successfully trained self-administration of the aminoalkylindole WIN55,212-2 in rats; however, their results have not been independently replicated. The purpose of this study was to extend their model by using a within-subjects design, with the goal of establishing a robust method suitable for substitution testing of other cannabinoids. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer WIN55,212-2 (0.01 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 3 schedule. Dose-effect curves for WIN55,212-2 were determined, followed by vehicle substitution and a dose-effect curve with THC. WIN55,212-2 self-administration was acquired; however, substitution with THC did not maintain responding above vehicle levels. Dose-dependent attenuation by rimonabant confirmed CB1 receptor mediation of WIN55,212-2's reinforcing effects. Vehicle substitution resulted in a session-dependent decrease in responding (i.e., extinction). While this study provides systematic replication of previous studies, lack of substitution with THC is problematic and suggests that WIN55,212-2 self-administration may be of limited usefulness as a screening tool for detection of the reinforcing effects of potential cannabinoid medications. Clarification of underlying factors responsible for failure of THC to maintain self-administration in cannabinoid-trained rats is needed. PMID:24412835

  6. Offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use: affective psychopathic personality traits as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients. PMID:24512943

  7. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse. PMID:26022268

  8. A proposed intergenerational model of substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, M J

    1995-05-01

    Although the link between substance abuse and child maltreatment has been relatively well established, there is a general recognition that this is not a simple cause-effect relationship. The current study explored the relationships among substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect in a sample of incarcerated substance abusers. Data were gathered on the earlier life experiences of 81 men and women serving sentences in two maximum security prisons, including assessments of their parents' substance abuse problems; levels of family competence within their families-of-origin; their exposure, as children and adults, to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical/emotional neglect; and their own levels of substance abuse. Results showed generally high percentages of parental substance abuse and abuse/neglect, and relatively low levels of family competence. Correlational analyses revealed significant direct and indirect relationships among parental substance abuse, family dynamics, and exposure to both child and adult maltreatment. These four variables were also significantly associated with respondents' own substance abuse in later life, suggesting the potential for continuation of these patterns into successive generations. An intergenerational model of these family and personal functioning variables is presented and implications for service delivery with correctional clients is discussed. PMID:7664133

  9. Proteomic profiling of human sera for discovery of potential biomarkers to monitor abstinence from alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Li, Kaigang; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates have been discovered to detect levels of drinking and intervals of time after last drinking episode, only a few biomarkers have been applied to monitor abstinence in a longer interval (≥ 6 weeks) from alcohol abuse. Considering sample sources, sensitivity, and specificity, new biomarkers from blood with better accuracy are needed. To address this, serum proteomic profiles were compared between pre- and post- treatment samples from subjects seeking treatment for alcohol abuse and dependence in an intensive 6-week daily outpatient program using high-abundance plasma protein immunodepletion and LC-MS/MS techniques. Protein identification, quantification, candidate biomarker selection, and prioritization analyses were carried out. Among the 246 quantified serum proteins, abundance of 13 and 45 proteins in female and male subjects were significantly changed (p ≤ 0.05), respectively. Of these biomarker candidate proteins, 2 (female) and 8 (male) proteins were listed in category 1, with high area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and fold change. In summary, several new biomarker candidates have been identified to monitor abstinence from alcohol abuse. PMID:25475211

  10. Children's Abilities to Recognize a "Good" Person as a Potential Perpetrator of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen C.; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the ability of children to recognize "good" people as potential perpetrators prior to and after completing a personal safety program. There were three objectives to the study. The first was to determine whether young children could recognize the inappropriateness of a sexual request coming from people described as…

  11. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  12. Extrapyramidal Motor Dysfunction and Resultant Orofacial Dystonia Post-Cocaine Abuse: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMicken, Betty L.; Ostergren, Jennifer A.; Vento-Wilson, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigated the consequences of cocaine use and resultant extrapyramidal motor dysfunction. The study focused on a female client, post-long-term drug abuse with concomitant untreated head trauma, experiencing extraneous motor movements of the lips, tongue, jaw, and upper and lower extremities. The goals of this study were to (a)…

  13. 75 FR 79008 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study of Substance Abuse doc.com Module Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study of Substance... approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Study of Substance Abuse doc.com Module Project. Type of Information... clearance to a conduct research study to assess the efficacy of a specific interactive web-based...

  14. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition) or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition). All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female), length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more), and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication). Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect Among Children Who Drop Out of School: A Study in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sariyer, Görkem; Aydin, Fulya; Cankarde, Sinem; Kandemirci, Birsu

    2016-10-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN), and dropping out of school have long been recognized as pervasive social problems globally, and Turkey is no exception. This study aims to explore the prevalence and incidence of CAN in children who drop out of school of Turkey, using the ISPCAN Child abuse Screening Tool, Children's Version, which is an appropriate tool for multinational comparisons. Data from a convenience sample of children who drop out of school age 11, 13, and 16 from Izmir were collected either by interviews or by self-completion. The results show that, compared to children who do not drop out of school, children who drop out of school have higher rates of psychological and physical abuse and neglect within the family. This study not only highlights the need for preventive laws for CAN and dropping out of school, but also points to direction for future research. PMID:27331866

  16. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. Design A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. Participants A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Setting Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. Results The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Conclusions Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment

  17. 76 FR 22406 - National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA); Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Study of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Review; Comment Request; Study of Substance Abuse doc.com Module Project SUMMARY: In compliance with... an additional 30 days for public comment. Proposed Collection: Title: Study of Substance Abuse doc... Collection: This is a request for a two-year clearance to conduct a research study to assess the efficacy...

  18. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse: a cohort study of children in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Soothill, Keith

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to consider whether parents' abuse of alcohol has an impact on children during their formative years. The research is based on data from 84,765 children born in Denmark in 1966. These children and their parents were followed between 1979 and 1993. Information was analyzed from government registers covering health, education, family separation, suicidal behavior, criminality, and unemployment, using a discrete time Cox-regression model. Results showed that the parents' alcohol abuse may frame the childhood with parental violence, very high occurrence of family separations, and often foster care. The parental abuse of alcohol may influence several long-term consequences for their 15- to 27-year-old children such as increased mortality, self-destructive behaviors (e.g. attempted suicide or drug addiction). Hospitalization due to violence, an increased risk of teenage pregnancy and unemployment were also seen more frequently among cases where the parents were alcohol abusers. Mothers' alcohol abuse seemed to be associated with higher occurrences of all the mentioned disadvantages. PMID:14629993

  19. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help. PMID:26265161

  20. Prevalence of child sexual abuse: a comparison among 4 Italian epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Beatrice; Festa, Fiorella; Di Sanzo, Maria Angela; Guala, Andrea; Pellai, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria), using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated), the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese) and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria). In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials. PMID:26429122

  1. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection have additive effects on frontal cortex function as measured by auditory evoked potential P3A latency.

    PubMed

    Fein, G; Biggins, C A; MacKay, S

    1995-02-01

    Both alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to produce central nervous system (CNS) morbidity in frontal brain regions. The degree to which the CNS morbidity in HIV infection, as it affects frontal cortex function, may be preferentially increased by alcohol abuse was examined using the auditory P3A evoked potential. The P3A indexes an orienting response, maximal over frontal cortex that occurs when novel nontarget stimuli are presented in the midst of a target detection paradigm. Four groups of subjects were compared: HIV+ alcohol abusers, HIV+ light/nondrinkers, HIV- alcohol abusers, and HIV- light/nondrinkers. The alcohol abuser and light/nondrinker HIV+ groups were matched on percent CD4 lymphocytes, insuring that the results reflected specific CNS effects and were not a result of differences between the groups in the degree of systemic immune suppression. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection had at least additive effects on P3A latency, consistent with alcohol abuse worsening the effect of HIV disease on frontal cortex function. Post-hoc analyses suggested that concomitant alcohol abuse results in the effects of HIV infection on P3A latency becoming manifest earlier in the HIV disease process. PMID:7727627

  2. Understanding the Epistemological Development of Substance Abusing College Students: A Construct Exploration Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delve into the epistemological constructs of substance abusing college students and explore whether consistencies with Baxter Magolda's (1992) epistemic constructs were indicated. The study utilized a qualitative, narrative inquiry research design framed by Baxter Magolda's interview outline. Interviews were…

  3. The ADSS Cost Study: Costs of Substance Abuse Treatment in the Specialty Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    Understanding the cost of resources used in substance abuse treatment is of critical concern to policymakers, payers, and providers of care. The Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) was performed from 1996 to 1999. ADSS is a national study conducted in three phases to collect representative data on the characteristics of substance abuse…

  4. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  5. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  6. Brief Substance Abuse Treatment with Urban Adolescents: A Translational Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Posner, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this translational research study was to test a brief, manualized adolescent substance abuse treatment protocol's effects in an urban community setting compared to a sample in an experimental study from which the treatment was first employed. One hundred two adolescents who were treated with a manualized protocol of five sessions of…

  7. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  8. Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

  9. Risk Factors for Femicide in Abusive Relationships: Results From a Multisite Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Block, Carolyn; Campbell, Doris; Curry, Mary Ann; Gary, Faye; Glass, Nancy; McFarlane, Judith; Sachs, Carolyn; Sharps, Phyllis; Ulrich, Yvonne; Wilt, Susan A.; Manganello, Jennifer; Xu, Xiao; Schollenberger, Janet; Frye, Victoria; Laughon, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This 11-city study sought to identify risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships. Methods. Proxies of 220 intimate partner femicide victims identified from police or medical examiner records were interviewed, along with 343 abused control women. Results. Preincident risk factors associated in multivariate analyses with increased risk of intimate partner femicide included perpetrator’s access to a gun and previous threat with a weapon, perpetrator’s stepchild in the home, and estrangement, especially from a controlling partner. Never living together and prior domestic violence arrest were associated with lowered risks. Significant incident factors included the victim having left for another partner and the perpetrator’s use of a gun. Other significant bivariate-level risks included stalking, forced sex, and abuse during pregnancy. Conclusions. There are identifiable risk factors for intimate partner femicides. PMID:12835191

  10. Risk factors for reported elder abuse and neglect: a nine-year observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lachs, M S; Williams, C; O'Brien, S; Hurst, L; Horwitz, R

    1997-08-01

    To determine longitudinal risk factors for elder abuse and neglect, an established cohort of community-dwelling older adults (n = 2,812) was linked with elderly protective service records over a 9-year follow-up period. Protective services saw 184 (6.5%) individuals in the cohort for any indication, and 47 cohort members were seen for corroborated elder abuse or neglect for a sampling adjusted 9-year prevalence of 1.6% (95% CI 1.0%, 2.1%). In pooled logistic regression, age, race, poverty, functional disability, and cognitive impairment were identified as risk factors for reported elder mistreatment. Additionally, the onset of new cognitive impairment was also associated with elder abuse and neglect. Because the mechanism of elder mistreatment case-finding in this study was a social welfare system (protective services), the influence of race and poverty as risk factors is likely to be overestimated due to reporting bias. PMID:9279035

  11. Early Physical Abuse and Later Violent Delinquency: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Miller-Johnson, Shari; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study of 574 children followed from age 5 to age 21, the authors examine the links between early physical abuse and violent delinquency and other socially relevant outcomes during late adolescence or early adulthood and the extent to which the child's race and gender moderate these links. Analyses of covariance indicated that individuals who had been physically abused in the first 5 years of life were at greater risk for being arrested as juveniles for violent, nonviolent, and status offenses. Moreover, physically abused youth were less likely to have graduated from high school and more likely to have been fired in the past year, to have been a teen parent, and to have been pregnant or impregnated someone in the past year while not married. These effects were more pronounced for African American than for European American youth and somewhat more pronounced for females than for males. PMID:17631623

  12. Defeated and joyless: potential measures of change in drug abuse characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowan, J D; Kay, D C; Neidert, G L; Ross, F E; Belmore, S M

    1980-07-01

    Defeated and Joyless scales were developed from a questionnaire given to 54 normal, 53 alcoholic, and 28 opiate addict subjects. The Defeated scale differentiates the alcoholics and addicts from normals but not from each other, whereas the Joyless scale differentiates addicts from both alcoholics and normals. When shown to 48 college students, a film about poverty increased the Joyless score, as well as other measures, but had little effect on the Defeated score. These scales appear to distinguish between self-concept (Defeated) and mood (Joyless) components of hypophoria, an affective disorder hypothesized to be associated with drug abuse. PMID:7400787

  13. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Remy L.; Nance, Mark R.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Tesmer, John J.G.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2010-09-03

    Rhodococcal cocaine esterase (CocE) is an attractive potential treatment for both cocaine overdose and cocaine addiction. CocE directly degrades cocaine into inactive products, whereas traditional small-molecule approaches require blockade of the inhibitory action of cocaine on a diverse array of monoamine transporters and ion channels. The usefulness of wild-type (wt) cocaine esterase is hampered by its inactivation at 37 C. Herein, we characterize the most thermostable form of this enzyme to date, CocE-L169K/G173Q. In vitro kinetic analyses reveal that CocE-L169K/G173Q displays a half-life of 2.9 days at 37 C, which represents a 340-fold improvement over wt and is 15-fold greater than previously reported mutants. Crystallographic analyses of CocE-L169K/G173Q, determined at 1.6-{angstrom} resolution, suggest that stabilization involves enhanced domain-domain interactions involving van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. In vivo rodent studies reveal that intravenous pretreatment with CocE-L169K/G173Q in mice provides protection from cocaine-induced lethality for longer time periods before cocaine administration than wt CocE. Furthermore, intravenous administration (pretreatment) of CocE-L169K/G173Q prevents self-administration of cocaine in a time-dependent manner. Termination of the in vivo effects of CoCE seems to be dependent on, but not proportional to, its clearance from plasma as its half-life is approximately 2.3 h and similar to that of wt CocE (2.2 h). Taken together these data suggest that CocE-L169K/G173Q possesses many of the properties of a biological therapeutic for treating cocaine abuse but requires additional development to improve its serum half-life.

  14. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  15. Women with Protective Orders Report Failure to Remove Firearms from Their Abusive Partners: Results from an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.; O'Sullivan, Chris; Roehl, Janice; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of women who sought court protection orders for domestic violence (PODV) about actions to implement laws intended to disarm their abusers. Methods We identified female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in New York and Los Angeles primarily through family courts and records of police calls for domestic violence. Of these, 782 were surveyed and asked about their experiences seeking PODV from courts, judges ordering the removal of firearms from defendants, and if firearms were actually surrendered or confiscated. Results Of the 542 victims who had obtained a PODV and knew whether their abuser owned a firearm, 82 (15%) reported that their abuser owned a firearm. Although state law either allowed or mandated judges issuing PODVs to require abusers to surrender their firearms, 21 victims (26%) reported that judges used this authority. Ten victims (12% of victims with armed abusers) reported that their abuser had either surrendered all of his firearms or had the firearms seized. When victims reported that the judge ordered their abuser to surrender his firearms, victims were more likely to report that all firearms were either surrendered by the abuser or confiscated by law enforcement. Conclusions Based on the perceptions of the IPV victims in this study, laws designed to disarm domestic violence offenders were either poorly implemented or failed to inform victims when their abuser's firearms were surrendered or confiscated. PMID:20088664

  16. Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice

  17. Associations between Childhood Abuse and Interpersonal Aggression and Suicide Attempt among U.S. Adults in a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Grant, Bridget F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations among childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse and violence toward self (suicide attempts [SA]) and others (interpersonal aggression [IA]). Data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Waves 1 and 2 (n = 34,653). Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between type of childhood abuse and violence categories, adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of reported childhood abuse was 4.60% for physical abuse, 7.83% for emotional abuse, and 10.20% for sexual abuse. Approximately 18% of adults reported some form of violent behavior, distributed as follows: IA, 13.37%; SA, 2.64%; and SA with IA, 1.85%. After adjusting for demographic variables, other childhood adversity, and psychiatric disorders, each type of childhood abuse was significantly related to increased risk for each violence category as compared with the no violence category. Furthermore, the odds ratio of childhood physical abuse was significantly higher for SA with IA when compared with IA, and the odds ratio of childhood sexual abuse was significantly higher for SA and SA with IA when compared with IA. Childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse is directly related to the risk for violent behaviors to self and others. Both internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders impact the association between childhood abuse and violence. The inclusion of suicidal behaviors and interpersonal aggression and internalizing/externalizing psychiatric disorders within an integrated conceptual framework will facilitate more effective interventions for long-lasting effects of child abuse. PMID:24656711

  18. The abuse liability of the NMDA receptor antagonist-benzodiazepine (tiletamine-zolazepam) combination: evidence from clinical case reports and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combination is an anaesthetic drug commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is an equal amount combination of tiletamine, a dissociative anaesthetic pharmacologically classified as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and zolazepam, a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. There are concerns regarding the safety profile of this drug combination due to incidents of human misuse/abuse. In this paper, we discuss the abuse liability of this drug combination based on currently available scientific evidence. We performed an in-depth search of medical and scientific literature and found seven reported cases of human abuse of the TZ combination, two of which resulted in fatal outcomes. In most of these cases, drug administration was intentional indicating that the TZ combination was abused by humans. This finding is bolstered by the results of preclinical studies showing that the TZ combination produces rewarding effects in rats, although manifested only in pretreated subjects. Further studies revealed that the addictive effects of the TZ combination are influenced by pre-exposure to other psychoactive drugs. Pre-exposure to ketamine, diazepam, propofol, or ethanol facilitated the expression of the rewarding effects of the TZ combination. These findings support the hypothesis that the TZ combination was and can be used as a substitute or replacement drug. Altogether, the compiled evidence indicates that the TZ combination can potentially be abused by humans. Thus, careful use, dispensation, and monitoring of the TZ combination and associated substances are strongly advocated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27341080

  19. A Child in Our Midst: A Study Course on Keeping Children Safe From Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This Leader's Guide prepared for the Salvation Army's Home League aims at helping community groups (particularly those which are church related) recognize the symptoms of child abuse and determine their course of action in preventing such abuse. Six forms of child abuse are cited: physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional…

  20. Assessing the Accuracy of a Child's Account of Sexual Abuse: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of a 13-year-old girl's account of a sexually abusive incident. Information given by the victim was compared with an audiotaped record. Over 50% of information reported by the victim was corroborated by the audio record and 64% was confirmed by more than one source. (Author/CR)

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Culture, and Coping: A Qualitative Study of Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligiero, Daniela P.; Fassinger, Ruth; McCauley, Moira; Moore, Jessica; Lyytinen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to articulate a model of how Latinas cope with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the ways in which personal and cultural variables influence their coping strategies. Nine women who identified as Latina and as survivors of CSA participated in an in-depth interview. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory…

  2. A Pilot Study of the Relationship between Counselor Trainees' Characteristics and Attitudes toward Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, D. Shane; Sneed, Zachery; Davis, Sharon J.; Benshoff, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in this study sought to construct an instrument specifically designed to measure counselor trainee attitudes toward alcohol and drug abuse. The instrument, the "Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure" (CTAM), used for this research was developed collectively by the researchers. The CTAM gathered demographic data including undergraduate or…

  3. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  4. Retraumatization among Adult Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: Exploratory Analysis in a Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.

    2002-01-01

    Study examined risk factors related to re-traumatization in women sexually abused in childhood. Eighty women were interviewed once in childhood, twice in early adulthood. Risk factors were measured at second interview and used to predict reported trauma exposure between interviews two and three. Some factors (e.g. homelessness, depression) were…

  5. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  6. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  7. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  9. Art Therapy with Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: Extended Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifalo, Terry

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the outcome of a four-year follow-up of a pilot study using a combination of art therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and group process to address the therapeutic issues related to childhood sexual abuse. All group participants were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (Briere, 1995), commonly used in…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  11. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  12. In Their Own Voices: A Qualitative Study of Men Abused as Children by Catholic Clergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…

  13. Therapists' Use of Boundaries in Sexual Abuse Groups: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Laura L.; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    This study surveyed survivor and nonsurvivor therapists regarding their use of boundaries in groups with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. No differences were detected between the two groups when all types of boundaries were considered. Using boundary subscales, significant differences for therapist neutrality in their groups was observed,…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  16. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  17. Shrouds of Silence: A Case Study of Sexual Abuse in Schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masehela, Boledi; Pillay, Venitha

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the reasons that allow a parent, a principal and a teacher to maintain silence when young girls under their care are sexually abused. Put another way, it attempts to explain what it is about sexual abuse that makes these parties relinquish their role as protectors of innocent children. This paper, based on a larger…

  18. Depression and Self-Rated Health Among Rural Women Who Experienced Adolescent Dating Abuse: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally H; Humphreys, Janice C

    2016-03-01

    This study used mixed methods to examine the experiences and health of rural, young adult women (N = 100) who self-reported past experience of physical, emotional and verbal, sexual, and relational abuse in adolescent dating relationships. Few studies have examined the lasting health ramifications of adolescent dating abuse adolescent dating abuse in rural populations, and almost no mixed methods studies have explored adolescent dating abuse. Participants completed questionnaires on demographics, relationship behaviors, and mental health symptoms. A subsample (n = 10) of participants also completed semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the primary investigator. Results suggest that depressive symptoms and self-rating of health in these women are associated with particular kinds and severity of abusive experiences, and that adolescent dating abuse has ramifications for health and development beyond the duration of the original relationship. Self-rated health (SRH) was inversely associated with abusive behaviors in the relationship, whereas depressive symptoms were positively correlated with such behaviors. Self-rated health was also negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. The results of this study represent an important step toward establishing lifetime health risks posed by adolescent dating abuse. PMID:25392389

  19. Prevalence of Sexually Abusive Experiences in Childhood and Adolescence among a Community Sample of Latinas: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Camacho, Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, severity, and circumstances of self-reported sexually coercive and abusive experiences in childhood and adolescence in a community sample of Latina women (N = 204) ages 18 to 34 years. Results from structured phone interviews indicated that 35% of the women reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse, 31% of…

  20. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  1. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  2. A Qualitative Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Taiwan: Toward a Transactional and Ecological Model of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of 10 female Taiwanese childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (age range = 20-39 years) to broaden our understanding of the post-abuse coping process in a Chinese sociocultural context. This investigation was grounded on a feminist paradigm, and the consensual qualitative research method (Hill et…

  3. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  4. Risk Behaviors and Resiliency within Physically Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between physical abuse and several risk behaviors, and thriving behaviors, and the relationship between potential protective factors and engagement in risk and thriving behaviors among victims of physical abuse. Three categories of potential protective factors were examined: (1) individual…

  5. The infiltration of 'primed' neutrophils into multiple organs due to physical abuse to the elderly: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Yamanouchi, Haruo; Bunai, Yasuo; Ogata, Mamoru

    2010-10-10

    The infiltration of 'primed' polymorphonuclear neutrophils into multiple organs has been reported in cases of traumatic or hemorrhagic shock. Since multiple injuries are usually observed in cases of physical abuse of the elderly, we investigated neutrophil infiltration into the heart, lung, liver and kidney in cases of abused elderly individuals using immunohistochemistry for myeloperoxidase (MPO). In addition, we examined the expression of molecules associated with neutrophil infiltration, including P-selectin as the adhesion molecule and IL-8 as the chemotactic factor. The number of neutrophils in the physically abused elder cases was increased significantly, particularly in the lung and liver, compared with that of control cases of sharp instrument injury, single fatal blunt injury and polytrauma. In addition, P-selection expression in the endothelium and the presence of IL-8-positive cells (mainly macrophages) in the lung and liver of abuse cases were significantly greater than those in control cases. In contrast, the number of MPO-, P-selectin- and IL-8-positive cells in cases of multiple organ failure (MOF) due to various causes was significantly greater than that in abuse cases. It is known that primed neutrophils accumulation may undergo MOF by 'activation' due to secondary insults. Thus, our results suggest that MPO immunostaining can distinguish cases of elderly physical abuse from non-abuse and MOF cases. In addition, our results indicate that MPO is a potential diagnostic marker for elder physical abuse, and that P-selectin and IL-8 may be useful for a more accurate diagnosis. Finally, our results also suggest that elder cases of physical abuse may be in a primed stage of MOF, and are at risk of falling into MOF by various secondary insults including those following abuse. PMID:20447785

  6. Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Alcohol Abuse: Prospective Evaluation in the ERICO Study

    PubMed Central

    Morilha, Abner; Karagulian, Samuel; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Goulart, Alessandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have indicated alcohol abuse as one of the contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary heart disease. However, this relationship is controversial. Objective To investigate the relationship between post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) alcohol abuse in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO Study). Methods 146 participants from the ERICO Study answered structured questionnaires and underwent laboratory evaluations at baseline, 30 days and 180 days after ACS. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to assess harmful alcohol consumption in the 12 months preceding ACS (30 day-interview) and six months after that. Results The frequencies of alcohol abuse were 24.7% and 21.1% in the 12 months preceding ACS and six months after that, respectively. The most significant cardiovascular risk factors associated with high-risk for alcohol abuse 30 days after the acute event were: male sex (88.9%), current smoking (52.8%) and hypertension (58.3%). Six months after the acute event, the most significant results were replicated in our logistic regression, for the association between alcohol abuse among younger individuals [35-44 year-old multivariate OR: 38.30 (95% CI: 1.44-1012.56) and 45-54 year-old multivariate OR: 10.10 (95% CI: 1.06-96.46)] and for smokers [current smokers multivariate OR: 51.09 (95% CI: 3.49-748.01) and past smokers multivariate OR: 40.29 (95% CI: 2.37-685.93)]. Conclusion Individuals younger than 54 years and smokers showed a significant relation with harmful alcohol consumption, regardless of the ACS subtype. PMID:26131701

  7. Interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy in child sexual abusers: evidence from a pilot study sample of Italian offenders.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that psychopathy is a crucial construct for the understanding of criminal and violent behavior. However, research on psychopathic traits among child sexual abusers is still scant. In this study, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised was used to assess psychopathy in a group of 87 Italian, male inmates who were convicted of violent crimes. Child sexual abusers (N = 23) scored higher on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised interpersonal-affective factor compared to participants who did not perpetrate child sexual abuse. Notably, child sexual abusers showed a very high average score on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised affective dimension; furthermore, they showed high scores on the two Psychopathy Checklist-Revised items excluded from its two factors-four facets structure (i.e., the items denoting devaluation of intimate relationships). The results of this study may positively inform the development of treatment strategies for child sexual abusers. PMID:25010088

  8. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Wang, Yao-Hsing; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Ching

    2015-01-01

    Objective The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. This pilot study investigated the effects of a family-oriented treatment program for ketamine-using youths and their caregivers. Methods To carry out this study, 42 youths with ketamine use (mean age 16.6±1.1 years) who were referred to take part in a 10-week treatment program based on motivational enhancement principles were selected, as were their principal caregivers (mean age 46.4±7.1 years), who were similarly referred to take part in a 10-week training program for parenting skills. The study had the youths complete the Chinese Craving Beliefs Questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Behavior problem Scale, and the Family APGAR both immediately before and after the program. Likewise, the youths’ caregivers completed the Family APGAR, the 12-item version of the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results Of the 42 youth–caregiver pairs that took part in this study, 37 (88%) completed the 10-week program and both sets of assessments. After the treatment, the participating youths’ substance cravings declined (t=3.88, P<0.001), while family function, as perceived by the participating caregivers, significantly increased (t=2.22, P=0.033). The improvement in caregivers’ perceptions of family function were positively related to the improvement of the caregivers’ health status (r=−0.36, P=0.022). Conclusion According to its results, this pilot study submits that family-oriented treatment programs may be considered a potentially effective treatment option for youths who abuse ketamine. Additional studies with larger sample sizes, as well as longer follow-up periods, are necessary to verify whether this type of treatment also prevents youths using ketamine from relapsing. PMID:26261419

  9. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  10. Methamphetamine and cannabis abuse in adolescence: a quasi-experimental study on specific and long-term neurocognitive effects

    PubMed Central

    Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18 years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791

  11. Investigating the potential influence of cause of death and cocaine levels on the differential expression of genes associated with cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Michael J; Savonen, Candace L; Hartley, Zachary J; Johnson, Magen M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  12. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  13. A Forgiveness Intervention for Women With Fibromyalgia Who Were Abused in Childhood: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the efficacy of a forgiveness intervention with a fibromyalgia (FM) health intervention on women with FM who have experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and emotional or physical neglect, in childhood by one of their parents. Eleven women with FM between the ages of 21 and 68 were randomized to the forgiveness intervention (n = 5) or the FM health intervention (n = 6), and completed the once-weekly individualized program for 24 weeks. The participants completed measures assessing forgiveness, overall FM health, depression, anger, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping strategies at the pretest, the posttest, and the 12-week follow-up test. They also completed the forgiveness intervention and FM health intervention final tests at the posttest, which assessed their knowledge on forgiveness and FM health. The forgiveness intervention participants had greater improvements in forgiveness (p < .001) and overall FM health (p = .046) from the pretest to the posttest, and in forgiveness (p = .018) and state anger (p = .027) from the pretest to the follow-up test than the FM health intervention participants. Moreover, the forgiveness intervention participants scored higher on the forgiveness final test than the FM health intervention participants (p < .001), and the FM health intervention participants scored higher on the FM health final test than the forgiveness intervention participants (p < .001). The results indicate that the forgiveness intervention was potentially helpful in improving forgiveness and overall FM health, and in decreasing state anger of this particular sample of women with FM. PMID:25914886

  14. The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the research design and findings of a 23-year longitudinal study of the impact of intrafamilial sexual abuse on female development. The conceptual framework integrated concepts of psychological adjustment with theory regarding how psychobiological factors might impact development. Participants included 6- to 16-year-old females with substantiated sexual abuse and a demographically similar comparison group. A cross-sequential design was used and six assessments have taken place, with participants at median age 11 at the first assessment and median age 25 at the sixth assessment. Mothers of participants took part in the early assessments and offspring took part at the sixth assessment. Results of many analyses, both within circumscribed developmental stages and across development, indicated that sexually abused females (on average) showed deleterious sequelae across a host of biopsychosocial domains including: earlier onsets of puberty, cognitive deficits, depression, dissociative symptoms, maladaptive sexual development, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal attenuation, asymmetrical stress responses, high rates of obesity, more major illnesses and healthcare utilization, dropping out of high school, persistent psottraumatic stress disorder, self-mutilation, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, physical and sexual revictimization, premature deliveries, teen motherhood, drug and alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Offspring born to abused mothers were at increased risk for child maltreatment and overall maldevelopment. There was also a pattern of considerable within group variability. Based on this complex network of findings, implications for optimal treatments are elucidated. Translational aspects of extending observational research into clinical practice are discussed in terms that will likely have a sustained impact on several major public health initiatives. PMID:23786689

  15. Characterization of bruises using ultrasonography for potential application in diagnosis of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Mimasaka, Sohtaro; Oshima, Toru; Ohtani, Maki

    2012-01-01

    To protect children from abuse, it is important to identify victims at an early date, but diagnosis is often difficult. We used ultrasonography for objective examination of bruises arising from subcutaneous hemorrhages, and determined whether we could precisely measure the depth and thickness of a subcutaneous hemorrhage. We compared macroscopic findings, microscopic findings and ultrasonographic images of 10 bruises in forensic autopsy cases. In addition, we measured chronologic changes in subcutaneous hemorrhages using ultrasonography of 16 bruises in healthy volunteer children. Mild or moderate subcutaneous hemorrhages spreading along the fibrous partition in subcutaneous fatty tissue were observed by histological examination. There was a thickened fibrous partition or an isoechoic or hyperechoic area in the ultrasonographic images. A good correlation between the thickness of the subcutaneous hemorrhages by macroscopic examination and by ultrasonographic imaging was found in postmortem cases. We were also able to confirm objectively that the thickness of the subcutaneous hemorrhage of healthy children decreased with time. It is possible to measure the depth from the skin surface to the subcutaneous hemorrhage, and the thickness of the subcutaneous hemorrhage accurately using ultrasonography. Thus, the age of a bruise can be estimated more precisely using information on the subcutaneous hemorrhage from ultrasonography in addition to established evaluations by the naked eye and by spectrophotometry. PMID:22192757

  16. Comprehensive drug screening in blood for detecting abused drugs or drugs potentially hazardous for traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Lillsunde, P; Michelson, L; Forsstrom, T; Korte, T; Schultz, E; Ariniemi, K; Portman, M; Sihvonen, M L; Seppala, T

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive drug screening procedure for detecting drugs in the blood samples of car drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs, is presented. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, opioids, cocaine and benzodiazepines were screened by an immunological EMIT ETS system after acetone precipitation. Gas chromatographic methods were used to screen and quantitate basic, neutral and acidic drugs. The free amino groups of basic drugs were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Analysis was performed by a dual channel gas chromatograph combined with a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector. Phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide was used as a methylathing agent for acidic substances before analysis with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus detector. A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry was used as a common confirmation method. Tetrahydrocannabinol was quantitated after bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide derivatization, opiates after pentafluoropropionic anhydride derivatization and benzoylecgonine after pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol derivatization. Excluding benzodiazepines, which were confirmed with a gas chromatograph connected to a nitrogen phosphorus and an electron capture detector, the other basic drugs as well as the acidic drugs were confirmed after the same derivatization procedures as in the screening methods. Alcohols were quantitated in triplicate by gas chromatography using three different kinds of columns. Although urine is the most important specimen for screening abused drugs, it has only limited use in forensic toxicology. The described system is most useful for analyzing a wide range of substances, including illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants and phenothiazenes in forensic samples when urine is not available. PMID:8819994

  17. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  18. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  19. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  20. Executive Dysfunction and Reward Dysregulation: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study in Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Morie, Kristen P.; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Garavan, Hugh; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function deficits and reward dysregulation, which mainly manifests as anhedonia, are well documented in drug abusers. We investigated specific aspects of executive function (inhibitory control and cognitive control), as well as anhedonia, in a cohort of current cocaine abusers in order to ascertain to what extent these factors are associated with more severe drug dependence. Participants filled out questionnaires relating to anhedonia and their addiction history. Participants also performed a response inhibition task while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses to successful inhibitions (N2/P3 components) and to commission errors (ERN/Pe components) were compared between 23 current users of cocaine and 27 non-using controls. A regression model was performed to determine the association of our measures of reward dysregulation and executive function with addiction severity. As expected, cocaine users performed more poorly than controls on the inhibitory control task and showed significant electrophysiological differences. They were also generally more anhedonic than controls. Higher levels of anhedonia were associated with more severe substance use, whereas the level of executive dysfunction was not associated with more severe substance use. However, N2 amplitude was associated with duration of drug use. Further, inhibitory control and anhedonia were correlated, but only in controls. These data suggest that while executive dysfunction characterizes drug abuse, it is anhedonia, independent of executive dysfunction, that is most strongly associated with more severe use. PMID:24911989

  1. Changing patterns of "drug abuse" in the United States: connecting findings from macro- and microepidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Zili

    2002-01-01

    Trend analyses of the U.S. monitoring data systems (the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and the Monitoring the Future Study) and of the country's surveillance program, the Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG), indicate that several new "drug abuse" patterns have emerged over the past several years. For adolescents, drug use rates are converging for females and males, the mean age at which youngsters initiate drug use has declined, and more young adolescents are reporting using drugs. Furthermore, emergent new drug use patterns are being observed by the CEWG. The use of drugs such as Rohypnol, the injecting of crack-cocaine, and the spread of methamphetamines by new traffickers challenge our existing knowledge and understanding of drug use and its prevention. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has funded several large longitudinal studies that follow selected children and adolescents into their twenties, and some into their thirties. This research has been a rich source of information on the determinants of initiating and continuing drug abuse. Yet the findings from the surveys have not been well explored by the longitudinal studies, nor have the findings from the longitudinal studies been used in the surveys to better understand the observed changing trends in drug use patterns. This paper addresses six issues that have been observed from the findings from analyses of data from the surveys or macroepidemiologic studies. Information from the sub-population or micro-epidemiologic studies are reviewed for possible hypotheses to explain each issue. Suggestions for further research and implications for prevention also are presented. PMID:12180563

  2. Developmental, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cahill, L T; Kaminer, R K; Johnson, P G

    1999-10-01

    There is growing interest in the neurologic, behavioral, and cognitive effects of child abuse and neglect. This article explores the literature on the short and long term sequelae of physically and sexually abused and neglected children, along with controversies generated by the studies themselves. Recommendations are made for swift and ongoing intervention in cases of child abuse to protect young victims from potentially devastating effects. PMID:10553206

  3. Does Breastfeeding Protect Against Substantiated Child Abuse and Neglect? A 15-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Najman, Jake M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Child maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse developmental outcomes in children. Surprisingly, the most frequently reported perpetrator is the biological mother. Understanding early relationship factors that may help prevent maltreatment is of utmost importance. We explored whether breastfeeding may protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment. Methods 7223 Australian mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively over 15 years. In 6621 cases (91.7%), the duration of breastfeeding was analyzed with respect to child maltreatment (including neglect, physical abuse and emotional abuse), based on substantiated child protection agency reports. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare no maltreatment with non-maternal and maternally-perpetrated maltreatment, and to adjust for confounding in 5890 cases with complete data (81.5%). Potential confounders included sociodemographic factors, pregnancy wantedness, substance abuse during pregnancy, postpartum employment, attitudes regarding infant caregiving, and symptoms of anxiety or depression. Results Of 512 children with substantiated maltreatment reports, over 60% experienced at least one episode of maternally-perpetrated abuse or neglect (4.3% of cohort). The odds ratio (OR) for maternal maltreatment increased as breastfeeding duration decreased, with the odds of maternal maltreatment in non-breastfed children 4.8 times the odds for children breastfed 4 or more months (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 3.3−6.9). After adjusting for confounding, the odds for non-breastfed infants remained 2.6 times higher (95% CI 1.7−3.9), with no association seen between breastfeeding and non-maternal maltreatment. Maternal neglect was the only maltreatment subtype independently associated with breastfeeding duration (adjusted OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.1−7.0). Conclusion Among other factors, breastfeeding may also help to protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment, particularly child

  4. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  5. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  6. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidity as predictors of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers a prospective longitudinal study 1970 - 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates, stimulants, cannabis, sedatives/hypnotics, hallucinogens and alcohol over several decades. Methods Follow-up study of a consecutive cohort of 561 substance abusers, admitted to a detoxification unit January 1970 to February 1978 in southern Sweden, and followed up in 2006. Demographic and clinical data, substance diagnoses and three groups of psychiatric diagnoses were identified at first admission. Causes of death were coded according to ICD-10 and classified as drug related deaths or non drug related deaths. To identify the incidence of some probable risk factors of drug related premature death, the data were subjected to a competing risks Cox regression analysis. Results Of 561 patients in the cohort, 11 individuals had either emigrated or could not be located, and 204/561 patients (36.4%) were deceased by 2006. The cumulative risk of drug related death increased more in the first 15 years and leveled out later on when non drug related causes of death had a similar incidence. In the final model, male gender, regular use of opiates or barbiturates at first admission, and neurosis were associated with an increased risk of drug related premature death, while cannabis use and psychosis were associated with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety

  7. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  8. Risk, resilience, and the rorschach: a longitudinal study of children who experienced sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Douglas; Heinze, Hillary J; Arble, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing sexual abuse increases the risk that children will report or otherwise demonstrate problems with emotion, behavior, and health. This longitudinal study of 44 children who experienced sexual abuse examined whether information processing as assessed via the Rorschach Inkblot Test was associated with child-reported depression symptoms assessed via the Children's Depression Inventory (Kovacs, 1992) concurrently and an average of 15 months later. Children whose Rorschach protocols were relatively free of scores suggesting intense distress, complex processing, and sexual content were more likely to experience remission of depression symptoms at follow-up. Findings provide incremental validity for certain Rorschach indexes to inform prognosis regarding depression symptoms and perhaps their treatment. PMID:23941130

  9. An exploratory study of alternative configurations of governing boards of substance abuse treatment centers

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Boards of directors are the ultimate governing authorities for most organizations providing substance abuse treatment. A governing board may establish policies, monitor and improve operations, and represent a treatment organization to the public. This paper explores alternative configurations of governing boards in a national sample of 500 substance abuse treatment centers. The study proceeds from the premise that boards may be configured with varying levels of engagement in five aspects of internal management and external connections in treatment center operating environments. Based on interviews with treatment center administrative directors, four clusters emerge, describing boards that are: (1) active and balanced across internal and external domains; (2) active boundary spanners concentrating primarily on external relationships; (3) focused primarily on internal organizational management; and (4) relatively inactive. In post hoc analysis, we found that placement in these clusters is associated with treatment center attributes such as rate of growth and financial results, use of evidence based practices and provision of integrated care. PMID:21489737

  10. Seniors' self-administration of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI): a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Mark J; Weiss, Deborah; Lithwick, Maxine

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the feasibility of seniors aged 65 and over with MMSE ≥24 completing the EASI-sa, a self-administrable version of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI). A convenience sample of 210 was stratified by age, sex, and language (English and French). All completed the EASI-sa within an estimated 5 minutes, 82.9% within 2 minutes. Completion time decreased with higher education, but was not affected by age, sex, language, or measured physical or mental health. No questions went unanswered; no words were poorly understood or discomforting. The EASI-sa completion was associated with a significantly increased understanding about elder abuse (p < 0.0001). PMID:23016725

  11. The experience of abuse and mental health in the young Thai population

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of child abuse exposure among Thai people in a suburban community and to describe the association of abuse experiences with common mental disorders (CMD), alcohol use disorders and substance use. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 202 young residents, aged 16–25 years. Results Thirty eight percent of the respondents reported experiencing some form of abuse during childhood, with 5.8% having been subjected to sexual penetration, 11.7% having been physically abused and 31.8% emotionally abused. A graded relationship was found between the extent of exposure to abuse during childhood and mental problems. After controlling for potential confounders, CMD remained significantly associated with emotional abuse, and alcohol use disorders remained associated with sexual abuse. Strong but non-significant trends were present for associations between CMD and sexual abuse and all forms of abuse with substance use. Conclusion Child abuse experiences were common among the respondents. Childhood abuse, particularly sexual abuse, has a potentially devastating impact on adult mental health. PMID:16328752

  12. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  13. Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A) construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A) interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A) care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i) determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii) develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii) identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv) design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v) document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale. PMID:23347548

  14. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  15. Child and Adolescent Abuse in Relation to Obesity in Adulthood: The Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Boggs, Deborah A.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence with risk of adult obesity among black women in the United States. METHODS: Participants were women enrolled in the Black Women’s Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study begun in 1995. In 2005, 33 298 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on early life experiences of abuse. Log-binomial regression models were used to derive risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of child/teenager abuse with obesity (BMI ≥30) and central adiposity (waist circumference >35 inches) reported in 2005. RESULTS: The RR for BMI ≥30, a measure of overall obesity, was 1.29 (95% CI 1.20–1.38) for the highest severity of exposure to child/teenager physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse. After controlling for postulated intermediates, including reproductive history, diet, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and socioeconomic status, the RR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.08–1.21). The RR for waist circumference >35 inches, which measures central obesity, for severe physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse was 1.29 (95% CI 1.19–1.38) before adjustment for intermediates and 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27) after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Early life sexual and physical abuse was associated with an increased risk of overall and central obesity in adulthood. Although the association between abuse and obesity was explained to some extent by health behaviors, reproductive history, and mental health, these factors did not fully account for the associations. Our data suggest that early life adversity is related to adult body size and weight distribution. PMID:22753562

  16. Participatory Research Challenges in Drug Abuse Studies Among Transnational Mexican Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings. Especially difficult was including transnational migrants and nearby relatives as partners in the research, similar to partnerships created with others in the community. The sensitive nature of our research and associated human subject concerns did not permit a more participatory methodology. Another problem involved partnerships with members of the larger community, given the apathy and ambivalence towards drug use by transnational migrants. Finally, collaborating with community stakeholders to develop and implement research-based recommendations was also problematic. As we learned, there are more to generating substance abuse recommendations in partnership with stakeholders than simply working together on recommendations, which also require an effective implementation strategy. Based on these experiences, we elaborate useful suggestions in development and application of local-level programs aimed at curtailing substance abuse among transnational migrant workers while they are at their work sites in Pennsylvania. PMID:22003376

  17. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    PubMed

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby. PMID:7836024

  18. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  19. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    PubMed

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  20. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Salamin, Olivier; Jaggi, Laetitia; Baume, Norbert; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342), relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up. PMID:27171140

  1. Alcohol Abuse Common Among Med Students, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... said. Study first author Eric Jackson, a medical student at Mayo Medical School, said he recommends wellness programs in medical schools. These programs could help identify what's adding to the stress, as well as help to remove barriers to ...

  2. The life course of women who have experienced abuse - a life chart study in general psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Örmon, K; Torstensson-Levander, M; Bahtsevani, C; Sunnqvist, C

    2015-06-01

    The life chart offers rich information that provides a broader picture of the lives of women who have experienced abuse. Life charts could be useful for nurses identifying women in general psychiatric care who have experienced abuse. Despite experiences of abuse and stressful events during childhood, there were only a few indications of them receiving support in the life charts. Many of the women had as adults been in contact with or received care at numerous healthcare services. Violence against women is a worldwide problem and has an impact on the lives of women and girls. The study aims to investigate the life course of women within psychiatric care who have experienced abuse. The women's resources, stressful events, experience of abuse, perpetrators, mental ill health, and care and support throughout the life course are also highlighted. Eleven women who had all sought general psychiatric care in an urban area in Sweden participated. A computer software program was used for constructing life charts for each participant, and manifest content analysis was used to analyse the data. The women's social status and resources differed, and some of them spoke of only experiencing few stressful events growing up, while others described a stressful childhood. All of the women had been abused sometime during their life course, and most of the perpetrators were known to the women. Even so, the women had seldom disclosed their childhood abuse. As adults, the women were diagnosed with psychiatric diagnoses, and suicidal behaviour increased. The life chart offers rich information and a broader picture of the life history of women who experienced abuse as well as constituting a tool useful for identifying women with experiences of abuse. PMID:25311151

  3. Increased Childhood Abuse in Patients With Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Turkish Sample: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Sahin, Basak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Abuse is considered to have a place in the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is one of the psychiatric disorders for which abuse could be an etiologic factor; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between abuse and PMDD. In this study, our aim was to investigate childhood abuse in patients with PMDD and compare them with healthy female subjects. Method: This cross-sectional study included 70 women with PMDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were admitted to the outpatient psychiatry clinic of Ankara Yenimahalle State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2012 and December 2013. Additionally, 78 healthy controls were included in the study. Sociodemographic, familial, and reproductive period characteristics of the women were recorded. All subjects were administered the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Among the sociodemographic characteristics, being a university graduate (76.9%) and being a public servant (70.5%) were significantly higher in the healthy control group (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively). A family history of PMDD (31.4%), a history of postpartum psychiatric disorders (11.4%), and a history of attempted suicide (7.1%) were higher in the PMDD group compared with the healthy control group (P = .001, P = .003, and P = .024, respectively). Significant differences were also found between PMDD and healthy controls in PMSS score (P ≤ .001), CTQ total scores (P = .002), and subscale scores including emotional abuse and emotional neglect (P = .004), physical abuse (P = .009), and sexual abuse (P = .012). Conclusions: To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate associations between PMDD and childhood abuse from Turkey. More comprehensive studies on this topic with larger sample sizes are required to enrich the literature and enable practitioners to be more effective in clinical practice. PMID:25664213

  4. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  5. A cross-sectional study of factors underlying the risk of female nurses' suffering abuse by their partners.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Rosa, Liana Bertagnolli da

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors underlying the risk of suffering abuse by a partner. A cross-sectional study of 622 female nurses was accomplished, randomly chosen at their place of work, at a hospital and health centers. We used a self-administered validated questionnaire that covered psychological, physical and sexual abuse, complemented by a set of sociodemographic questions. The nurses at most risk of being abused by their partners were those who supported their family by their own salary (Odds Ratio: 2.41 [0.63-9.15]), those who lived with dependents (Odds Ratio: 4.27 [1.43-2.78]) and had a partner from social class IIIa (Odds Ratio: 2.62 [1.37-5.00]). The data appear to indicate financial independence as a risk factor for this type of abuse. PMID:22481716

  6. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  7. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  8. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  9. Drug Abuse in Paediatric Dentistry: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Tandon, Sandeep; Chugh, Tina; Sharma, Sanjay; PS, Parmod; Aggarwal, Vishal; Kashyap, Nilotpal

    2014-01-01

    Compared to adult medicine, drug use in children is not extensively researched. Objective: The objective of present study is to find out drug prescribing pattern in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry and Orthodontics in teaching hospitals in Rajasthan, India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in June 2011. A total of 619 prescriptions were collected randomly. Prescribing pattern was analyzed using WHO basic drug indicator. Results: The average number of drugs and antimicrobial agent prescribed per prescription were 2.24 and 0.81 respectively. Antimicrobial agent contained 81.74% of all prescriptions. Most common groups of drugs prescribed by pedodontist were NSAIDS & Antipyretics (37.7%), Antimicrobial (36.4%) and Vitamins (12.3%). Prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents was 5.5 ± 0.5 days. Fixed dose combination (45.6%) frequently used by brand name. twelve percent generic drugs were used. Most of the drugs were from Essential Drug List especially a only one drug was prescribed. Conclusion: There is a need of mass awareness amongst dentists about good prescribing habit. Every institution must have Drugs and Therapeutic Committees. The five steps of WHO Program on Rational Use of Drugs (RUD) should be followed for rational prescribing of drugs. PMID:24783138

  10. The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect: a partnership.

    PubMed

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Health Canada's Family Violence Prevention Unit commissioned a study to assess the possibility of collecting child maltreatment data from child welfare agencies across Canada. A Health Canada group responsible for maternal and child health surveillance built on the results of this study. This group consulted widely with provincial and territorial partners to build a surveillance system, resulting in a truly collaborative effort that led to the implementation of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). This was a remarkable accomplishment considering the challenge of working with multiple partners, different legislative frameworks and the stigma that often accompanies the experience of child maltreatment. PMID:26605558

  11. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  12. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims. PMID:24393089

  13. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765

  14. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    PubMed

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator. PMID:16494130

  15. Talking about domestic abuse: Crucial conversations for health visitors.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Domestic abuse is a serious problem across the world and it is considered a public health issue. Nurses play a crucial role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse but they sometimes lack confidence in dealing with the issue. In this article, two recently completed studies are used to extract lessons for health visiting practice. The first study investigated primary healthcare professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse. Many healthcare professionals were confident in dealing with domestic abuse. However, there was disinclination among some to discuss the issue. People who experience abuse rarely discuss it unless asked. So the study highlighted a potential dynamic of silence between health professionals and abused people in their care. The second study investigated student nurses and student midwives experiences of learning about domestic abuse. The student nurses had learned less than the student midwives. They had not been taught about domestic abuse in university and many had not had the opportunity to learn about it in clinical placement. They reported reluctance among some mentors to discuss the issue with them, with a resulting silencing of the issue. Both of these studies have important lessons for health visiting practice regarding opening up crucial conversations about domestic abuse. PMID:26882570

  16. Guidelines for the treatment of adults abused or possibly abused as children (with attention to issues of delayed/recovered memory). NATO Advanced Study Institute.

    PubMed

    Courtois, C A

    1997-01-01

    These guidelines provide practicing clinicians with information regarding psychotherapy with adults who (1) disclose an abuse history (physical, sexual, emotional) at the beginning of therapy; (2) do not disclose abuse despite having knowledge and memory about such events in their past; (3) report new (delayed or recovered) memories of abuse during the course of therapy; and/or (4) suspect past abuse but have no clear memories of having been abused. The more common clinical scenario involves an individual who has retained memory for past abuse but recalls additional events or details during therapy. The less common scenario is for an individual to have totally absent memory of abuse and to later develop highly detailed memory. Practitioners should expect a range of memory presentations and must work to neither suggest nor suppress abuse-related issues that arise in the course of therapy. PMID:9470957

  17. Violent Victimization Among Disadvantaged Young Adults Exposed to Early Family Conflict and Abuse: A 24-Year Prospective Study of the Victimization Cycle Across Gender.

    PubMed

    Voith, Laura A; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Significant associations between childhood victimization and later revictimization have materialized in previous literature; yet, the victimization cycle has been primarily explored with indicators of sexual assault, although insight into linkages between other forms of victimization remains limited. This study examined connections from family conflict exposure and physical abuse in childhood to violent crime victimization in adulthood, assessing also gender differences and neighborhood influences. Results from logistic regression and hierarchical linear modeling with data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel of 1,539 low-income, ethnic/racial minority children, unearthed a significant relation between family conflict exposure and later revictimization. Moderated by gender, these analyses showed girls exposed to frequent family conflict are particularly vulnerable to revictimization in adulthood. Exploratory analyses unveiled a potential linkage between childhood physical abuse and later revictimization for men. Neighborhood effects marginally influenced results in one instance. Public health implications are discussed. PMID:27301843

  18. "Even 'Daily' is Not Enough": How Well Do We Measure Domestic Violence and Abuse?-A Think-Aloud Study of a Commonly Used Self-Report Scale.

    PubMed

    Evans, Maggie; Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Howarth, Emma; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of providing a quantitative measure of domestic violence and abuse (DVA), illustrated by the Composite Abuse Scale, a validated multidimensional measure of frequency and severity of abuse, used worldwide for prevalence studies and intervention trials. Cognitive "think-aloud" and qualitative interviewing with a sample of women who had experienced DVA revealed a tendency toward underreporting their experience of abuse, particularly of coercive control, threatening behavior, restrictions to freedom, and sexual abuse. Underreporting was linked to inconsistency and uncertainty in item interpretation and response, fear of answering truthfully, and unwillingness to identify with certain forms of abuse. Suggestions are made for rewording or reconceptualizing items and the inclusion of a distress scale to measure the individual impact of abuse. The importance of including qualitative methods in questionnaire design and in the interpretation of quantitative findings is highlighted. PMID:26645540

  19. The effect of economic, physical, and psychological abuse on mental health: a population-based study of women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  20. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health. PMID:25525517

  1. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    PubMed Central

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) trial (N=334) were randomized to: an alternative SSRI; an alternative SSRI plus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT); venlafaxine; or venlafaxine plus CBT. Analyses examined the effect of history of abuse on response to the pharmacotherapy and combination therapy. Results Those without a history of physical abuse (PA) or sexual abuse (SA) had a higher 12-week response rate to combination therapy compared to medication mono-therapy (62.8% vs. 37.6%; OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.6–4.7, p<0.001). Those with a history of SA had similar response rates to combination vs. medication monotherapy (48.3% vs. 42.3%; OR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.4–3.7; p=0.66), while those with history of PA had a much lower rate of response to combination therapy (18.4% vs. 52.4%, OR=0.1; 95% CI: 0.02–0.43). Even after adjusting for other clinical predictors, a history of PA moderated treatment outcome. Conclusion These results should be considered within the limitations of a post-hoc analysis, lack of detailed assessment of abuse and other forms of trauma, and neuropsychological status. Depressed patients with history of abuse, especially PA may require specialized clinical approaches. Further work is needed to understand by what mechanisms a history of abuse affects treatment response. PMID:21334569

  2. Somatic and psychological problems in a cohort of sexually abused boys: a six year follow up case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Price, L; Maddocks, A; Davies, S; Griffiths, L

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To obtain information about the health and well being of 108 boys six years after their involvement with the same paedophile. Methods: Case–control study of the health records of 93 male victims of a major episode of school based child sexual abuse and 93 matched controls. Interviews with a sample of their general practitioners. Results: The number and frequency of reported health problems were similar in both cases and controls. However, abused boys were more likely than controls to present with symptoms that persisted for more than a year (31 cases compared with 10 controls). Conclusions: Boys who have previously suffered sexual abuse at school did not utilise primary health care services more than a group of age matched controls. They did not present with psychological or somatic problems different from those presented by non-abused boys. However, abused boys were more likely to complain of persistent somatic or psychological problems lasting more than a year. This pattern appeared to persist after the abuse had stopped and the perpetrator imprisoned. PMID:11861230

  3. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  4. Child Abuse Screening: Implications of the Limited Predictive Power of Abuse Discriminants from a Controlled Family Study of Pediatric Social Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Jessica H.; And Others

    The predictive value of a child abuse screening instrument on unselected populations is illustrated for varying hypothesized levels of child abuse prevalence to demonstrate outcome of a hypothetical national screening program. At any level of application, the prediction of false positives (nonabusing families labeled as abusing or potentially…

  5. Personal Contextual Characteristics and Cognitions: Predicting Child Abuse Potential and Disciplinary Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental…

  6. Potential Drug Abuse Therapeutics Derived from the Hallucinogenic Natural Product Salvinorin A

    PubMed Central

    Prevatt-Smith, Katherine M.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Simpson, Denise S.; Day, Victor W.; Douglas, Justin T.; Bosch, Peter; Dersch, Christina M.; Rothman, Richard B.; Kivell, Bronwyn; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies of salvinorin A have shown that modification of the acetate functionality off the C-2 position to a methoxy methyl or methoxy ethyl ether moiety leads to increased potency at KOP receptors. However, the reason for this increase remains unclear. Here we report our efforts towards the synthesis and evaluation of C-2 constrained analogs of salvinorin A. These analogs were evaluated at opioid receptors in radioligand binding experiments as well as in the GTP-γ-S functional assay. One compound, 5, was found to have affinity and potency at κ opioid (KOP) receptors comparable to salvinorin A. In further studies, 5 was found to attenuate cocaine-induced drug seeking behavior in rats comparably to salvinorin A. This finding represents the first example of a salvinorin A analog that has demonstrated anti-addictive capabilities. PMID:22442751

  7. A Framework for Conducting a National Study of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Serving American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Moore, Laurie A.; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. Objectives and Methods We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n = 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Results Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. Conclusion and Scientific Significance This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies. PMID:22931088

  8. An epidemiologic study of childhood sexual abuse and adult sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mackenzie J; Aggen, Steven H; Kendler, Kenneth S; York, Timothy P; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2016-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is linked to negative consequences, including insomnia. Few studies have examined the enduring effects of CSA on adult insomnia. Given the relationship between sleep and poor health, a better understanding of these effects has clinical implications. We used a representative adult twin sample. Both sexes were assessed with a broad CSA variable, with a subset of females (n = 424) given additional items capturing escalating physical contact and abuse characteristics. A sum score of past-month insomnia symptoms was calculated from the Symptom Checklist-90 (shortened version). Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of CSA, physical contact, and incident characteristics on insomnia symptoms. Of the full sample (N = 8,184), 9.8% reported CSA. CSA significantly predicted insomnia symptoms in the female sample (n = 1,407; odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-2.06, p < .0001) but the continuum of physical contact did not. Individually, more than 1 perpetrator and feeling forced/threatened increased sleep risk, whereas having a male perpetrator (vs. female or multiple) decreased risk. These associations did not hold when combined. In the mixed-sex sample (n = 6,777), we replicated our CSA finding (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.34-2.04, p < .0001) and found that female gender (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30, p = .0125), but not the gender*CSA interaction, was significant. CSA predicts adult insomnia symptoms decades after abuse, but the small sample size for incident characteristics (n = 424) resulted in limited conclusions about associated risk. PMID:26390111

  9. Stress profile of infant rib in the setting of child abuse: A finite element parametric study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Andy; Coats, Brittany; Kleinman, Paul K

    2012-07-26

    The primary goal of this study is to advance our current understanding of infant rib injuries in the setting of child abuse. To this end, we employed finite element model simulations to determine the sensitivity of an infant rib's stress response to varying material properties and under varying degrees of anterior-posterior chest compression. Using high-resolution chest CT images obtained from a 6-day-old infant, we constructed a simplified geometric model consisting of bone and cartilage structures. To simulate the lateral gripping of an infant in child abuse, an anterior-posterior chest compression load was applied to cause increased stresses along the costovertebral articulation, a classic site for inflicted rib fractures. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of varying Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the bones and cartilages. In addition, we varied the amount of anterior-posterior chest displacement to assess the sensitivity of this parameter to the rib's stress profile. We found that varying Young's modulus of the bone and cartilage not only changed the magnitude but also the shape profile of the rib's stress response. In contrast, varying the degree of chest compression only changed the magnitude of the stress response and not the shape profile. We also discovered that by varying Poisson's ratio of the bone and cartilage, no appreciable change was seen in the magnitude or the shape profile of the rib's stress response. Finite element modeling shows promise as a tool to elucidate the mechanisms of rib fractures in abused infants. PMID:22727522

  10. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  11. [Sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an incidence study].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Aded, Naura Liane; Galluzzi da Silva Dalcin, Bruno Luís; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares

    2007-08-01

    We present an incidence analysis of forensic medical examinations at the Afrânio Peixoto Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2000. A sample of 124 cases of suspected sexual abuse was selected, both male and female, aged 0 to 17 years. Minors from 0 to 14 years of age represented 81.45% of the sample, coinciding with rates from a former study spanning the first quarter of 2000. Other than vaginal rape, young male subjects prevailed in cases of suspected anal, oral, or other forms of sexual violence and comprised 20.97% of the total sample, with no such cases, either male or female, in the 15-17-year group. Most cases of alleged vaginal sexual abuse were detected in the 10-17-year group. 44.36% of the alleged aggressors were related to the victims; non-related aggressors represented 13.71% of the study group. 30.65% of all cases lacked information about the aggressor. Most police complaints were recorded in the North and East Sides of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The present study did not analyze the victims' social, economic, or cultural characteristics. PMID:17653415

  12. An HIV Prevention Intervention for Ethnically Diverse Men in Substance Abuse Treatment: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. Methods. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Results. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). Conclusions. REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele. PMID:23488494

  13. The potential role of salt abuse on the risk for kidney stone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Harvey, J. A.; Padalino, P. K.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The kidney stone-forming risk of a high sodium diet was evaluated by assessing the effect of such a diet on the crystallization of stone-forming salts in urine. Fourteen normal subjects participated in 2 phases of study of 10 days duration each, comprising a low sodium phase (basal metabolic diet containing 50 mmol. sodium per day) and a high sodium phase (basal diet plus 250 mmol. sodium chloride per day). The high sodium intake significantly increased urinary sodium (34 +/- 12 to 267 +/- 56 mmol. per day), calcium (2.73 +/- 1.03 to 3.93 +/- 1.51 mmol. per day) and pH (5.79 +/- 0.44 to 6.15 +/- 0.25), and significantly decreased urinary citrate (3.14 +/- 1.19 to 2.52 +/- 0.83 mmol. per day). Arterialized venous blood bicarbonate and total serum carbon dioxide concentrations decreased significantly during the high sodium diet, whereas serum chloride concentration increased. However, no change in arterialized venous pH was detected. Thus, a high sodium intake not only increased calcium excretion, but also increased urinary pH and decreased citrate excretion. The latter effects are probably due to sodium-induced bicarbonaturia and a significant decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration, respectively. Commensurate with these changes, the urinary saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and monosodium urate increased, and the inhibitor activity against calcium oxalate crystallization (formation product) decreased. The net effect of a high sodium diet was an increased propensity for the crystallization of calcium salts in urine.

  14. Butch/Femme Differences in Substance Use and Abuse Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Examination and Potential Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of gender atypical self-presentation on the alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as symptoms of substance abuse, of an ethnically diverse sample of 76 young (ages 14 – 21 years) lesbian and bisexual women who were interviewed between 1993-95 in New York City. Even after controlling for age, sexual identity, and social desirability, young butch women reported drinking alcohol more frequently and in greater quantity, smoking more cigarettes, and using marijuana more frequently than young femme women. Experiences of gay-related stressful events, internalized homophobia, and emotional distress were found to largely account for the butch/femme differences in tobacco and marijuana use, but not in higher levels of alcohol use. Despite the small convenience sample, these findings suggest that intervention efforts to address the higher levels of substance use among young lesbian and bisexual women may increase effectiveness by also addressing experiences of gay-related stress and emotional distress of young butch women. PMID:18649226

  15. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  16. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  17. Child sexual abusers' views on treatment: a study of convicted and imprisoned adult male offenders.

    PubMed

    Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    In spite of an increasing focus on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders over the past two decades, much debate persists as to the effectiveness of treatment in reducing recidivism. Given the dearth of research on offenders' perspectives in this area and the potential for offenders' views to inform the development of effective treatment, we consider the views of 35 adult male child sexual abusers on the prison treatment program. Focusing on a number of key themes, namely victim empathy, strategies for desistence, group or individual treatment, motivation, and postprogram support. In doing so, the extent to which this work furthers knowledge in this area and future research directions was considered. PMID:19856736

  18. Is the association between irritable bowel syndrome and abuse explained by neuroticism? A population based study

    PubMed Central

    Talley, N; Boyce, P; Jones, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—In outpatients and the community, an association between abuse (particularly sexual abuse) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been observed, but whether there is a causal link continues to be disputed. 
Aims—To test the hypothesis that psychological factors explain the apparent association between abuse and IBS. 
Methods—A sample of residents of Penrith (a Sydney suburb sociodemographically similar to the Australian population) selected randomly from the electoral rolls (that by law include the entire population of age 18 years and above) was mailed a validated self report questionnaire. Measured were gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including the Rome criteria for IBS, abuse (including the standardised Drossman questions), neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and psychological morbidity (General Health Questionnaire). 
Results—The response rate was 64% (n=730); 12% fulfilled the Rome criteria for IBS. Overall abuse in childhood (odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29 to 3.15) but not adulthood (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.19) was associazted with IBS univariately. Neuroticism and psychological morbidity were also univariately associated with abuse in childhood, abuse in adulthood, and IBS, respectively. However, by logistic regression, abuse in childhood was not associated with IBS after controlling for age, gender, and psychological factors (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.83to 2.17). The results were not altered by restricting the analyses to more severe forms of abuse, and were not explained by interactions between abuse and psychological variables. 
Conclusion—There is an association between abuse and IBS in the community, but this may be explained in part by other psychological factors. Based on a path analysis, we postulate that abuse may induce the expression of neuroticism that in turn leads to IBS. 

 Keywords: epidemiology; irritable bowel syndrome; abuse; neuroticism PMID:9505885

  19. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  20. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  1. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  2. Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…

  3. Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari

    2013-11-01

    Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse. PMID:24237819

  4. Men’s self-definitions of abusive childhood sexual experiences, and potentially related risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men participated in a telephone survey. They were screened for CSEs and then asked if they self-defined abusive CSEs to be CSA; they also were asked about risk behavior histories and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Results Of 43 (22%) participants with abusive CSEs, 35% did not and 65% did self-define abusive CSEs to be CSA (“Non-Definers” and “Definers,” respectively). Heterosexual and gay/bisexual subgroups’ CSA self-definition rates did not significantly differ. When self-definition subgroups were compared to those without CSEs (“No-CSEs”), Non-Definers had lower perceived parental care (p = .007) and fewer siblings (p = .03), Definers had more Hispanics and fewer African Americans (p = .04), and No-CSEs had fewer gay/bisexual men (p = .002) and fewer reports of physical abuse histories (p = .02) than comparison groups. Non-Definers reported more sex under the influence (p = .001) and a higher mean number of all lifetime sex partners (p = .004) as well as (only) female sex partners (p = .05). More Non-Definers than Definers reported having experienced penetrative sex as part of their CSA (83% versus 35%, p = .006). Different explanations about self-definition were provided by subgroups. Conclusions Many men with abusive CSEs do not self-define these CSEs to be CSA, though not in a way that differs by sexual identity. The process by which men self-define their abusive CSEs to be CSA or not appears to be associated not only with self-explanations that differ by self-definition subgroup, but also with behavioral outcomes that impart risk to Non-Definers. PMID:18035415

  5. Genetic Moderators and Psychiatric Mediators of the link between Sexual Abuse and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Magnusson, Åsa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that that might affect treatment planning. Methods A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. Results The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. PMID:21193270

  6. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  7. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  8. COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing results in cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for potential child abuse.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Yuri A; Clingenpeel, Rachel; Sellars, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xinyu; Kaylor, Julie A; Bosanko, Katherine; Linam, Leann E; Byers, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    Child abuse is a major public health concern that can explain a proportion of fractures in children. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common inherited syndrome that predisposes to skeletal fractures. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from clinical, laboratory, and radiographic information from children evaluated for child abuse in which molecular testing for COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes was conducted. A total of 43 patients underwent molecular testing for OI. Pathogenic variants predicted to result in a mild form of OI were found in two patients (5%), both clinically suspected to have this diagnosis. None of the cases in whom OI molecular testing was ordered when maltreatment concerns were thought to be more likely (0/35) were identified to have pathogenic variants. After reviewing each individual case, the final diagnosis was child abuse for 34 cases (77%), and additional radiographic and laboratory studies did not identify any with inherited metabolic predisposition to fracture or rickets. We conclude that routine testing for OI in the setting of child abuse when no other suggestive clinical findings are present has a low yield. A careful review of the medical history and a detailed clinical evaluation help identify those at risk for genetic alterations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090748

  9. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  10. Specificity and sensitivity of sexually anatomically correct dolls in substantiating abuse: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Realmuto, G M; Jensen, J B; Wescoe, S

    1990-09-01

    Sexually anatomically correct dolls are often used to verify or refute allegations of sexual abuse in young children. As a test of their effectiveness in facilitating decisions about the abuse status of young children, the authors conducted blind interviews with six abused subjects, five nonclinic controls and four psychiatric controls. The child psychiatrist interviewer followed a standardized protocol and was able to correctly categorize 33% of the abused and 67% of the nonabused children. Proper classification was 53% for the sample using this protocol. The authors' preliminary conclusion is that, without other information available to the interviewer, sexually anatomically correct dolls are a poor source of information to decide the abuse status of a young child. The authors recommend that professionals should be cautious when basing decisions on a single instrument, such as sexually anatomically correct dolls. Mental health professionals are encouraged to maintain quality standards in evaluation of children by conducting a comprehensive examination in child sexual abuse cases. PMID:2228927

  11. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D’Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born 1960–1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also the longer duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. Conclusions We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. PMID:25158998

  12. Emotional abuse towards children by schoolteachers in Aden Governorate, Yemen: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional abuse is central to other forms of abuse. The primary objective of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse among pupils in basic education schools and the risk factors associated with it in Aden governorate, Yemen. Methods Four districts were randomly selected from across the governorate of Aden, 2 schools were selected at random in each district, and then 1066 pupils were randomly selected from the 8 schools. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver.15. Mean, standard deviation and chi square were used for descriptive statistics. Univariate and Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between emotional abuse with pupils/parents characteristics. Results Pupils reported high rates of emotional abuse 55.2% at least once in their school lifetime. Male pupils had higher prevalence of emotional abuse 72.6% than females 26.1%. Teachers constituted the highest proportion of perpetrators 45.6%. Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) showed statistically significant association between emotional abuse and pupils' gender, family type and father education: 9.94 (7.19-13.74), 1.40 (1.02-1.91), .58 (.39-.86) respectively. Conclusion Emotional child abuse was highly prevalent in pupils in basic school education. Pupils' gender, family type and father education were the main risk factors associated with emotional abuse. PMID:22888950

  13. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  14. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  15. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  16. Evaluating the association between childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide across the lifespan: Findings from a nationwide study of women in jail.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; DeHart, Dana D; Belknap, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have found childhood sexual abuse to predict suicidal behavior in adulthood. Women in jail suffer disproportionately high rates of childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide relative to women in the general population. Thus, better understanding the association between childhood sexual abuse and attempted suicide among women in jail may inform prevention, assessment, and treatment initiatives for this at-risk population. This study examined the association between childhood sexual abuse and the onset of attempted suicide across the life span in a nationwide sample of women in jail. Participants included a randomly selected subsample of women (N = 115), drawn from a larger probability sample (N = 491), who completed Life History Calendars, which were coded for the presence/absence of attempted suicide and childhood sexual abuse across life history stages. Survival analysis and Cox regression indicated that women with histories of childhood sexual abuse perpetrated by an adult or a peer were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide across the life span, including increased risk for the onset of attempted suicide in adulthood. This study demonstrates the salience of childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of suicidal behavior among women in jail, and extends previous research by demonstrating the temporal sequence of childhood sexual abuse relative to attempted suicide across the life span. Given these findings, researchers, clinicians, and policymakers should consider further the influence of childhood sexual abuse with regard to the high rates of attempted and completed suicide among women in jail. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322516

  17. PET Studies in Nonhuman Primate Models of Cocaine Abuse: Translational Research Related to Vulnerability and Neuroadaptations

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Duke, Angela N.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current review highlights the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the neurobiological substrates underlying vulnerability to cocaine addiction and subsequent adaptations following chronic cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse. Environmental (e.g., social rank) and sex-specific influences on dopaminergic function and sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine are discussed. Cocaine-related cognitive deficits have been hypothesized to contribute to high rates of relapse and are described in nonhuman primate models. Lastly, the long-term consequences of cocaine on neurobiology are discussed. PET imaging and longitudinal, within-subject behavioral studies in nonhuman primates have provided a strong framework for designing pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies to aid drug-dependent treatment seekers. Non-invasive PET imaging will allow for individualized treatment strategies. Recent advances in radiochemistry of novel PET ligands and other imaging modalities can further advance our understanding of stimulant use on the brain. PMID:23458573

  18. A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Therapy Modality Outcomes for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D.; Brausch, Amy M.; Montgomery, Brad S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the independent effects of different treatment elements on a number of secondary problems related to childhood and adolescent sexual abuse, as well as investigate a number of different moderators of treatment effectiveness. Method: Twenty-eight studies that provided treatment outcome…

  19. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  20. Effects of Physical and Emotional Child Abuse and Its Chronicity on Crime Into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Klika, J Bart; Skinner, Martie L

    2015-01-01

    Analyses tested hypotheses that pertain to direct and indirect effects of parent-reported physical and emotional abuse on later self-reported criminal behavior in a sample of 356 adults of a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. Childhood antisocial behavior was included in analyses as a potential mediator. Physical abuse only predicted adult crime indirectly through childhood antisocial behavior, whereas emotional abuse predicted adult outcome both directly and indirectly. Chronicity of physical abuse was indirectly related to later crime in a subsample test for those who had been physically abused (n=318), whereas chronicity of emotional abuse was neither directly nor indirectly related to adult crime in a test of those who had been emotionally abused (n=225). Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26439922

  1. Physical Abuse Among Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Rost, Kathryn M; Golding, Jacqueline M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide estimates of physical abuse and use of health services among depressed women in order to inform efforts to increase detection and treatment of physical abuse. DESIGN Retrospective assessment of abuse and health services use over 1 year in a cohort of depressed women. SETTING Statewide community sample from Arkansas. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 303 depressed women through random-digit-dial screening. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Exposure to physical abuse based on the Conflict Tactics Scale, multi-informant estimate of health and mental health services. Over half of the depressed women (55.2%) reported experiencing physical abuse as adults, with 14.5% reporting abuse during the study year. Women abused as adults had significantly more severe depressive symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity, and more physical illnesses than nonabused women. After controlling for sociodemographic and severity-of-illness factors, recently abused, depressed women were much less likely to receive outpatient care for mental health problems as compared to other depressed women (odds ratio [OR] 0.3;p = .013), though they were more likely to receive health care for physical problems (OR 5.7, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS Because nearly all depressed women experiencing abuse sought general medical rather than mental health care during the year of the study, primary care screening for physical abuse appears to be a critical link to professional help for abused, depressed women. Research is needed to inform primary care guidelines about methods for detecting abuse in depressed women. PMID:9754516

  2. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  3. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  4. PROJECT INTERACT: A Study of Patterns of Interaction in Abusive, Neglectful and Control Families. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Robert L.

    The project report (Project Interact) describes the outcome of 3 years of research on the nature, causes, and consequences of child abuse and neglect. The family as a locus of violence and the frequency of family violence (including homicide, police calls, physical punishment, and child abuse) are considered. Three models are presented to help…

  5. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  6. Systematic Touch Exploration as a Screening Procedure for Child Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sandra K.; Arrowood, Alice A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a systematic touch exploration format for screening child abuse. The technique involves simple drawings with child participation that review forms of touching in a child's life and screens for physical and emotional abuse as well. Comparisons between screening outcomes and completed case conclusions indicate a bias toward underreporting…

  7. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  8. The Impact of Science Education Games on Prescription Drug Abuse Attitudes among Teens: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…

  9. Trends in Children's Disclosure of Abuse in Israel: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Horowitz, Dvora; Lamb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify characteristics of suspected child abuse victims that are associated with disclosure and nondisclosure during formal investigations. Methodology: The database included all suspected cases of physical and sexual abuse investigated in the state of Israel between 1998 and 2002. All investigative interviews were conducted using…

  10. An Epidemiological Study of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse among the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Marvin W.; And Others

    Reported rates of mental illness and substance abuse in homeless populations vary widely and are usually based on clinical impressions. In this report structured interviews and objective measures of pathology were used to survey demographics, psychopathology, and substance abuse in a homeless population. Subjects (N=107), who were recruited from a…

  11. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  13. A Study of the Relationship between Child Abuse and Drug Addiction in 178 Patients: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Frederick S.; Densen-Gerber, Judianne

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire on family intactness, parental and sibling relationships, and personal physical/sexual abuse histories was completed by 178 adults in treatment for drug/alcohol addiction. Results revealed that 84 percent of the sample reported a history of child abuse/neglect. (Author/CL)

  14. Reporting Suspected Sexual Abuse: A Study of Counselor and Counselor Trainee Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Susan Hackbarth; DeVaney, Susan B.

    1994-01-01

    Examined school counselors' (n=68) and trainees' (n=61) reporting of suspected child sexual abuse. Found that large majority of both trainees and counselors were aware of standard reporting procedures in case of intrafamily sexual abuse and were prepared to implement those procedures. Other findings revealed that school professionals were…

  15. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  16. Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance-abusing parents.

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, K L

    1999-05-01

    Children of substance-abusing parents, including children of alcoholics (COAs), are one of the highest risk groups of youth for substance-abuse problems. For both genetic and family environmental reasons, COAs and children of drug abusers are very vulnerable to becoming alcohol or other drug abusers.1,2 With drug use rates increasing in the past 7 years,3 prevention practitioners must work harder to identify and evaluate effective ways to prevent future substance abuse in these at-risk children. Most prevention programs designed specifically for COAs or children of drug abusers have struggled with identifying, attracting, maintaining, and measuring outcomes. This article focuses on general and unique measurement methods and instrument problems in prevention interventions for children of substance-abusing parents. Part I covers the need for improved measurement in research and practice with children of substance-abusing parents and recommended measures for different hypothesized outcome variables. Part II covers considerations in selecting measures, and Part III covers how to select measures. This article concludes with recommendations to improve measurement in research and practice. PMID:10224200

  17. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  18. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680

  19. Disclosure of child sexual abuse by adolescents: a qualitative in-depth study.

    PubMed

    Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure. PMID:22821848

  20. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this “toxic” stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = −0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  1. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  2. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  3. The Experience of Trauma Recovery: A Qualitative Study of Participants in the Women Recovering from Abuse Program (WRAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Alyson; Fourt, Anne; Langmuir, Judith I.; Dalton, E. Jane; Classen, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of intensive group treatment programs for child maltreatment has been established. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand how women with a history of child maltreatment experienced the Women Recovering from Abuse Program (WRAP), an existing intensive group treatment program. Seven women were interviewed following their…

  4. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  5. A Qualitative Study Using a Systemic Perspective Exploring the Remediation of Abusive Interactions in Intimate Heterosexual Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Elizabeth; Vetere, Arlene Louise

    2012-01-01

    Very little attention has been paid to both partners beliefs about why violence in their previously abusive relationship has stopped or significantly reduced despite well-documented details in the research literature outlining the characteristics of both victims and perpetrators. This study aimed to provide some understanding of how each partner…

  6. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  7. Vicarious Trauma: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Providing Sexual Abuse Treatment on Clinicians' Trust and Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…

  8. Perceived Benefit from Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Curtis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…

  9. Is managed care closing substance abuse treatment units?

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca; Harris Lemak, Christy; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Roddy, Brian L; Nahra, Tammie A

    2007-03-01

    Despite high levels of unmet need for outpatient substance abuse treatment, a significant percentage of outpatient units have closed over the past several years. This study drew on 1999-2000 and 2005 national surveys to determine if managed care was associated with outpatient substance abuse treatment units' likelihood of surviving. Each substance abuse unit director was asked about the presence of any managed care contracts, percentage revenues from managed care, percentage of clients for whom prior authorization was required, and percentage of clients for whom concurrent review was required. A multiple logistic regression revealed that none of these factors was associated with substance abuse treatment unit survival. At this point, neither the presence nor the structure of managed care appears to affect the survival of outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Given the need for these facilities, however, and their vulnerability to closure, continued attention to managed care's potential influence is warranted. PMID:17458479

  10. The impact of childhood abuse and neglect on adult mental health: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A V; Widom, C S; McLaughlin, J; White, H R

    2001-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of three types of victimization in childhood--sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect--on lifetime measures of mental health among adults. In contrast to research that relies on retrospective recall of childhood victimization, this work uses a prospective sample gathered from records of documented court cases of childhood abuse and neglect in a midwestern city around 1970. These subjects were interviewed about twenty years later. In addition, this research compares outcomes of the 641 members of the abuse and neglect group with a matched control group of 510 persons who did not have documented cases of abuse or neglect. The results indicate that men who were abused and neglected as children have more dysthymia and antisocial personality disorder as adults than matched controls, but they did not have more alcohol problems. Abused and neglected women report more symptoms of dysthymia, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol problems than controls. After controlling for stressful life events, however, childhood victimization had little direct impact on any lifetime mental health outcome. This research indicates the importance of adopting an approach that places childhood victimization in the context of other life stressors and of prospective changes over the life course. PMID:11467252

  11. The Role of Substance Abuse in Psychotic versus Personality Disordered Offenders Detained under the Dutch Entrustment Act (TBS): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Kris; Buitelaar, Jan; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2008-01-01

    Mentally disordered patients that abuse drugs or alcohol have a larger number of criminal convictions. Early starters who had their first conviction before the age of 18, especially, more often have a diagnosis of substance abuse and are more often intoxicated at the time of the offense compared to late starters. The present study involved four…

  12. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  13. Wife abuse in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Koustuv; Rahman, Fazlur; Jansson, Bjarne

    2009-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and gender problem, especially in low-income countries. The study focused on verbal abuse, physical abuse and abuse by restricting food provision to wives by their husbands by victim and perpetrator characteristics, emphasizing the socioeconomic context of rural Bangladesh. Using a cross-sectional household survey of 4411 randomly selected married women of reproductive age, the study found that a majority of the respondents are exposed to verbal abuse (79%), while 41% are exposed to physical abuse. A small proportion (5%) of the women had suffered food-related abuse. Risk factors observed were age of the wife, illiteracy (of both victims and perpetrators), alcohol misuse, dowry management, husband's monetary greed involving parents-in-law, and wife's suspicions concerning husband's extramarital affairs. Well-established risk factors for wife abuse, along with dowry and husband's monetary greed, have a relatively high prevalence in rural Bangladesh. PMID:19534836

  14. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    PubMed

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment. PMID:17066330

  15. [Partnership relations of parents and parent-child relations of physical abuse and sexual abuse experiences in childhood from the viewpoint of young adults. Further results of the Hamburg Study (II)].

    PubMed

    Richter-Appelt, H; Tiefensee, J

    1996-12-01

    616 women and 452 men responded to the extensive questionnaire on body and sexual experiences in childhood of the Hamburg Study. 23% of the women and 4% of the men have been classified as sexually abused, 28% of the women and 14% of the men as physically maltreated. Beside testing group differences, the main purpose of this study was to test, which variables would predict sexual abuse and physical maltreatment in multivariate analysis. In the first part of the study, the relevance of socioeconomic and family factors for the prediction of sexual abuse and physical maltreatment have been presented. In this part, the relevance of the relationship between the parents and of the parent-child relationship are discussed. Multivariate analysis demonstrate the importance to differentiate between the early childhood and the time of elementary school. Especially in the group of sexually abused and physically maltreated children we found a deterioration of the socioeconomic circumstances over time as well as of the quality of the relationship between the parents, both of whom may be related to each other. With regard to the parent-child relationship, the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker 1975) and questions to rewards and punishments were presented. Especially in the groups of sexually abused children, lack of demarcation and intense control were univariate significant. Lack of welfare has been of importance in the multivariate models for the prediction of physical maltreatment. Rewards and appreciations were rare in the groups of physically maltreated children but especially frequent in sexually abused children. The importance of further research on specific problems of sexual abuse and physical maltreatment is discussed. PMID:9082469

  16. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  17. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  18. FKBP5 polymorphisms, childhood abuse, and PTSD symptoms: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; Han, Shizhong; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Mota, Natalie P; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Gelernter, Joel; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Polymorphisms in the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene may interact with childhood abuse to increase risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of four previously identified FKBP5 putative risk SNPs (rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, rs947008), childhood abuse, and lifetime PTSD symptoms, including contemporary phenotypic models of PTSD symptoms, in two nationally representative samples of European-American (EA) U.S. military veterans. The main sample included 1585 EA veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), and the replication sample included 577 EA veterans who participated in a second baseline cohort survey of the NHRVS. Outcome variables were lifetime PTSD symptom severity and a 4-factor phenotypic model of PTSD symptoms that included re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing/negative cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal/alterations in arousal and reactivity symptoms. Results revealed that the four FKBP5 SNPs were associated with PTSD symptom severity in both samples (p values ranged from 0.001 to 0.012). Further, SNP rs9470080 in the main sample, and all four SNPs in the replication sample interacted with childhood abuse to predict PTSD severity (p values ranged from 0.002 to 0.006). In both samples, all four FKBP5 SNPs predicted hyperarousal/alterations in arousal and reactivity (p values ranged from<0.001 to 0.002). Results of this study suggest that FKBP5 polymorphisms, directly and interactively with childhood abuse, predict severity of lifetime PTSD symptoms, most notably hyperarousal symptoms, in two nationally representative samples of EA veterans. They further indicate that FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse may contribute to vulnerability for PTSD symptoms and may be most strongly associated with trauma-related hyperarousal symptoms that comprise this phenotype. PMID:27078785

  19. Child sexual abuse prevention: evaluation of a teacher training model.

    PubMed

    Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520

  20. Theatre-in-Education and Child Sexual Abuse: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezseran, Catherine; Katz, Barbara Myerson

    1985-01-01

    Describes the planning, implementing, and evaluating stages of "Choices," a theatre-in-education program on intrafamilial child sexual abuse produced by the Louisville Children's Theatre for third grade students in Jefferson County, Kentucky. (PD)

  1. Enhancing the quality of survey data on woman abuse. Examples from a national Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Dekeseredy, W S

    1995-06-01

    This article discusses the attempts made by the author's to avoid or minimize the methodological shortcoming of previous North American surveys on woman abuse during this national Canadian survey. The author presents the four strategies used by the researchers and offers two suggestions for future survey work. First, the researchers used a broad definition of abuse that views any intentional physical, sexual, or psychological assault on a female dating partner. Second, multiple measures of abuse, such as the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS), were used to minimize underreporting and enhance the reliability and validity of social variables. Third, the researchers included in the CTS the context, meaning and motive of dating violence in the postsecondary school courtship. Lastly, the survey tested the hypotheses derived from several theoretical perspectives. The author offers two suggestions that address the diversity of racial and ethnic participation and psychological abuse. PMID:12295409

  2. The impact of science education games on prescription drug abuse attitudes among teens: a case study.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G; Miller, Leslie M; Ramos, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated in a pretest, two game-play sessions, and a delayed posttest. Students in both groups demonstrated more negative attitudes toward prescription drug abuse after playing the game, driven by changes of students' normative beliefs and their ability to make the connection between prescription drug abuse and illicit drugs. A secondary aim was to assess gains in science knowledge; however, due to low internal consistency reliabilities of content measures, students' knowledge acquisition could not be determined. PMID:25445507

  3. Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points A

  4. Protocol design for large-scale cross-sectional studies of sexual abuse and associated factors in individual sports: feasibility study in Swedish athletics.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Toomas; Janson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Jenny; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Bargoria, Victor; Mountjoy, Margo; Svedin, Carl G

    2015-03-01

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand. Key points

  5. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  6. ‘I can't be an addict. I am.’ Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy medicines are considered relatively safe in contrast to prescribed and illicit substances, but their abuse and addiction potential is increasingly recognised. Those affected represent a hard to reach group, with little known about their experiences. Study objectives were to describe the experiences and views of those self-reporting OTC medicine abuse, and why medicines were taken, how they were obtained and associated treatment and support sought. Design Qualitative study using in-depth mainly telephone interviews. Participants A purposive sample of 25 adults, aged 20–60s, 13 women. Setting UK, via two internet support groups. Results Individuals considered themselves ‘addicted’, but socially and economically active and different from illicit substance misusers. They blamed themselves for losing control over their medicine use, which usually began for genuine medical reasons and not experimentation and was often linked to the cessation of, or ongoing, medical prescribing. Codeine, in compound analgesics, was the main medicine implicated with three distinct dose ranges emerging with decongestant and sedative antihistamine abuse also being reported. Subsequent use was for the ‘buzz’ or similar effects of the opiate, which was obtained unproblematically by having lists of pharmacies to visit and occasionally using internet suppliers. Perceived withdrawal symptoms were described for all three dose ranges, and work and health problems were reported with higher doses. Mixed views about different treatment and support options emerged with standard drug treatment services being considered inappropriate for OTC medicines and concerns that this ‘hidden addiction’ was recorded in medical notes. Most supported the continued availability of OTC medicines with appropriate addiction warnings. Conclusions Greater awareness of the addiction potential of OTC medicines is needed for the public, pharmacists and medical

  7. Value of systematic detection of physical child abuse at emergency rooms: a cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, Judith S; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Moons, Karel G M; Russel, Ingrid M B; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; van de Putte, Elise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. Design A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up. Setting 4 ERs in The Netherlands. Participants 4290 children aged 0–7 years attending the ER because of physical injury. All children were systematically tested with an easy-to-use child abuse checklist (index test). A national expert panel (reference standard) retrospectively assessed all children with positive screens and a 15% random sample of the children with negative screens for physical abuse, using additional information, namely, an injury history taken by a paediatrician, information provided by the general practitioner, youth doctor and social services by structured questionnaires, and 6-month follow-up information. Main outcome measure Physical child abuse. Secondary outcome measure Injury due to neglect and need for help. Results 4253/4290 (99%) parents agreed to follow-up. At a prevalence of 0.07% (3/4253) for inflicted injury by expert panel decision, the positive predictive value of the checklist was 0.03 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.085), and the negative predictive value 1.0 (0.994 to 1.0). There was 100% (93 to 100) agreement about inflicted injury in children, with positive screens between the expert panel and child abuse experts. Conclusions Rare cases of inflicted injury among preschool children presenting at ERs for injury are very likely captured by easy-to-use checklists, but at very high false-positive rates. Subsequent assessment by child abuse experts can be safely restricted to children with positive screens at very low risk of missing cases of inflicted injury. Because of the high false positive rate, we do advise careful prior consideration of cost-effectiveness and clinical and societal implications before de novo implementation

  8. Talc in liver tissue of intravenous drug abusers with chronic hepatitis. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, G S; Goodman, Z D; Ishak, K G; Rabin, L

    1989-11-01

    To determine the frequency of talc microcrystals in liver tissue of intravenous (IV) drug abusers and the significance of this finding, the authors reviewed, with light and polarizing microscopy, sections of liver tissue from 70 patients with chronic hepatitis and a history of active (45) or past (25) IV drug abuse. Birefringent crystalline particles consistent with talc were found in 44 cases (63%), 31 associated with active and 13 with past drug abuse. The microcrystals were situated predominantly in hypertrophied portal macrophages; there were no well-formed granulomas. Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive spectrophotometry performed on eight of the positive cases showed the characteristic "flake-pastry" appearance and chemical composition (silicon and magnesium) of talc. For comparison, the authors similarly examined 70 cases of posttransfusion chronic hepatitis, all of which had negative findings for talc, and 70 cases of chronic hepatitis with no documented risk factors for viral hepatitis, of which two had positive findings for talc, even though IV drug abuse was denied by the two patients. The authors conclude that talc is frequently present in the liver of IV drug abusers and whenever encountered it strongly suggests IV drug abuse. Only two patients (1.4%) with a negative history also had talc. PMID:2816811

  9. The Child Abuse Storm Scale: Part 2--Presumed Abusive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Presents the Child Abuse Storm Scale as a method for assessing the potential for false reports of child abuse resulting in prosecutions. Focuses on the prosecutorial techniques that contribute to false-report errors. Maintains that safeguarding the separation of the responsibilities of protective service workers and therapists from…

  10. Neural Correlates of Craving in Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shahmohammadi, Fanak; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Riahi Kashani, Mohammad Mansour; Sangi, Mehrdad; Yoonessi, Ahmad; Yoonessi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. Methods: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content. A total of 10 methamphetamine abusers and 10 age-gender matched controls participated in the experiments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared using a time window analysis method. The ERPs were divided into 19 time windows of 100 ms with 50 ms overlaps. The area of positive sections below each window was calculated to measure the differences between the two groups. Results: Significant differences between two groups were observed from 250 to 500 ms (P300) in response to methamphetamine-related visual stimuli and 600 to 800 ms in response to neutral stimuli. Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse. PMID:27563415

  11. The mediating effect of childhood abuse in sexual orientation disparities in tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence: results from the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.; Jackson, Benita; Spiegelman, Donna; Pazaris, Mathew J.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the mediating effect of childhood abuse on sexual orientation disparities in tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence. Methods We carried out analyses with data from over 62,000 women in the ongoing Nurses’ Health Study II cohort who provided information on sexual orientation, childhood abuse occurring by age 11, and tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence. We used multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders, to estimate the mediating effect of childhood abuse on the association between sexual orientation and tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence. Results Lesbian and bisexual orientation and childhood abuse were positively associated with greater risk of tobacco and alcohol use during adolescence. For lesbians, the estimated proportion of excess tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence relative to use among heterosexual women that was mediated by abuse in childhood ranged from 7 to 18%; for bisexual women, the estimated proportion of excess use mediated by abuse ranged from 6 to 13%. Conclusions Elevated childhood abuse in lesbian and bisexual women partially mediated excess tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence relative to heterosexual women. Interventions to prevent child abuse may reduce sexual orientation disparities in some of the leading causes of cancer in women. PMID:20640883

  12. Violence and Abuse Against Women Who Have Attempted Suicide by Deliberate Self-Poisoning: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Sarjami, Saeedeh

    2016-04-01

    Sources of data about the occurrence of domestic violence are scarce in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of different types of domestic violence on women who had attempted suicide by deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A total of 195 women who had attempted suicide by DSP in response to "violence and abuse" were followed up for 2 years. The most common type of violence, as mentioned by the women themselves as the motive of self-poisoning, was physical abuse (92%) followed by verbal abuse (2.1%), multi-abuses (2.1%), emotional abuse (1.6%), and sexual abuse (1.1%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were more common in those who were consulted sometime after they had initially presented to the hospital with DSP or those who had suffered repeated domestic abuse. It was concluded that invention of methods other than the current consultation system is necessary to prevent repeated suicide attempts among abused women in Iran. PMID:25550168

  13. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder. PMID:21660818

  14. Personal, Familial and Environmental Determinants of Drug Abuse: A Causal-Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Homeira; Harouni, Gholamreza Ghaedamini; Sani, Maryam Sharifian

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Two purposes were followed in this study: 1) comparing case and control group in eight factors separately and 2) performing a multivariate analysis for identifying risk and protective factors in relation to drug abuse. Methods: A casual-comparative study was conducted to investigate the study goals. Fifty Cases in a convenient sampling of addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers and fifty eligible controls (recruited in a randomly sampling) were identified. One-sample independent T-Test for a univariate and Logistic regression model for a multivariate was conducted. Results: Univariate analysis: addicted group compared with control group, in terms of aggression, easy access to drugs and depression had higher scores and of other factors (self-esteem, religious affiliation, socioeconomic status, family environment and responsibility) cases had lower scores (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis: Easy access to drugs and depression identified as risk factors (OR>1) and high self-esteem, family socioeconomic status and responsibility as protective (OR<1). Conclusions: Addiction is a multivariate phenomenon and before any intervention, we have to consider personal, familial and environmental factors and separate subjects by them. We can’t give all of addicts the same prescription and follow a drug therapy approach to treat them. Any addict has a unique profile that should be taken into consideration. PMID:25946942

  15. Effectiveness of secondary prevention and treatment interventions for crack-cocaine abuse: a comprehensive narrative overview of English-language studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Blanken, Peter; Da Silveira, Dartiu; Gallassi, Andrea; Goldner, Elliot M; Rehm, Jürgen; Tyndall, Mark; Wood, Evan

    2015-04-01

    There are an estimated several million crack-cocaine users globally; use is highest in the Americas. Most crack users are socio-economically marginalized (e.g., homeless), and feature elevated risks for morbidity (e.g., blood-borne viruses), mortality and crime/violence involvement, resulting in extensive burdens. No comprehensive reviews of evidence-based prevention and/or treatment interventions specifically for crack use exist. We conducted a comprehensive narrative overview of English-language studies on the efficacy of secondary prevention and treatment interventions for crack (cocaine) abuse/dependence. Literature searches (1990-2014) using pertinent keywords were conducted in main scientific databases. Titles/abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and full studies were included in the review if involving a primary prevention/treatment intervention study comprising a substantive crack user sample. Intervention outcomes considered included drug use, health risks/status (e.g., HIV or sexual risks) and select social outcome indicators. Targeted (e.g., behavioral/community-based) prevention measures show mixed and short-term effects on crack use/HIV risk outcomes. Material (e.g., safer crack use kit distribution) interventions also document modest efficacy in risk reduction; empirical assessments of environmental (e.g., drug consumption facilities) for crack smokers are not available. Diverse psycho-social treatment (including contingency management) interventions for crack abuse/dependence show some positive but also limited/short-term efficacy, yet likely constitute best currently available treatment options. Ancillary treatments show little effects but are understudied. Despite ample studies, pharmaco-therapeutic/immunotherapy treatment agents have not produced convincing evidence; select agents may hold potential combined with personalized approaches and/or psycho-social strategies. No comprehensively effective 'gold-standard' prevention

  16. IGF-I abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-09-01

    It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse. PMID:20443773

  17. Metabonomic Study of Biochemical Changes in Human Hair of Heroin Abusers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pu; Wang, Tie-jie; Yin, Guo; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Li-he; Li, Qing; Bi, Kai-shun

    2016-01-01

    Hair analysis is with the advantage of non-invasive collection and long surveillance window. The present study employed a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry method to study the metabonomic characters in the hair of 58 heroin abusers and 72 non-heroin abusers. Results indicated that certain endogenous metabolites, such as sorbitol and cortisol, were accelerated, and the level of arachidonic acid, glutathione, linoleic acid, and myristic acid was decreased in hair of heroin abusers. The metabonomic study is helpful for further understanding of heroin addiction and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26445826

  18. Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders. PMID:23262751

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  20. Oxford House: A Review of Research and Implications for Substance Abuse Recovery and Community Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bishop, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse following recidivism is high for both men and women. Studies conducted at DePaul University suggest one type of recovery home for alcohol abuse recovery has potential. Within this self-help communal living setting, recovering alcoholics were able to maintain employment, thus increasing personal responsibility and possibly impacting…

  1. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic and Epigenetic Variations: Association with Child Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date…

  2. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  3. Child abuse and neglect as seen in General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur--a two year study.

    PubMed

    Kassim, M S; George, R; Kassim, K; Begum, M; Cherian, M P; Tajudin, A K; Chandran, V; Anan, A; Reddy, R; Singh, J

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-six children diagnosed as child abuse and/or neglect were admitted to the Paediatric wards of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur during 1985 and 1986. Of these cases, 62 were of physical abuse, six of sexual abuse, one case of both physical and sexual abuse and 17 of neglect. There were 25 boys and 61 girls. Thirty-four of these children were Malays, 16 Chinese, 26 Indians, three mixed and seven illegal immigrants. Twenty-one were below the age of one year, 24 from one to four years, 25 from five to nine years and 16 were ten years and above. The abusers were mainly close members of the family. Of these children, 24 were sent back to their parents and 11 to their relatives home. Twenty-seven were taken into care by the Ministry of Social Welfare and the remaining seven children who were illegal immigrants, were deported with their parents. Only one child was successfully fostered. Eleven children were taken away from the hospital by their parents or guardians without the knowledge of the health staff. There were five deaths in the series. PMID:2626119

  4. A proactive nonclinical drug abuse and dependence liability assessment strategy: a sponsor perspective.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines a strategy and process for proactive nonclinical assessment of drug abuse and dependence liability of new compounds intended for clinical use. Documentation of the potential for causing abuse and dependence liability is required for registration of a new drug; hence, proactive timing and planning of these studies allows for appropriate documentation of nonclinical as well as clinical data in time for registration. In cases for which an abuse and dependence liability label may not be acceptable, a proactive approach to abuse and dependence liability assessment allows for replacement of selected compounds at an early stage of development, thereby saving time and resources and avoiding late attrition. PMID:23907375

  5. The Predictive Power of Abuse in the Family of Origin for Sexual Abuse in Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joan; And Others

    The idea is widely supported that abuse is far more common among acquaintances than among strangers and is most common within the family. The dating relationship is another intimate relationship in which abuse occurs. In this study the association between abuse in the family of origin and sexual abuse in dating was analyzed by determining the…

  6. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  7. A Randomized Experimental Study of Gender-Responsive Substance Abuse Treatment for Women in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Nena; Grella, Christine E.; Cartier, Jerry; Torres, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This experimental pilot study compared post-release outcomes for 115 women who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Women were randomized to a gender-responsive treatment (GRT) program using manualized curricula (Helping Women Recover and Beyond Trauma) or a standard prison-based therapeutic community (TC). Data were collected from the participants at prison program entry and 6 and 12 months after release. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results indicate that both groups improved in psychological well-being; however, GRT participants had greater reductions in drug use, were more likely to remain in residential aftercare longer (2.6 months vs. 1.8 months, p < .05), and were less likely to have been reincarcerated within 12 months after parole (31% vs. 45%, respectively; a 67% reduction in odds for the experimental group, p < .05). Findings show the beneficial effects of treatment components oriented toward women's needs and support the integration of GRT in prison programs for women. PMID:20015605

  8. The economic effect of child abuse in the burn unit.

    PubMed

    Evasovich, M; Klein, R; Muakkassa, F; Weekley, R

    1998-11-01

    The financial burden imposed on society by abusing children through burn injury is unknown. This study retrospectively evaluates the economic impact and demographics of such abuse on patients and their families treated at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron (CHMCA) from four counties over a 5 year period. The inclusive group consisted of all children evaluated during the stated period referred to Social Services for possible child abuse. There were 104 children (55 females and 49 males, 46% black and 56% white) with a mean age of 3.76 years. 71% of the patients came from single parent homes (all single mothers). There were a total of 58 admissions with a mean length of stay of 10.53 days. Total cost for all patients was approximately 1.2 million dollars for health care, of which 65% was government funded. In addition to hospital costs, the perpetrators incurred court costs and jail costs, all of which were the financial responsibility of Summit County. Child abuse through burns imposes a potentially preventable financial burden. This study does not take into account the socioeconomic and psychological impact on the abused victims through life, which is incalculable. By increasing awareness about the demographics and financial burden of child abuse, this paper may serve as a focus for further study and prevention of such abuse. PMID:9882063

  9. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to watch or be part of sexual acts. Money Matters: Financial Abuse and Healthcare Fraud After Victor’s ... the past 6 months, Victor has been taking money from their account for his own use. He ...

  10. False allegations of satanic abuse: case studies from the witch panic in Rättvik 1670-71.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, R L

    1997-12-01

    The creation of false memories, psychiatric symptoms and false allegations of satanic child abuse during an outbreak of witch hysteria in Sweden in the seventeenth century are described and related to contemporary issues in child testimonies. Case studies of 28 children and 14 adults are presented. The mechanisms underlying the spread of these allegations, as well as the reactions and influence of the adult world on the children's testimonies, are discussed. PMID:9443001

  11. Longitudinal histories as predictors of future diagnoses of domestic abuse: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, Isaac S; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether longitudinal data in patients’ historical records, commonly available in electronic health record systems, can be used to predict a patient’s future risk of receiving a diagnosis of domestic abuse. Design Bayesian models, known as intelligent histories, used to predict a patient’s risk of receiving a future diagnosis of abuse, based on the patient’s diagnostic history. Retrospective evaluation of the model’s predictions using an independent testing set. Setting A state-wide claims database covering six years of inpatient admissions to hospital, admissions for observation, and encounters in emergency departments. Population All patients aged over 18 who had at least four years between their earliest and latest visits recorded in the database (561 216 patients). Main outcome measures Timeliness of detection, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and area under the ROC curve. Results 1.04% (5829) of the patients met the narrow case definition for abuse, while 3.44% (19 303) met the broader case definition for abuse. The model achieved sensitive, specific (area under the ROC curve of 0.88), and early (10-30 months in advance, on average) prediction of patients’ future risk of receiving a diagnosis of abuse. Analysis of model parameters showed important differences between sexes in the risks associated with certain diagnoses. Conclusions Commonly available longitudinal diagnostic data can be useful for predicting a patient’s future risk of receiving a diagnosis of abuse. This modelling approach could serve as the basis for an early warning system to help doctors identify high risk patients for further screening. PMID:19789406

  12. What counts? A mixed-methods study to inform evaluation of shelters for abused women.

    PubMed

    Wathen, C Nadine; Harris, Roma M; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Hansen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Shelters for abused women have expanded from "safe havens" to providing a range of residential and outreach services, and face increasing pressure to demonstrate "value for money" by providing evaluation metrics that may or may not reflect what they actually do. We conducted interviews and surveys with 68 shelter directors in Ontario, Canada, and found that differences in service philosophy and how abuse is defined influence decisions about who receives services and the shelter's role in the broader community; these in turn affect how the work of shelters is positioned. Implications for shelter service evaluation are discussed. PMID:25540254

  13. Tests of the Mitigating Effects of Caring and Supportive Relationships in the Study of Abusive Disciplining Over Two Generations

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Brown, Eric C.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine evidence of the continuity in abusive discipline across two generations (G1 and G2) and the role of Safe, Stable, and Nurturing Relationships (SSNRs) as protective factors. Methods Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of the causes and consequences child maltreatment that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 children and their parents. Data were most recently collected in 2008 - 2010 from 80% of the original child sample (N = 357) when they were adults age 36 years on average. Of those assessed as adults, 268 participants (G2s) were parenting children and thus comprise the analysis sample. Analyses examined the association between physical discipline practices by G1 parents and G2’s reports of similarly severe discipline practices used in parenting their own children. Analyses also investigated the direct and interactive (protective) effects of SSNR variables that pertain to the care, warmth, and support children received from their mothers, fathers, and siblings over their lifetimes. A measure of an adult partner’s warmth and support was also included. A case-level examination of G2 harsh discipliners was included to examine other forms of past and more recent forms of abuse exposure. Results Results show a significant predictive association between physical discipline by G1 and G2 parents (Beta = .30, p < .05, OR: 1.14 [1.04 - 1.26]), after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status and gender. While being physically disciplined as a child was inversely related to reports of having had a caring relationship with one’s mother (r = -.25, p < .01), only care and support from one’s father predicted a lower risk of harsh physical discipline by G2s (Beta = -.24, p < .05, OR: .74 [.59 -.92]). None of the SSNR variables moderated the effect of G1 discipline on G2 discipline. A case-level examination of the abusive histories of G2 harsh discipliners found they had in some cases been exposed to physical

  14. A national study on the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Suriname.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, Inger W; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L; Graafsma, Tobi L G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence of all forms of child maltreatment in Suriname. One thousand three hundred and ninety-one (1,391) adolescents and young adults of different ethnicities completed a questionnaire about child maltreatment. The study sample, obtained by random probability sampling, consisted of students (ages 12 through 22) from five districts in Suriname. A significant proportion of Surinamese children experienced maltreatment. In total, 86.8% of adolescents and 95.8% of young adults reported having been exposed to at least one form of child maltreatment during their lives. Among the adolescents, 57.1% were exposed to child maltreatment in the past year. When the definition of the National Incidence Study was applied, 58.2% of adolescents and 68.8% of young adults had been exposed to at least one form of maltreatment. Among adolescents, 36.8% reported having experienced at least one form of maltreatment in the past year. The results indicate the (extremely) high lifetime and year prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname. The serious and often lifelong consequences of such maltreatment indicate that a national approach to child abuse and neglect, including the development of a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system and changes to the state's programmatic and policy response, is urgently needed. PMID:25937450

  15. Perceptions of the Role of Mothers in the Disclosure and Nondisclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally V

    2015-01-01

    One of the aims of this research was to develop an understanding of the role mothers were perceived to play during the process of disclosure of child sexual abuse. Using narrative inquiry methodology, face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 men and women who had an early sexual experience. Even though a mother's support and protection is known to be important, this study showed that many mothers were seen as unable to offer such support, which had an important influence on nondisclosure. The heterogeneity of perceptions of mothers among adults who experienced child sexual abuse and gender differences are described. Health professionals need to manage complex relational dynamics between adult survivors and their mothers. PMID:26701280

  16. The impact of 9/11 on New York City's substance abuse treatment programs: a study of program administrators.

    PubMed

    Frank, Blanche; Dewart, Tracey; Schmeidler, James; Demirjian, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    Given the far-reaching effects of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, a study was conducted under the supervision of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services to assess the impact on New York City's substance abuse treatment programs. A stratified, random sample of 15 treatment programs was selected to represent the system's major modalities. Administrators representing these programs were interviewed face-to- face using a structured interview schedule. The questions mainly probed the problems experienced on 9/11 and afterwards, patient issues and the lessons learned. The findings show major concerns for the mental health of both staff members and patients, the failure of the telephone communication system, the particular sensitivity of drug-free outpatient clinics, the challenges experienced by methadone programs, and the need to update disaster planning. A host of problems came to the fore now requiring another level of thinking. PMID:16597568

  17. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    PubMed

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  18. Improving Fraud and Abuse Detection in General Physician Claims: A Data Mining Study

    PubMed Central

    Joudaki, Hossein; Rashidian, Arash; Minaei-Bidgoli, Behrouz; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Geraili, Bijan; Nasiri, Mahdi; Arab, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the indicators of healthcare fraud and abuse in general physicians’ drug prescription claims, and to identify a subset of general physicians that were more likely to have committed fraud and abuse. Methods: We applied data mining approach to a major health insurance organization dataset of private sector general physicians’ prescription claims. It involved 5 steps: clarifying the nature of the problem and objectives, data preparation, indicator identification and selection, cluster analysis to identify suspect physicians, and discriminant analysis to assess the validity of the clustering approach. Results: Thirteen indicators were developed in total. Over half of the general physicians (54%) were ‘suspects’ of conducting abusive behavior. The results also identified 2% of physicians as suspects of fraud. Discriminant analysis suggested that the indicators demonstrated adequate performance in the detection of physicians who were suspect of perpetrating fraud (98%) and abuse (85%) in a new sample of data. Conclusion: Our data mining approach will help health insurance organizations in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) in streamlining auditing approaches towards the suspect groups rather than routine auditing of all physicians. PMID:26927587

  19. A Psychometric Study of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3; Miller & Lazowski, 1999) is a popular screening instrument used to assist professionals in the assessment of individuals who may be substance dependent. Many researchers have reported reliability and validity results on this instrument with mixed results, which at times have contradicted…

  20. The Doubles: A Case Study on Developing a Technology-Based Substance Abuse Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joel; Collins, Karen Kadela; Pancella, Thom

    2004-01-01

    The Doubles, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is a seven-episode series of media tools designed to teach third and fourth grade students about the science of drug addiction. The program's curriculum is delivered via a set of videos, interactive CD-ROMs, workbooks, or an Internet site. This article examines the process used to…

  1. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health. PMID:18798442

  2. A Descriptive Study of Nine Health-Based Programs in Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    Presented are reports of individual site visits and results of questionnaires describing nine child abuse and child neglect health-based programs located in Chicago, Denver, El Paso, Honolulu, Iowa City, Los Angeles, New York, Pittsburgh, and St. Paul. Included is information on funding, patient statistics, composition of teams, patient flow, cost…

  3. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  4. Students' Reactions to Manual-Based Treatments for Substance Abuse: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lori; Jacobucci, Raymond; Houston, Hank

    2006-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research design with quantitative and qualitative methodologies was conducted to explore reactions of 21 students to treatment manuals for substance abuse. Students were randomized to experimental (n = 11) and attention-control (n = 10) groups involving exposure to one of two manual-based therapy interventions. Quantitative…

  5. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  6. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James

    2016-01-01

    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26560235

  7. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…

  9. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers’ and fathers’ reports of corporal punishment and children’s reports of their parents’ neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers’ and fathers’ use of corporal punishment and children’s perceptions of their parents’ neglect were predicted by parents’ belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents’ perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents’ progressive parenting attitudes, parents’ endorsement of aggression, parents’ education, children’s externalizing problems, and children’s internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  10. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  11. Length of Time to Resolve Criminal Charges of Child Sexual Abuse: A Three-County Case Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Lippert, Tonya; Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg; Jones, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    The present study sought to examine the court culture of three Oregon counties and their timelines for resolving felony child sexual abuse cases. Specifically, we examined (a) case outcomes, churning (i.e., the extent to which four court events were rescheduled), the length of time to reach a criminal case resolution, and how this length of time compared to that for felonies generally; (b) whether mandatory minimum sentences affected resolution timeliness; and (c) key stakeholders' perceptions about their local court culture. Data included retrospective case-file abstraction (N = 532) on all felony child sex crimes for a 2-year period and interviews with legal professionals (N = 23). Across all three counties, a minority of child sexual abuse cases (18% to 47%) were resolved within the target timeframe of 4 months. In contrast, most felonies (65% to 77%) were resolved within this timeframe. The rescheduling of trials and the requirement of mandatory minimum sentences for some felony child sexual abuse crimes increased the time until case resolution. Results suggest that court cultures that are hierarchical and cooperative may lead to longer case resolution times than court cultures that are self-managing or autonomous. Implications of these results and other results are discussed. PMID:26206709

  12. Developmental trauma and its correlates: a study of Chinese children with repeated familial physical and sexual abuse in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ellen Y M; Li, Frendi W S

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relevance of the developmental trauma disorder (DTD) framework (van der Kolk, ) in Hong Kong Chinese children with repeated familial physical and/or sexual abuse. Self-reports of (a) key dimensions of DTD including emotion regulation, attribution and perceptions in self and relationships, belief in future victimization, behavioral difficulties, and self-esteem; and (b) attachment styles and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reactions were obtained from children aged 9-15 years in clinical and school settings. Children were categorized into an abused trauma group (n = 82), a nonabused trauma group (n = 83), and a no-trauma control group (n = 201). The findings indicated that the DTD framework was applicable to abused children who showed a lower level of attachment security (Cohen's d from 0.50-0.61) and a higher level of PTSD reactions (Cohen's d = 0.71) than the comparison groups. After adding attachment security and emotion dysregulation to the model, there were no longer significant group differences in most of the variables. PMID:25158638

  13. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669

  14. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania’s contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence. PMID:25132543

  15. Insight Into the Relationship Between Impulsivity and Substance Abuse From Studies Using Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Catharine A.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Jentsch, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. PMID:20491734

  16. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  18. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  19. The Effects of Sexual Abuse as a Child on the Risk of Mothers Physically Abusing Their Children: A Path Analysis Using Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The potential path from sexual abuse as a child to the current risk of physical abuse by mothers was assessed. Ontogenic variables including the experience of the parent's sexual abuse as a child and current depression or substance abuse were expected to have a greater impact on the risk of child abuse than microsystem and exosystem…

  20. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    to be inflicted. For femoral fractures, the probability was between 0.28 (0.15 to 0.44) and 0.43 (0.32 to 0.54), depending on the definition of abuse used, and the developmental stage of the child was an important discriminator. The probability for skull fractures was 0.30 (0.19 to 0.46); the most common fractures in abuse and non-abuse were linear fractures. Insufficient comparative studies were available to allow calculation of a probability of abuse for other fracture types. Conclusion When infants and toddlers present with a fracture in the absence of a confirmed cause, physical abuse should be considered as a potential cause. No fracture, on its own, can distinguish an abusive from a non-abusive cause. During the assessment of individual fractures, the site, fracture type, and developmental stage of the child can help to determine the likelihood of abuse. The number of high quality comparative research studies in this field is limited, and further prospective epidemiology is indicated. PMID:18832412

  1. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  2. Potential energy studies on silane dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlanen, Riina; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2011-04-01

    Intermolecular interactions and parameters for use in MD studies of large molecule systems have earlier been determined for hydrocarbons, carbon tetrahalides and sulfur. The paper reports a model representing nonbonding interactions between silane molecules, which were examined in the same way as hydrocarbons in an earlier (neopentane, isopropane, propane, and ethane) study. Intermolecular potentials were determined for 11 combinations of silane compound pairs (silane SiH 4, disilane Si 2H 6, trisilane Si 3H 8, isotetrasilane Si 4H 10 and neopentasilane Si 5H 12) with MP2/aug(df)-6-311G ∗ab initio calculations. The most stable dimer configurations were identified. With use of the modified Morse potential model to represent the interactions, 276 new potential energy surfaces were generated for silane dimers. Separate and generic pair potentials were calculated for the silanes. The pair potentials can be used in MD studies of silanes.

  3. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  4. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

  5. Parents who abuse: what are they thinking?

    PubMed

    Seng, Alexandra C; Prinz, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    Child abuse is a major social concern around the world. Important to tackling the problem is an understanding of the mechanisms contributing to abusive parenting. This article brings together research on the cognitive variables associated with abusive or high-risk parenting. Considered are dysfunctional child-centered and parent-centered cognitions as potentially critical correlates of abusive behavior. The development of dysfunctional cognitions is also explored. Cognitive vulnerabilities alone are typically not sufficient for the occurrence of abuse. Interactions with additional factors, such as an ability to inhibit aggression, problem-solving capabilities, parenting skills, social isolation, and societal context are examined. PMID:18548348

  6. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Béria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andréia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

  7. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (p<.001). However, the introduction of adult interpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (p<.001 and p=.002, respectively), and the model showed a good fit across multiple indices. Finally, weight-related teasing was a significant moderator in the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. PMID:24412223

  8. Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. PMID:27380625

  9. The dentist's role in identifying child abuse: an evaluation about experiences, attitudes, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rubenice Amaral; Goncalves, Leticia Machado; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Alves; da Cruz, Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira da

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate dentists' experiences, attitudes, and knowledge in recognizing and reporting suspected cases of child abuse. It was designed as a cross-sectional study across dental practices. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, which was distributed randomly to 500 dentists. The questionnaire investigated characteristics of the population, education concerning child abuse, experience and attitudes in reporting suspected cases, and the ability to recognize signs of abuse. Approximately 60% of the dentists responded to the survey. Among the dentists who participated in the survey, 87% believed that recognizing child abuse is important, however, 63.2% reported that they did not know how to act in such situations, and 44.2% were unaware of the proper child protection authorities to contact. Among the dentists surveyed, 94.7% reported they did not receive enough education concerning child abuse in their undergraduate studies. While 31.3% of dentists suspected child abuse among their patients, 84% reported their suspicions to the proper authorities. The reason cited most often (33.3%) for not reporting suspected abuse was the fear of litigation and its potential impact on their practice. Only 34.2% of dentists demonstrated knowledge about the potential signs of child abuse. PMID:24401353

  10. The long-term impact of the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse of children: a community study.

    PubMed

    Mullen, P E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; Romans, S E; Herbison, G P

    1996-01-01

    The associations between giving a history of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in children and a range of mental health, interpersonal, and sexual problems in adult life were examined in a community sample of women. Abuse was defined to establish groups giving histories of unequivocal victimization. A history of any form of abuse was associated with increased rates of psychopathology, sexual difficulties, decreased self-esteem, and interpersonal problems. The similarities between the three forms of abuse in terms of their association with negative adult outcomes was more apparent than any differences, though there was a trend for sexual abuse to be particularly associated to sexual problems, emotional abuse to low self-esteem, and physical abuse to marital breakdown. Abuse of all types was more frequent in those from disturbed and disrupted family backgrounds. The background factors associated with reports of abuse were themselves often associated to the same range of negative adult outcomes as for abuse. Logistic regressions indicated that some, though not all, of the apparent associations between abuse and adult problems was accounted for by this matrix of childhood disadvantage from which abuse so often emerged. PMID:8640429

  11. Changing Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Substance Abusers through the Use of an Abstinence Assignment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Wanda M.; Squires, Stuart P.

    2005-01-01

    Per se, increased knowledge about substance abuse has not been effective in altering social workers' negative attitudes towards substance abusers or their failure to recognize or address substance abuse problems among clients. In this paper, we describe an experiential abstinence assignment integrated with the content of an elective substance…

  12. Child abuser stereotypes: consensus among clinicians.

    PubMed

    Krowchuk, H V

    1989-02-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation of nurses' stereotypes of child abusers. Ninety-four registered nurses completed a questionnaire that measured subjects' knowledge of child abuse; professional contact with perpetrators and victims of abuse; knowledge of the causes of child abuse; and child abuser stereotypes. Results reveal a consensus among the subjects as to the stereotypes associated with child abusers. This study supports the notion that nurses stereotype individuals on the basis of demographic characteristics. This study also raises questions regarding the bias that may result from the use of child abuser stereotypes. Clinical decision-making processes could become compromised if biased judgements are used in planning nursing care for clients diagnosed as child abusers. PMID:2930179

  13. Sibling Maltreatment: The Forgotten Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Morrill-Richards, Mandy

    2007-01-01

    Great advances have been made in the study of family violence in the past 30 years. However, sibling abuse and its prevalence in the family have largely been overlooked. In this article, the major issues associated with sibling maltreatment are highlighted, and strategies for helping the victims and perpetrators of sibling abuse and their families…

  14. Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Liz; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)

  15. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  16. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  17. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (p<0.05) of BE, EPH and the opioid morphine (MOR) in winter than in summer. Two out of the nineteen compounds studied, namely cocaine (CO) and EPH

  18. A multicenter, primary care-based, open-label study to identify behaviors related to prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion in opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain

    PubMed Central

    Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Pixton, Glenn C; Berke, Robert; Calkins, Anne; Goli, Veeraindar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion with patient self-reports of these activities in a population with chronic pain. Methods As a secondary objective of an open-label, multicenter, primary care-based clinical study to evaluate the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic pain to morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride, risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion was assessed using two nonvalidated questionnaires: one was completed by the investigator and another by the patient (Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion [SR-MAD]). In addition, the validated Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) test and urine drug test were used. Results Of the 684 patients assessed by the investigators, 537 returned the self-assessment, SR-MAD. Most patients were assigned by the investigator as low risk for misuse (84.2%), abuse (89.3%), and diversion (94.3%). Of the patients who returned SR-MAD, 60% indicated having taken more opioids than prescribed and 10.9% reported chewing or crushing their opioids in the past. Of the patients who completed COMM, 40.6% were deemed as having aberrant behaviors. COMM results correlated with the risk levels from the investigator assessment. One-third of patients (33.8%) had at least one abnormal urine drug test result. Conclusion More research is needed to better understand the gap between the investigator assessment of potential risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion and the actual extent of these behaviors among patients with chronic pain. PMID:26185467

  19. Self-reported physical and emotional abuse among youth offenders and their association with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Teresa C; Graña, José Luis; González-Cieza, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was twofold. First, the severity of physical and emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and its association with internalizing and externalizing problems were explored in a sample of 104 male and female youth offenders. Second, we tested the moderate effect of callous-unemotional traits on the relation between physical and emotional victimization and internalizing and externalizing problems in boys. The analyses revealed that a high percentage of youth offenders reported having been physically abused. More severe physical abuse was not related to higher levels of internalizing or externalizing problems. Young offenders' emotional abuse levels were low; however, this type of abuse was positively associated with externalizing problems among boys, regardless of the level of callous-unemotional traits. Thus, we suggest that youth offenders must be assessed using measures of physical and emotional abuse, and their case management should integrate specific programs to focus on the family environment to which the adolescents will most likely return after their sentence. PMID:23378520

  20. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI <120% of 95th percentile CDC/NCHS growth curves). Results The combined occurrence of self-reported sexual and physical abuse during childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589