Science.gov

Sample records for abuse practice implications

  1. Child Abuse: Principles and Implications of Current Pediatric Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Hyde, James N., Jr.

    This paper summarizes data and experience with child abuse pertinent to child health practice. It goal is to foster sound and rational medical management. Because of the complex origins of child abuse, however, and of the institutional and social changes which shall have to accompany excellent practice if child abuse is effectively to be treated…

  2. Child abuse and neglect in Cambodian refugee families: characteristics and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Janet; Rhee, Siyon; Berthold, S Megan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and patterns of child maltreatment among Cambodian refugee families in Los Angeles and assesses the implications for child welfare practice with Cambodian refugee families. Data were extracted from 243 active Cambodian case files maintained by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (LAC-DCFS). Some of the major findings include (1) Cambodian child maltreatment cases were most frequently reported to the LAC-DCFS among various Asian Pacific ethnic groups; (2) Cambodian refugee families were more likely to be charged with neglect, while their Asian Pacific counterparts were more likely charged with physical abuse; (3) the circumstances under which maltreatment occurred most frequently were parental substance abuse and mental illness; and (4) while fathers who maltreated their child were likely to use alcohol, mothers were also more likely to have a mental health problem such as depression. This study suggests the importance of collaboration between Child Protective Service agencies, substance abuse programs, traditional healers, mental health services, and other social service agencies for effective child abuse prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18575261

  3. Assertive Outreach Strategies for Narrowing the Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Gap: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    2009-01-01

    In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540

  4. Child Abuse and Neglect in Cambodian Refugee Families: Characteristics and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Janet; Rhee, Siyon; Berthold, S. Megan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and patterns of child maltreatment among Cambodian refugee families in Los Angeles and assesses the implications for child welfare practice with Cambodian refugee families. Data were extracted from 243 active Cambodian case files maintained by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services…

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  6. The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2016-01-01

    When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535

  7. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  8. The Biological Embedding of Child Abuse and Neglect Implications for Policy and Practice. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Christian, Cindy W.

    2014-01-01

    Each year within the US alone over 770,000 children are victimized by abuse and neglect (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010), and this figure is likely to underestimate the extent of the problem. Researchers have long recognized that maltreatment has adverse effects on children's mental health and academic achievement. Studies of…

  9. Implications of fraud and abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2002-07-01

    The federal government has enacted a comprehensive strategy to fight healthcare waste, fraud and abuse. As a result of the federal government's comprehensive strategy, in 2002, the Office of Inspector General announced that improper Medicare payments to doctors, hospitals and other healthcare providers declined 54% from the fiscal year 1996 to the fiscal year 2001. The Office of Inspector General in its 2002 work plan focuses on procedure coding for outpatient services billed by hospital and doctor, coding for evaluation and management services in physician offices and conditions under which a doctor's bill is "incident to" services or supplies among other things. The distinction between fraud and abuse can be very important in determining the potential fines and penalties that might apply, even though it is not clear. Fraud is much more serious than abuse. The degree of intent by the individual or entity under investigation is often the determining factor. The most commonly used statutes for prosecuting or facilitating such a prosecution of healthcare fraud or abuse include HIPAA of 1996, the False Claims Act, healthcare fraud, theft or embezzlement, obstruction of criminal investigations of healthcare offenders, the False Statement Statute, mail and wire fraud statutes, the Social Security Act Civil Monetary Penalties, criminal penalties, and/or Stark laws. This review focuses on various aspects of implications of fraud and abuse in interventional pain management practices including various activities of potential fraud and abuse. PMID:16902658

  10. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  11. Medicare fraud and abuse: implications for physicians.

    PubMed

    Thiel, D K; Friedman, R; Morriss, C H

    1988-01-01

    Since the inception of the Prospective Payment System, the physician fee freeze, and other cost-cutting measures, physicians have been approached with many income-generating opportunities relating to their practices. Unfortunately, many of these opportunities also present potential criminal and civil liability under federal Medicare anti-fraud and abuse provisions. The recent passage of the Medicare and Medicaid Program Patient Protection Act of 1987 has updated federal anti-fraud and abuse laws and expanded the sanctions which may be imposed on physicians. This article describes the types of activities prohibited by federal laws and discusses the operation of these laws in light of common joint venture, incentive, and contract arrangements frequently seen in medical practice. PMID:10302660

  12. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  13. Risk and protective factors for physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Africa: a review and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L

    2015-01-01

    There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:24648489

  14. Understanding elder abuse in family practice

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  15. The Developmental Impact of Child Abuse on Adulthood: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    Many adults are exposed to maltreatment during their childhood. As a result, they may experience long-term negative outcomes in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article was to examine the social, physical, and mental health consequences of child abuse in adulthood. Implications for counseling practice are provided.

  16. TAT assessment of object relations: implications for child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ornduff, S R

    1997-01-01

    Several recent empirical studies have documented impaired object relations in victims of childhood maltreatment. The consistency of these findings, despite sampling and other methodological differences, highlights the applicability of object relations theory to the study of abuse sequelae. This article illustrates the use of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales (SCORS) in the clinical assessment of maltreated children by applying it to selected Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories of a sexually abused girl, a physically abused girl, and a distressed but nonabused peer. Diagnostic and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:9066175

  17. Child abuse article would have benefited from practical advice.

    PubMed

    Corre, Geoff

    2016-05-11

    The article 'Help in raising concerns about child abuse' (features April 27) focuses on escalation processes at the expense of providing practical advice about how professionals should respond in the event of a child disclosing an allegation of abuse. PMID:27206196

  18. Child sexual abuse: seven years in practice.

    PubMed

    Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention. PMID:20345776

  19. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…

  20. Psychiatric and anesthetic implications of substance abuse: Present scenario

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Neeru; Kaur, Gagandeep; Attri, Joginder Pal; Singh, Manjit; Thakur, Millind; Jain, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse has crossed all social, economic, and geographic borders and is spreading its fangs in each and every sphere of society irrespective of age, gender, caste, creed, and religion. These days, we encounter several patients of substance dependence who visit different hospitals for elective surgical procedures or in emergency (e.g., roadside accidents and with various complications associated with substance abuse). These patients at that time may be either addicted to them or are intoxicated by them or on de addiction treatment. Acute or chronic use of these drugs affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, renal, hematological, and hepatic system variably in individuals thus due to diverse clinical presentations a complete understanding of the path physiology and anesthetic implications of drug abuse is essential to tailor a safe anesthetic plan for these high-risk group of patients. PMID:26712964

  1. Psychiatric and anesthetic implications of substance abuse: Present scenario.

    PubMed

    Bala, Neeru; Kaur, Gagandeep; Attri, Joginder Pal; Singh, Manjit; Thakur, Millind; Jain, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse has crossed all social, economic, and geographic borders and is spreading its fangs in each and every sphere of society irrespective of age, gender, caste, creed, and religion. These days, we encounter several patients of substance dependence who visit different hospitals for elective surgical procedures or in emergency (e.g., roadside accidents and with various complications associated with substance abuse). These patients at that time may be either addicted to them or are intoxicated by them or on de addiction treatment. Acute or chronic use of these drugs affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, central nervous, renal, hematological, and hepatic system variably in individuals thus due to diverse clinical presentations a complete understanding of the path physiology and anesthetic implications of drug abuse is essential to tailor a safe anesthetic plan for these high-risk group of patients. PMID:26712964

  2. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  3. Child abuse in Chandigarh, India, and its implications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R; Gupta, Manisha

    2004-10-01

    Few abuses of human rights are so universally condemned but at the same time so universally practiced as child abuse. Over the centuries, children have been subjected to physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as neglect. By any objective measures, this issue should rank high on the global agenda but in practice it is surrounded by a wall of silence and perpetuated by ignorance. Child sexual abuse is a dark reality that routinely inflicts our daily lives but in a majority of cases it goes unnoticed and unreported on account of the innocence of the victim, stigma attached to the act, callousness and insensitivity of the investigating and the law enforcement agencies, etc. A child who has been sexually abused is traumatized for life but it is only much later in life when the emotional and psychological trauma aggravates that such people seek medical help. There is an urgent need to take up the problem as a larger social issue where the society has a responsibility to help the victims overcome their trauma and move on with life as normally as possible. We report a retrospective review of children (age<16 years) referred for medicolegal examination, an autopsy in Chandigarh, India, between 2000 and 2003. PMID:15489177

  4. 16 CFR 310.4 - Abusive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.4 Abusive telemarketing acts or practices. (a... business associate, as those terms are defined in the HIPAA Privacy Rule, 45 CFR 160.103. (2) It is an... laws, including but not limited to the TCPA, 47 U.S.C. 227, and 47 CFR part 64.1200. (iv) The seller...

  5. 16 CFR 310.4 - Abusive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.4 Abusive telemarketing acts or practices. (a... business associate, as those terms are defined in the HIPAA Privacy Rule, 45 CFR 160.103. (2) It is an... federal laws, including but not limited to the TCPA, 47 U.S.C. 227, and 47 CFR part 64.1200. (iv)...

  6. 16 CFR 310.4 - Abusive telemarketing acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONGRESS TELEMARKETING SALES RULE 16 CFR PART 310 § 310.4 Abusive telemarketing acts or practices. (a... business associate, as those terms are defined in the HIPAA Privacy Rule, 45 CFR 160.103. (2) It is an... laws, including but not limited to the TCPA, 47 U.S.C. 227, and 47 CFR part 64.1200. (iv) The seller...

  7. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  8. Emotional Abuse in the Classroom: Implications and Interventions for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional abuse of students by teachers is a topic infrequently discussed in the child abuse literature. In some classrooms, it can be a daily occurrence. This article defines emotional abuse and discusses the types of classroom behaviors teachers may demonstrate that are emotionally abusive to students. The role of school-based counselors in the…

  9. Women with disabilities' experience with physical and sexual abuse: review of the literature and implications for the field.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Sara-Beth; Findley, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    While studies suggest that the rate of abuse of women with disabilities is similar or higher compared to the general population, there continues to be a lack of attention to this issue. Women with disabilities are at particularly high risk of abuse, both through typical forms of violence (physical, sexual, and emotional) and those that target one's disability. In an effort to highlight the need for increased attention to this issue, this article reviews the current peer-reviewed research in this field. The authors outline recommendations for future research goals and provide implications for research, practice, and policy. PMID:22070987

  10. Prevention of physical child abuse: concept, evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa

    2008-06-01

    Given a lack of standardised procedures for preventing child abuse, what can be done in terms of thinking and action about the prevention of physical child abuse in health visiting and community practice? This paper reflects on knowledge gained while undertaking case series research into non-accidental head injury (NAHI), qualitative research with health visitors and mothers and fathers into the feasibility of preventing NAHI, and work as a team member of the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Prevention is an abstract term, with dimensions of an ethical nature, and requires prompt and timely action. To identify when preventive action is required, an understanding is needed of where there is risk, and what benefit or outcome may follow interventions. However, the knowledge in this field is limited, which means that it is wise to be cautious in claiming effectiveness of prevention activity. Nonetheless, if prevention is not seen to be practised, the development of skills and the means to evaluate interventions will not become embedded in the routine care of families with small children, and physical child abuse will not be prevented. PMID:18672856

  11. Schools and Child Abuse: A National Survey of Principals' Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Nicole; And Others

    A national survey assessed principals' attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning child abuse and its prevention. Of particular interest were principals': (1) attitudes concerning the amount and quality of child abuse education in schools; (2) responses to suspected cases of child abuse and neglect; (3) perceptions of possible barriers to…

  12. Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

    This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

  13. Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueser, Kim T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…

  14. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  15. [The patient with an alcohol abuse problem family doctor practice].

    PubMed

    Szponar, Jarosław; Kuźniar-Placek, Justyna; Panasiuk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Doctors of many specialties, including the family doctors, encounter the problems of alcohol abuse in their patients. Due to the fact that many symptoms of dangerous diseases can be masked by the fact of alcoholism, a brief doctor's visit has to be conducted with watchfulness, caution and care. Family doctors have some brief testes (such as CAGE test, AUDIT test), besides of precise anamnesis and blood chemistry, which make it easier to identify a patient with an alcohol problem. People with disabilities are more exposed to alcohol abuse since they often experience additional factors such as unemployment, social isolation and homelessness. All of the above factors foster the more frequent alcohol usage. In Poland the main treatment method of alcohol addiction is psychotherapy practiced in the rehab centers. The detoxification treatment is voluntary and free of charge even though the patients checking into those facilities are doing it against their will. They are forced to do so by entourage, family, spouse or risk of unemployment. Acamprozate is considered as a drug, run to extend abstaining from alcohol. In the past, therapy with disulfiram substance was common, but now, it is considered as unethical behaviour. In practice of medicine, a patient with alcohol addiction creates not onlya medical but also legal problems. Therefore keeping of detailed medical documentation is very important as it may become significant evidence in the future. PMID:23243928

  16. Sexual abuse and subsequent suicidal behaviour. Exacerbating factors and implications for recovery.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Cate

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a cause for concern among many western countries; in general, it is most common among young women. This research used qualitative methods to explore the narratives of 24 women, to contextualise their insights, and to examine the meanings of events leading to and implicated in the recovery from suicidal behaviour. The research confirms sexual abuse as a common precursor to suicidal behaviour; several women asserted that they would not have attempted suicide if they did not have a sexual abuse history. The women noted that the effects of sexual abuse were exacerbated by problems with disclosure, linking to issues of control, with implications for intervention and recovery. PMID:16702144

  17. Screening for psychiatric and substance abuse disorders in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ford, D E; Kamerow, D B

    1990-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and alcohol abuse, represent a large burden of illness to the society. Many individuals with these disorders receive all of their care from health care providers who are not mental health specialists. There is evidence that non-psychiatric physicians frequently do not recognize these disorders in their patients. Screening questionnaires have been introduced to improve detection of these patients. Several studies have found that these screening questionnaires can increase detection rates, but no important impact on patient outcomes has been demonstrated. This review article outlines several reasons why it has been difficult to discern improvement in patient outcomes: inadequate study design, insufficient physician education, interdependence of psychiatric and medical conditions, and vague treatment guidelines. Practical use of the current psychiatric screening questionnaires and key areas for further investigation are considered. PMID:2231063

  18. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  19. Family Practice Physicians: Training Needs in Regards to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliason, Michele J.; Skinstad, Anne Helene

    2002-01-01

    Family medicine physicians were surveyed about their knowledge of substance abuse and wishes for continuing education. Results showed 10% had no substance abuse training in medical school, 15% had none during residency, and 21% had no continuing education on substance abuse. Most preferred continuing education programs as part of an annual…

  20. Physical and Sexual Child Abuse: Implications for Middle Level Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Joel

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the recent publicity given problems of physical and sexual child abuse, society now expects teachers to be fully informed, to educate both children and parents, and to actively intercede in abuse cases. Guidelines are given to help middle level teachers cope with these and related developments. (DCS)

  1. Risk Factors in Adolescent Substance Abuse: Treatment and Management Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Connie S.; Schandler, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on adolescent substance abuse risk factors and their role in the management of adolescent substance abuse disorders. A selective literature review suggests specific intervention strategies; no generic approach fits all adolescent substance-use clients. Effective techniques require individual assessments, including the context in…

  2. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  3. Educational Attainment and Child Abuse Potential: Implications for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…

  4. Childhood trauma and METH abuse among men who have sex with men: Implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Patton, Maria; Kumar, Mahendra; Jones, Deborah; Fonseca, Marla; Kumar, Adarsh M; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has become one of the most widely abused drugs in South Florida, particularly among MSM who may or may not be HIV seropositive. High rates of childhood trauma have been reported among HIV-infected MSM (Chartier et al., 2010), but, the association of childhood trauma, and mood disorders with methamphetamine use in HIV-infected men, has not been comprehensively explored. A better understanding of the association between these factors could improve existing substance abuse treatment intervention strategies and medical treatment programs (e.g., medication adherence; Carrico, 2010) to enhance positive health outcomes for male meth abusers living with the psychological consequences of childhood abuse. This study, as part of a larger study, examined the occurrence of childhood trauma and depression in a group of HIV seropositive METH abusing MSM. Significantly higher levels of depression symptom severity were found among METH users relative to non-METH users (p < .001). Irrespective of HIV status, METH users also reported higher frequencies of emotional, physical and sexual child abuse relative to non-METH users (p < .001). Among meth users, depression was predicted by childhood emotional neglect. These results suggest that childhood maltreatment may be implicated in the development of emotional distress (e.g., depression) and higher prevalence of methamphetamine/drug abuse in this population. These findings have important implications for substance abuse interventions, specifically targeting METH addiction among MSM. Addressing childhood trauma and depression may play a key role in enhancing the effectiveness of interventions for methamphetamine addiction. PMID:26519763

  5. Emergency departments and abuse: policy issues, practice barriers, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Conti, C T

    1998-01-01

    The abuse of women has reached epidemic proportions. There are an estimated 12 million abused women in the United States. Reported cases of abuse, however, range from 2 to 4 million. Less than 15% of these women ever seek medical care. Of women who do seek care, an estimated 75% use the emergency department, often presenting with complaints not readily suggestive of abuse. Reports indicate, however, that emergency departments consistently identify less than 10% of all abuse cases. In 1991 and 1992, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations established standards for emergency departments to develop policies and procedures for the identification, treatment, and referral of female and elderly victims of abuse. Virtually all emergency medicine professional societies have official policies to encourage development of protocols for abuse identification and management. The American Medical Association and the Department of Health and Human Services have likewise developed guidelines to help emergency departments achieve these national health care objectives. Currently, less than 50% of all emergency departments have established algorithms to address abused women who present to the emergency department for treatment. This article reviews current health policy, examines the impediments to the detection of abuse in the emergency department, and recommends mechanisms to enhance the awareness of abuse among emergency department personnel. PMID:9648424

  6. Customer Service: Implications for Reference Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1995-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on customer service in business research and management. Two concepts in understanding business customer service practices are discussed: the service encounter and total quality management. Highlights include customer service research and practices in business; implications for library reference…

  7. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses. PMID:26362126

  8. Considerations in the Development of a Research to Practice Curriculum for Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalisove, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    Most current substance abuse counselor certification education curricula do not include a systematic introduction to alcohol and substance abuse research. I believe that such an introduction would enhance counselor cooperation in research to practice efforts that are currently underway. In this paper I give a brief history of alcoholism and…

  9. An Investigation of Current Practice in Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhatigan, James; O'Leary, Eleanor

    1988-01-01

    Examined current practices for dealing with child sexual abuse in Ireland. Seven social workers and nine psychologists responded to questionnaires exploring incidence of child sexual abuse, training of practitioners, therapeutic techniques used with victims, treatment of perpetrators, and treatment of families. Found localized, ad hoc arrangements…

  10. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  11. Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices among Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Nancy A.; Shopshire, Michael; Tajima, Barbara; Gruber, Valerie; Guydish, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted at a Substance Abuse Forum designed to address local community needs by focusing on Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) in addiction treatment. The purpose of the study was to assess substance abuse treatment professionals' readiness to adopt EBPs, experience with EBPs, and attitudes toward EBPs, as well as agency support…

  12. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse. PMID:2329432

  13. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The

  14. Elder Abuse: Research, Practice, and Health Policy. The 2012 GSA Maxwell Pollack Award Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xinqi

    2014-01-01

    Elder abuse, also called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adults experiences some form of elder abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is independently associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with this pervasive issue. In this paper, I review the epidemiology of elder abuse as well as key practical issues in dealing with the cases of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a Congressional Policy Fellow/National Health and Aging Policy Fellow, I highlight key previsions on 2 major federal legislations dealing with the issues of elder abuse: Older Americans Act (OAA) and Elder Justice Act (EJA). Lastly, I highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions to advance the field of elder abuse. Interdisciplinary and community-based efforts are needed to devise effective strategies to detect, treat, and prevent elder abuse in our increasingly diverse aging populations. Collective advocacy and policy advances are needed to create a national infrastructure to protect the vulnerable older adults. PMID:24270215

  15. Elder abuse: research, practice, and health policy. The 2012 GSA Maxwell Pollack award lecture.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi

    2014-04-01

    Elder abuse, also called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adults experiences some form of elder abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is independently associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with this pervasive issue. In this paper, I review the epidemiology of elder abuse as well as key practical issues in dealing with the cases of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a Congressional Policy Fellow/National Health and Aging Policy Fellow, I highlight key previsions on 2 major federal legislations dealing with the issues of elder abuse: Older Americans Act (OAA) and Elder Justice Act (EJA). Lastly, I highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions to advance the field of elder abuse. Interdisciplinary and community-based efforts are needed to devise effective strategies to detect, treat, and prevent elder abuse in our increasingly diverse aging populations. Collective advocacy and policy advances are needed to create a national infrastructure to protect the vulnerable older adults. PMID:24270215

  16. Implications of Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Novac, Andrei; Iosif, Anamaria M.; Groysman, Regina; Bota, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is an infrequently recognized side effect of pain medication abuse. Chronic pain patients treated with opiates develop different degrees of tolerance to pain medications. In many cases, the tolerance becomes the gateway to a variety of cycles of overuse and unmasking of significant psychiatric morbidity and mortality. An individualized approach utilizing combined treatment modalities (including nonopiate pharmaceuticals) is expected to become the norm. Patients can now be provided with multidisciplinary care that addresses an individual’s psychiatric, social, and medical needs, which requires close cooperation between physicians of varying specialties. This report describes a patient who experienced hearing loss from hydrocodone/acetaminophen abuse. PMID:26835162

  17. Implications of Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen Abuse.

    PubMed

    Novac, Andrei; Iosif, Anamaria M; Groysman, Regina; Bota, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is an infrequently recognized side effect of pain medication abuse. Chronic pain patients treated with opiates develop different degrees of tolerance to pain medications. In many cases, the tolerance becomes the gateway to a variety of cycles of overuse and unmasking of significant psychiatric morbidity and mortality. An individualized approach utilizing combined treatment modalities (including nonopiate pharmaceuticals) is expected to become the norm. Patients can now be provided with multidisciplinary care that addresses an individual's psychiatric, social, and medical needs, which requires close cooperation between physicians of varying specialties. This report describes a patient who experienced hearing loss from hydrocodone/acetaminophen abuse. PMID:26835162

  18. Children's Religious Knowledge: Implications for Understanding Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi A.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Qin, Jianjian; Shaver, Phillip R.

    1997-01-01

    Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of religious and satanic concepts. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. Results suggest that most children probably do not generally possess sufficient…

  19. Child abuse and neglect: implications for the dental profession.

    PubMed

    Jessee, S A

    1999-02-01

    Dentists, as a group, have participated in the recognition and reporting of child maltreatment to a lesser degree than other health professionals, being either unaware of their legal responsibility to report or, when abuse or neglect is suspected, reluctant to do so. PMID:10337332

  20. Principles of laboratory assessment of drug abuse liability and implications for clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Abuse liability testing plays an important role in informing drug development, regulatory processes, and clinical practice. This paper describes the current “gold standard” methodologies that are used for laboratory assessments of abuse liability in non-human and human subjects. Particular emphasis is given to procedures such as non-human drug discrimination, self-administration, and physical dependence testing, and human dose effect abuse liability studies that are commonly used in regulatory submissions to governmental agencies. The potential benefits and risks associated with the inclusion of measures of abuse liability in industry-sponsored clinical trials is discussed. Lastly, it is noted that many factors contribute to patterns of drug abuse and dependence outside of the laboratory setting and positive or negative signals in abuse liability studies do not always translate to high or low levels of actual abuse or dependence. Well-designed patient and physician education, pharmacovigilance, and postmarketing surveillance can reduce the diversion and misuse of drugs with abuse liability and can effectively foster the protection and promotion of public health. PMID:19443137

  1. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Continuous Influence of Cultural Practices: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shafe, S; Hutchinson, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To provide information on the possible influence of cultural practices in perpetuating child sexual abuse and to examine documented examples of these cultural influences. Methods: A computer literature search was done of Medline, Science Direct, PSYCInfo, Embase and PubMed for keywords. There were also manual searches in the library of journals that are not accessible online. Keywords for searches included: sexual abuse, child abuse, psychopathology, name of countries (eg Jordan, China and Morocco), culture and cultural practices. Results: There is documented evidence of cultural practices that continue to fuel the persistently high level of child sexual abuse across the globe. The definition has evolved to now include simple genital-genital and non-genital contact such as oral-genital contacts, exhibitionism and pornography. Conclusions: Cultural practices are no longer restricted to one geographical collection of people due to migratory influence, as these practices may also spread to different groups who intermingle. There are few empirical studies of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean, but one factor that could be used as a proxy is age of first sexual activity. The World Bank reports that this age is youngest in the Caribbean and is likely to be significantly influenced by child sexual abuse. PMID:25803380

  3. The Effects of Childhood Abuse on Relationship Quality: Gender Differences and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Carly D.; Sandberg, Jonathan G.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse, romantic relationship quality, possible gender differences, and clinical implications. Three hundred thirty-eight women and 296 men who sought services at a university mental health clinic in the northeast region of the United States completed a…

  4. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  5. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

  6. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect Programs: Practice and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Monica B.

    Presented are detailed reports of eight child abuse and neglect programs, and a synthesis of the information obtained through onsite visits to programs and a review of the literature. Provided in Part I are the descriptive case studies of two hospital-based programs (Children's Trauma Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland,…

  8. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  9. Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Amen, Daniel G; Wu, Joseph C; Taylor, Derek; Willeumier, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Brain injuries are common in professional American football players. Finding effective rehabilitation strategies can have widespread implications not only for retired players but also for patients with traumatic brain injury and substance abuse problems. An open label pragmatic clinical intervention was conducted in an outpatient neuropsychiatric clinic with 30 retired NFL players who demonstrated brain damage and cognitive impairment. The study included weight loss (if appropriate); fish oil (5.6 grams a day); a high-potency multiple vitamin; and a formulated brain enhancement supplement that included nutrients to enhance blood flow (ginkgo and vinpocetine), acetylcholine (acetyl-l-carnitine and huperzine A), and antioxidant activity (alpha-lipoic acid and n-acetyl-cysteine). The trial average was six months. Outcome measures were Microcog Assessment of Cognitive Functioning and brain SPECT imaging. In the retest situation, corrected for practice effect, there were statistically significant increases in scores of attention, memory, reasoning, information processing speed and accuracy on the Microcog. The brain SPECT scans, as a group, showed increased brain perfusion, especially in the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, occipital lobes, anterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellum. This study demonstrates that cognitive and cerebral blood flow improvements are possible in this group with multiple interventions. PMID:21615001

  10. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  11. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tommasello, Anthony C

    2004-01-01

    Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine) 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use PMID:15169544

  12. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognizing and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivializing or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses' responses are sometimes wanting. These include organizational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal factors such as fear of offending women and lack of confidence. We propose, however, that these factors present only a partial explanation. Drawing on the work of Julia Kristeva, we suggest that alternative understandings may be derived through applying the concept of abjection. Abjection is a psychological defence against any threat (the abject) to the clean and proper self that results in rejection of the abject. Using examples from our own domestic abuse research, we contend that exposure of nurses to the horror of domestic abuse evokes a state of abjection. Domestic abuse (the abject) transgresses established social boundaries of clean and proper. Thus when exposed to patients' and clients' experiences of it, some nurses subconsciously reject domestic abuse as a possibility (abjection). They do this to protect themselves from the horror of the act, but in so doing, render themselves unable to formulate appropriate responses. Rather than understanding the practice of some nurses as wilfully neglectful or ignorant, we argue that through a state of abjection, they are powerless to act. This does not refute existing evidence about nurses' responses to domestic abuse. Rather, as a relatively unknown concept in nursing, abjection provides an additional explanatory layer that accounts for why some nurses respond the way they do. Crucially, it elucidates the need for nurses to be supported emotionally when faced with the transgressive practice of abuse. PMID:24034160

  13. Preschool child development: implications for investigation of child abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Sivan, A B

    1991-01-01

    Allegations of mistreatment by adults made by children of preschool age are often dismissed as fictitious with the suggestion that children of this age are prone to fantasy and unable to discriminate fact from fiction. This paper is intended to familiarize those with a general concern about child abuse with the research and theories in child development. Specifically, it reviews those aspects of normal child development which have direct relevance to the question of the veracity of reports made by children ages 2 to 5 years. Examination of the research on children's thought and language, memory and learning, fears, fantasy, and play, as well as the research on the influence of television on children of this age, led to the conclusion that preschoolers base their play on the reality of their experience. PMID:1959080

  14. The role of depression and dissociation in the link between childhood sexual abuse and later parental practices.

    PubMed

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:16150686

  15. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  16. Subdural hygromas in abusive head trauma: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Wittschieber, D; Karger, B; Niederstadt, T; Pfeiffer, H; Hahnemann, M L

    2015-03-01

    Are subdural hygromas the result of abusive head trauma? CT and MR imaging represent important tools for the diagnosis of abusive head trauma in living infants. In addition, in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of subdural hygromas is increasingly required by neuroradiologists, pediatricians, and forensic physicians. Therefore, the current knowledge on subdural hygromas is summarized and forensic conclusions are drawn. The most important diagnostic pitfalls, benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space, and chronic subdural hematoma, are discussed in detail. Illustrative cases from forensic practice are presented. Literature analysis indicates that subdural hygromas can occur immediately or be delayed. If other infrequent reasons can be excluded, the presence of subdural hygromas strongly suggests a posttraumatic state and should prompt the physician to search for other signs of abuse. To differentiate subdural hygromas from other pathologies, additional MR imaging of the infant's head is indispensable after initial CT scan. PMID:24948499

  17. 17 CFR 23.410 - Prohibition on fraud, manipulation, and other abusive practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition on fraud... Prohibition on fraud, manipulation, and other abusive practices. (a) It shall be unlawful for a swap dealer or... business that operates as a fraud or deceit on any Special Entity or prospective customer who is a...

  18. 17 CFR 23.410 - Prohibition on fraud, manipulation, and other abusive practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition on fraud... Prohibition on fraud, manipulation, and other abusive practices. (a) It shall be unlawful for a swap dealer or... business that operates as a fraud or deceit on any Special Entity or prospective customer who is a...

  19. 17 CFR 23.410 - Prohibition on fraud, manipulation, and other abusive practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition on fraud... Prohibition on fraud, manipulation, and other abusive practices. (a) It shall be unlawful for a swap dealer or... business that operates as a fraud or deceit on any Special Entity or prospective customer who is a...

  20. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  1. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  2. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons from…

  3. Practical implications of nanodosimetry in medicine.

    PubMed

    Satti, Jahangir A

    2012-01-01

    The grandiose promises made decades ago of cost reduction, miracle cures for cancers and universal availability of nanomedicine are still a far cry. Even we do not have any viable model to exploit nanotechnology in medicine. The most important arena of the nanotechnology is the development of nanoscale drugs for routine clinical practice. The current chemo protocols are based on maximum tolerable dose philosophy. Such a dose, when translated into active nanoscale clusters, quantitatively outnumbers the cells in an average human body. These nanoscale drug issues are discussed in this paper. A theoretical framework for commonly used drug aspirin has been considered as an example. The possible quantum physical effects have also been theoretically evaluated. Further, the amount of drug molecules in a standardized aspirin dose of 100 milligram has been computed into nanoclusters. The calculations show that the processing of nanoscale drug is a monumental task which requires new types of manufacturing facilities. Also there is a need to develop new protocols which will help realize the practical implementation of nanodosimetry in day to day drug administrations. These protocols will need to examine the implications of dose-responses such as necrosis, apoptosis and hormesis in medicine for routine clinical practice. PMID:22942869

  4. Practical Implications of Nanodosimetry in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Satti, Jahangir A.

    2012-01-01

    The grandiose promises made decades ago of cost reduction, miracle cures for cancers and universal availability of nanomedicine are still a far cry. Even we do not have any viable model to exploit nanotechnology in medicine. The most important arena of the nanotechnology is the development of nanoscale drugs for routine clinical practice. The current chemo protocols are based on maximum tolerable dose philosophy. Such a dose, when translated into active nanoscale clusters, quantitatively outnumbers the cells in an average human body. These nanoscale drug issues are discussed in this paper. A theoretical framework for commonly used drug aspirin has been considered as an example. The possible quantum physical effects have also been theoretically evaluated. Further, the amount of drug molecules in a standardized aspirin dose of 100 milligram has been computed into nanoclusters. The calculations show that the processing of nanoscale drug is a monumental task which requires new types of manufacturing facilities. Also there is a need to develop new protocols which will help realize the practical implementation of nanodosimetry in day to day drug administrations. These protocols will need to examine the implications of dose-responses such as necrosis, apoptosis and hormesis in medicine for routine clinical practice. PMID:22942869

  5. Implications of Harold Shipman for general practice.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    2004-06-01

    Harold Shipman was an English general practitioner who murdered at least 215 of his patients between 1974 and 1998. A public inquiry is underway, but general practitioners and all doctors also need to consider the implications for their profession. The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate. Issues identified as important to consider include: trust between doctors; attitudes towards failing systems such as cremation certification; acceptance of the duty of accountability; ensuring patients can have reasonable confidence in their doctors; commitment to preventing such a case occurring again; and relationships with patients. It is argued that restricting debate to methods to detect doctors who murder would limit the opportunity to improve medical practice and would constitute a failure to fulfil the duty owed by doctors to Shipman's victims and their families. PMID:15192157

  6. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach. PMID:25660988

  7. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  8. Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in the Nonoffending Caregivers of Sexually Abused Children: Associations With Parenting Practices.

    PubMed

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Swiecicki, Carole C; Fritz, Darci R; Stinnette, Jessica S; Hanson, Rochelle F

    2016-01-01

    Caregiver mental health is a known correlate of parenting practices, and recent research indicated that parental depression following childhood sexual abuse disclosure is associated with concurrent parenting difficulties. The present study extended this line of research by investigating posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression in a sample of caregivers (N = 96) of children who experienced sexual abuse recruited from a child advocacy center as well as parenting practices reported by both caregivers and their children (mean age = 10.79 years, SD = 3.29; 79% female). Twenty-four percent of caregivers met criteria for presumptive clinical depression, clinically significant posttraumatic stress, or both. Results indicated elevated caregiver-reported inconsistent parenting in the context of clinically significant distress across symptom groups; children reported particularly elevated inconsistent parenting for caregivers with posttraumatic stress only. Caregiver depression was associated with low self-reported positive parenting and caregiver involvement in addition to self-reported inconsistencies. Directions for future research are offered to further elucidate the relationships between caregiver mental health and parenting practices following childhood sexual abuse. PMID:26808966

  9. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance.

    PubMed

    Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T; Hager, L G; Jones, L N; Molinos, C; Roberts, N J; Taylor, G C; Thomas, D J

    2004-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. PMID:15353745

  10. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    PubMed

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-06-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26417709

  11. The First Decade of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice to Improve Drug Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Betty; Straus, Michele M.; Liu, David; Sparenborg, Steven; Jackson, Ron; McCarty, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in 1999 to improve the quality of addiction treatment using science as the vehicle. The network brings providers from community-based drug abuse treatment programs and scientists from university-based research centers together in an alliance that fosters bi-directional communication and collaboration. Collaboration enhanced the relevance of research to practice and facilitated the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments in community practice settings. The CTN’s 20 completed trials tested pharmacological, behavioral, and integrated treatment interventions for adolescents and adults; more than 11,000 individuals participated in the trials. This paper reviews the rationale for the CTN, describes the translation of its guiding principles into research endeavors, and anticipates the future evolution of clinical research within the Network. PMID:20307794

  12. Psychological Abuse of Children: Implications for Malpractice and Dismissals of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This article defines psychological abuse of students in school settings and describes legal aspects of the problem, particularly with respect to possible action in negligence. The following four categories of psychological abuse are examined: verbal abuse, refusal to communicate, physical acts (and sexual abuse) that cause psychological damage,…

  13. State Regulations and the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice: Oil and Water for the Substance Abuse Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul L.; Mustaine, Beverly L.; Wyrick, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Reviews state regulations responsible for determining the minimum qualifications for counselors, clinical supervisors, or client assessors in the substance abuse treatment field. Few of the 34 states surveyed required treatment outcome studies or referenced licensed professional counselors. Discusses implications new counselors may face when their…

  14. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  15. Social Justice Advocacy in Rural Communities: Practical Issues and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joshua M.; Werth, James L., Jr.; Hastings, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The professional literature related to social justice has increased, but there has been little discussion of the practical issues and implications associated with social advocacy. However, adding new roles will result in new considerations for counseling psychologists. The need to be attuned to how the practical aspects of advocacy intersect with…

  16. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  17. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:27299764

  18. Some Characteristics of Imprisoned, Female Drug Abusers and Implications for Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Sanders, John, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the need for counseling services among imprisoned, female drug abusers. Responses of inmates with drug abuse problems to a questionnaire were analyzed to show kinds of problems they have which counseling may help to alleviate. (Author)

  19. Treatment matching. Theoretic basis and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gastfriend, D R; McLellan, A T

    1997-07-01

    An extensive knowledge base supports the development of treatment matching methods for alcohol and other drug abuse. Many matching variables have been identified that relate to specific modalities of treatment and to specific levels of care. Physicians and other providers can use many putative matching variables to address patients' substance use problems on a highly individualized basis. These variables include demographic factors (age, gender, culture), typology and severity (age of onset; severity of intoxication; withdrawal; quantity, recency, frequency of substance use), intrapersonal characteristics (psychiatric diagnosis, cognitive function, self-efficacy, stage of change), and interpersonal function (social stability). The evolution of formal criteria for patient placement such as the ASAM criteria is a beneficial, adaptive process that is underway in numerous states, managed care entities, professional provider societies, and provider groups. Currently, matching approaches rely more heavily on consensus recommendations than on empiric matching data. The technology for conducting psychosocial treatment matching studies is rapidly increasing in sophistication. Although predictive validity has not yet been fully demonstrated on a large, multisite basis, the national research portfolio on treatment matching is expanding in size and complexity. This is an essential public health need, given dramatic cost pressures, if addiction services are to continue to grow in quality and availability. PMID:9222262

  20. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Child Abuse and Neglect User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jill; Salus, Marsha K.; Wolcott, Deborah; Kennedy, Kristie Y.

    Child abuse and neglect is a community concern. Each community has a legal and moral obligation to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, which includes responding effectively to child maltreatment. At the State and local levels, professionals assume various roles and responsibilities ranging from prevention, identification,…

  1. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

  2. Optimizing Distributed Practice: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Mozer, Michael C,; Pashler, Harold

    2009-01-01

    More than a century of research shows that increasing the gap between study episodes using the same material can enhance retention, yet little is known about how this so-called distributed practice effect unfolds over nontrivial periods. In two three-session laboratory studies, we examined the effects of gap on retention of foreign vocabulary,…

  3. Clinical Implications of Numeracy: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Fagerlin, Angela; Lipkus, Isaac; Peters, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background Low numeracy is pervasive and constrains informed patient choice, reduces medication compliance, limits access to treatments, impairs risk communication, and affects medical outcomes; therefore, it is incumbent upon providers to minimize its adverse effects. Purpose We provide an overview of research on health numeracy and discuss its implications in clinical contexts. Conclusions Low numeracy cannot be reliably inferred on the basis of patients’ education, intelligence, or other observable characteristics. Objective and subjective assessments of numeracy are available in short forms and could be used to tailor health communication. Low scorers on these assessments are subject to cognitive biases, irrelevant cues (e.g., mood), and sharper temporal discounting. Because prevention of the leading causes of death (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular disease) depends on taking action now to prevent serious consequences later, those low in numeracy are likely to require more explanation of risk to engage in prevention behaviors. Visual displays can be used to make numerical relations more transparent, and different types of displays have different effects (e.g., greater risk avoidance). Ironically, superior quantitative processing seems to be achieved by focusing on qualitative gist and affective meaning, which has important implications for empowering patients to take advantage of the evidence in evidence-based medicine. PMID:18677452

  4. Drug Allergies and Implications for Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse reactions to medications prescribed or administered in dental practice can be worrying. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are generally unpredictable and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review immune and nonimmune-mediated mechanisms that account for allergic and related reactions to the particular drug classes commonly used in dentistry. The appropriate management of these reactions will also be addressed. PMID:24423421

  5. Reflective Practice and Its Implications for Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.1-2 Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student’s own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education. PMID:24558286

  6. Mental health treatment of child abuse and neglect: the promise of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Kimberly; Taussig, Heather

    2009-04-01

    In 2006, 3.6 million children in the United States received a child protective services' investigation and 905,000 children (about one-quarter of those investigated) were found to have been abused or neglected. Children who have been maltreated are at risk for experiencing a host of mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress, dissociation, reactive attachment, low self-esteem, social problems, suicidal behavior, aggression, conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem behaviors, including delinquency, risky sexual behavior and substance use. Given the high rate of mental health problems, it is not surprising that maltreated youth are in need of mental health services. Unfortunately, only a fraction of these children and adolescents receive services. Recently, several evidence-based practices have been rigorously tested and are demonstrating efficacy in reducing mental health problems associated with maltreatment. This article details these developments. PMID:19358925

  7. Incidence and Prevalence of Dating Partner Abuse and Its Relationship to Dating Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Jonathan; McNamara, John R.; Ertl, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Reports on sample of women college students who completed Abusive Behavior Inventory with reference to previous six-month period and their entire dating history. Findings of six-month incidence rate of physical abuse were comparable to previously reported rates. Over 77% reported experiencing some form of psychological abuse in that 6-month…

  8. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  9. Partner violence, depression, and practice implications with families of Chinese descent.

    PubMed

    Yick, Alice G; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Agbayani-Siewert, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because the Chinese tend to display psychological problems such as depression in somatic This article examines cultural aspects, experiences, and the mental health consequences of partner violence among families of Chinese descent. A total of 262 Chinese men and women participated in a telephone survey about partner violence and psychological well-being. Symptoms, two indicators of mental health were employed in the research study. Findings indicated a high level of verbal aggression both perpetrated and sustained by participants. Rates of physical abuse were lower; however, these figures dispel the model minority myth associated with Asian Americans. In addition, findings showed a positive correlation between depression and partner violence. Those who experienced verbal and physical aggression by a spouse/intimate partner in the last 12 months were more likely to experience depression. Those who perpetrated physical aggression were more likely to experience somatic symptoms. Practice and research implications are highlighted. PMID:14692179

  10. Elderly adult survivors of family violence. Implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anetzberger, G J

    1997-10-01

    This article on elderly adult survivors of domestic violence (usually women) reviews the literature that examines the impact on later life of domestic violence experienced earlier in life and that examines the effects of elder abuse perpetrated by adult family members. The discussion is illustrated with case studies and figures that list the physical, psychological, behavioral, and social effects of each type of violence as well as intervening variables. Next, the paper reviews the influence of culture and ethnicity on the meaning attached to elder abuse and on help-seeking or accepting behavior. The article then proposes a conceptual framework that uses contributing factors (cultural background, individual influences, and cohort influences), modifying factors (the nature of violence, personal circumstances, and relationship with perpetrator), the meaning of violence, and the effects on the survivor to explain the effects of early or late family violence on elderly adult survivors. The discussion notes that the framework focuses on negative effects but that survivors of domestic violence can experience positive effects, such as the development of personal coping skills. The article ends by noting that this proposed framework has clinical implications because it recognizes that the effects of domestic violence on elderly adults may be complicated, it helps practitioners link symptoms to domestic violence, it helps practitioners realize that the meaning of domestic violence may vary among elderly victims, and it shows that family violence occurs in a social context. PMID:12322016

  11. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

  12. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Neglect as Predictors of Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Women Presenting to a Primary Care Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spertus, Ilyse L.; Yehuda, Rachel; Wong, Cheryl M.; Halligan, Sarah; Seremetis, Stephanie V.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims to this study: first to examine whether emotional abuse and neglect are significant predictors of psychological and somatic symptoms, and lifetime trauma exposure in women presenting to a primary care practice, and second to examine the strength of these relationships after controlling for the effects of other types…

  13. Mothers of Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems: Cognitive Risk Factors for Abuse Potential and Discipline Style and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Erika M.; Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model ([Milner, 1993] and [Milner, 2000]), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Methods: Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old…

  14. Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

  15. Clinical Understanding of Spasticity: Implications for Practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spasticity is a poorly understood phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of spasticity on daily life and identify bedside strategies that enhance patient's function and improve comfort. Spasticity and clonus result from an upper motor neuron lesion that disinhibits the tendon stretch reflex; however, they are differentiated in the fact that spasticity results in a velocity dependent tightness of muscle whereas clonus results in uncontrollable jerks of the muscle. Clinical strategies that address function and comfort are paramount. This is a secondary content analysis using a qualitative research design. Adults experiencing spasticity associated with neuromuscular disorder were asked to participate during inpatient acute rehabilitation. They were asked to complete a semistructured interview to explain and describe the nature of their experienced spasticity on daily basis. Spasticity affects activities of daily living, function, and mobility. Undertreated spasticity can lead to pain, immobility, and risk of falls. There were missed opportunities to adequately care for patients with spasticity. Bedside care strategies identified by patients with spasticity are outlined. Uses of alternative therapies in conjunction with medications are needed to better manage spasticity. Patient reports on spasticity are important and should be part of clinical evaluation and practice. PMID:25276432

  16. Oxford House: A Review of Research and Implications for Substance Abuse Recovery and Community Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bishop, Peter D.

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse following recidivism is high for both men and women. Studies conducted at DePaul University suggest one type of recovery home for alcohol abuse recovery has potential. Within this self-help communal living setting, recovering alcoholics were able to maintain employment, thus increasing personal responsibility and possibly impacting…

  17. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  18. Long-Term Socioeconomic Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect: Implications for Public Policy. Policy Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect greatly influence victims' long-term wellbeing. Until recently, however, little was known about how such experiences affect victims' later socioeconomic status. Current research has examined the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on adult employment, income, and reliance on public assistance, as well as the reasons…

  19. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  20. The Identification and Reporting of Physical Abuse by Physicians: A Review and Implications for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jody E.; Hansen, David J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the multistep, multibehavior process of identification and reporting of physical abuse; presents a literature review examining factors influencing the identification and reporting of physical child abuse by physicians; and outlines future directions for research. (Author/JDD)

  1. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  2. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Client Spiritual Development: Counseling Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganje-Fling, Marilyn A.; McCarthy, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Defines spirituality and discusses its relevance for counselors who work with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Describes the impact of abuse on client spirituality, and presents several suggestions for assessment and intervention approaches that address spiritual issues as part of the counseling process. (JPS)

  3. Difficult-to-manage HIV/AIDS clients with psychiatric illness and substance abuse problems: a collaborative practice with psychiatric advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Betty D; Rossi, Anne P

    2007-01-01

    Complex clients with comorbid HIV disease, other medical illness, psychiatric illness, and substance abuse problems present tremendous challenges to providers. Medication adherence and case management become vital issues in providing comprehensive care to this population. This report describes the practice of two advanced practice psychiatric registered nurses who worked collaboratively with each other and with nurse practitioners to provide care to such complex clients. Description of collaborative practices and the model of collaboration used by the two practitioners are highlighted through three case studies. Conclusions about the practice and its use with complex clients are provided. PMID:17991601

  4. Abuse liability of flupirtine revisited: implications of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Early studies suggested that the centrally acting non-opioid and non-steroidal analgesic flupirtine (FLP) has no potential for abuse. However, FLP's agonistic effects at the GABAA receptor might prime addictive behaviors, and literature provides some anecdotal reports on FLP abuse/dependence. To shed more light on this topic we acquired and evaluated data obtained from a national German pharmacovigilance database. We analyzed all reports of FLP abuse/dependence that were recorded in the database of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). A total of n = 48 reports of FLP abuse/dependence could be identified (mean age 45 years, 62.5% female). First reports were submitted to BfArM in 1991 with increasing numbers of annual reports from the year 2006 on. Mean daily FLP dosage was 805 mg (range 200-3,000 mg). Current or previous substance abuse/dependence was reported in 21% and 17%, respectively. Mean duration of FLP abuse/dependence until report to BfArM was 23 months (range 1-84 months). Withdrawal syndromes after discontinuation of FLP were reported in n = 9 (19%). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that FLP features a potential to cause addictive behaviors. Female sex, age >40 years, and long-term FLP-treatment may be possible risk factors for the development of FLP abuse/dependence. PMID:24037995

  5. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  6. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  7. Implications of dual practice for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Russo, Giuliano; Hipgrave, David; Hort, Krishna; Campbell, James

    2016-02-01

    Making progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) requires that health workers are adequate in numbers, prepared for their jobs and motivated to perform. In establishing the best ways to develop the health workforce, relatively little attention has been paid to the trends and implications of dual practice - concurrent employment in public and private sectors. We review recent research on dual practice for its potential to guide staffing policies in relation to UHC. Many studies describe the characteristics and correlates of dual practice and speculate about impacts, but there is very little evidence that is directly relevant to policy-makers. No studies have evaluated the impact of policies on the characteristics of dual practice or implications for UHC. We address this lack and call for case studies of policy interventions on dual practice in different contexts. Such research requires investment in better data collection and greater determination on the part of researchers, research funding bodies and national research councils to overcome the difficulties of researching sensitive topics of health systems functions. PMID:26908963

  8. Implications of dual practice for universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Hipgrave, David; Hort, Krishna; Campbell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Making progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) requires that health workers are adequate in numbers, prepared for their jobs and motivated to perform. In establishing the best ways to develop the health workforce, relatively little attention has been paid to the trends and implications of dual practice – concurrent employment in public and private sectors. We review recent research on dual practice for its potential to guide staffing policies in relation to UHC. Many studies describe the characteristics and correlates of dual practice and speculate about impacts, but there is very little evidence that is directly relevant to policy-makers. No studies have evaluated the impact of policies on the characteristics of dual practice or implications for UHC. We address this lack and call for case studies of policy interventions on dual practice in different contexts. Such research requires investment in better data collection and greater determination on the part of researchers, research funding bodies and national research councils to overcome the difficulties of researching sensitive topics of health systems functions. PMID:26908963

  9. Predictors of excess heart failure readmissions: implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Kelly D; Flanagan, Jane; Gregas, Matt; Shindul-Rothschild, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In this study of California, Massachusetts, and New York hospitals, 6 factors predicted 27.6% of readmissions for patients with heart failure (HF). We found that higher admissions per bed, teaching hospitals, and poor nurse-patient communication increased HF readmissions. Conversely, the HF readmissions were lower when nurse staffing was greater, more patients reported receiving discharge information, and among hospitals in California. The implications for nursing practice in the delivery of care to patients with HF are discussed. PMID:24378355

  10. Alcohol use and abuse in college students. II. Social/environmental correlates, methodological issues, and implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Brennan, A F; Walfish, S; AuBuchon, P

    1986-01-01

    This review of alcohol use and abuse in college students presents a summary of the relationships between college student alcohol use and social/environment characteristics. A theoretical integration of the findings of this review with those of Part I of this series supports the prior paper's finding of two patterns of college drinking. This review further suggests that the two types may have differential predictive ability with regard to future problem drinking. Methodological issues in this type of research are reviewed and implications for intervention are considered. PMID:3533795

  11. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Practical Guide for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…

  12. Predicting Abuse-Prone Parental Attitudes and Discipline Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shelly; Thompson, Ross A.; Christiansen, Elaine H.; Colman, Rebecca A.; Wyatt, Jennifer; Buckendahl, Chad W.; Wilcox, Brian L.; Peterson, Reece

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 1,000 parents examined factors that place parents at risk of abusing their children. Results found that examining parental attitudes, history, and personality characteristics, as well as religion and ideology, were important in predicting abuse proneness. Child age was also an important predictor. (Author/CR)

  13. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  14. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  15. Child Abuse Screening: Implications of the Limited Predictive Power of Abuse Discriminants from a Controlled Family Study of Pediatric Social Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Jessica H.; And Others

    The predictive value of a child abuse screening instrument on unselected populations is illustrated for varying hypothesized levels of child abuse prevalence to demonstrate outcome of a hypothetical national screening program. At any level of application, the prediction of false positives (nonabusing families labeled as abusing or potentially…

  16. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  17. Informed consent and its implications in family practice.

    PubMed

    Mangold, W J

    1975-04-01

    The doctrine of informed consent has had its practical introduction to medical malpractice litigation in the past five years. Its definition has not changed since the days when its definitive application was only a fond dream of the malpractice plaintiffs attorneys. However, with neh new methods of presenting this theory to the courts, and with the newly emerging practice fo having rulings on matters of law substituted by judges for prevailing standards of medical practice, the implications for family physicians have become tremendous. Hopefullum by understanding the principles involved in its application in the pertinent landmark cases, family physicians will be better able to abid the pitfalls engendered by the doctrine of informed consent. PMID:1127387

  18. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Michael; Norman, Ian; Foley, Michelle; Harris, Richard; Rapca, Anna; Rich, Eileen; Van Hout, Marie-Claire

    2015-12-01

    Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted. PMID:26677894

  19. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  20. DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING CLINICAL PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PREDICTING MEDICAL DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H; Goldstein, Mary K; Asch, Steven M; Altman, Russ B

    2016-01-01

    Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10(-10)). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186

  1. DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING CLINICAL PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PREDICTING MEDICAL DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JONATHAN H; GOLDSTEIN, MARY K; ASCH, STEVEN M; ALTMAN, RUSS B

    2015-01-01

    Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10−10). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186

  2. Abuses of the girl child in some African societies: implications for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Doris Deedei

    2006-01-01

    The definition of a child in African societies varies. From the moment the girl child can talk and walk, she is allocated responsibilities within the family. Westernized cultures view such responsibilities as forms of abuse. Thus, various reports had been written about girl children and had been critical of African societies without acknowledging that Africa is a very large continent. This paper sets out to identify, explore, and present potential areas of abuse of the girl child, for example, female circumcision, child slaves, rape survivors, child soldiers, child prostitution, teenage pregnancy, and arranged marriages. This paper suggests strategies that healthcare professionals could initiate in situations where a girl child is being abused. PMID:16512869

  3. Best-Practice Guideline on the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; Penney, Tasha; McNeill, Susan; Boscart, Veronique M; Podnieks, Elizabeth; Sinha, Samir K

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000-April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed. PMID:27086668

  4. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice. PMID:12125780

  5. Teaching as a Social Practice: Implications for Faculty Development.

    PubMed

    D'Eon, Marcel; Overgaard, Valerie; Harding, Sheila Rutledge

    2000-01-01

    What we believe about the nature of teaching has important implications for faculty development. In this article we contrast three different beliefs about the nature of teaching and highlight the implications for faculty development. If teaching were merely a technical enterprise where well trained teachers delivered packaged lessons, a very directive style of faculty development might be appropriate. If teaching were primarily a craft where teachers made personal judgments daily about how and what to teach, then faculty development which encouraged individual reflection and artistry might be more suitable. This article advances the argument that teaching generally (and teaching in medical schools in particular) is best characterized as a type of social practice. Social practices (such as parenting, being polite, and going to university) are purposive, rational, moral, communal, and are identified by their activities. The communal aspect of teaching means, among other things, that the prevailing social norms of faculty at particular institutions of higher education have a large role to play in shaping the practice of teaching. This being the case, faculty development needs to provide teachers the opportunity to address and reshape these powerful social norms where necessary. PMID:12386471

  6. Organizational Predictors and Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Maria; Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance abuse remains a significant problem in the United States, yet treatment centers do not always admit adolescent clients. In this article, we first determine the extent to which treatment is available for adolescents in general and whether or not adolescent-specific (segregated) tracks are offered. Second, we examine the organizational characteristics associated with adolescent treatment. Third, we illuminate how the adolescent caseload in a treatment center is related to offering evidence-based practices (EBPs). Methods Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of U.S. treatment programs, we use logistic regression to assess how organizational characteristics are associated with the provision of adolescent treatment. Using ordinal logistic regression, we analyze how the treatment center’s adolescent caseload and organizational characteristics affect the extent to which a treatment center offers medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and psychosocial treatment. Results Half (49.5%) of treatment programs admitted adolescents and 41.8% offered an adolescent-specific track. Findings from the logistic regression suggested several organizational characteristics that were significantly associated with treating adolescents and/or having an adolescent-only track. Our findings from the ordinal models indicated a negative relationship between the percent of adolescents in a treatment center and the extent of MAT, and a positive relationship between the percent of adolescent clients and the extent of psychosocial treatment offered. Conclusions This paper highlights organizational barriers to treatment entry for adolescents, who remain a small proportion of clients in treatment centers. When treatment centers serve adolescents, however, those adolescents are likely to receive care in adolescent-only tracks and/or services and in programs that offer several psychosocial EBPs. Finally, adolescents are less likely to receive treatment in centers

  7. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers’ reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity

    PubMed Central

    Bacca, Cristina L.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. Method The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term “substance abuse” and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Results Participants’ sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Conclusions Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. PMID:25496705

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  9. Children of Abuse and School Discourse: Implications for Teachers and Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this article is to illuminate the developmental coping experiences of children of domestic violence abuse whether observed and/or experienced, and the impact upon school discourse at the elementary school level. It is aimed at providing school professionals with insights into their roles and responsibilities in the area of…

  10. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  11. A Survey of Sexual Abuse in the Population at Large: Some Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    Survey information shows that sexual abuse of children is widespread, being reported by 19% of the females and 9% of the males in the sample. Most sexual victimization took place within the child's family, not with strangers, as "child molesters" have traditionally been stereotyped. While the problem cuts across social and economic lines, it seems…

  12. Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

  13. Understanding the Etiology of Prescription Opioid Abuse: Implications for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Murphy, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the initiation of substance abuse abound, the body of literature on prescription opioid abuse (POA) etiology is small. Little is known about why and how the onset of POA occurs, especially among high-risk populations. In this study we aimed to fill this important knowledge gap by exploring the POA initiation experiences of 90 prescription opioid abusers currently in treatment and their narrative accounts of the circumstances surrounding their POA onset. This research was conducted within a storyline framework, which operates on the premise that the path to drug abuse represents a biography or a process rather than a static condition. Audiotapes of in-depth interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Analyses revealed the presence of four trajectories leading to POA. This study adds to the limited research on POA etiology by not only illuminating the psychosocial factors that contribute to POA onset, but also by situating initiation experiences within broader life processes. The study findings provide crucial insights to policymakers and interventionists in identifying who is at risk for POA, and more important, when and how to intervene most efficaciously. PMID:23656723

  14. Examining Substance Abuse in Truant Youths and Their Caregivers: Implications for Truancy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Christopher W.; Sutphen, Richard D.; Ely, Gretchen E.

    2012-01-01

    Truancy is associated with an array of negative social consequences, including poor school performance, delinquency, and dropout. Numerous individual, family, school, and community risk factors associated with truancy are also associated with adolescent substance abuse. However, little is known about substance use patterns among court-adjudicated…

  15. Overlapping Symptoms of Substance Abuse and Learning Handicaps: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, C. Lynn; Forbing, Shirley E.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines the following issues: (1) overlapping symptoms of chemical impairment and learning handicap that may result in misdiagnosis; (2) student populations at high risk for chemical abuse; (3) preventive measures; and (4) intervention and treatment for chemically impaired students. A table of drug symptoms and a behavioral checklist…

  16. Pharmacogenetics and anaesthetic drugs: Implications for perioperative practice

    PubMed Central

    Behrooz, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics seeks to elucidate the variations in individual's genetic sequences in order to better understand the differences seen in pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and efficacy between patients. This area of research is rapidly accelerating, aided by the use of novel and more economical molecular technologies. A substantial evidence base is being generated with the hopes that in the future it may be used to generate personalised treatment regimens in order to improve patient comfort and safety and reduce incidences of morbidity and mortality. Anaesthetics is an area of particular interest in this field, with previous research leading to better informed practice, specifically with regards to pseudocholinesterase deficiency and malignant hyperthermia. In this review, recent pharmacogenetic data pertaining to anaesthetic drugs will be presented and possible future applications and implications for practice will be discussed. PMID:26779337

  17. Implications of pharmacogenomics for drug development and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Konstance, Richard P; Allsbrook, Jennifer S; Schulman, Kevin A

    2005-11-14

    Pharmacogenomics is likely to be among the first clinical applications of the Human Genome Project and is certain to have an enormous impact on the clinical practice of medicine. Herein, we discuss the potential implications of pharmacogenomics on the drug development process, including drug safety, productivity, market segmentation, market expansion, differentiation, and personalized health care. We also review 3 challenges facing the translation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice: dependence on information technology, limited health care financing, and the scientific uncertainty surrounding validation of specific applications of the technology. To our knowledge, there is currently no formal agenda to promote and cultivate innovation, to develop progressive information technology, or to obtain the financing that would be required to advance the use of pharmacogenomic technologies in patient care. Although the potential of these technologies is driving change in the development of clinical sciences, it remains to be seen which health care systems level needs will be addressed. PMID:16287761

  18. Public health advocacy to change corporate practices: implications for health education practice and research.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health campaigns aimed at changing corporate behavior in six industries selected for their central role in the U.S. economy and their influence on major causes of mortality and morbidity. These are the alcohol, automobile, food, gun, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries. The article defines corporate disease promotion and illustrates the range of public health activities that have emerged to counter such corporate behaviors. It analyzes the role of health professionals, government, and advocacy groups in these campaigns and assesses the implications of this domain for health education practice and research. PMID:15851541

  19. Obama health care for all Americans: practical implications.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2009-01-01

    Rapidly rising health care costs over the decades have prompted the application of business practices to medicine with goals of improving the efficiency, restraining expenses, and increasing quality. Average health insurance premiums and individual contributions for family coverage have increased approximately 120% from 1999 to 2008. Health care spending in the United States is stated to exceed 4 times the national defense, despite the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The U.S. health care system has been blamed for inefficiencies, excessive administrative expenses, inflated prices, inappropriate waste, and fraud and abuse. While many people lack health insurance, others who do have health insurance allegedly receive care ranging from superb to inexcusable. In criticism of health care in the United States and the focus on savings, methodologists, policy makers, and the public in general seem to ignore the major disadvantages of other global health care systems and the previous experiences of the United States to reform health care. Health care reform is back with the Obama administration with great expectations. It is also believed that for the first time since 1993, momentum is building for policies that would move the United States towards universal health insurance. President Obama has made health care a central part of his domestic agenda, with spending and investments in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and proposed 2010 budget. It is the consensus now that since we have a fiscal emergency, Washington is willing to deal with the health care crisis. Many of the groups long opposed to reform, appear to be coming together to accept a major health care reform. Reducing costs is always at the center of any health care debate in the United States. These have been focused on waste, fraud, and abuse; administrative costs; improving the quality with health technology information dissemination; and excessive

  20. Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs--from psychoeducational and support groups to…

  1. Blending research and practice: an evolving dissemination strategy in substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Michel, Mary Ellen; Pintello, Denise A; Subramaniam, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. The mission of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is to lead the United States in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction. This charge has two critical components: (a) strategic support of research across a broad range of disciplines and (b) rapid, effective dissemination of research results that can improve prevention and treatment efforts, with potential to inform policy. The NIDA Clinical Trials Network and the Blending Initiative are critical elements of this strategy, and the social work field is poised to use these resources to expand its role in the dissemination and implementation of NIDA's mission. PMID:23731421

  2. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  3. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  4. Effects of executive impairments on maladaptive explanatory styles in substance abusers: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    García, Antonio Verdejo; Torrecillas, Francisca López; de Arcos, Francisco Aguilar; García, Miguel Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Our study examined the relation between neuropsychological impairment of executive functions and explanatory styles, according to the Abramson model of learned helplessness in humans, in a sample of substance abusers. Thirty-eight polysubstance abusers were assessed during an abstinence period using a selective neuropsychological battery for the evaluation of the executive functions, as well as the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) for the assessment of the three dimensions of explanatory style: Internality-Externality, Stability-Instability and Globality-Specificity. Multiple regression analyses showed significant relationships among performance on different neuropsychological tasks sensitive to executive functions and characteristic cognitive styles. The results showed the performance on cognitive flexibility and response inhibition tasks is directly related to making more internal attributions for positive situations, and inversely related to the appearance of more stable attributions for negative events. Likewise, adequate performance on working memory tasks was related to development of more global attributions for failures. These results are partially congruent with the learned helplessness model and particularly relevant for the clinical management of substance abusers and the success on the treatment and rehabilitation of these subjects. PMID:15620814

  5. Sex differences in drug-related stress-system changes: implications for treatment in substance-abusing women.

    PubMed

    Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome. PMID:19373619

  6. Sex Differences in Drug-Related Stress-System Changes: Implications for Treatment in Substance-Abusing Women

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome. PMID:19373619

  7. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  8. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  9. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  10. Training Social Work Students for Practice with Substance Abusers: An Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wormer, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: Why should general social work students need to know about alcoholism/addiction, chemical dependency? What skills are required for assessment of chemical dependency intervention? How can the social work curriculum provide adequate training for work with substance abusers? (Author/MH)

  11. Nationwide Practices for Screening and Reporting Prenatal Cocaine Abuse: A Survey of Teaching Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Trena L.; DeJong, Allan R.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 81 pediatric and 81 obstetric training programs from 42 states determined that respondents favored screening pregnant patients for cocaine abuse by maternal history (81 percent) and urine toxicology (36 percent), though many fewer reported these as established policy. Physicians favored such interventions as voluntary drug…

  12. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  13. Emerging Strategies for Risk Assessment of Sexually Abusive Youth: Theory, Controversy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians and other professionals evaluating, managing, and treating sexually abusive youth are frequently called upon to offer judgments regarding risk for sexual reoffense. There are currently no empirically validated methods for accurately classifying risk among this population. Therefore, those faced with this task have an obligation to…

  14. Experiential Training in Substance Abuse Counseling: Curricular Design and Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Cynthia J.; Lewis, Todd F.

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript describes two experiential course assignments consistently utilized in a graduate-level substance abuse counseling course: use of an abstinence contract, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting attendance. Methods used for introducing, incorporating, and processing these experiences are discussed and student reactions to and…

  15. Teachers' professional development experiences: Implications for teaching practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Gabriela N.

    the process of professional learning has been impacted by the respondents' participation in professional development. By engaging in the iterative process of professional learning described here, respondents are transforming their professional development experiences in order to learn from and about their practice over extended periods of time. As professional learners, the respondents act as change agents in their own practice, schools and learning communities. Based on the results, implications for practice and recommendations for further inquiry are also presented.

  16. Compliance with surgical smoke evacuation guidelines: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2010-08-01

    Surgical smoke presents a serious health hazard, but perioperative nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations is not consistent. I investigated key indicators for compliance with electrosurgical smoke evacuation recommendations based on nurses' individual innovativeness characteristics, perceptions of the attributes of smoke evacuation recommendations, and organizational innovativeness characteristics. The study findings provide implications for improving nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations. Individual innovativeness characteristics, including nurses' knowledge and training, were most strongly linked to smoke evacuation compliance. The key indicators that promote surgical smoke evacuation can provide direction to guide the content of education programs and help identify the personnel and settings that are most in need of this information. Barriers to compliance included lack of equipment, physician resistance, noise, and staff member complacency. Vendor demonstrations on the ease of smoke evacuation device use can show nurses that smoke evacuation is compatible with nursing practice. Facility leaders should provide smoke evacuation policies that are easy to understand and should enforce these policies. PMID:20678603

  17. Compliance with surgical smoke evacuation guidelines: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2012-03-01

    Surgical smoke presents a serious health hazard, but perioperative nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations is not consistent. I investigated key indicators for compliance with electrosurgical smoke evacuation recommendations based on nurses' individual innovativeness characteristics, perceptions of the attributes of smoke evacuation recommendations, and organizational innovativeness characteristics. The study findings provide implications for improving nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations. Individual innovativeness characteristics, including nurses' knowledge and training, were most strongly linked to smoke evacuation compliance. The key indicators that promote surgical smoke evacuation can provide direction to guide the content of education programs and help identify the personnel and settings that are most in need of this information. Barriers to compliance included lack of equipment, physician resistance, noise, and staff member complacency. Vendor demonstrations on the ease of smoke evacuation device use can show nurses that smoke evacuation is compatible with nursing practice. Facility leaders should provide smoke evacuation policies that are easy to understand and should enforce these policies. PMID:22783605

  18. Are your patients depressed? Implications for dental practice.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Dale A

    2003-05-01

    Depressive disorders traditionally reside outside the realm of customary dental practice. Nonetheless, one in every five patients who visits a dentist experiences clinically significant symptoms of depression. The clinical implications of this are substantial. Depression is associated with diminished salivary flow and the complaint of dryness of mouth. It is associated with a diminished and distorted taste sensation, and a higher oral lactobacillus count. Depression is a risk factor for the development of dental caries, periodontal disease, and the erosive variant of oral lichen planus. Antidepressant medications can produce xerostomia, dysgeusia and bruxism. Depressive illness is a legitimate medical condition, with recognizable signs and symptoms, definable pathophysiology, and a significant response to treatment. Unfortunately, despite the availability of effective therapeutic measures, the majority of patients remain untreated. Routine dental checkup visits provide an opportunity for screening. PMID:12756671

  19. A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings.

    PubMed

    Dusenbury, Linda; Brannigan, Rosalind; Falco, Mathea; Hansen, William B

    2003-04-01

    To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, we conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period. Fidelity has been measured in five ways: (1) adherence, (2) dose, (3) quality of program delivery, (4) participant responsiveness and (5) program differentiation. Definitions and measures of fidelity were found not to be consistent across studies, and new definitions are proposed. While there has been limited research on fidelity of implementation in the social sciences, research in drug abuse prevention provides evidence that poor implementation is likely to result in a loss of program effectiveness. Studies indicate that most teachers do not cover everything in a curriculum, they are likely to teach less over time and training alone is not sufficient to ensure fidelity of implementation. Key elements of high fidelity include teacher training, program characteristics, teacher characteristics and organizational characteristics. The review concludes with a discussion of the tension between fidelity and reinvention/adaptation, and ways of resolving this tension. Recommendations are made for developing a consistent methodology for measuring and analyzing fidelity of implementation. Further, researchers and providers should collaborate to develop ways of introducing flexibility into prevention programs. PMID:12729182

  20. Overlaps in the nosology of substance abuse and overeating: the translational implications of "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Gold, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic has led to the postulation that highly palatable foods may be "addictive" for some individuals. This idea is supported by the fact that there are overlaps in brain circuitry that underlie addictive behavior as well as overeating. In this paper, we discuss the utility of the concept of "food addiction" as it may relate to treating certain disordered eating behaviors. Using criteria set forth in the DSM-IV for substance-use disorders, we review data that have emerged from animal models suggesting that overeating, in the form of binge eating, fits some of the criteria for substance abuse. Further, we discuss preclinical data revealing that the addiction-like behavioral changes observed in response to overeating are concomitant with neurochemical changes that are similar to those observed in response to drugs of abuse. With this background and evidence in mind, we conclude this article with a discussion as to how "food addiction" research may translate into clinical strategies and pharmaceutical treatments useful in curtailing overeating. PMID:21999687

  1. [Screening for risk of child abuse and neglect. A practicable method?].

    PubMed

    Kindler, H

    2010-10-01

    Selective primary prevention programs for child abuse and neglect depend on risk screening instruments that have the goal of systematically identifying families who can profit most from early help. Based on a systematic review of longitudinal studies, a set of established risk factors for early child abuse and neglect is presented. Nearly half of the items included in screening instruments can be seen as validated. Available studies indicate a high sensitivity of risk screening instruments. Positive predictive values, however, are low. Overall, the use of risk screening instruments in the area of primary prevention for families at risk represents a feasible method, as long as stigmatizing effects can be avoided and participating families also benefit beyond preventing endangerment. PMID:20936452

  2. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by increased fragility of various non-ossified tissues. It is usually ascertained due to abnormal skin texture, scarring complications, vascular fragility, or chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Sometimes, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome remains undetected until the patient, usually in the pediatric age, shows extensive or severe mucocutaneous injuries after only minor traumas. In this scenario, the misdiagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with child abuse is a possibility, as occasionally reported in the literature. Recently, more attention was posed by lay people between the possible association of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and bone fragility. Literature and personal experience show a strong association between Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, generalized joint hypermobility and reduced bone mass density in older children and adults, especially fertile women. The existence of a true increased risk of fracture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is still a matter of debate in children and adults with little and conflicting evidence. In case of suspected child abuse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is certainly on the differential for bruising, especially in EDS types with marked cutaneous and capillary involvement. In suspected child abuse cases, careful examination of the index case and her/his extended family is routine, as well as exclusion of other disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta. The hypothesis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as an alternative explanation for infantile fractures remains speculative. PMID:26452443

  3. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  4. Animal Abuse and Interpersonal Violence: The Cruelty Connection and Its Implications for Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, R; Arkow, P

    2016-09-01

    The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans. PMID:26936222

  5. Personality and Substance Abuse Disorders: A Review of the Recent Literature on Their Comorbidity and Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Gregory A.

    The major questions when considering substance abuse/dependence and personality are how these two constructs are related and how they interact. A review of the prevalence literature since 1986 documenting the co-occurrence of substance abuse disorders and personality disorders is presented in this study. Sampled are substance abuse and personality…

  6. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  7. Factor Structure of the Counselor Burnout Inventory in a Sample of Sexual Offender and Sexual Abuse Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Wallace, Sam; Puig, Ana; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically tested and compared three different models of factor structure with a sample of therapists working with sexual offenders, survivors of sexual abuse, or both. Results indicated that a modified five-factor model was the most appropriate. Practical implications for sexual offender/abuse survivor therapists are discussed.…

  8. Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Suicidal Behaviour: Exacerbating Factors and Implications for Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Cate

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a cause for concern among many western countries; in general, it is most common among young women. This research used qualitative methods to explore the narratives of 24 women, to contextualise their insights, and to examine the meanings of events leading to and implicated in the recovery from suicidal behaviour. The research…

  9. Effects of Physical and Emotional Child Abuse and Its Chronicity on Crime Into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Klika, J Bart; Skinner, Martie L

    2015-01-01

    Analyses tested hypotheses that pertain to direct and indirect effects of parent-reported physical and emotional abuse on later self-reported criminal behavior in a sample of 356 adults of a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. Childhood antisocial behavior was included in analyses as a potential mediator. Physical abuse only predicted adult crime indirectly through childhood antisocial behavior, whereas emotional abuse predicted adult outcome both directly and indirectly. Chronicity of physical abuse was indirectly related to later crime in a subsample test for those who had been physically abused (n=318), whereas chronicity of emotional abuse was neither directly nor indirectly related to adult crime in a test of those who had been emotionally abused (n=225). Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26439922

  10. Restorative mediation: the application of restorative justice practice and philosophy to clergy sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Noll, Douglas E; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law violations, allowing all aspects of an offense to be addressed in one process. Unlike retributive justice prevalent in the traditional legal system, restorative justice seeks to make things right while focusing on healing for the victim-survivor and offender and accountability by the church representatives. PMID:19042607

  11. Exploring the intersection of partner stalking and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study examined a range of sexually abusive acts women with protective orders against violent partners experienced using three groups: (a) women who never experience stalking or rape by the violent partner; (b) women who experienced stalking but who had never been raped by the violent partner; and (c) women who were stalked and raped by the violent partner. Findings suggest that women in violent relationships experienced a wide range of sexually abusive experiences and that there is a significant association of partner stalking and partner sexual abuse beyond rape. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21665857

  12. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  13. Using genograms to understand pediatric practices' readiness for change to prevent abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Abatemarco, Diane J; Kairys, Steven; Gubernick, Ruth S; Hurley, Tammy

    2012-06-01

    A novel use of genograms in primary care practice is to identify processes and relationships among physicians and staff prior to implementing practice change. The authors hypothesized that the genogram would inform researchers and practice staff, participating in a child maltreatment prevention study, how practice members function in a practice. They describe the use of genograms and show how the genogram results are associated with intervention uptake. Researchers constructed genograms, collected baseline surveys, and conducted postintervention interviews with physicians. Data were analyzed to determine processes associated with intervention uptake. While survey results supported the relationships and conflicts observed in the genograms, the genogram provided more multilevel information that reflected practices' abilities to implement change. By providing a snapshot of the relationship and organizational dynamics within a practice, genograms can assess culture for practice change. Genograms describe organizational dynamics and are useful tools to use prior to initiating new programs. PMID:22363045

  14. Diabetes and cancer: Associations, mechanisms, and implications for medical practice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chun-Xiao; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Both diabetes mellitus and cancer are prevalent diseases worldwide. It is evident that there is a substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that diabetic patients are at significantly higher risk of common cancers including pancreatic, liver, breast, colorectal, urinary tract, gastric and female reproductive cancers. Mortality due to cancer is moderately increased among patients with diabetes compared with those without. There is increasing evidence that some cancers are associated with diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms of this potential association have not been fully elucidated. Insulin is a potent growth factor that promotes cell proliferation and carcinogenesis directly and/or through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Hyperinsulinemia leads to an increase in the bioactivity of IGF-1 by inhibiting IGF binding protein-1. Hyperglycemia serves as a subordinate plausible explanation of carcinogenesis. High glucose may exert direct and indirect effects upon cancer cells to promote proliferation. Also chronic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of carcinogenesis. The multiple drugs involved in the treatment of diabetes seem to modify the risk of cancer. Screening to detect cancer at an early stage and appropriate treatment of diabetic patients with cancer are important to improve their prognosis. This paper summarizes the associations between diabetes and common cancers, interprets possible mechanisms involved, and addresses implications for medical practice. PMID:24936258

  15. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    PubMed Central

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161

  16. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    PubMed

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care. PMID:24983302

  17. Performance enhancing drug abuse and cardiovascular risk in athletes: implications for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Angell, Peter J; Chester, Neil; Sculthorpe, Nick; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith; Somauroo, John

    2012-11-01

    The use of performance-enhancing and social drugs by athletes raises a number of ethical and health concerns. The World Anti-Doping Agency was constituted to address both of these issues as well as publishing a list of, and testing for, banned substances in athletes. Despite continuing methodological developments to detect drug use and associated punishments for positive dope tests, there are still many athletes who choose to use performance and image enhancing drugs. Of primary concern to this review are the health consequences of drug use by athletes. For such a large topic we must put in place delimitations. Specifically, we will address current knowledge, controversies and emerging evidence in relation to cardiovascular (CV) health of athletes taking drugs. Further, we delimit our discussion to the CV consequences of anabolic steroids and stimulant (including amphetamines and cocaine) use. These drugs are reported in the majority of adverse findings in athlete drug screenings and thus are more likely to be relevant to the healthcare professionals responsible for the well-being of athletes. In detailing CV health issues related to anabolic steroid and stimulant abuse by athletes we critique current research evidence, present exemplar case studies and suggest important avenues for on-going research. Specifically we prompt the need for awareness of clinical staff when assessing the potential CV consequences of drug use in athletes. PMID:23097484

  18. A translational behavioral model of mood-based impulsivity: implications for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Cassandra D.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Adams, Zack W.; Marusich, Julie A.; Nesland, Travis O.; Yates, Justin R.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Laboratory tasks that measure various facets of impulsivity derived from self-report questionnaires are important for elucidating the behavioral consequences of impulsivity in humans and for back-translating these facets to non-human species. Negative urgency, or mood-based rash action, is a self-report facet of impulsivity linked to problem substance use; however, a valid behavioral task is lacking. Method The current studies were designed to bridge self-report questionnaire and behavioral measures of negative urgency in humans and to determine if this could be back-translated to rats. Results Humans scoring high in negative urgency showed greater behavioral responding and increased frustration following unexpected reward omission on a monetary-based task compared to subjects low in negative urgency. Rats also showed elevated responding for either sucrose pellets or intravenous amphetamine following unexpected reward omission. Conclusion These results suggest that impulsive behavior engendered by unexpected reward omission may represent a valid behavioral model of negative urgency linked to substance abuse. PMID:21975194

  19. Relationships between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Symptoms, and Lifetime Heroin Use among Individuals Who Abuse Substances in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, E. Gail; Diaz, Naelys; Peluso, Paul R.; Mullaney, Donald; Weiner, Michael; McIlveen, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, and lifetime heroin use among inpatient clients who abused substances. Results indicate important implications for practice and directions for future research. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  20. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice. PMID:24945659

  1. The Gordon Wilson Lecture. Regulation of thromboxane A2 receptors by testosterone: implications for steroid abuse and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Halushka, P V; Masuda, A; Matsuda, K

    1994-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor, has been implicated as a potential pathophysiologic mediator of a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases. It is well established that men are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease compared to premenopausal females. Abuse of androgenic/anabolic steroids has been associated with thrombotic cardiovascular diseases in young male athletes. These observations along with several others have led to the hypothesis that testosterone may regulate the expression of TXA2 receptors. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) and human erythroleukemia cells (HEL), a megakaryocyte-like cell, were incubated with testosterone. TXA2 receptor affinity (Kd) and density (Bmax) were determined via equilibrium binding experiments using the radiolabeled TXA2 mimetic [125I]-BOP. Testosterone significantly increased the Bmax without any significant change in Kd. Hydroxyflutamide (1 microM), an androgen receptor antagonist, completely blocked the effect of testosterone. Dihydrotestosterone, the active metabolite of testosterone also increased Bmax in a concentration-dependent manner and was more potent than testosterone. These observations along with several others are consistent with the notion that androgenic steroids may regulate the expression of functional TXA2 receptors in HEL and RASMC. These results raise the possibility that the increase in TXA2 receptor density induced by testosterone may contribute to its thrombotic potential in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:7974982

  2. Increased MFG-E8 expression and its implications in the vascular pathophysiology of cocaine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kimura-Kojima, Haruka; Unuma, Kana; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Kato, Chizuru; Komatsu, Ayumi; Aki, Toshihiko; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible involvement of smooth muscle cell remodeling and the induction of MFG-E8 (milk fat globule protein epidermal growth factor-VIII) in vascular pathophysiology during cocaine administration in cultured cells and rats. Cocaine exerts bifurcate effects on vascular cells; it stimulates vasoconstriction through enhancement of catecholamine release at low doses, while it suppresses cardiovascular functions through inhibition of ion channels at high doses. Short-term exposure to a high concentration of cocaine (3 mM, 24 hr) resulted in cell death of A7r5 rat aorta-derived smooth muscle cells. On the other hand, long-term exposure of the same cells to a low concentration (0.3 mM, ~7 days) resulted in a transient increase in MFG-E8 expression followed by an increased tendency toward cyclin D1, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent protein kinase-4) expression. Interestingly, autophagy was not induced, but rather was impaired, in cocaine-treated cells. Increased expressions of MFG-E8, PCNA, and CDK4 were also observed in the aortic vascular cells of rats administered cocaine (50 mg/kg, 2 days, i.v.), confirming that cocaine induced MFG-E8 expression in vivo. Taken together, the results show that MFG-E8 is induced in vascular cells exposed to cocaine, and that this induction is likely to be involved in the vascular toxicity elicited by cocaine abuse. PMID:27182119

  3. The intergenerational transfer of mother-daughter risk for gender-based abuse.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this 10-year longitudinal study 150 mother-daughter pairs were recruited to participate in a study examining gender-based abuse across three generations. Forms of gender-based abuse included: child sexual abuse, witnessing intimate partner violence against their mothers, and intimate partner violence or dating violence in adolescence or adulthood. Daughters were interviewed when they were on average 9, 14, and 16 years old. Regression analyses revealed that if the grandmother (G1) was abused by her husband, her daughter (G2) was more likely to be sexually molested in childhood and was also more likely to be in an abusive relationship as an adult. If the mother (G2) was sexually abused as a child her daughter (G3) was at increased risk for child sexual abuse. In turn, child sexual abuse for the daughters related to their reports of dating violence in adolescence. Daughters (G3) who were sexually abused expressed more anxiety about romantic relationships, reflecting early attachment conflicts. Both child sexual abuse and anxious romantic attachment style independently predicted adolescent sexual risk-taking as in having multiple sexual partners or dating older men. These findings demonstrate how informative it is to include multiple forms of gender-based abuse in research and practice to better illuminate complex family dynamics. In addition, the findings support previous empirical work showing the importance of attachment behavior in women who are in abusive relationships, which has unique clinical implications. PMID:23713622

  4. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part II: treatment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing debate about the role of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated children. Many professional organizations have issued statements against physically restraining children as some attachment therapists promote; however, often lost in these debates is the fundamental issue of what attachment theory and research proposes as the appropriate form of treatment. Given that these attachment therapies are often directed toward maltreated children, it becomes critical for clinicians working with abused and neglected children to understand these issues and recognize unethical and dangerous treatments. This article provides a summary of the theoretical and empirical bases for the use of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated school-age children, an examination of the ways questionable approaches to treatment have misinterpreted and misapplied attachment theory, and a conceptualization of attachment-based intervention grounded in current theory and research. PMID:21288932

  5. Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L

    2015-05-01

    Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding. PMID:24810518

  6. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  7. Do therapists' beliefs about sexual offending affect counseling practices with women?

    PubMed

    Hovey, Angela; Rye, B J; Stalker, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether counseling practices with women survivors of child sexual abuse reflect the belief that women do not sexually abuse children. Canadian therapists (n = 164) who work with women survivors of child sexual abuse were surveyed about their beliefs about what constitutes child sexual abuse, who commits child sexual abuse, and their practices regarding inquiries about abusive behavior. A majority self-reported that they ask women and think it is important to ask but most believe that clients will not spontaneously self-disclose inappropriate sexual thoughts or behaviors. How broadly or narrowly therapists defined child sexual abuse was not related to self-reported therapeutic discussion. Therapists demonstrated differential gender beliefs about child sexual abuse perpetration, but this did not relate to self-reported counseling practices. Implications for therapist education are discussed. PMID:23829833

  8. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  9. Implications of Evidence-Based Practices for Personnel Preparation Development in Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    The article includes a practical definition of evidence-based practices, examples of different types of practice-based research syntheses, 3 models for conceptualizing evidence-based early childhood intervention, and a description of the implications of the definition, syntheses, and models of early childhood intervention for personnel…

  10. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  11. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  12. The Association of Physical and Sexual Abuse with HIV Risk Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Implications for Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Renee M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews conducted with 602 youths at public health clinics revealed that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape was related to engaging in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. (Author/JDD)

  13. Understanding the Complexity of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature with Implications for Family Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sally V

    2006-01-01

    Working with families in which there have been incidences of child sexual abuse is one of the most challenging assignments for a family counselor. Beyond ethical and legal mandates for reporting such assaults, less is understood about the long-term effects on victims. After reviewing the literature on child sexual abuse and gender differences,…

  14. Democratic Practices in Education: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Art, Ed.; Pryor, Caroline R., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents the findings of eleven teacher educators as they examine the meaning of democracy and its application to classroom practice. There is a shared belief among all contributors to this volume: that incorporating democratic practice into teacher education is an essential requirement to introducing democratic practices in K-12…

  15. Practicing Teachers' Perceptions of Teacher Trainees: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagoda, Alice Merab; Sentongo, John

    2015-01-01

    Practicing teachers are partners in preparation of teacher trainees. However, little is known about their perceptions of the teacher trainees they receive every year in their schools. Ninety three practicing teachers from twenty schools participated in this study. The objectives were to find out the practicing teachers' perceptions of teacher…

  16. Family Therapy and Children of Alcoholics Implications for Continuing Education and Certification in Substance Abuse Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Tony D.; Rueckert, Quentin H.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians involved in family therapy are increasingly concerned with the impact of parental alcoholism on individual development and family functioning. With more than 20 million adults raised within an alcoholic family, and with widespread problems associated with parental alcoholism, clinicians providing family treatment have a potentially…

  17. Suicide behind bars: trends, inconsistencies, and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R

    2011-11-01

    The results of two comprehensive approaches are compared: the nationwide surveys of suicides in U.S. jails by Hayes and the international meta-analyses of suicides in jails and prisons by Fazel et al. Factors are classified as demographic, situational, clinical, and methodical. More than 50% of U.S. jail suicide victims were men, white, unmarried, under 28 years of age, charged with minor or drug-related offenses, and intoxicated with drugs or alcohol. Suicides significantly occurred in isolation. Suicide victims in the international study were significantly (p < 0.001) men, white, married, pretrial, and charged with or convicted of violent offenses. Psychiatric diagnosis, alcohol abuse, taking psychotropic medication, and suicidal ideation were also positively correlated in the international study, but suicide victims were distributed more evenly over age-groups. Results of other studies illustrate the near universality of some findings. Three theories of suicide are briefly discussed. PMID:21827457

  18. Teaching evidence-based practice: implications for psychology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Frank L; Leffingwell, Thad R; Belar, Cynthia D

    2007-07-01

    A movement advocating the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is increasingly influencing health care and the practice of psychology. Thus, teaching evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) is critical to the preparation of future health service psychologists. In this article, the authors address common myths associated with EBP, propose core components involved in teaching EBPP, and describe an example of how such training can be incorporated into a professional psychology education and training curriculum. PMID:17551942

  19. Principles for Practice with Substance-Abusing Pregnant Women: A Framework Based on the Five Social Work Intervention Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, An-Pyng

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses components essential to pregnancy-specific substance abuse treatment, based on a review of the literature. Elements and issues related to substance abuse during pregnancy are identified under the five social work intervention roles: teacher, broker, clinician, mediator, and advocate. The concepts and approaches presented in…

  20. Cross-Cultural Child Rearing Practices: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escovar, Peggy L.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    The knowledge of cross-cultural child-rearing practices to aid school psychologists is illustrated in this paper. A literature review of child-rearing practices is provided, focusing on: (1) children's social, cultural, and psychological development; (2) the school psychologist's identification of culturally bound aspects of child development; and…

  1. Self-Esteem and Narcissism: Implications for Practice. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    While the development of children's self-esteem is a worthwhile goal in early education, many practices designed to reach this goal may instead be encouraging narcissism. Such practices include those that direct children's attention to their own inner gratifications, or encourage children to believe their specialness is dependent on trivial…

  2. Integrating Practice Guidelines into Professional Training: Implications for Diversity Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Duan, Changming; Nutt, Roberta L.; Waehler, Charles A.; Suzuki, Lisa; Pistole, M. Carole; Arredondo, Patricia; Duffy, Michael; Mejia, Brenda X.; Corpus, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the findings of a special task group (STG) organized to explore effective training strategies for the practice guidelines focused on diverse populations. They provide a brief literature review and summarize survey data from academic training directors regarding current use of practice guidelines. The authors then describe the…

  3. The Inequality Implications of Highly Selective Promotion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mete, Cem

    2004-01-01

    Faced with the evident impossibility of providing free or significantly subsidized secondary and higher education to all, many poor and middle income countries choose to educate only those students who are most promising, using public examinations as means of distributing scarce resources. This paper investigates the inequality implications of…

  4. Automotive Workforce Transition: Implications for Cooperative Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varty, James; Jacobs, James

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the direction that labor and industry are taking to meet the transition that is occurring within the US automotive industry. Specific implications for cooperative education in supporting further training and development for both the displaced and the current automotive work force are presented. (CT)

  5. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  6. Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

  7. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  8. Crown II: the implications of nurse prescribing for practice nursing.

    PubMed

    Baird, A

    2000-09-01

    Certain limited prescribing rights have now been granted to district nurses and health visitors. Proposals to extend prescribing rights to other health professionals have recently been put forward in the Review of Prescribing. Supply and Administration of Medicines (DoH, 1999). Practice nurses are one group who are likely to apply for such rights. This article reports on selected findings from a small-scale qualitative study designed to investigate the current and potential future of practice nurse in prescribing. It was found that practice nurses exercise considerable influence over prescribing in diverse therapeutic areas within general practice. However, it may be difficult to accommodate the prescribing requirements inherent in such a broad scope of practice within the framework of the present proposals. Important issues of accountability and patient safety are raised, and recommendations made for policy, research and education. PMID:12192338

  9. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  10. Career Development and Organizational Justice: Practice and Research Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Cobb, Anthony T.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that formal theories of justice and fairness should be integrated into career development theory and practice. Provides a framework using the constructs of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. (SK)

  11. Mobile phones in residential treatment: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Collier, Scott; Gavriel, Mardell

    2015-08-01

    A nonprofit primary care, substance abuse and mental health treatment provider that operates nine separate residential treatment facilities in both northern and southern California began allowing clients to keep their mobile phones while in treatment. From the advent of mobile phone technology and its widespread adoption through early 2013, the organization prohibited clients from having phones while in treatment. Calls to and from clients needed to be made and received at the house phone. After years of enforcing the policy with diminished success as phones became cheaper, smaller, and more prevalent, agency leadership decided to experiment with allowing the clients to keep their phones while in treatment. Elopement data as they relate to the policy are examined along with data from staff interviews about its implementation and impact. Results show that elopements resulting from being caught with a mobile phone were eliminated and some clients were able to be returned to treatment using the devices. All seven (100%) of the interviewees were supportive of the new policy and thought it should be continued. The impact of the policy on clinical disruptions, lost/stolen property liability, and confidentiality issues are discussed. PMID:25863919

  12. Multidimensionality of cultural practices: implications for culturally relevant science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Alfred Schademan's close and systematic analysis of the sociohistorical and science-related practices developed by African American men goes a long way in disrupting deficit-based notions of such students' capabilities. The rich resources he identifies open many possibilities for connecting peer and classroom knowledges. This response offers some cautionary notions to consider, given the historical, social and political dimensions that are integral to such practices.

  13. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  14. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  15. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  16. Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B

    2015-10-01

    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400

  17. The association of physical and sexual abuse with HIV risk behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, R M; Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F

    1994-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between changes in HIV risk behaviors and physical and sexual abuse. A stratified random sampling procedure selected 602 youths from a sample of 2,787 patients seen consecutively at public health clinics in 10 cities. Face-to-face structured interviews conducted since 1984-85 provide a history of change in risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood. Univariate and bivariate analyses assessed differences in demographic and number and type of risk behaviors between those experiencing single or multiple types of abuse and those with no abuse history at all. The results show that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape is related to engaging in a variety of HIV risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the total number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. This information might help practitioners to both prevent initial involvement in HIV risk behaviors and to prevent continuation of behaviors as youths move into young adulthood. PMID:8199905

  18. Genetic Polymorphism in the Promoter Region of Serotonin Transporter: Implications for Ethanol Abuse in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Guembarovski, Roberta Losi; Hirata, Bruna Karina Banin; de Almeida, Felipe Campos; André, Nayara Delgado; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a review of published literature regarding genetic polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene, named as 5-HTTLPR, and its potential role as a susceptibility marker for ethanol abuse in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A literature review of several databases was conducted with the following keywords: 5-HTTLPR, children or adolescents or teenagers, susceptibility, alcohol or ethanol, abuse or misuse. Results: Alcohol interacts with serotonergic synaptic transmission in several ways, and the reduced availability of serotonin transporters might foster brain dysfunction, driving to alcohol abuse. The initial use of ethanol in children and adolescents is determined primarily by environmental influences, whereas the establishment of drinking patterns is strongly controlled by genetic factors. Functional polymorphic variants in the promoter region of the 5-HTTLPR gene have age-dependent effects in alcohol abuse. This polymorphism, mapped to the 5′ region of the SLC6A4, is a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and involves a direct repeat of 20–23 base pairs GC-rich sequences, comprising a short (S) allele, consisting of 14 repeats, and a long (L) allele, with 16 repeats. Additional variants have been described, although their influences on childhood and adolescence ethanol use are not clear. Conclusion: The influence of the 5-HTTLPR allelic variants in children and adolescent misuse of alcohol might be considered for clinical management, preventing long-term behavior problem. Identifying genetic markers associated to the potential alcohol misuse or abuse could be useful in guiding management and formulating effective coping strategies. PMID:27047556

  19. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  20. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:24992952

  1. Implications of Look AHEAD for Clinical Trials and Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Look AHEAD was a randomized clinical trial designed to examine the long-term health effects of weight loss in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The primary result was that the incidence of cardiovascular events over a median follow up of 9.6 years was not reduced in the intensive lifestyle group relative to the control group. This finding is discussed, with emphasis on its implications for design of clinical trials and clinical treatment of obese people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24853636

  2. THE INTERNATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING AS PRACTICED IN NEW YORK CITY.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; McCabe, James

    2010-02-01

    The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has made enforcement of laws against disorder and quality-of-life offenses a central part of their policing strategy. Concomitantly, New York City (NYC) experienced a renaissance in orderliness, cleanliness, tourism, real estate value, and crime reduction, although other problems such as poverty, unemployment, drug abuse, racial tensions and homelessness persist. This paper examines quality-of-life policing practices in NYC, describes the philosophical underpinnings, explores the critical response to the program and presents lessons of potential relevance to other policing organizations in the U.S. and around the world. PMID:20368765

  3. THE INTERNATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF QUALITY-OF-LIFE POLICING AS PRACTICED IN NEW YORK CITY

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; McCabe, James

    2008-01-01

    The New York City Police Department (NYPD) has made enforcement of laws against disorder and quality-of-life offenses a central part of their policing strategy. Concomitantly, New York City (NYC) experienced a renaissance in orderliness, cleanliness, tourism, real estate value, and crime reduction, although other problems such as poverty, unemployment, drug abuse, racial tensions and homelessness persist. This paper examines quality-of-life policing practices in NYC, describes the philosophical underpinnings, explores the critical response to the program and presents lessons of potential relevance to other policing organizations in the U.S. and around the world. PMID:20368765

  4. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  5. Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…

  6. Dermatologic Practice: Implications for a Primary Care Residency Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, William T., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The problems encountered, diagnostic procedures performed, and treatments prescribed in dermatology were studied in a primary care practice and in a dermatology clinic. It is proposed that the findings of this study be the basis for designing a curriculum in dermatology for residents in primary care medicine. (Author/MLW)

  7. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  8. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  9. Teachers' Professional Development Experiences: Implications for Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to inquire into the ways in which participation in physical science professional development impacts science teachers' professional learning and ultimately their practice over time. This study strove to provide a greater understanding of teachers' processes as they engage in professional learning and make changes in…

  10. Kitchener's Principle Ethics: Implications for Counseling Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.; Engebretson, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This extensive literature review examining the influence of K. S. Kitchener's (1984) introduction of principle ethics on counseling and psychology ethics notes the ultimate practicality of principle ethics. The authors maintain that although a strong influence of principle ethics in the area of counselor education emerges through the review, there…

  11. Informal Online Learning Practices: Implications for Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterwood, Fawn

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic study examines five American teenagers' historical and current digitally-mediated multiliteracy practices within digital popular culture. The participants included three male and two female students of a private high school in the Midwestern United States. The study is framed by the notion that literacy is a socially,…

  12. Multidimensionality of Cultural Practices: Implications for Culturally Relevant Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ares, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Alfred Schademan's close and systematic analysis of the sociohistorical and science-related practices developed by African American men goes a long way in disrupting deficit-based notions of such students' capabilities. The rich resources he identifies open many possibilities for connecting peer and classroom knowledges. This response offers some…

  13. Implications of Special Education on School Design: Practicality, Not Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Addresses the practical requirements in providing barrier-free access to schools. Special attention is given to the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Outlines requirements for the following areas: (1) parking, passenger loading, and building access; (2) corridors, elevators, and stairs; (3) classrooms; (4) restrooms; (5)…

  14. Misconceptions of Focus Groups: Implications for Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2004-01-01

    Health educators use several different data collection techniques involving qualitative and quantitative methods. One common qualitative data collection technique is the focus group. Although a focus group, when utilized appropriately, can yield useful information, too often in health education practice it is misunderstood and thus misused. The…

  15. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  16. Dimensions of Employee Compensation: Practical and Theoretical Implications for Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip

    1997-01-01

    Explores compensation practices fundamental to the school board/employee exchange relationship, using a sample of 615 midwestern superintendents. Employs an organizational justice model, focusing on its procedural and distributive dimensions. Explores procedural justice via market-rate earnings equations and distributive justice by examining…

  17. Different Argentine Rural Extensionists' Mindsets and Their Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reflects upon the practice of Argentine rural extensionists working in the extension public system through the process of identifying different rural extensionists' types of mindsets and comparing them with transfer of technology extension approach, dialogical processes of horizontal knowledge exchange, participatory…

  18. Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

  19. Toward an Ontology of Practices in Educational Administration: Theoretical Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul; Riveros, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we argue for a study of educational administration centered on an "ontology of practices." This is an initial proposal for thinking about and conceptualizing practices in educational administration. To do this, first, we explore how practices are constituted and how they configure the social realities of practitioners.…

  20. Suicide Loss Survivors' Experiences with Therapy: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Rebecca; Cerel, Julie; McGann, Vanessa; Maple, Myfanwy

    2016-07-01

    Over two-thirds of suicide loss survivors, those who have lost a loved one to suicide, seek individual therapy following their loss. However, nothing is known about what survivors find helpful about therapy or how therapy impacts their grief. An online survey was conducted June 2012-March 2013 with a convenience sample of 197 survivors primarily from the USA and Australia to develop a better understanding of treatment seeking loss survivors and their experiences in therapy. Questions explored the experience of the suicide death, the therapy received after the loss, and insights about improving therapy for loss survivors. Participants were generally positive about their therapy experiences. However, respondents endorsed symptoms of PTSD, though many did not report a formal diagnosis from a provider, suggesting a discrepancy that could lead to inadequate treatment of symptoms. The findings provide an understanding of treatment seeking loss survivors, along with implications for therapists treating this population. PMID:27074845

  1. EARLY WITHDRAWAL FROM MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    BARRETT, MARNA S.; CHUA, WEE-JHONG; CRITS-CHRISTOPH, PAUL; GIBBONS, MARY BETH; CASIANO, D; THOMPSON, DON

    2009-01-01

    Despite more than 50 years of research on client attrition from therapy, obstacles to the delivery and success of treatments remain poorly understood, and effective methods to engage and retain clients in therapy are lacking. This article offers a review of the literature on attrition, highlighting the methodological challenges in effectively addressing the complex nature of this problem. Current interventions for reducing attrition are reviewed, and recommendations for implementing these interventions into psychotherapy practice are discussed. PMID:19838318

  2. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice.

    PubMed

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila

    2014-01-01

    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students. PMID:26021131

  3. Female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices: implications for TwoDay Method use.

    PubMed

    Aksel, Sarp; Sinai, Irit; Yee, Kimberly Aumack

    2012-09-01

    This report examines the implications of female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices for offering the TwoDay Method® of family planning.This fertility awareness-based method relies on the identification of cervicovaginal secretions to identify the fertile window. Female genital cutting and traditional vaginal practices, such as the use of desiccants, may affect the presence or absence of secretions and therefore the woman’s perception of her fertility. These issues and their implications for service delivery of the method are discussed. PMID:23016158

  4. Transactional Sex as a Form of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Rwanda: Implications for Child Security and Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Timothy P.; Binagwaho, Agnes; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To illuminate the different manifestations of transactional sexual exploitation and abuse among Rwanda's children in order to inform effective responses by policies, programs, and communities. Method: Qualitative data was collected during April and May 2010. One-hundred and thirty-nine adults (56% female) and 52 children (60% female)…

  5. Anxiety disorders and depression among high school adolescents and youths in Nigeria: Understanding differential effects of physical abuse at home and school.

    PubMed

    Fakunmoju, Sunday B; Bammeke, Funmi O

    2015-07-01

    Despite the exposure of children to physical abuse in more than one setting in many regions of the world, little is known about the associations of physical abuse in different settings (e.g., at home and school) with anxiety disorders and depression among adolescents and youths. Using a convenience sample of 502 adolescents and youths ages 13-23 years from five public and three private senior secondary schools in Nigeria, the study examined associations of gender and physical abuse by parents with anxiety disorders as well as associations of physical abuse by parents and/or teachers with depression in the sample, 39.6% of whom had experienced physical abuse at home and in school. Findings suggest that physical abuse by parents was associated with anxiety disorders and depression than physical abuse by teachers. Being female was equally associated with anxiety disorders. Implications of findings for mental health, practice, research, and theory are discussed. PMID:25899129

  6. The rate of cyber dating abuse among teens and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Janine M; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-07-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse-abuse via technology and new media-in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three northeastern states participated in the survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year (52 % were female; 74 % White). Just over a quarter of youth in a current or recent relationship said that they experienced some form of cyber dating abuse victimization in the prior year, with females reporting more cyber dating abuse victimization than males (particularly sexual cyber dating abuse). One out of ten youth said that they had perpetrated cyber dating abuse, with females reporting greater levels of non-sexual cyber dating abuse perpetration than males; by contrast, male youth were significantly more likely to report perpetrating sexual cyber dating abuse. Victims of sexual cyber dating abuse were seven times more likely to have also experienced sexual coercion (55 vs. 8 %) than were non-victims, and perpetrators of sexual cyber dating abuse were 17 times more likely to have also perpetrated sexual coercion (34 vs. 2 %) than were non-perpetrators. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23412689

  7. Perioperative fluid administration: historical highlights and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Sanket; Hill, Andrew G

    2012-12-01

    Perioperative fluid administration is an important aspect of surgical care but is often poorly understood. Surgeons have historically made a considerable contribution to the evidence base governing current practice. This review provides an overview of the history of perioperative fluid therapy and its relevance to modern practice.Intravenous fluids (IVF) first gained therapeutic importance in the treatment of cholera in the 1830s. From the 1880s, IVF began to be administered perioperatively to compensate for the "injurious" effects of anaesthesia. Clinical improvements were consequently noted, though the adverse effects of saline were observed. The work of Ringer, Hartmann, and others emphasized the importance of the composition of IVF and laid the foundations for the balanced solutions in use today.The intravenous "drip" was introduced by Rudolph Matas in 1924. As the metabolic response to injury was increasingly investigated in the 1940s and 1950s, the cause of post-operative oliguria was debated widely with the most prominent surgeons being Moore and Shires. These differences in opinion, coupled with reports of injured soldiers from the Korean War receiving large IVF infusions and surviving, dictated the surgical practice of liberal IVF administration until very recently.Newer work in fluid therapy has explored the concept of fluid restriction. Shoemaker and colleagues also pioneered the concept of fluid administration to achieve supranormal indices of cardiorespiratory function, which has led to the advent of goal-directed fluid therapy. Alongside the development of balanced solutions, the renewed focus on perioperative fluid therapy has led to IVF administration being guided by physiological principles with a new consideration of the lessons gleaned from history. PMID:22824855

  8. Livability for all? Conceptual limits and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Matthias; Franklin, Rachel S

    2014-05-01

    Livability has risen, alongside sustainability, as a guiding principle for planning and policy. Promoted as the more tangible of the two concepts, livability shapes public perception and infrastructure investments in cities, as well as competition among cities for the attention of the public, investment communities, and potentially fickle and mobile human capital. This paper takes stock of the current discourse on livability, identifies two central elements that have yet to shape the assessments of livability and policies to promote it, and explores strategies for research and practice to transform the livability concept, and with it the places in which the lives and livelihoods of people unfold. PMID:25339785

  9. Medical expansionism: some implications for psychiatric nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Barker, P; Baldwin, S; Ulas, M

    1989-06-01

    The paper discusses how health care models in general have been influenced by the authors' concept of 'medical expansionism'. Emphasis is given to addressing the impact of medical theory and practice on models of psychiatric nursing. The initial section discusses the concepts of medicalisation and medical imperialism, offering general health definitions and examination of mental health problems in more detail. From this analysis a definition is presented of a medical model in psychiatry. The effects of this model of health care on the future development of nursing models in psychiatry is discussed. PMID:2666847

  10. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

  11. New device indications: practice and cost implications in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John M

    2003-01-01

    The potential clinical value of implantable devices, for both diagnostic and therapeutic uses in cardiology practice, has increased greatly with technical innovation. This coupled with an increased recipient population size (as the population ages) and increased referral rates (as that population and its healthcarers are educated), has increased the demand for such devices and the associated economic burden is impacting on healthcare resources. Although there is a commonality of approach to clinical practice in Europe, aided by the publication of European guidelines, the implementation of these is hindered by the need to overcome national obstacles, particularly for new indications for established therapies and for innovative therapies. Cost efficacy assessments and evidence-based medicine are blurred and used as rationing tools. National inequalities and disparate healthcare systems will become divisive in a European theatre that is otherwise seeing greater political and economic integration. There needs to be a mature and honest debate on how to bring the benefits of implantable device medical technology to the patient population which will benefit. PMID:12766518

  12. The routinisation of genomics and genetics: implications for ethical practices.

    PubMed

    Foster, M W; Royal, C D M; Sharp, R R

    2006-11-01

    Among bioethicists and members of the public, genetics is often regarded as unique in its ethical challenges. As medical researchers and clinicians increasingly combine genetic information with a range of non-genetic information in the study and clinical management of patients with common diseases, the unique ethical challenges attributed to genetics must be re-examined. A process of genetic routinisation that will have implications for research and clinical ethics, as well as for public conceptions of genetic information, is constituted by the emergence of new forms of genetic medicine, in which genetic information is interpreted in a multifactorial frame of reference. Although the integration of genetics in medical research and treatment may be a helpful corrective to the mistaken assumptions of genetic essentialism or determinism, the routinisation of genetics may have unintended consequences for the protection of genetic information, perceptions of non-genetic information and the loss of genetic research as a laboratory for exploring issues in research and clinical ethics. Consequently, new ethical challenges are presented by the increasing routinisation of genetic information in both biomedical and public spheres. PMID:17074820

  13. Weaning practices among some Nigerian women: implication on oral health.

    PubMed

    Bankole, O O; Aderinokun, G A; Odenloye, O; Adeyemi, A T

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to document the various weaning diets given by some Nigerian women and consider their implication on the oral health of their children. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 700 volunteer mothers of young children aged between 6-18 months in Ibadan, a city in south-western Nigerian. Results revealed that pap was the most frequently given food to the infants as 607 (86.7%) of them ate it. Chocolate beverages, natural fruit juice and soft drinks were the most commonly given drinks as 88.1%, 79.9% and 70.3% babies were said to be given these respectively. Over 57% of mothers sweetened pap with sugar. Forty seven percent of mothers added glucose to children's drinking water. Over two-third (64.9%) of children ate biscuits several times a day. Soft drinks, commercial fruit juices and squash were consumed by 16.1%, 9.6% and 7.7% of the infants respectively on a daily basis. Judging by the findings of this study, it is evident that many infants are being exposed to a highly cariogenic diet at an early age. In the light of the harmful effect of these foods and drinks on the body and teeth, it is important that oral health care workers initiate moves to discourage this habit via health education programmes. Nurses, community health workers at various levels, pregnant women and mothers of young children should be the targets of such intervention. PMID:16704022

  14. Beyond the individual victim: multilevel consequences of abusive supervision in teams.

    PubMed

    Farh, Crystal I C; Chen, Zhijun

    2014-11-01

    We conceptualize a multilevel framework that examines the manifestation of abusive supervision in team settings and its implications for the team and individual members. Drawing on Hackman's (1992) typology of ambient and discretionary team stimuli, our model features team-level abusive supervision (the average level of abuse reported by team members) and individual-level abusive supervision as simultaneous and interacting forces. We further draw on team-relevant theories of social influence to delineate two proximal outcomes of abuse-members' organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) at the individual level and relationship conflict at the team level-that channel the independent and interactive effects of individual- and team-level abuse onto team members' voice, team-role performance, and turnover intentions. Results from a field study and a scenario study provided support for these multilevel pathways. We conclude that abusive supervision in team settings holds toxic consequences for the team and individual, and offer practical implications as well as suggestions for future research on abusive supervision as a multilevel phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111251

  15. Practical Murine Hematopathology: A Comparative Review and Implications for Research

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Karyn E; Mikkola, Amy M; Stepanek, Aaron M; Vernet, Andyna; Hall, Christopher D; Sun, Chia C; Yildirim, Eda; Staropoli, John F; Lee, Jeannie T; Brown, Diane E

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic parameters are important markers of disease in human and veterinary medicine. Biomedical research has benefited from mouse models that recapitulate such disease, thus expanding knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms and investigative therapies that translate across species. Mice in health have many notable hematologic differences from humans and other veterinary species, including smaller erythrocytes, higher percentage of circulating reticulocytes or polychromasia, lower peripheral blood neutrophil and higher peripheral blood and bone marrow lymphocyte percentages, variable leukocyte morphologies, physiologic splenic hematopoiesis and iron storage, and more numerous and shorter-lived erythrocytes and platelets. For accurate and complete hematologic analyses of disease and response to investigative therapeutic interventions, these differences and the unique features of murine hematopathology must be understood. Here we review murine hematology and hematopathology for practical application to translational investigation. PMID:25926395

  16. Bioterrorism and smallpox: policies, practices, and implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Romel W; Mackelprang, Romel D; Thirkill, Ashley D

    2005-04-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains.This article addresses the need for knowledge and rational policies in dealing with potential bioterrorism attacks. It presents information on four of the most likely bioterrorism agents: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, and plague. It illustrates the importance of accurate knowledge and rational decision making in addressing the threat of terrorism through the intentional release of biological weapons such as smallpox. Finally, it provides information essential for social workers to make informed practice decisions, to educate clients and the public, and to advocate for sound public policy. PMID:15853189

  17. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L

    2009-04-01

    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change. PMID:19372278

  18. Epistemological perspectives on conceptual change: Implications for educational practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Richard A.; Gitomer, Drew H.

    Frameworks that seek to understand how knowledge restructuring occurs and how to build a learning environment that facilitates this restructuring raise important philosophical, psychological and pedagogical questions and issues about how conceptual change occurs and what characteristics of knowledge growth ought to be a part of curricula and learning environments. Implicit in emphasizing the how is a shift in science educations' perspective from one that embraces scientists' ways of knowing as the dominant objective towards one that favors positioning the learner for the next step. This change in perspective and approach represents a radical and complex departure from common practice. This article advances a piecemeal model of the character and mechanism of restructuring and then describes a model of educational practice designed to facilitate this form of restructuring. We argue that a piecemeal developmental perspective of conceptual change would offer quite different criteria for deciding what to teach and how to teach. The adoption of conceptual change teaching models implies teacher empowerment of a kind we have yet to fully understand. Empowering teachers with appropriate philosophical and psychological models for the selection and the sequencing of instructional tasks would aid in their describing and prescribing effective or meaningful learning strategies. Central to this educational model is a broadened and integrated view of assessment and instruction that we are calling a portfolio culture. The essential characteristic of this culture is that it creates opportunities for teachers and students to confront and develop their scientific understanding and to equip students with the tools necessary to take increased responsibility for their own restructuring, to assess for themselves what might be the next steps.

  19. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously provided…

  20. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  1. Implementing E-Learning and Web 2.0 Innovation: Didactical Scenarios and Practical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkee, David; Brant, Stephen; Nevin, Pete; Odell, Annette; Williams, Godfried; Melomey, Divina; Roberts, Hedley; Imafidon, Chris; Perryman, Roy; Lopes, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the practical implications for teachers wishing to incorporate e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies into their pedagogy. The authors concentrate on applied didactical scenarios and the impacts of e-learning innovations. The methods applied stem from grounded theory and action research. An analytical framework was derived by…

  2. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  3. Practical Implications of Evaluating the Efficiency of Listener and Tact Instruction for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfs, Caitlin H.; Frampton, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature reviews have highlighted the need to better understand the relation between speaker and listener behavior when teaching learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper outlines the practical implications of evaluating the emergence of tact and listener behavior during instruction for the opposite relation, as…

  4. Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scammacca, Nancy; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Wexler, Jade; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein; Torgesen, Joseph K.

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis offers decision-makers research-based guidance for intervening with adolescent struggling readers. The authors outline major implications for practice: (1) Adolescence is not too late to intervene. Interventions do benefit older students; (2) Older students with reading difficulties benefit from interventions focused at both the…

  5. Family Violence and Migrant Women: Implications for Practice. Migrant Clinicians Network Clinical Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rachel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter supplement is devoted to the theme of domestic violence affecting migrant women. It contains four articles describing programs providing violence prevention education to migrant women and children. "Family Violence and Migrant Women: Implications for Practice" (Rachel Rodriguez) discusses the social isolation of migrant women;…

  6. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  7. [Special Issue: Critical Social Theory of Jurgen Habermas and Its Implications for Argumentation Theory and Practice].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the critical social theory of the German philosopher Jurgen Habermas and its implications for argumentation theory and practice. Topics discussed in the six articles are: the main themes of Habermas' research and their relevance to argumentation, Habermas and the dialectical perspective on argumentation, a…

  8. Youth Work Transitions: A Review with Implications for Counselling and Career Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Filomena; Young, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    We critically review studies highlighting youth's work transitions and derive some implications for career and counselling theory and practice. We first discuss today's hypermodern world, specifically the meanings being conveyed by today's complex social realities and their impact on individuals' (work) lives. An overview of…

  9. Enhancing Alphabet Knowledge Instruction: Research Implications and Practical Strategies for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is consistently recognized as the strongest, most durable predictor of later literacy achievement. Recent research offers practical implications for increased effectiveness of teaching alphabet knowledge to young children. In this article, we outline Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge instruction (EAK), a method of practical…

  10. Subjection, subjectivity, and agency: the power, meaning, and practice of mothering among women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners. PMID:23363656

  11. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  12. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    -based treatments to other salient issues such as building the necessary research evidence (including incorporating American Indian and Alaska Native cultural values into clinical practice) and developing the human and infrastructural resources to support the use of this evidence may be far more effective for advancing efforts to improve substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. PMID:21679438

  13. Changes In US spending on Mental Health And Substance Abuse Treatment, 1986-2005, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Levit, Katharine R; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Buck, Jeffrey A; Coffey, Rosanna M

    2011-02-01

    The United States invests a sizable amount of money on treatments for mental health and substance abuse: $135 billion in 2005, or 1.07 percent of the gross domestic product. We provide treatment spending estimates from the period 1986-2005 to build understanding of past trends and consider future possibilities. We find that the growth rate in spending on mental health medications-a major driver of mental health expenditures in prior years-declined dramatically. As a result, mental health and substance abuse spending grew at a slightly slower rate than gross domestic product in 2004 and 2005, and it continued to shrink as a share of all health spending. Of note, we also find that Medicaid's share of total spending on mental health grew from 17 percent in 1986 to 27 percent in 2002 to 28 percent in 2005. The recent recession, the full implementation of federal parity law, and such health reform-related actions as the planned expansion of Medicaid all have the potential to improve access to mental health and substance abuse treatment and to alter spending patterns further. Our spending estimates provide an important context for evaluating the effect of those policies. PMID:21289350

  14. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted. PMID:25376129

  15. Enteral nutrition formula selection: current evidence and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britta; Roehl, Kelly; Betz, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Many new enteral nutrition (EN) formulas have been created over the past several decades with a variety of intended uses. Although each is intended to promote improved outcomes, research is often unclear and, in many cases, conflicting. It is important to note that EN products are considered medical foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and therefore do not have to complete premarket review or approval and are not regulated to the same extent as pharmaceuticals. While standard EN formulas are designed to meet the basic macro- and micronutrient requirements of individuals who cannot meet nutrition needs orally, specialty EN products have been developed to exhibit pharmacologic properties, such as immune-enhancing formulas containing arginine, glutamine, nucleotides, and ω-3 fatty acids. With the vast number of products available, rising costs of healthcare, and the drive toward evidence-based practice, it is imperative that clinicians carefully consider research regarding use of specialty formulas, paying close attention to the quality, patient population, clinical end points, and cost to patient and/or facility. PMID:25516537

  16. Promising practices for delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment: Perspectives from six high-performing California counties operating Proposition 36

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a “promising practices” resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568

  17. Heart Failure and Palliative Care: Implications in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Janice; Fogg, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The number of people with heart failure is continually rising. Despite continued medical advances that may prolong life, there is no cure. While typical heart failure trajectories include the risk of sudden death, heart failure is typically characterized by periods of stability interrupted by acute exacerbations. The unpredictable nature of this disease and the inability to predict its terminal phase has resulted in few services beyond medical management being offered. Yet, this population has documented unmet needs that extend beyond routine medical care. Palliative care has been proposed as a strategy to meet these needs, however, these services are rarely offered. Although palliative care should be implemented early in the disease process, in practice it is tied to end-of-life care. The purpose of this study was to uncover whether the conceptualization of palliative care for heart failure as end-of-life care may inhibit the provision of these services. The meaning of palliative care in heart failure was explored from three perspectives: scientific literature, health care providers, and spousal caregivers of patients with heart failure. There is confusion in the literature and by the health care community about the meaning of the term palliative care and what the provision of these services entails. Palliative care was equated to end-of-life care, and as a result, health care providers may be reluctant to discuss palliative care with heart failure patients early in the disease trajectory. Most family caregivers have not heard of the term and all would be receptive to an offer of palliative care at some point during the disease trajectory. PMID:19508139

  18. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  19. Oblique Chest Views as a Routine Part of Skeletal Surveys Performed for Possible Physical Abuse--Is This Practice Worthwhile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Nixon, G. William

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of oblique chest views in the diagnosis of rib fractures when used as a routine part of the skeletal survey performed for possible physical abuse. Methods: Oblique chest views have been part of the routine skeletal survey protocol at Primary Children's Medical Center since October 2002. Dictated radiology reports…

  20. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  1. Ancient Ethical Practices of Dualism and Ethical Implications for Future Paradigms in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2016-07-01

    Paradigms contain theoretical structures to guide scientific disciplines. Since ancient times, Cartesian dualism has been a prominent philosophy incorporated in the practice of medicine. The discipline of nursing has continued the body-mind emphasis with similar paradigmatic thinking and theories of nursing that separate body and mind. Future trends for paradigm and nursing theory development are harkening to former ways of thinking. In this article the author discusses the origins of Cartesian dualism and implications for its current usage. The author shall illuminate what it potentially means to engage in dualism in nursing and discuss possible ethical implications for future paradigm and theory development in nursing. PMID:27271129

  2. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  3. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  4. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  5. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  6. Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…

  7. Occurrence and environmental implications of the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater treatment plants of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, Yolanda; Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Drugs of abuse are continuously discharged into wastewaters due to human excretion as parent compounds and/or secondary metabolites after consumption or accidental disposal into the toilets. (Boles and Wells,2010). Incomplete removal of these compounds during wastewater treatment results in their release to the environment. Pollution by illicit drug residues at very low concentrations is generalized in populated areas, with potential risks for human health and the environment. The impact of treated wastewater effluent on the quality of receiving waters can be evaluated performing an investigated performing an ecotoxicological risk assessment calculating the risk quotient (RQ) of the drugs of abuse level observed. In addition, back-calculation from the concentration of illicit drug in the influents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) provides an important tool for estimating its local consumption (Daughton 2001). Sampling campaigns were in three years, 2011 (March 9th to 15th), 2012 (April 17th to May 1st) and 2013 (March 6th to 12th) in influents and effluents from 3 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger, that treats most of the wastewater of Valencia City and its surrounding towns. Cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), ecstasy (MDMA) and ketamine (KET), Benzoylecgonine (BE), 6-acethylmorphine (6-MAM), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques such as liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) Illicit drugs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive ionization with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). The determination of drugs of abuse in the influent of the selected WWTP shows that all compounds were detected in 100% of influents from Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger in samples analyzed during three years

  8. Moderating effects of physical abuse and perceived social support on the potential to abuse.

    PubMed

    Litty, C G; Kowalski, R; Minor, S

    1996-04-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of perceived prepubertal social support on the relationship between prepubertal childhood physical abuse and child abuse potential as well as on the relationship between a childhood history of abuse and conflict and depth in adult relationships. Three hundred and sixty-nine undergraduate men and women were classified as abused or nonabused based on their responses to the Childhood History Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed interactions of social support and a childhood history of physical abuse on both the potential to abuse and the quality of participants' relationships with their parents. Differences between abused and nonabused individuals were obtained only under conditions of low perceived social support. When social support was perceived to be high, abused and nonabused individuals did not differ in the potential to abuse or in the ratings of the depth of their relationships with parents. Implications of these findings for the intergenerational transmission of abuse are discussed. PMID:8730766

  9. Trends impacting food safety in retail foodservice: implications for dietetics practice.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jeannie; Strohbehn, Catherine H

    2008-07-01

    Food safety in retail foodservice is increasingly important to consumers. Trends that impact food safety concerns include the increasing number of meals eaten away from home, increasing consumer awareness about food safety, an aging population, changes in the foodservice workforce, changing technology in work environments, changes in food procurement, foodservice risk factors, and food defense concerns. Each of these trends has implications for dietetics practice, both in working with consumers and managing foodservice operations. PMID:18589025

  10. The Academic Consequences of Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescent Males in High School: Implications for Assessment and Intervention for Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Cerrillo, Lino

    2012-01-01

    The problem of middle adolescent substance use and abuse among high school age males was examined. Financial and socio-emotional costs and rates of incidence for substance use and abuse among high school males are addressed followed by a discussion of social, environmental, and intra-psychic factors, which influence substance use and abuse. To…

  11. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  12. The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an ecological framework for understanding adolescent-initiated parent abuse. We review research on adolescent-initiated parent abuse, identifying sociodemographic characteristics of perpetrators and victims (e.g., gender, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status [SES]). Bronfenbrenner's [1] ecological systems theory is applied, which examines the risk and protective factors for adolescent-initiated parent abuse within micro- (maltreatment, domestic violence, parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies), meso- (peer influence), exo- (media influence), macro- (gender role socialization), and chronosystem (change in family structure) levels. Findings from our review suggest that older and White children are significantly more likely to abuse their parents. Females are selective in the target of their aggression, while males target family members in general. Mothers are significantly more likely to be abused than fathers. However, researchers also report variations in the association between SES and parent abuse. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are risk factors, while findings on parenting behavior and disciplinary strategies are mixed. Peer influence, exposure to media violence, gender role socialization, and change in family structure can potentially increase the risk of parent abuse. Practice and research implications are also discussed. An ecological systems framework allows for an examination of how various contexts interact and influence parent abuse behavior, and can provide needed directions for further research. PMID:22160270

  13. Determinism and Underdetermination in Genetics: Implications for Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Epistemic Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2012-11-01

    In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and implementation. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 99-117, 2008), or on their practical epistemologies (Wickman in Sci Educ 88(3):325-344, 2004). In order to support these practices in genetics classrooms we need to take into account domain-specific features of the epistemology of genetics, in particular issues about determinism and underdetermination. I suggest that certain difficulties may be related to the specific nature of causality in genetics, and in particular to the correspondence between a given set of factors and a range of potential effects, rather than a single one. The paper seeks to bring together recent developments in the epistemology of biology and of genetics, on the one hand, with science education approaches about epistemic practices, on the other. The implications of these perspectives for current challenges in learning genetics are examined, focusing on students' engagement in epistemic practices, as argumentation, understood as using evidence to evaluate knowledge claims. Engaging in argumentation in genetics classrooms is intertwined with practices such as using genetics models to build explanations, or framing genetics issues in their social context. These challenges are illustrated with studies making part of our research program in the USC.

  14. Opioid addiction and abuse in primary care practice: a comparison of methadone and buprenorphine as treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Jean; Shim, Ruth S; Gooden, Richard; Tyus, Dawn; Rust, George

    2012-01-01

    Opioid abuse and addiction have increased in frequency in the United States over the past 20 years. In 2009, an estimated 5.3 million persons used opioid medications nonmedically within the past month, 200000 used heroin, and approximately 9.6% of African Americans used an illicit drug. Racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and access to mental health care, including substance use disorders. Primary care practitioners are often called upon to differentiate between appropriate, medically indicated opioid use in pain management vs inappropriate abuse or addiction. Racial and ethnic minority populations tend to favor primary care treatment settings over specialty mental health settings. Recent therapeutic advances allow patients requiring specialized treatment for opioid abuse and addiction to be managed in primary care settings. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 enables qualified physicians with readily available short-term training to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting, potentially making primary care physicians active partners in the diagnosis and treatment of opioid use disorders. Methadone and buprenorphine are effective opioid replacement agents for maintenance and/or detoxification of opioid-addicted individuals. However, restrictive federal regulations and stigmatization of opioid addiction and treatment have limited the availability of methadone. The opioid partial agonist-antagonist buprenorphine/naloxone combination has proven an effective alternative. This article reviews the literature on differences between buprenorphine and methadone regarding availability, efficacy, safety, side-effects, and dosing, identifying resources for enhancing the effectiveness of medication-assisted recovery through coordination with behavioral/psychological counseling, embedded in the context of recovery-oriented systems of care. PMID:23092049

  15. Mediator assessment, documentation, and disposition of child custody cases involving intimate partner abuse: a naturalistic evaluation of one county's practices.

    PubMed

    Beck, Connie J A; Walsh, Michele E; Mechanic, Mindy B; Taylor, Caitilin S

    2010-06-01

    The contentious and costly nature of the adversarial process for resolving child custody disputes has prompted scholars, practitioners, and policy makers to advocate for the development and implementation of less divisive forms of dispute resolution, notably, mediation. Mediation has been championed for its potential to resolve disputes with less acrimony among disputants, reduced economic costs, increased satisfaction with outcomes, and fewer adverse consequences for family members. Despite the increasing popularity, arguments have cautioned against the use of mandated mediation when intimate partner abuse (IPA) is alleged. This research documents a mediation screening process and models mediators' decision-making process as instantiated, naturally, in one jurisdiction. PMID:19412662

  16. Implications for Practice from "International Review of the Evidence on Best Practice in Educational Provision for Children on the Autism Spectrum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guldberg, Karen; Parsons, Sarah; MacLeod, Andrea; Jones, Glenys; Prunty, Anita; Balfe, Tish

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the implications for practice arising from the "International review of the evidence on best practice in educational provision for children on the autism spectrum" and it focuses on key priorities for policy makers, families, practitioners and researchers. Findings highlight that there is little evidence to indicate how…

  17. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects. PMID:24106146

  18. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values. PMID:26241514

  19. Protecting Children through Mandated Child-Abuse Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel; McQuillan, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Explains legal reporting requirements for child abuse and neglect. Describes legal standards for reasonable suspicion and indicators of various types of abuse. Details what should be included in a report and discusses implications for school personnel. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  20. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  1. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some key practice and policy implications emerging from a review of literature on effective teacher strategies for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are set out. Particular attention is given to implications in relation to the development of teachers' skills.

  2. Mother's age and risk for physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Connelly, C D; Straus, M A

    1992-01-01

    It is widely believed that young mothers are at greater risk of engaging in physical abuse. However, this relationship is not clearly supported by previous empirical research. This study reexamines the issue using a nationally representative sample of 1,997 mothers. All analyses controlled for family income, race, number of minor children in the home, age of abused child, mother's education, and whether mother was a single parent. Physical abuse was measured with the Conflict Tactics Scales. Using mother's age at time of birth of the abused child, the younger the mother, the greater the rate of child abuse; however, there was not a significant relationship when mother's age was measured at age at time of abuse. Large families and minority group children were also found to be at greater risk of abuse. The paper discusses implications for further research and for prevention of child abuse. PMID:1393729

  3. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad. PMID:26978721

  4. Brief Family Treatment Intervention to Promote Aftercare among Substance Abusing Patients in Inpatient Detoxification: Transferring A Research Intervention to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Marie; Alter, Jane; Fals-Stewart, William

    2008-01-01

    Two earlier studies showed that a brief family treatment (BFT) intervention for substance abusing patients in inpatient detoxification increased aftercare treatment post-detox. BFT consisted of meeting with the patient and a family member with whom the patient lived to review aftercare plans for the patient. A phone conference was used when logistics prevented an in-person family meeting. Based on the earlier research results, we trained a newly hired staff person to continue providing BFT. We monitored key process benchmarks derived from the earlier research studies to ensure ongoing fidelity in delivering BFT. This method proved successful in transferring BFT from delivery in a research study to ongoing delivery in routine clinical practice after the research ended. It also ensured that a high proportion of patients had their families contacted and included in planning the patients’ aftercare. PMID:18063317

  5. [The abused child: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Scherer, E A; Scherer, Z A

    2000-08-01

    Assisting abused children may cause discomfort and raise doubts. The present literature review, which includes periodicals, books and the Child's and Adolescent's Statute, was conducted to serve as reference to professionals and researchers involved with the child abuse problem. The authors introduce the subject of abuse, present its legal and ethical implications, the difficulties to diagnose it, its effects, the necessity to understand and treat its perpetrator as well as the role and background of the professionals who assist children victimized by abuse. As final considerations, the authors suggest preventive steps as well as the improvement of formal systematic research on abused children. PMID:11235234

  6. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    PubMed

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  7. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25049030

  8. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  9. Unpacking MACRA: The Proposed Rule and Its Implications for Payment and Practice.

    PubMed

    Haycock, Camille; Edwards, Michelle L; Stanley, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has released a proposed rule that details a consolidated pay-for-performance provider payment system within the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act. This proposed rule establishes policy for the new provider Merit-Based Incentive System and Alternative Payment Models. While the rule is extremely complex, and not yet finalized, there are significant implications for nursing and advanced practice providers. This proposed rule intends to drastically change the current provider payment system and reward providers who demonstrate better quality outcomes at a lower cost. It also aligns with the current administration's intention to reform the payment and delivery system to a value-based methodology. Within the proposed rule, there is much at stake and will likely transform the way in which providers are reimbursed for Medicare beneficiaries. There are many strategies that can be deployed to help drive success within this new legislation. Among them are a renewed focus on quality outcomes, knowledge of clinical performance, care coordination, and deploying new models of care that address a lower cost structure. It is imperative that nurses and advanced practice providers are aware of this new legislation and how their practice will be implicated by payment reform. PMID:27584897

  10. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part I: diagnosis and assessment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Debate has ensued regarding the appropriate assessment and diagnosis for school-age children who display severe behavioral problems as a result of previous abuse and neglect within the primary attachment relationship. The current nomenclature recognizes reactive attachment disorder and some clinicians have suggested broader categories of attachment disorder. These attempts at classification are often criticized on empirical grounds; however, often lost in these criticisms is the fact that that these diagnostic approaches often misapply attachment theory and research. This article summarizes the original contributions of John Bowlby and other attachment researchers to our understanding of child development, examines misguided attempts to apply attachment theory to the diagnosis and assessment of maltreated children, and offers a diagnostic conceptualization and assessment recommendations consistent with the available attachment research. PMID:21288931

  11. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  12. Informal Financial Assistance for Patients With a Hematological Malignancy: Implications for Oncology Social Work Practice.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam

    2015-01-01

    The article presents original research findings on informal financial assistance for hematological patients; that is, the gifts from family, friends, and communities that help patients cope with the financial hardship associated with cancer. The qualitative study involved interviews with 45 hematology patients that were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and then thematically analyzed. The findings examine the differing perspectives that individuals and families bring to the notion of informal financial aid, provide examples of individuals who require and receive informal financial assistance, and conclude with descriptions of those who require informal financial assistance but it is not available. The implications of the findings for oncology social work practice are explored. PMID:26671243

  13. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  14. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  15. Using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Evidence-Based Practice Kits in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Laura L.; Wodarski, John S.

    2014-01-01

    In today's climate, it is becoming increasingly important to provide social work students with practice knowledge on research-supported social work interventions. CSWE has placed greater emphasis on using research-based knowledge to inform and guide social work practice, and the field has recognized the value of adhering to the evidence-based…

  16. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  17. Hostile climate, abusive supervision, and employee coping: does conscientiousness matter?

    PubMed

    Mawritz, Mary B; Dust, Scott B; Resick, Christian J

    2014-07-01

    The current study draws on the transactional theory of stress to propose that employees cope with hostile work environments by engaging in emotion-based coping in the forms of organization-directed deviance and psychological withdrawal. Specifically, we propose that supervisors' hostile organizational climate perceptions act as distal environmental stressors that are partially transmitted through supervisors' abusive actions and that conscientiousness moderates the proposed effects. First, we hypothesize that supervisor conscientiousness has a buffering effect by decreasing the likelihood of abusive supervision. Second, we hypothesize that highly conscientious employees cope differently from less conscientious employees. Among a sample of employees and their immediate supervisors, results indicated that while hostile climate perceptions provide a breeding ground for destructive behaviors, conscientious individuals are less likely to respond to perceived hostility with hostile acts. As supervisor conscientious levels increased, supervisors were less likely to engage in abusive supervision, which buffered employees from the negative effects of hostile climate perceptions. However, when working for less conscientious supervisors, employees experienced the effects of perceived hostile climates indirectly through abusive supervision. In turn, less conscientious employees tended to cope with the stress of hostile environments transmitted through abusive supervision by engaging in acts of organization-directed deviance. At the same time, all employees, regardless of their levels of conscientiousness, tended to cope with their hostile environments by psychologically withdrawing. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24512026

  18. Third parties' reactions to the abusive supervision of coworkers.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Marie S; Vogel, Ryan M; Folger, Robert

    2015-07-01

    This research examines 3rd parties' reactions to the abusive supervision of a coworker. Reactions were theorized to depend on 3rd parties' beliefs about the targeted coworker and, specifically, whether the target of abuse was considered deserving of mistreatment. We predicted that 3rd parties would experience anger when targets of abuse were considered undeserving of mistreatment; angered 3rd parties would then be motivated to harm the abusive supervisor and support the targeted coworker. Conversely, we predicted that 3rd parties would experience contentment when targets of abuse were considered deserving of mistreatment; contented 3rd parties would then be motivated to exclude the targeted coworker. Additionally, we predicted that 3rd parties' moral identity would moderate the effects of 3rd parties' experienced emotions on their behavioral reactions, such that a strong moral identity would strengthen ethical behavior (i.e., coworker support) and weaken harmful behavior (i.e., supervisor-directed deviance, coworker exclusion). Moderated mediation results supported the predictions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25243999

  19. Pargament's Theory of Religious Coping: Implications for Spiritually Sensitive Social Work Practice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes that Pargament's theory of religious coping can be a theoretical beacon to spiritually sensitive social work practice. It begins with a discussion of the raison d'être of spiritually sensitive social work, which is examined as being able to cast a holistic and positive glow on social work. Then it provides an overview and a critique of Pargament's theory, emphasising that the theory offers a fuller and more impartial picture of religious coping. In addition, it explores the implications of Pargament's theory for spiritually sensitive social work practice with religious clients in terms of engagement, assessment and intervention. This article concludes by discussing how social work practitioners can avoid the pitfalls and limitations of Pargament's theory. PMID:27559234

  20. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  1. Disclosure Suspicion Bias and Abuse Disclosure: Comparisons Between Sexual and Physical Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Elizabeth B.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has found that children disclosing physical abuse appear more reticent and less consistent than children disclosing sexual abuse. Although this has been attributed to differences in reluctance, it may also be due to differences in the process by which abuse is suspected and investigated. Disclosure may play a larger role in arousing suspicions of sexual abuse, while other evidence may play a larger role in arousing suspicions of physical abuse. As a result, children who disclose physical abuse in formal investigations may be doing so for the first time, and they may be more reluctant to provide details of the abuse. We examined abuse disclosure and evidence in comparable samples of court-substantiated physical (n = 33) and sexual (n = 28) abuse. Consistent with predictions, the likelihood that the child had disclosed abuse before an investigation began was lower in physical (27%) than that in sexual (67%) abuse cases, and there was more nondisclosure evidence of abuse in physical abuse cases. These findings have implications for understanding the dynamics and meaning of disclosure in cases involving different types of abuse. PMID:24899582

  2. Practices and Policies of Clinical Exome Sequencing Providers: Analysis and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Seema M.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Chong, Jessica X.; Dent, Karin M.; Conta, Jessie H.; Tabor, Holly K.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Exome and whole genome sequencing (ES/WGS) offer potential advantages over traditional approaches to diagnostic genetic testing. Consequently, use of ES/WGS in clinical settings is rapidly becoming commonplace. Yet there are myriad moral, ethical, and perhaps legal implications attached to the use of ES and health care professionals and institutions will need to consider these implications in the context of the varied practices and policies of ES service providers. We developed “core elements” of content and procedures for informed consent, data sharing, and results management and a quantitative scale to assess the extent to which research protocols met the standards established by these core elements. We then used these tools to evaluate the practices and policies of each of the 6 U.S. CLIA-certified labs offering clinical ES. Approaches toward informed consent, data sharing, and results return vary widely among ES providers as do the overall potential merits and disadvantages of each, and more importantly, the balance between the two. PMID:23610049

  3. Care dependence in old age: preferences, practices and implications in two Indonesian communities

    PubMed Central

    SCHRÖDER-BUTTERFILL, ELISABETH; FITHRY, TENGKU SYAWILA

    2013-01-01

    The provision of physical care is a sensitive matter in all cultures and is circumscribed by moral injunctions and personal preferences. Research on Western cultures has shown care networks to be narrow subsets of people’s wider networks and revealed dependence to be deeply undermining of full personhood. In non-Western societies these issues have received little attention, although it is sometimes assumed that care provision and dependence are much less problematic. This paper uses longitudinal ethnographic data from two ethnic groups in rural Indonesia to compare care preferences and practices in old age and to examine the implications of care dependence. The groups manifest varying degrees of daughter preference in care and differ in the extent to which notions of shame and avoidance prohibit cross-gender intimate care and care by ‘non-blood’ relatives. Demographic and social constraints often necessitate compromises in actual care arrangements (e.g. dependence on in-laws, neighbours or paid carers), not all of which are compatible with quality care and a valued identity. We argue that by probing the norms and practices surrounding care provision in different socio-cultural settings, it becomes possible to arrive at a deeper understanding of kinship, personhood and sociality. These insights are not only of sociological interest but have implications for people’s vulnerability to poor quality care in old age. PMID:24518962

  4. Development of skills-based competencies for forensic nurse examiners providing elder abuse care

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective As a critical step in advancing a comprehensive response to elder abuse built on existing forensic nursing-led hospital-based programmes, we developed a list of skills-based competencies for use in an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner curriculum. Participants and setting Programme leaders of 30 hospital-based forensic nursing-led sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures 149 verbatim recommendations for components of an elder abuse response were identified from a systematic scoping review. In 2 online Delphi consensus survey rounds, these components of care were evaluated by an expert panel for their overall importance to the elder abuse intervention under development and for their appropriateness to the scope of practice of an elder abuse nurse examiner. The components retained after evaluation were translated into skills-based competencies using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning and, using the Nominal Group Technique, were subsequently reviewed and revised by a subset of members of the expert panel in a consensus meeting. Results Of the 148 recommendations evaluated, 119 were rated as important and achieved consensus or high level of agreement. Of these, 101 were determined to be within the scope of practice of an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner and were translated into skills-based competencies. Following review and revision by meeting experts, 47 final competencies were organised by content into 5 metacompetencies: documentation, legal and legislative issues; interview with older adult, caregiver and other relevant contacts; assessment; medical and forensic examination; and case summary, discharge plan and follow-up care. Conclusions We determined the skills-based competencies of importance to training forensic nurse examiners to respond to elder abuse in the context of a hospital-based intervention. These findings may have implications for violence and abuse treatment programmes with a forensic nursing component

  5. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  6. The relation between abuse and violent delinquency: The conversion of shame to blame in juvenile offenders

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Jason; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective While the relationship between abusive parenting and violent delinquency has been well established, the cognitive and emotional processes by which this occurs remains relatively unidentified. The objective of this work is to apply a conceptual model linking abusive parenting to the conversion of shame into blaming others and therefore to violent delinquency. Methods A retrospective study of 112 adolescents (90 male; 22 female; ages 12 to 19 years; M = 15.6; SD = 1.4) who were incarcerated in a juvenile detention facility pending criminal charges, completed measures of exposure to abusive and nonabusive discipline, expressed and converted shame, and violent delinquency. Results Findings tend to confirm the conceptual model. Subjects who converted shame (i.e., low expressed shame, high blaming others) tended to have more exposure to abusive parenting and showed more violent delinquent behavior than their peers who showed expressed shame. Subjects who showed expressed shame (i.e., high expressed shame, low blaming others) showed less violent delinquency than those who showed converted shame. Conclusions Abusive parenting impacts delinquency directly and indirectly through the effects of shame that is converted. Abusive parenting leads to the conversion of shame to blaming others, which in turn leads to violent delinquent behavior. Practice implications For juvenile offenders, the conversion of shame into blaming others appears to contribute to pathological outcomes in relation to trauma. Translation of this work into clinical practice is recommended. PMID:21783253

  7. Social Support: A Mixed Blessing for Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Elizabeth M.; Munson, Michelle R.; Peterson, Lance T.; Floersch, Jerry E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a personal social network framework, this qualitative study sought to understand how women in substance abuse treatment describe their network members' supportive and unsupportive behaviors related to recovery. Eighty-six women were interviewed from residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. Positive and negative aspects of women's social networks were assessed via open-ended questions. Analysis was guided by grounded theory techniques using three coders. The findings extend classic social support concepts such as emotional, tangible, and informational support. Practice implications are presented in light of the potential roles network members may play in substance use and recovery. PMID:20953326

  8. Who abuses their coworkers? An examination of personality and situational variables.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kenneth J; Harvey, Paul; Booth, Samantha L

    2010-01-01

    This study examines predictors of abusive employee behavior toward coworkers. We examined two personality variables, negative affectivity and political skill, and two situational relationship variables-team member exchange and coworker relationship conflict. We tested our hypotheses with data obtained from a sample of 232 working employees. We found that political skill and team member exchange were negatively related to coworker abuse, whereas negative affectivity and relationship conflict were positively related. Additionally, we found statistical support for the negative affectivity-relationship conflict, political skill-team member exchange, and political skill-relationship conflict interactions. Practical implications and directions for future research are provided. PMID:21166327

  9. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to watch or be part of sexual acts. Money Matters: Financial Abuse and Healthcare Fraud After Victor’s ... the past 6 months, Victor has been taking money from their account for his own use. He ...

  10. The Role Healthy Sexuality Plays in Modifying Abusive Behaviours of Adolescent Sex Offenders: Practical Considerations for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Garry P.; Ohm, Phyllis

    1999-01-01

    Highlights an approach that guides adolescents who have committed sexual offenses to learn healthy/prosocial ways to meet their sexual needs. Article is divided into an overview of literature, review of the sex education component of an intervention program for these adolescents, and discussion of practical considerations for professionals.…

  11. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable. PMID:25585140

  12. Quantifying Discipline Practices Using Absolute vs. Relative Frequencies: Clinical and Research Implications for Child Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139; Kolko et al., 2009). Discipline practices (both aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS; Straus et al., 1998). The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects. PMID:24106146

  13. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Go; Ho, Calvin Wai-Loon; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Chingli; Syukriani, Yoni; Lee, Ilhak; Kim, Hannah; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang; Minari, Jusaku; Kato, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the 'ELSI 2.0' initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  14. ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Common infrastructures and platforms are required for international collaborations in large-scale human genomic research and policy development, such as the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health and the ‘ELSI 2.0’ initiative. Such initiatives may require international harmonization of ethical and regulatory requirements. To enable this, however, a greater understanding of issues and practices that relate to the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of genomic research will be needed for the different countries and global regions involved in such research. Here, we review the ELSI practices and regulations for genomic research in six East Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan), highlighting the main similarities and differences between these countries, and more generally, in relation to Western countries. While there are significant differences in ELSI practices among these East Asian countries, there is a consistent emphasis on advancing genomic science and technology. In addition, considerable emphasis is placed on informed consent for participation in research, whether through the contribution of tissue samples or personal information. However, a higher level of engagement with interested stakeholders and the public will be needed in some countries. PMID:24944586

  15. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinal, S H

    1994-12-01

    Increasingly, clinicians are being asked to help determine whether a child or adolescent has been a victim of sexual abuse. Since the late 1970s numerous articles about sexual abuse have appeared in the literature. This review article will acquaint the clinician with the definition and incidence of sexual abuse and the characteristics of the abused and the abuser. Practical guidelines are included for interviewing the victim, performing the physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing, treatment, reporting to appropriate authorities, and court testimony. PMID:7973924

  16. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  17. Typologies of Abuse among Afro-Trinidadian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Linda F.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    This study examines typologies of abusive behaviors among Afro-Trinidadian women. A total of 17 women participated in a 2-hour, face-to-face interview. The findings suggest that women experience multiple types of abuse including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and controlling behaviors. This article discusses the implications of the findings…

  18. Positive Coping Strategies Developed by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…

  19. Meal skipping children in low-income families and community practice implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Meesook; Hong, Soon Myoung

    2008-01-01

    We examined dietary habits, food intakes, health status, and school and community life of meal skipping children, and investigated factors predicting meal skipping of children. A sample was composed of 944 children in low-income families who were provided with public meal service. The sample was obtained from the Survey of Meal Service for Poor Children conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2007. Meal skipping was significantly associated with a lower nutrition and health status, and poor school performance of children, as hypothesized. The school age of child, family structure, region, job of caretaker, concern about diet, and the child's visit to welfare center significantly predicted frequency of meal skipping. We suggested a few implications for community practice to reduce meal skipping of children. PMID:20126373

  20. Kuwaiti high school students' perceptions of nursing as a profession: implications for nursing education and practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Fatimah H; Lew, Irene

    2005-12-01

    The shortage of nurses in Kuwait is attributed to low production of indigenous nurses, resignation and emigration of foreign nurses, and expansion of health care facilities. This study explored Kuwaiti high school students' perceptions of nursing as a profession, their sources of information about nursing, and factors that affected their choice of nursing as a future career. Questionnaires from 289 students attending seven all-female high schools in Kuwait were analyzed. The results revealed that all of the participants were knowledgeable about the functional aspects of the nursing profession, and 35% of them received this information through contact with nurses during hospital visits. However, only 19% indicated they might consider nursing as a future career. The implications of the study for nursing education and practice, and strategies to attract and retain indigenous high school graduates into nursing programs in Kuwait are discussed. PMID:16402735

  1. The evolution of minimally invasive thoracic surgery: implications for the practice of uniportal thoracoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The history of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the thorax is one of evolution, not revolution. The concept of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to greatly reduce the trauma of chest operations was born over two decades ago. Since then, it has undergone a series of step-wise modifications and improvement. The original practice of three access ports in a ‘baseball diamond’ pattern was modified to suit operational needs, and gradually developed into ‘next generation’ approaches, including Needlescopic and 2-port VATS. The logical, incremental progression has culminated in the Uniportal VATS approach which has stirred considerable interest within the field of Thoracic Surgery in recent years. This measured, evolutionary process has significant implications on how the surgeon should approach, master and realize the full potential of the Uniportal technique. This article gives a précis of the evolutionary history of minimally invasive thoracic surgery, and highlights the lessons it provides about its future. PMID:25379198

  2. Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2006-12-01

    Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

  3. Clogging of landfill tyre and aggregate drainage layers by methanogenic leachate and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Beaven, R P; Hudson, A P; Knox, K; Powrie, W; Robinson, J P

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports the results of pilot scale tests carried out to investigate the clogging of shredded and baled tyres in comparison with aggregates when percolated by leachates representative of those generated by methanogenic stage landfills. Realistic lifetime loading rates of methanogenic leachate were applied, and clogging was not generally apparent in any of the drainage media studied. This is in apparent contrast to many other studies that have demonstrated the susceptibility of all forms of drainage media to biological and chemical clogging when percolated with high strength organic and calcium rich leachates. The reasons for this difference are identified, the implications for landfill drainage system design are discussed and some suggestions for operational practice are presented for discussion. PMID:23206518

  4. Ages of legal importance: Implications in relation to birth registration and age assessment practices.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Jayakumar; Roberts, Graham J; Wong, Hai Ming; McDonald, Fraser; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of age is a common procedure routinely conducted in many countries following birth date disputes, particularly following asylum claims and criminal offenses. UNICEF reports that only 65% of children in the world were registered, and the numbers of children who possess an authentic birth certificate were significantly lower than those registered. Legally important ages can be categorized into defined age ranges that vary among different countries. Recently, following an increase in the number of age-specific crimes, many countries have revised their legally important ages. This article is intended to report the most recent data on the ages of legal importance in the major countries of the world and implicate its relevance to birth registration and age assessment practices. PMID:26101440

  5. Emerging Perspectives From the Hearing Voices Movement: Implications for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Corstens, Dirk; Longden, Eleanor; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waddingham, Rachel; Thomas, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The international Hearing Voices Movement (HVM) is a prominent mental health service-user/survivor movement that promotes the needs and perspectives of experts by experience in the phenomenon of hearing voices (auditory verbal hallucinations). The main tenet of the HVM is the notion that hearing voices is a meaningful human experience, and in this article, we discuss the historical growth and influence of the HVM before considering the implications of its values for research and practice in relation to voice-hearing. Among other recommendations, we suggest that the involvement of voice-hearers in research and a greater use of narrative and qualitative approaches are essential. Challenges for implementing user-led research are identified, and avenues for future developments are discussed. PMID:24936088

  6. The synergistic effects of HIV, diabetes, and aging on cognition: implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Fazeli, Pariya L; Dodson, Joan E; Ackerman, Michelle; Talley, Michele; Appel, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Thanks to highly active antiretroviral therapy, many people infected with HIV will likely live into old age. Although this is a welcome prognosis, new issues are emerging that may complicate the ability to successfully age in this clinical population. HIV and aging independently are related to cognitive impairments, so there are concerns that those aging with HIV may be more at risk of such cognitive impairments. Moreover, highly active antiretroviral therapy itself can create metabolic disorders, such as prediabetes and/or frank type 2 diabetes, which have also been linked to poorer cognitive functioning. Thus, concerns increase that, as people age with HIV and develop comorbid metabolic disorders that may lead to type 2 diabetes, they will be at triple risk of developing cognitive impairments that can impair everyday functioning and reduce quality of life. This article explores these issues and provides implications for practice and research. PMID:25099061

  7. Implications of edoxaban in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Edoxaban is a once-daily oral inhibitor of factor Xa, currently indicated to reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients and for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (EMA, FDA and Japan). The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 and the Hokusai-VTE trials demonstrated that edoxaban was at least as effective as warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, as well as for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, but with a lesser risk of bleeding in both cases. In addition, it seems a cost-effective strategy for the management of this population. In this review, the implications of the most recent available evidence about edoxaban in clinical practice will be updated. PMID:27121025

  8. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  9. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  10. Lung Cancer Stigma as a Barrier to Medical Help-Seeking Behavior: Practice Implications

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Harris, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of perceived lung cancer stigma and timing of medical help-seeking behavior in symptomatic individuals. Data sources A convenience sample was recruited from an academic thoracic oncology clinic and community hospital-based outpatient radiation center in a large city in the southeastern United States. This descriptive, cross-sectional study used survey methodology and semi-structured interviews to examine the relationship of perceived lung cancer stigma and delayed medical help-seeking finding a statistically significant positive correlation. Additional examination revealed positive correlations between the stigma and shame, social isolation, and smoking-related stigma subscales and delay. The discrimination-related subscale was not associated with delay. In addition, smoking status was not related to perceived lung cancer stigma. Conclusions Findings support an association between lung cancer stigma and delayed medical help-seeking behavior. Therefore, lung cancer stigma is a potential barrier to timely medical help-seeking behavior in lung cancer symptoms, which can have important patient outcome implications. Implications for practice As primary care nurse practitioners, awareness that lung cancer stigma exists for patients is essential regardless of smoking status and efforts to decrease this barrier to timely healthcare are important. PMID:25736473

  11. Pulmonary Complications of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215

  12. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

  13. A Criminological Perspective on the Prenatal Abuse of Substances during Pregnancy and the Link to Child Abuse in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovens, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…

  14. Disrespect, harassment, and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine harassment and abusive encounters between family physicians and their patients or colleagues in the workplace. DESIGN Qualitative case study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight family physicians from across the province. METHODS A collective case-study approach was developed, with 24 cases of 2 individuals per case. Cases were selected based on sex, location (urban or rural), language (French or English), and number of years since medical school graduation (< 10 years, 10 to 20 years, or > 20 years). Physicians were interviewed in either French or English. Participants were recruited using the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick’s physician directory. Based on the rates of response and participation, some cases were overrepresented, while others were not completed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically using a categorical aggregation approach. A coding scheme for the thematic analysis was developed by the research team before the interviews were transcribed. MAIN FINDINGS Although the original intent of this study was to examine the work environment of family physicians in light of the increasing number of women entering the profession, harassment and abusive encounters in the workplace emerged as a main theme. These encounters ranged from minor to severe. Minor abusive encounters included disrespectful behaviour and verbal threats by patients, their families, and occasionally colleagues. More severe forms of harassment involved physical threats, physical encounters, and stalking. Demanding patients, such as heavy drug users, were often seen as threatening. Location of practice, years in practice, and sex of the physician seemed to affect abusive encounters—young, female, rural physicians appeared to experience such encounters most often. CONCLUSION Abusive encounters in the workplace are concerning. It is essential to

  15. Neuroscience and awareness in the dying human brain: Implications for organ donation practices.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Consciousness has 2 components: wakefulness (arousal) and awareness (perception of the self and the external environment). Functional neuroimaging has identified 2 distinctive functional networks that mediate external awareness of the surrounding environment and internal awareness of the self. Recent studies suggest that awareness is not always associated with wakefulness. There is little clinical research that has specifically focused on determining awareness in the dying phase, after the cessation of systemic circulation. Pana et al (J Crit Care, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.04.001) concluded from a retrospective analysis of published human and animal studies that the cessation of clinical brain function and spontaneous electroencephalography activity occurred within 30 seconds of circulatory arrest. They inferred from this that a 5-minute period of cessation of circulation constitutes a valid indicator that awareness has ceased. This aligns with the 5-minute no-touch time after the loss of arterial pulse, the current circulatory standard of death determination in non-heart-beating organ donation. We argue that the capacity for awareness may not be irreversibly lost after a relatively brief period of cessation of systemic circulation, and outline empirical data in support of the claim that awareness without wakefulness may be present. Obviously, if correct, this will have practical and ethical implications on organ donation practices. PMID:27288623

  16. Breaking bad news revisited: the push for negotiated disclosure and changing practice implications.

    PubMed

    Arber, Anne; Gallagher, Ann

    2003-04-01

    This article revisits the ethical, legal, professional and emotional issues involved with disclosing bad news. The authors examine the push for disclosure that has come from a number of quarters in the UK, including ethical and legal challenges, in particular the Bristol Royal Inquiry Report, professional codes of conduct, health policy and the expectations of the public. The contribution of nurses to breaking bad news is not widely discussed in the literature. With the development of new nursing roles and evidence-based practice it is timely to consider the role of nurses in this process. The article highlights some limitations with current guidelines for breaking bad news, in particular, that these guidelines tend to be constructed from a professional standpoint and lack patient-centred evidence. The issue of emotional labour and how it relates to giving bad news is discussed with respect to professional staff and patients. The article concludes by raising some practice implications, including: the importance of context and continuity; the significance of information and support; the desirable qualities of the professional; and issues to consider in determining patient preferences. PMID:12734453

  17. Mini Review of Integrated Care and Implications for Advanced Practice Nurse Role

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Diana; Startsman, Laura F.; Perraud, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Literature related to primary care and behavioral health integration initiatives is becoming abundant. The United States’ 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act included provisions encouraging increased collaboration of care for individuals with behavioral and physical health service needs in the public sector. There is relatively little known of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses’ (APRNs) roles with integrating primary and behavioral healthcare. The goal of this review article is to: (a) define integration of physical and behavioral healthcare and potential models; (b) answer the question as to what are effective evidence based models/strategies for integrating behavioral health and primary care; (c) explore the future role and innovations of APRNs in the integration of physical and behavioral healthcare. Results: The evidence- based literature is limited to three systematic reviews and six randomized controlled trials. It was difficult to generalize the data and the effective integration strategies varied from such interventions as care management to use of sertraline to depression management and to access. There were, though, implications for the integrated care advanced practice nurse to have roles inclusive of competencies, leadership, engagement, collaboration and advocacy. PMID:27347258

  18. The Helpseeking Experiences of Men Who Sustain Intimate Partner Violence: An Overlooked Population and Implications for Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, research has shown that men can and do sustain intimate partner violence (IPV) from their female partners. This is the first large-scale, nationally-based, quantitative study to systematically detail the helpseeking experiences of men who have sustained IPV from their female partners. The sample is composed of 302 men who were recruited from resources specializing in men’s issues. Results indicate that men who seek help for IPV victimization have the most positive experiences in seeking help from family/friends, and mental health and medical providers. They have the least positive experiences with members of the DV service system. Cumulative positive helpseeking experiences were associated with lower levels of abusing alcohol; cumulative negative experiences were associated with higher rates of exceeding a clinical cut-off for post-traumatic stress disorder. Results are discussed in terms of implications for the social service sector and for future research. PMID:21935262

  19. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  20. Identification, assessment and intervention--Implications of an audit on dyslexia policy and practice in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Davidson Petch, Louise

    2005-08-01

    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of Edinburgh. The information was gathered from a questionnaire sent to all education authorities (100% response rate was achieved). Additional information was also obtained from supplementary interviews and additional materials provided by education authorities. The results indicated that nine education authorities in Scotland (out of 32) have explicit policies on dyslexia and eight authorities have policies on SpLD. It was noted however that most authorities catered for dyslexia and SpLD within a more generic policy framework covering aspects of Special Educational Needs or within documentation on 'effective learning'. In relation to identification thirty-six specific tests, or procedures, were mentioned. Classroom observation, as a procedure was rated high by most authorities. Eleven authorities operated a formal staged process combining identification and intervention. Generally, authorities supported a broader understanding of the role of identification and assessment and the use of standardized tests was only part of a wider assessment process. It was however noted that good practice in identification and intervention was not necessarily dependent on the existence of a dedicated policy on SpLD/dyslexia. Over fifty different intervention strategies/programmes were noted in the responses. Twenty-four authorities indicated that they had developed examples of good practice. The results have implications for teachers and parents as well as those involved in staff development. Pointers are provided for effective practice and the results reflect some of the issues on the current debate on dyslexia particularly relating to early

  1. The practices of do-it-yourself brain stimulation: implications for ethical considerations and regulatory proposals.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Scientists and neuroethicists have recently drawn attention to the ethical and regulatory issues surrounding the do-it-yourself (DIY) brain stimulation community, which comprises individuals stimulating their own brains with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for self-improvement. However, to date, existing regulatory proposals and ethical discussions have been put forth without engaging those involved in the DIY tDCS community or attempting to understand the nature of their practices. I argue that to better contend with the growing ethical and safety concerns surrounding DIY tDCS, we need to understand the practices of the community. This study presents the results of a preliminary inquiry into the DIY tDCS community, with a focus on knowledge that is formed, shared and appropriated within it. I show that when making or acquiring a device, DIYers (as some members call themselves) produce a body of knowledge that is completely separate from that of the scientific community, and share it via online forums, blogs, videos and personal communications. However, when applying tDCS, DIYers draw heavily on existing scientific knowledge, posting links to academic journal articles and scientific resources and adopting the standardised electrode placement system used by scientists. Some DIYers co-opt scientific knowledge and modify it by creating their own manuals and guides based on published papers. Finally, I explore how DIYers cope with the methodological limitations inherent in self-experimentation. I conclude by discussing how a deeper understanding of the practices of DIY tDCS has important regulatory and ethical implications. PMID:26324456

  2. Supporting children with disabilities at school: implications for the advocate role in professional practice and education

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Stella L.; Lingard, Lorelei; Hibbert, Kathryn; Regan, Sandra; Phelan, Shanon; Stooke, Rosamund; Meston, Christine; Schryer, Catherine; Manamperi, Madhushani; Friesen, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: School settings are a common practice context for rehabilitation professionals; health advocacy is a common and challenging practice role for professionals in this context. This study explored how pediatric practitioners advocate for children with disabilities at school. Specifically, we examined everyday advocacy in the context of school-based support for children with disabilities. Method: Our theoretical framework and methodological approach were informed by institutional ethnography, which maps and makes visible hidden social coordinators of work processes with a view to improving processes and outcomes. We included families, educators, and health/rehabilitation practitioners from Ontario. Of the 37 consented informants, 27 were interviewed and 15 observed. Documents and texts were collected from the micro-level (e.g. clinician reports) and the macro-level (e.g. policies). Results: Pediatric practitioners' advocacy work included two main work processes: spotlighting invisible disabilities and orienteering the special education terrain. Practitioners advocated indirectly, by proxy, with common proxies being documents and parents. Unintended consequences of advocacy by proxy included conflict and inefficiency, which were often unknown to the practitioner. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide practice-based knowledge about advocacy for children with disabilities, which may be used to inform further development of competency frameworks and continuing education for pediatric practitioners. The findings also show how everyday practices are influenced by policies and social discourses and how rehabilitation professionals may enact change.Implications for RehabilitationRehabilitation professionals frequently perform advocacy work. They may find it beneficial to perform advocacy work that is informed by overarching professional and ethical guidelines, and a nuanced understanding of local processes and structures.Competency frameworks and

  3. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  4. The Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implications for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the control-value theory of achievement emotions and its implications for educational research and practice. The theory provides an integrative framework for analyzing the antecedents and effects of emotions experienced in achievement and academic settings. It is based on the premise that appraisals of control and values are…

  5. When Duty Calls: The Implications of Social Justice Work for Policy, Education, and Practice in the Mental Health Professions. Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    In reaction to the pioneering model of social justice education in counseling psychology described by Goodman, Liang, Helms, Latta, Sparks, and Weintraub, several implications of social justice work for policy, education, and practice in the mental health professions are suggested. Specifically, it is recommended that mental health scientists and…

  6. Access to Print Literacy for Children and Young People with Visual Impairment: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Mike; Farrell, Ann Marie; Ware, Jean; McCall, Steve; Pavey, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the concept of access in the education of visually impaired children and young people, with particular reference to print literacy. The article describes implications for teaching and policy at various levels of the educational process: classroom practice; broader teaching and curriculum requirements (including service…

  7. Some Implications for Moral Education of the Confucian Principle of Harmony: Learning from Sustainability Education Practice in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Ling; Newton, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "harmony" was taught by the Chinese sages as the practice of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience, and is now given great importance by the Chinese government in its attempts to promote the stability and sustainability of the country. The concept could have significant implications for moral education. This…

  8. How the Government Defines "Rural" Has Implications for Education Policies and Practices. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Michael L.; Biscoe, Belinda; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    Clearly defining what rural means has tangible implications for public policies and practices in education, from establishing resource needs to achieving the goals of No Child Left Behind in rural areas. The word "rural" has many meanings. It has been defined in reference to population density, geographic features, and level of economic and…

  9. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  10. Kindergartners' Mental Models of the Day and Night Cycle: Implications for Instructional Practices in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saçkes, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine kindergarten children's mental models of the day and night cycle and provide implications for pedagogical practices targeting space science concepts in early childhood classrooms. A total of 46 kindergartners participated in the study, their age ranging from 60 to 75 months, including 22 boys and 24 girls.…

  11. Dialogic reverberations: police, domestic abuse, and the discontinuance of cases.

    PubMed

    Lea, Susan J; Lynn, Nick

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging Decision." Access to such sensitive material is usually denied to researchers; therefore, this study offers unusual insights into the treatment of victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence by the police. Discourse analysis revealed three dominant speech genres: impartiality, credibility, and the "real" victim. These genres separately and in interaction served to construct domestic abuse cases in ways that did not support the victim's account. The "dialogic reverberations" of these findings are discussed and the implications of the work for research and practice are considered. PMID:22618739

  12. Interdisciplinary research training in substance abuse and addictions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that the management of complex problems of and related to substance abuse and addictions require comprehensive approaches based on solid research. Nonetheless, timely and widespread dissemination of research findings remains uncommon, hindering nursing practice, impeding the health of individuals and families, and imposing untoward costs for society. Shifts in science paradigms underscore the need for efficient and effective interdisciplinary research teams to carry out innovative research within a translational science framework. This means that early career investigators will need the knowledge and skills to conduct research as part of an interdisciplinary team and to contribute systematically to translational research in the area of substance abuse and addictions. This brief report describes a nursing research training program sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that evolved into an interdisciplinary program administrated within a school of nursing. Factors conducive to program development are described, along with the structure and elements of the program and examples of the scholars' projects and accomplishments. The common benefits of interdisciplinary research training for both predoctoral and postdoctoral research scholars include consistent exposure to new and alternative scientific models and methodological approaches as well as endurance of cross-discipline network connections. Benefits and challenges of this program carry implications for the design of future nursing research training programs in the field of substance abuse and addictions. PMID:24622528

  13. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  14. Child abuse in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeahialam, T C

    1984-01-01

    Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976

  15. Co-occurring substance abuse and mental health problems among homeless persons: Suggestions for research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Communities throughout the U.S. are struggling to find solutions for serious and persistent homelessness. Alcohol and drug problems can be causes and consequences of homelessness, as well as co-occurring problems that complicate efforts to succeed in finding stable housing. Two prominent service models exist, one known as “Housing First” takes a harm reduction approach and the other known as the “linear” model typically supports a goal of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Despite their popularity, the research supporting these models suffers from methodological problems and inconsistent findings. One purpose of this paper is to describe systematic reviews of the homelessness services literature, which illustrate weaknesses in research designs and inconsistent conclusions about the effectiveness of current models. Problems among some of the seminal studies on homelessness include poorly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, inadequate measures of alcohol and drug use, unspecified or poorly implemented comparison conditions, and lack of procedures documenting adherence to service models. Several recent papers have suggested broader based approaches for homeless services that integrate alternatives and respond better to consumer needs. Practical considerations for implementing a broader system of services are described and peer-managed recovery homes are presented as examples of services that address some of the gaps in current approaches. Three issues are identified that need more attention from researchers: (1) improving upon the methodological limitations in current studies, (2) assessing the impact of broader based, integrated services on outcome, and (3) assessing approaches to the service needs of homeless persons involved in the criminal justice system. PMID:27092027

  16. Educational Implications of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    1978-01-01

    Possible drug-behavior relationships were viewed from a developmental perspective (e.g., sex, age, and maturation rate), insofar as drug effects will be directly related to the level of physiological and psychological maturation achieved by the drug user. Consequently, proposals were made dealing with drug education in the schools. (Author)

  17. Women's perceptions of power and control in sexual abuse counseling.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Corinne V

    2007-01-01

    Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with agenda; (2) willingness to offer choices; (3) response to criticism; (4) response to client as an equal or with honor; (5) sexual interest; (6) approach to client's suggestions; (7) expectations regarding forgiveness; and (8) consultation with alter identities. Implications for counseling practice, research, and counselor education are discussed. PMID:17255076

  18. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  19. Attitudes of Jordanian society toward wife abuse.

    PubMed

    Btoush, Rula; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

    2008-11-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study among a convenience sample of 260 Jordanian men and women, using self-administered open and closed questions to examine the participants' approach toward wife abuse. In general, there was high awareness of wife abuse and the different types of abuse (mainly physical and psychological), a general tendency to oppose wife abuse, a tendency to blame the victim for abuse, and a lesser tendency to blame the abuse on the husband, marital problems, as well as familial and societal conditions. There was also a strong tendency to consider wife abuse a personal and familial issue rather than a social and legal problem. Therefore, the preferred method for coping with wife abuse and violence was the expectation that the abused wife should change her behavior and assume responsibility to change her husband followed by resorting to informal agents (family or community or religious figures). Less preferred coping methods included confronting the husband and expressing desire to break up or separate and resorting to formal agents (social welfare programs, counseling, legal system), as a last resort in cases of repeated abuse and severe physical violence. The implications of these findings for future research, interventions, and policy formulation are discussed. PMID:18326484

  20. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Lillie B.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Cadenhead, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presents a case study that contributes to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for practice and related policies regarding bullying. Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004) with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Self Report Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children). Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention. Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders. Conclusion: This case study makes important contributions by

  1. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y; Hantoro, Inneke; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs; Steenbekkers, Bea

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of changes in the content of phytochemicals. The survey on preparation practices was performed with food service establishments (n = 123) and households (n = 477) in Semarang, Indonesia, and assessed the food handlers' perception of the health benefits of these vegetables. Boiling and stir-frying are the most frequently applied techniques to prepare Brassicas. The respondents perceive that steaming, boiling, and stir-frying result in vegetables with a high health benefit. White cabbage and choysum are the most frequently prepared Brassicas. However, broccoli is perceived as the healthiest. The consequences of the various applied preparation techniques on the content of alleged health promoting phytochemicals (glucosinolates) in dishes containing Brassica vegetables are discussed. PMID:26171631

  2. Organizational Readiness for Change in Correctional and Community Substance Abuse Programs

    PubMed Central

    LEHMAN, WAYNE E. K.; GREENER, JACK M.; FLYNN, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant needs exist for increased and better substance abuse treatment services in our nation’s prisons. The TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) survey has been widely used in community-based treatment programs and evidence is accumulating for relationships between readiness for change and implementation of new clinical practices. Results of organizational surveys of correctional counselors from 12 programs in two states are compared with samples of community-based counselors. Correctional counselors perceived strong needs for new evidence-based practices but, compared to community counselors, reported fewer resources and less favorable organizational climates. These results have important implications for successfully implementing new practices. PMID:22505796

  3. Financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: mixed analysis of the role of culture on perception and help-seeking intention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Eaton, Charissa K

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate how elderly Korean immigrants perceive and respond to a hypothetical incident of financial abuse on the basis of their cultural background. By using a quota sampling strategy, 124 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited. A mixed-method approach was employed to explore the role of culture on elderly immigrants' view of financial abuse and the construct of independent and interdependent self-construal was adopted to theoretically guide the study. Mixed-method analysis confirmed considerable influence of culture, particularly in responding to the abusive situation. Although the vast majority of the elders (92%) perceived financial abuse as elder mistreatment, only two-thirds (64%) intended to seek help. Five major themes for not seeking help were produced. These are: (a) issues related to family problems, (b) tolerance of the abuse, (c) shame, (d) victim blame, and (e) mistrust toward third party intervention. A series of binary logistic regressions revealed (a) a lower likelihood of seeking formal types of help with those who had higher level of adherence to traditional values and (b) the profile of vulnerable elderly Koreans who are at higher risk of being financially abused: male and less educated. This article also discusses implications for social work practice and elder mistreatment policy, particularly focusing on how to work with elderly Korean immigrants who are vulnerable to this problem and who tend to use collectivistic cultural values in responding to financial abuse. PMID:19585323

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and Physical Health Consequences: Policy and Practice Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plichta, Stacey B.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a significant risk to the physical health of women. IPV is associated with increased mortality, injury and disability, worse general health, chronic pain, substance abuse, reproductive disorders, and poorer pregnancy outcomes. IPV is also associated with an overuse of health…

  5. Associations among childhood abuse and psychopathy facets in male sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Nicole; Kimonis, Eva R; Wasserman, Adam L; Kline, Suzonne M

    2012-01-01

    In the search for causes of psychopathy, the literature historically focuses on biological and temperamental differences. In comparison, this literature overshadows that of psychosocial risk factors for the development of psychopathy, namely childhood maltreatment. The current study examines the association between specific types of maltreatment (i.e., physical, emotional, sexual abuse, neglect) and PCL-R total and facet scores among a sample of 223 adult men convicted of sexual offenses and evaluated for civil commitment. Results indicate that childhood sexual abuse is associated with higher PCL-R total scores and facets tapping a grandiose and manipulative interpersonal style, impulsive-irresponsible lifestyle, and antisocial behavior. Also, childhood physical abuse and neglect are associated with antisocial behavior. Emotional detachment traits of psychopathy (i.e., lack of empathy, shallow affect) are associated with childhood neglect for child molesters, although rapists scored higher on these traits irrespective of neglect history. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22448862

  6. Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the teacher reporting attitude scale for child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. The scale isolated three dimensions: commitment to the reporting role, confidence in the system's response to reports, and concerns about reporting. These three factors accounted for 37.5% of the variance in the 14-item measure. Alpha coefficients for the subscales were 0.769 (commitment), 0.617 (confidence), and 0.661 (concerns). The findings provide insights into the complexity of studying teachers' attitudes toward reporting of child sexual abuse and have implications for future research. PMID:22994689

  7. Job Frustration in Substance Abuse Counselors Working with Offenders in Prisons Versus Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Elizabeth B.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors who work with offenders are facing increasing caseloads which puts them at higher risk for job frustration. The purpose of this study was to explore differences between substance abuse counselors employed in prison versus community settings in terms of level of organizational support and job frustration. This study also investigated whether organizational support was associated with job frustration after controlling for counselor characteristics and workplace setting. This was accomplished utilizing data that was collected from 267 counselors as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) research cooperative. Results indicated that counselors employed in community settings, as compared to those employed in prisons, are more likely to report higher levels of perceived organizational support. In addition, ordinal logistic regression results reveal that counselors who are non-white and have greater levels of organizational support have less job frustration, after controlling for counselor characteristics and workplace setting. The research to practice implications are discussed. PMID:23525175

  8. State of the science: group therapy interventions for sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    Miffitt, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    Research investigating the use of group therapy treatment for sexually abused children is limited. This paper aims to review the current state of the science of group therapy and its outcomes with children and adolescents under age 18 who have experienced sexual abuse. A literature review was conducted which located eight articles meeting the inclusion criteria of this paper. These outcome studies utilized a wide array of theoretical orientations and intervention delivery, as well as an assortment of outcomes measurement. While the studies lacked consistency, there is some support that group therapy formats to treat sexually abused children and adolescents may be effective across a range of symptoms. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed. PMID:24856269

  9. Cross-sectional study of 168 patients with hepatorenal tyrosinaemia and implications for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatorenal tyrosinaemia (Tyr 1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. Without treatment, patients are at high risk of developing acute liver failure, renal dysfunction and in the long run hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to collect cross-sectional data. Methods Via questionnaires we collected retrospective data of 168 patients with Tyr 1 from 21 centres (Europe, Turkey and Israel) about diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and outcome. In a subsequent consensus workshop, we discussed data and clinical implications. Results Early treatment by NTBC accompanied by diet is essential to prevent serious complications such as liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and renal disease. As patients may remain initially asymptomatic or develop uncharacteristic clinical symptoms in the first months of life newborn mass screening using succinylacetone (SA) as a screening parameter in dried blood is mandatory for early diagnosis. NTBC-treatment has to be combined with natural protein restriction supplemented with essential amino acids. NTBC dosage should be reduced to the minimal dose allowing metabolic control, once daily dosing may be an option in older children and adults in order to increase compliance. Metabolic control is judged by SA (below detection limit) in dried blood or urine, plasma tyrosine (<400 μM) and NTBC-levels in the therapeutic range (20–40 μM). Side effects of NTBC are mild and often transient. Indications for liver transplantation are hepatocellular carcinoma or failure to respond to NTBC. Follow-up procedures should include liver and kidney function tests, tumor markers and imaging, ophthalmological examination, blood count, psychomotor and intelligence testing as well as therapeutic monitoring (SA, tyrosine, NTBC in blood). Conclusion Based on the data from 21 centres treating 168 patients we were able to characterize current practice and clinical experience in Tyr 1. This information could form the basis for

  10. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  11. Newly qualified doctors' perceptions of informal learning from nurses: implications for interprofessional education and practice.

    PubMed

    Burford, Bryan; Morrow, Gill; Morrison, Jill; Baldauf, Beate; Spencer, John; Johnson, Neil; Rothwell, Charlotte; Peile, Ed; Davies, Carol; Allen, Maggie; Illing, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Newly qualified doctors spend much of their time with nurses, but little research has considered informal learning during that formative contact. This article reports findings from a multiple case study that explored what newly qualified doctors felt they learned from nurses in the workplace. Analysis of interviews conducted with UK doctors in their first year of practice identified four overarching themes: attitudes towards working with nurses, learning about roles, professional hierarchies and learning skills. Informal learning was found to contribute to the newly qualified doctors' knowledge of their own and others' roles. A dynamic hierarchy was identified: one in which a "pragmatic hierarchy" recognising nurses' expertise was superseded by a "normative structural hierarchy" that reinforced the notion of medical dominance. Alongside the implicit learning of roles, nurses contributed to the explicit learning of skills and captured doctors' errors, with implications for patient safety. The findings are discussed in relation to professional socialisation. Issues of power between the professions are also considered. It is concluded that increasing both medical and nursing professions' awareness of informal workplace learning may improve the efficiency of education in restricted working hours. A culture in which informal learning is embedded may also have benefits for patient safety. PMID:23659622

  12. Practical procedures for selected biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis--implications for marine pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Biomarkers are required to assess the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms in order to monitor ecosystem status, but their use is often limited by their strong variability due to environmental and/or intrinsic biological factors. Accordingly, the main aim of this work was to set up practical procedures for a battery of widely used biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), a phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione S-transferase [GST]) and a neurotransmitter catabolism enzyme (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), were considered. Several relevant aspects were studied in order to obtain a more realistic interpretation of biomarker responses, including the calculation of the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with a fixed error margin, the selection of the specific organ or tissue where the enzymatic activity is higher for each biomarker, and the influence of tidal height and temperature on the basal enzymatic activity. GST and CAT activities needed a minimum sample size of 12, whereas for GPx and AChE activities a minimum sample size of 14 was required. The gills were the organ with higher GST, GPx and AChE enzymatic activities, whereas the digestive gland showed the highest CAT activity. Also, the low inter-tidal was the recommended tide level whilst no significant effect of temperature was observed on GST, GPx and CAT, and no clear pattern could be identified for AChE. The implications for environmental monitoring are discussed. PMID:23712116

  13. Dynamic changes in reinforcer effectiveness: Satiation and habituation have different implications for theory and practice

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Frances K.

    2004-01-01

    Reinforcers lose their effectiveness when they are presented repeatedly. Early researchers labeled this loss of effectiveness as satiation without conducting an experimental analysis. When such an analysis is conducted, habituation provides a more precise and empirically accurate label for the changes in reinforcer effectiveness. This paper reviews some of the data that suggest that habituation occurs to repeatedly presented reinforcers. It also argues that habituation has surprisingly different implications than satiation for theory and practice in behavior analysis. For example, postulating that habituation occurs to repeatedly presented reinforcers suggests ways for maintaining the strength of an existing reinforcer and for weakening the strength of a problematic reinforcer that differ from those implied by an account in terms of satiation. An habituation account may also lead to different ways of conceptualizing the regulation of behavior. For example, habituation may be a single-process contributor to the termination of behaviors that are usually attributed to satiation (e.g., ingestive behaviors such as eating and drinking), fatigue (e.g., energetic behaviors such as running), the waning of attention (e.g., cognitive behaviors such as studying), and pharmacodynamic factors (e.g., drug taking). PMID:22478427

  14. Theoretical aspects and practical implications of the heuristic drift SOL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    The heuristic drift (HD) model for the tokamak power scrape-off layer width provides remarkable agreement in both absolute magnitude and scalings with the measured width of the exponential component of the heat flux at divertors targets, in low gas-puff H-Mode tokamaks. This motivates further exploration of its theoretical aspects and practical implications. The HD model requires a small non-ambipolar electron particle diffusivity ∼10-2 m2/s. It also implies large parallel heat flux in ITER and suggests that more radical approaches will be needed to handle the ∼20 GW/m2 parallel heat flux expected in Demo. Remarkably, the HD model is also in good agreement with recent near-SOL heat flux profiles measured in a number of limiter L-Mode experiments, implying ubiquity of the underlying mechanism. Finally, the HD model suggests that the H-Mode and more generally Greenwald density limit may be caused by MHD instability in the SOL, rather than originating in the core plasma or pedestal. If the SOL width in stellarators is set by magnetic topology rather than by drifts, this would be consistent with the absence of the Greenwald density limit in stellarators.

  15. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases and Their Unique Cognitive Profiles: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Dodson, Joan E.; Watkins, Jason; Kennedy, Bridgett H.; Keltner, Norman L.

    2013-01-01

    To successfully negotiate and interact with one’s environment, optimal cognitive functioning is needed. Unfortunately, many neurological and psychiatric diseases impede certain cognitive abilities such as executive functioning or speed of processing; this can produce a poor fit between the patient and the cognitive demands of his or her environment. Such non-dementia diseases include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety disorders, just to name a few. Each of these diseases negatively affects particular areas of the brain, resulting in distinct cognitive profiles (e.g., deficits in executive functioning but normal speed of processing as seen in schizophrenia). In fact, it is from these cognitive deficits in which such behavioral and emotional symptoms may manifest (e.g., delusions, paranoia). This article highlights the distinct cognitive profiles of such common neurological and psychiatric diseases. An understanding of such disease-specific cognitive profiles can assist nurses in providing care to patients by knowing what cognitive deficits are associated with each disease and how these cognitive deficits impact everyday functioning and social interactions. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited within the framework of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. PMID:23422693

  16. Weaning at Anglo-Saxon Raunds: Implications for changing breastfeeding practice in Britain over two millennia.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Hannah; Clarke, Leon; Craig-Atkins, Elizabeth; Howcroft, Rachel; Buckberry, Jo

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated stable-isotope ratio evidence of weaning for the late Anglo-Saxon population of Raunds Furnells, Northamptonshire, UK. δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in rib collagen were obtained for individuals of different ages to assess the weaning age of infants within the population. A peak in δ(15) N values at about 2-year-old, followed by a decline in δ(15) N values until age three, indicates a change in diet at that age. This change in nitrogen isotope ratios corresponds with the mortality profile from the site, as well as with archaeological and documentary evidence on attitudes towards juveniles in the Anglo-Saxon period. The pattern of δ(13) C values was less clear. Comparison of the predicted age of weaning to published data from sites dating from the Iron Age to the 19th century in Britain reveals a pattern of changing weaning practices over time, with increasingly earlier commencement and shorter periods of complementary feeding in more recent periods. Such a change has implications for the interpretation of socioeconomic changes during this period of British history, since earlier weaning is associated with decreased birth spacing, and could thus have contributed to population growth. PMID:23868173

  17. Redefinition of gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for laboratory practice in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Lovrenčić, Marijana Vučić; Honović, Lorena; Kralik, Saša; Matica, Jasminka; Prašek, Manja; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ivanišević, Marina; Đelmiš, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes has become a very challenging task in prenatal care worldwide. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has recently issued recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. These recommendations, the first to provide harmonised, evidence-based criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy, are currently being discussed and accepted worldwide by the relevant authorities. As the acceptance of the proposed criteria has major implications for both clinical and laboratory settings, a concerted action towards necessary changes in practice has to be carefully planned and adjusted to national health-care specificities. IADPSG criteria have been strongly advocated by the Croatian Perinatology Society, resulting in a new strategy for the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy. To address the respective laboratory requirements, in April 2012, the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists appointed a Working Group to provide a standardised procedure for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, applicable to all laboratories involved in prenatal care, in both primary and specialised health-care facilities. In this paper we discuss key laboratory-related issues regarding succesful implementation of the IADPSG criteria in Croatia. PMID:23457760

  18. A reappraisal of classical archetype theory and its implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Merchant, John

    2009-06-01

    This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question one very thing on which the classical theory is built--innatism. Knox's argument for image schemas raises the question as to the extent to which archetypes can be conceived in any preformationist sense. The question is then posed--to what extent can Jung's classical theory of archetypes be read in light of these current models? The case examples Jung uses to evidence the existence of archetypes, his explications of synchronicity and his own Philemon experience are then reappraised. The conclusion is drawn that it is difficult to evidence the existence of autonomous archetypes unrelated to personal affective experience. Not only would this be expected by emergent/developmental models of archetype but it can explain many of Jung's disjunctive statements about archetype constellation; the difficulties in separating personal and collective psychic content and Jung's apparent Lamarckianism. The implications of these models for theory, clinical practice and analyst training are then offered for discussion. PMID:19531124

  19. Health and social impacts of a flood disaster: responding to needs and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth; Morbey, Hazel; Araoz, Gonzalo

    2010-10-01

    Carlisle in northwest England suffered its worse floods for more than 180 years in 2005. A study, reported here, was undertaken to assess the health and social impacts of these floods via in-depth, taped individual and focus-group interviews with people whose homes had been flooded and with agency workers who helped them. Respondents spoke of physical health ailments, psychological stress, water health-and-safety issues related to the floods, and disputes with insurance and construction companies, which they felt had caused and exacerbated psychological health problems. Support workers also suffered from psychological stress. Furthermore, it was found that people had low expectations of a flood and were not prepared. The findings are presented in five sections covering flood risk awareness, water contamination issues, physical health, mental health, and impact on frontline support workers. The discussion focuses on the implications of the findings for policy and practice vis-à-vis psychological health provision, contamination issues, training and support for frontline support workers, matters relating to restoration, and preparation for flooding. PMID:20618385

  20. Redefinition of gestational diabetes mellitus: implications for laboratory practice in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lovrencić, Marijana Vucić; Honović, Lorena; Kralik, Sasa; Matica, Jasminka; Prasek, Manja; Pape-Medvidović, Edita; Ivanisević, Marina; Delmis, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes has become a very challenging task in prenatal care worldwide. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has recently issued recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. These recommendations, the first to provide harmonised, evidence-based criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy, are currently being discussed and accepted worldwide by the relevant authorities. As the acceptance of the proposed criteria has major implications for both clinical and laboratory settings, a concerted action towards necessary changes in practice has to be carefully planned and adjusted to national health-care specificities. IADPSG criteria have been strongly advocated by the Croatian Perinatology Society, resulting in a new strategy for the detection and diagnosis of hyperglycaemic disorders in pregnancy. To address the respective laboratory requirements, in April 2012, the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists appointed a Working Group to provide a standardised procedure for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, applicable to all laboratories involved in prenatal care, in both primary and specialised health-care facilities. In this paper we discuss key laboratory-related issues regarding succesful implementation of the IADPSG criteria in Croatia. PMID:23457760

  1. Identifying specific language impairment in deaf children acquiring British Sign Language: implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Marshall, Chloe R; Atkinson, Joanna R; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13 signing deaf children aged 5-14 years on normed tests of British Sign Language (BSL) sentence comprehension, repetition of nonsense signs, expressive grammar and narrative skills, alongside tests of non-verbal intelligence and fine motor control. Results show these children to have a significant language delay compared to their peers matched for age and language experience. This impaired development cannot be explained by poor exposure to BSL, or by lower general cognitive, social, or motor abilities. As is the case for SLI in spoken languages, we find heterogeneity within the group in terms of which aspects of language are affected and the severity of the impairment. We discuss the implications of the existence of language impairments in a sign language for theories of SLI and clinical practice. PMID:20306624

  2. Novel Heroin Injection Practices: Implications for Transmission of HIV and other Bloodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Clatts, Michael C.; Giang, Le M.; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Yi, Huso

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an ethno-epidemiologic study of injection-mediated behavioral risks in an out-of-treatment population of young heroin users in Hanoi, Vietnam (N=1270). Included is a preliminary epidemiologic profile of the novel use of an injection sac, a soft tissue portal that injectors in Hanoi employ as a means of gaining rapid and reliable access to a vein and also as a means of ameliorating high risk for vein damage associated with co-morbid use of Promethazine. Data from a large cross-sectional survey were used to describe behavioral and disease correlates associated with the use of an injection sac. Additionally, data from an ethnographic substudy were used to elaborate injectors' rationales for creating and employing an injection sac, and to illustrate influences of the local physical and social environment on injection practices and transmission dynamics. Implications for risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens are considered, including the urgent need for both structural and behavioral interventions with which to reduce injection-mediated harm. PMID:17543715

  3. Physician participation in executions, the morality of capital punishment, and the practical implications of their relationship.

    PubMed

    Litton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that some executed prisoners suffered excruciating pain has reinvigorated the ethical debate about physician participation in executions. In widely publicized litigation, death row inmates argue that participation of anesthesiologists in their execution is constitutionally required to minimize the risk of unnecessary suffering. For many years, commentators supported the ethical ban on physician participation reflected in codes of professional medical organizations. However, a recent wave of scholarship concurs with inmate advocates, urging the law to require or permit physician participation. Both the anti- and pro-physician-participation literature share a common premise: the ethics of physician participation should be analyzed independently from the moral status of capital punishment. This considerable literature implausibly divorces the ethics of physician participation from the moral status of the death penalty. Any ethical position on physician involvement requires some judgment about the moral status of capital punishment. The article examines anti- and pro-participation arguments to show that each one either is unpersuasive without discussion of the death penalty's moral status or implicitly assumes a view on the social worth of the death penalty. The article then articulates the practical implications of its arguments for both lawmakers and professional medical organizations. PMID:23581676

  4. A proposed intergenerational model of substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, M J

    1995-05-01

    Although the link between substance abuse and child maltreatment has been relatively well established, there is a general recognition that this is not a simple cause-effect relationship. The current study explored the relationships among substance abuse, family functioning, and abuse/neglect in a sample of incarcerated substance abusers. Data were gathered on the earlier life experiences of 81 men and women serving sentences in two maximum security prisons, including assessments of their parents' substance abuse problems; levels of family competence within their families-of-origin; their exposure, as children and adults, to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical/emotional neglect; and their own levels of substance abuse. Results showed generally high percentages of parental substance abuse and abuse/neglect, and relatively low levels of family competence. Correlational analyses revealed significant direct and indirect relationships among parental substance abuse, family dynamics, and exposure to both child and adult maltreatment. These four variables were also significantly associated with respondents' own substance abuse in later life, suggesting the potential for continuation of these patterns into successive generations. An intergenerational model of these family and personal functioning variables is presented and implications for service delivery with correctional clients is discussed. PMID:7664133

  5. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  6. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  7. Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: implications for health and social services.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Anda, Robert F; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie J; Williamson, David F

    2002-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages a woman's physical and mental well-being, and indicates that her children are likely to experience abuse, neglect and other traumatic experiences. Adult HMO members completed a questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. We used their responses to retrospectively assess the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence and experiencing any of the 9 ACEs and multiple ACEs (ACE score). Compared to persons who grew up with no domestic violence, the adjusted odds ratio for any individual ACE was approximately two to six times higher if IPV occurred (p < 0.05). There was a powerful graded increase in the prevalence of every category of ACE as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. In addition, the total number of ACEs was increased dramatically for persons who had witnessed IPV during childhood. There was a positive graded risk for self-reported alcoholism, illicit drug use, i.v. drug use and depressed affect as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. Identification of victims of IPV must include screening of their children for abuse, neglect and other types of adverse exposures, as well as recognition that substance abuse and depressed affect are likely consequences of witnessing IPV. Finally, this data strongly suggest that future studies, which focus on the effect of witnessing IPV on long-term health outcomes, may need to take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple ACEs, which can also affect these outcomes. PMID:11991154

  8. Application Use, Online Relationship Types, Self-Disclosure, and Internet Abuse among Children and Youth: Implications for Education and Internet Safety Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between Internet abuse (IA)--self-disclosure, online application usage, and relationship types--traditional long-distance, purely virtual, and migratory mixed-mode. An online questionnaire was administered to 2884 children and youth. According to the hypotheses, applications differed in their relationships…

  9. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  10. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  11. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  13. [Clopidogrel--proton pump inhibitors drug interaction: implications to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Albuquerque, Aníbal

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have raised the concern that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) could potentially interfere with clopidogrel antiplatelet effect. This association is frequent in clinical practice and is recommended by recent consensus guidelines in patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy to prevent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Clopidogrel is a pro-drug which needs to be metabolized into its active metabolite, by cytochrome P450, especially by CYP2C19 isoenzyme. Various PPIs can inhibit CYP2C19, which could possibly decrease clopidogrel bioactivation process and, therefore, its antiplatelet effect. Various platelet function studies have shown that omeprazol can significantly decrease clopidogrel inhibitory effect on platelet P2Y12 receptor, leading to an increase in the number of patients who are "nonresponders" to clopidogrel. These pharmacokinetic studies also shown that this is not probably a class effect of PPIs, because they are metabolized to varying degrees by CYP2C19. The clinical impact of these observations remains uncertain, because various observational studies have shown conflicting results, and remains to demonstrate if PPIs can really increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients taking clopidogrel. In this review we will discuss the pharmacokinetic basis underlying this drug interaction, the effect of different PPIs on platelet function tests and we will analyze in detail the potential clinical implications of using this association, both on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal events. Until further data is available, some clinical strategies can be recommended: (1) individual gastrointestinal risk assessment, with PPIs administration only to patients on dual anti-platelet therapy with additional GI risk factors; (2) preferential use of PPIs that have shown less interference with clopidogrel efficacy; (3) wide separation of PPI and clopidogrel dosing to minimize the risk of interaction (PPI may be given before breakfast and clopidogrel at

  14. Biological variation in musculoskeletal injuries: current knowledge, future research and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V; Posthumus, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from familial and genetic association studies have reported that DNA sequence variants play an important role, together with non-genetic factors, in the aetiology of both exercise-associated and occupational-associated acute and chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The associated variants, which have been identified to date, may contribute to the interindividual variation in the structure and, by implication, mechanical properties of the collagen fibril and surrounding matrix within musculoskeletal soft tissues, as well as their response to mechanical loading and other stimuli. Future work should focus on the establishment of multidisciplinary international consortia for the identification of biologically relevant variants involved in modulating injury risk. These consortia will improve the limitations of the published hypothesis-driven genetic association studies, since they will allow resources to be pooled in recruiting large well-characterised cohorts required for whole-genome screening. Finally, clinicians and coaches need to be aware that many direct-to-consumer companies are currently marketing genetic tests directly to athletes without it being requested by an appropriately qualified healthcare professional, and without interpretation alongside other clinical indicators or lifestyle factors. These specific genetic tests are premature and are not necessarily required to evaluate susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Current practice should rather consider susceptibility through known risk factors such as a positive family history of a specific injury, a history of other tendon and/or ligament injuries and participation in activities associated with the specific musculoskeletal injuries. Potential susceptible athletes may then be individually managed to reduce their risk profile. PMID:26504180

  15. Predicting the unpredictable: critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Tressoldi, Patrizio; Utts, Jessica; Ives, John A.; Radin, Dean; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of experiments from seven independent laboratories (n = 26) indicates that the human body can apparently detect randomly delivered stimuli occurring 1–10 s in the future (Mossbridge etal., 2012). The key observation in these studies is that human physiology appears to be able to distinguish between unpredictable dichotomous future stimuli, such as emotional vs. neutral images or sound vs. silence. This phenomenon has been called presentiment (as in “feeling the future”). In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity (PAA). The phenomenon is “predictive” because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is “anticipatory” because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an “activity” because it involves changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does), but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications. PMID:24723870

  16. Sexual abuse, physical abuse, chronic fatigue, and chronic fatigue syndrome: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R R; Jason, L A

    2001-10-01

    Using a randomly selected community-based sample, this investigation examined whether histories of childhood sexual, physical, and death threat abuse predicted adulthood outcomes of specific medical and psychiatric conditions involving chronic fatigue. This study also tested prior suggestions that most individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome report a past history of interpersonal abuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between abuse history and chronic fatigue group outcomes while controlling for the effects of sociodemographics. Compared with healthy controls, childhood sexual abuse was significantly more likely to be associated with outcomes of idiopathic chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue explained by a psychiatric condition, and chronic fatigue explained by a medical condition. None of the abuse history types were significant predictors of chronic fatigue syndrome. A closer examination of individuals in the chronic fatigue syndrome group revealed that significantly fewer individuals with CFS reported abuse as compared with those who did not. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11708672

  17. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  18. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  20. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  1. Canadian chiropractors’ attitudes towards chiropractic philosophy and scope of practice: implications for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Lesley; Hay, David; Mierau, Dale

    1997-01-01

    The development of effective implementation strategies for chiropractic clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) presumes knowledge about the attitudes of the Canadian chiropractic profession. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes of Canadian chiropractors to philosophy and scope of practice. We hypothesized that given most Canadian chiropractors are trained at one school, the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) in Toronto, there would be a reasonable degree of consensus about the practice of chiropractic in Canada, and therefore, effective implementation strategies could be developed. Drawing on a stratified random sample of Canadian chiropractors (n = 401), we found that 18.6% of respondents held conservative views, 22% held liberal views and 59.4% held moderate views. Conservative chiropractic philosophy rejects traditional chiropractic philosophy as espoused by D.D. and B.J. Palmer, and emphasizes the scientific validation of chiropractic concepts and methods. A conservative philosophy is associated with a narrow scope of practice in which chiropractic practice is restricted to musculoskeletal problems. A liberal chiropractic philosophy adheres to traditional chiropractic philosophy (offered either by D.D. or B.J. Palmer) and is associated with a broad scope of practice which includes the treatment of non-musculoskeletal conditions. Liberal-minded respondents are more likely to identify chiropractic as an alternate form of health care. Using ANOVA and MCA, the best predictors of the philosophy index were college of training and province of practice. Chiropractors who trained at the CMCC held more conservative views than those who were trained elsewhere. Moreover, we found significant provincial differences among the provinces on the philosophy index. Saskatchewan chiropractors held the most conservative views on the philosophy index; Quebec chiropractors held the most liberal views. We concluded that given the divergence of opinions among

  2. Psychophysiological Reactivity in Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amitay, Galit; Kimchi, Nir; Wolmer, Leo; Toren, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli. A minority of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Abused females displayed significant elevations in heart rate, electromyography, and electroencephalography while viewing allusive stimuli and elevated heart rate while viewing neutral stimuli. The dysfunctional regulation of the physiological stress system associated with child sexual abuse may endanger the victims with various stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26934544

  3. PTSD substance abuse comorbidity and treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Recupero, P R; Stout, R

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers and examines the relationship between PTSD comorbidity and rates of inpatient substance abuse treatment. Eighty-four patients (48 male and 36 female) admitted for detoxification at a private hospital were administered self-report measures of lifetime stressor events, PTSD symptomatology, and prior treatment history. Approximately one quarter of the sample was found to present with significant PTSD symptomatology. Women were more likely than men to have been physically and sexually abused, and women reported experiencing a greater number of traumatic events. Consequently, more women than men were classified as having possible PTSD. With respect to inpatient substance abuse treatment admission rates, the PTSD group reported a greater number of hospitalizations than their non-PTSD counterparts. Implications of these findings for routine trauma screening and more effective treatment for substance abusers with concomitant PTSD are highlighted. PMID:7484319

  4. Testing the sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis: A prospective longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leach, Chelsea; Stewart, Anna; Smallbone, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis posits that persons, especially males, who are sexually abused as children are at particular risk of sexually abusing others later in life. We tested this hypothesis by prospectively examining associations between maltreatment and offending in a birth cohort of 38,282 males with a maltreatment history and/or at least one finalized offense. We examined these associations within the context of the wider birth population. Proportionally few boys were the subject of official notifications for sexual abuse (14.8% of maltreated boys, and 1.4% of the birth population); proportionally very few of these sexually abused boys (3%) went on to become sexual offenders; and, contrary to findings typically reported in retrospective clinical studies, proportionally few sexual offenders (4%) had a confirmed history of sexual abuse. Poly-victimization (exposure to multiple types of maltreatment) was significantly associated with sexual offending, violent offending, and general (nonsexual, nonviolent) offending. We found no specific association between sexual abuse and sexual offending, and nor did we find any association between sexual abuse and sexual offending specifically within the poly-victimized group. The total number of sexual abuse notifications did make a small unique contribution to the variance in sexual offending compared to other offending. Implications concerning maltreated boys and male sexual offenders are discussed. PMID:26615777

  5. Repeated ketamine administration alters N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit gene expression: Implication of genetic vulnerability for ketamine abuse and ketamine psychosis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Lipsky, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    For more than 40 years following its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an anesthetic, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been used as a tool of psychiatric research. As a psychedelic drug, ketamine induces psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment, and mood elevation, which resemble some symptoms of schizophrenia. Recreational use of ketamine has been increasing in recent years. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ketamine-associated psychosis. Recent animal studies have shown that repeated ketamine administration significantly increases NMDA receptor subunit gene expression, in particular subunit 1 (NR1 or GluN1) levels. This results in neurodegeneration, supporting a potential mechanism where up-regulation of NMDA receptors could produce cognitive deficits in chronic ketamine abuse patients. In other studies, NMDA receptor gene variants are associated with addictive behavior. Here, we focus on the roles of NMDA receptor gene subunits in ketamine abuse and ketamine psychosis and propose that full sequencing of NMDA receptor genes may help explain individual vulnerability to ketamine abuse and ketamine-associated psychosis. PMID:25245072

  6. Cocaine modulates HIV-1 integration in primary CD4+ T cells: implications in HIV-1 pathogenesis in drug-abusing patients

    PubMed Central

    Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383

  7. Cocaine enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis: implications in disease progression in cocaine-abusing HIV-1 patients.

    PubMed

    Pandhare, Jui; Addai, Amma B; Mantri, Chinmay K; Hager, Cynthia; Smith, Rita M; Barnett, Louis; Villalta, Fernando; Kalams, Spyros A; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-04-01

    Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1-associated CD4(+) T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4(+) T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4(+) T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1-infected drug abusers. PMID:24486327

  8. Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.

    The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

  9. A Comparison of Evidence-Based Practice and the ACRL Information Literacy Standards: Implications for Information Literacy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP), like information literacy, is concerned with an individual's knowledge, skills, and attitudes relating to using information. EBP is now a professional competency in fields as diverse as social work, nursing and allied health fields, and public policy. A comparison of the Association of College and Research Libraries'…

  10. Exploring Best Practice Teaming Strategies among School-Based Teams: Implications for School Mental Health Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Mellin, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    School-based teams are central to referrals, problem solving and decision-making in school mental health (SMH). Although the use of teams in SMH appears commonplace, research on these teams, however, is much more limited in scope. Using best practice teaming principles as a conceptual framework, this exploratory study examined the purpose,…

  11. Variations in Emotional Abuse Experiences among Multiply Maltreated Young Adolescents and Relations with Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Kim, Kihyun; Prindle, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective Based on the data obtained through Child Protective Services (CPS) case records abstraction, this study aimed to explore patterns of overlapping types of child maltreatment in a sample of urban, ethnically diverse male and female youth (n= 303) identified as maltreated by a large public child welfare agency. Methods A cluster analysis was conducted on data for 303 maltreated youth. The overall categorization of four types of abuse (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) was used to provide a starting point for clustering of the 303 cases and then the subtypes of emotional abuse were broken down in the clusters. The different clusters of child maltreatment were compared on the multiple outcomes such as mental health, behavior problems, self-perception, and cognitive development. Results In this study, we identified four clusters of child maltreatment experiences. Three patterns involved emotional abuse. One cluster of children experienced all four types. Different clusters were differentially associated with multiple outcome measures. In general, multiply-maltreated youth fared worst, especially when the cluster involved sexual abuse. Also, sex differences were found in these associations. Boys who experienced multiple types of maltreatment showed more difficulties than girls. Conclusion & practice implications These results reiterate the importance of creating more complex models of child maltreatment. Children who have experienced various types of maltreatment are especially in need of more attention from professionals and resources should be allocated accordingly. PMID:22018516

  12. The Influence of a Juvenile’s Abuse History on Support for Sex Offender Registration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether and how a juvenile’s history of experiencing sexual abuse affects public perceptions of juvenile sex offenders in a series of 5 studies. When asked about juvenile sex offenders in an abstract manner (Studies 1 and 2), the more participants (community members and undergraduates) believed that a history of being sexually abused as a child causes later sexually abusive behavior, the less likely they were to support sex offender registration for juveniles. Yet when participants considered specific sexual offenses, a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse was not considered to be a mitigating factor. This was true when participants considered a severe sexual offense (forced rape; Study 3 and Study 4) and a case involving less severe sexual offenses (i.e., statutory rape), when a juvenile’s history of sexual abuse backfired and was used as an aggravating factor, increasing support for registering the offender (Study 3 and Study 5). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26074717

  13. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals’ personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

  14. Screening for substance abuse in women's health: a public health imperative.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Daisy J; Wolff, Kristina B

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use is a significant public health problem with particular implications for the health and safety of women. Women who abuse these substances are more likely to have untreated depression and anxiety and are at higher risk for intimate partner violence, homelessness, incarceration, infectious disease, and unplanned pregnancy. Substance abuse during pregnancy places both mother and fetus at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Data regarding the prevalence of substance abuse in women are conflicting and difficult to interpret. On the clinical level, strong arguments exist against routine urine drug testing and in favor of the use of validated instruments to screen women for drug and alcohol use both in primary women's health care and during pregnancy. A number of sex-specific screening tools are available for clinicians, some of which have also been validated for use during pregnancy. Given the risks associated with untreated substance abuse and dependence in women, the integration of drug and alcohol screening into daily clinical practice is imperative. This article reviews screening tools available to providers in both the prenatal and primary women's health care settings and addresses some of the challenges raised when women screen positive for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:23631601

  15. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  16. Suffering in silence: Investigating the role of fear in the relationship between abusive supervision and defensive silence.

    PubMed

    Kiewitz, Christian; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Shoss, Mindy K; Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Tang, Robert L

    2016-05-01

    Drawing from an approach-avoidance perspective, we examine the relationships between subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision, fear, defensive silence, and ultimately abusive supervision at a later time point. We also account for the effects of subordinates' assertiveness and individual perceptions of a climate of fear on these predicted mediated relationships. We test this moderated mediation model with data from three studies involving different sources collected across various measurement periods. Results corroborated our predictions by showing (a) a significant association between abusive supervision and subordinates' fear, (b) second-stage moderation effects of subordinates' assertiveness and their individual perceptions of a climate of fear in the abusive supervision-fear-defensive silence relationship (with lower assertiveness and higher levels of climate-of-fear perceptions exacerbating the detrimental effects of fear resulting from abusive supervision), and (c) first-stage moderation effects of subordinates' assertiveness and climate-of-fear perceptions in a model linking fear to defensive silence and abusive supervision at a later time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26727209

  17. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  18. Is Anybody Listening? The Literature on the Dialogical Process of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Reviewed.

    PubMed

    Reitsema, A M; Grietens, H

    2016-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and clinical practice. The findings of the exploratory review show that disclosure is a relational process, which is renegotiated by each interaction and evolves over an extended period of time. The characteristics and reactions of the interaction partner appear to be as critical to this process as the behavior and words of children themselves. Methodological limitations of the review and the publications are discussed, as well as directions for future research and implications for practice. PMID:25951841

  19. Educational Marketing: A Review and Implications for Supporting Practice in Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowski, Christopher Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the existing educational marketing literature in the leading tertiary educational management journals. A discussion of the implications for supporting practitioners in non-university settings is presented. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Field Birding and Digital Objects: Immaterial Technologies and Their Implications for One Practice of Coming to Know the More-than-Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan Peter Longley

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the implications of two emerging digital technologies on the act of field birding, and the implications of these objects for thinking about wild birds. While the adoption of new immaterial technologies promises to improve the ease with which birding is practiced, their use leads to new ethical considerations. Using the…

  1. Child Health Practices Reported by Day Care Center Parents: Implications for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Silvana F.

    Part of a larger study of parents' practices regarding children's health, this report focuses on the relationship of such practices to parents' beliefs and knowledge about children's health. The study described factors influencing child health practices and sources of child health information used and preferred by parents. Also examined was the…

  2. Rethinking Natural Environment Practice: Implications from Examining Various Interpretations and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Angie Y.; Zhang, Chun; Bisberg, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention professionals have implemented natural environment practices for over a decade, despite the continued debate on how to interpret and implement this practice. This article reviews several theoretical frameworks for understanding natural environment practice, and also summarizes different approaches for implementation. The authors…

  3. Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Homework: Implications for School-Teacher-Parent Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Qian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions and practices of parental involvement in their children's homework process to explore how variations in parents' perceptions might explain differences in their practices. Understanding parents' perceptions and practices of involvement is essential to increasing the effectiveness of…

  4. Availability of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Coagonists Affects Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference and Locomotor Sensitization: Implications for Comorbid Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Matthew D; Berg, Alexandra R; Bechtholt, Anita J; Coyle, Joseph T

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with high prevalence of substance abuse. Recent research suggests that dysregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function may play a role in the pathophysiology of both schizophrenia and drug addiction, and thus, may account for this high comorbidity. Our laboratory has developed two transgenic mouse lines that exhibit contrasting NMDAR activity based on the availability of the glycine modulatory site (GMS) agonists d-serine and glycine. Glycine transporter 1 knockdowns (GlyT1(+/-)) exhibit NMDAR hyperfunction, whereas serine racemase knockouts (SR(-/-)) exhibit NMDAR hypofunction. We characterized the behavior of these lines in a cocaine-induced (20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor sensitization paradigm. Compared with wild-type mice, GlyT1(+/-) mice displayed hastened extinction of CPP and robust cocaine-induced reinstatement. SR(-/-) mice appeared to immediately "forget" the learned preference, because they did not exhibit cocaine-induced reinstatement and also displayed attenuated locomotor sensitization. Treatment of GlyT1(+/-) mice with gavestinel (10 mg/kg on day 1; 5 mg/kg on days 2-17), a GMS antagonist, attenuated cocaine-induced CPP and caused them to immediately "forget" the learned preference. Treatment of SR(-/-) mice with d-serine (300 mg/kg on day 1; 150 mg/kg on days 2-17) to normalize brain levels caused them to avoid the cocaine-paired side of the chamber during extinction. These results highlight NMDAR dysfunction as a possible neural mechanism underlying comorbid schizophrenia and substance abuse. Also, these findings suggest drugs that directly or indirectly activate the NMDAR GMS could be an effective treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25788713

  5. 'The darkest times of my life': Recollections of child abuse among forced migrants persecuted because of their sexual orientation and gender identity.

    PubMed

    Alessi, Edward J; Kahn, Sarilee; Chatterji, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children and youth are likely to experience abuse by peers, parents, and other adults and that these experiences correlate with a host of mental health problems. However, there is little understanding of the experiences of LGBT children and youth living in countries where social and legal protections for sexual and gender minorities are limited or nonexistent. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the child and adolescent abuse experiences and their impact on the pre-migration mental health of LGBT forced migrants. We analyzed 26 interviews with individuals who obtained refugee or asylee status in the United States or Canada on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Participants originated from countries in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Analysis revealed the following themes: abuse by parents and caregivers, abuse by peers and school personnel, having nowhere to turn, and dealing with psychological distress. Findings indicate that participants experienced severe verbal, physical, and sexual abuse throughout childhood and adolescence and that this abuse occurred at home, in school, and in the community. Furthermore, there were no resources or sources of protection available to them. Participants linked their abuse to subjective experiences of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress, as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conclude with implications for refugee adjudication practices, mental health care, and international policy. PMID:26615778

  6. Dementia and elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, Maria R; Chen, Elaine; Gorbien, Martin J

    2005-05-01

    Dementia and elder abuse are relatively common and under-diagnosed geriatric syndromes. A unique relationship is observed when the two entities coexist. Special issues can confound the care of the dementia patient suspected of being abused. Impaired language or motor abilities to communicate abusive situations to a third party, lack of decisional capacity to address the abusive situation, disinhibited behavior that contributes to a cycle of violence, and coincident depression of the abused elder complicate the diagnosis and management of elder abuse. Education of the caregiver and attention to caregiver stress, including depression, may prevent onset and perpetuation of abuse. PMID:15804553

  7. Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about and approval of wife abuse.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

    2010-03-01

    The article presents the results of a study that examined Palestinian physicians' misconceptions about abused wives and abusive husbands and the extent to which Palestinian physicians approve of wife abuse. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 396 physicians. The results revealed that between 10% and 49% of the Palestinian physicians held misconceptions about abused wives and between 15% and 63% held misconceptions about abusive husbands. The findings also revealed that substantial percentages of physicians tended to approve of moderate and severe violence against wives. Significant amounts of the variance in the physicians' approval of moderate and severe wife abuse can be attributed to their exposure to family violence and to their patriarchal ideology-variance over and above that which can be explained by the physicians' sociodemographic characteristics. The limitations of the study are discussed, as are the implications of the results for future research and theory development on the approaches of professionals toward wife abuse. PMID:19531634

  8. Addiction and temporary certification. A proposed change to legislation and it's possible implication for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burke, G; Walshe, D G

    1995-01-01

    The Mental Treatment Act (1945) is currently undergoing review to enable Ireland to meet it's international obligations. The Green Paper on Mental Health (1992) makes a number of suggestions regarding this. One such is the deletion of Addiction as sufficient grounds for involuntary admission to a psychiatric hospital or unit. This study looked at the possible impact such a proposal might have on the doctor's clinical choice in the management of addiction. The casenotes and temporary certificates of 191 involuntary admissions to St. Brendan's Hospital were examined. 9 cases (4.7%) were admitted for the direct effect of addiction, i.e., intoxication or uncomplicated withdrawal. The conclusion of this study is that the deletion of the addiction criterion from future mental health legislation would, in itself, have little impact on the number of committals. This is because the majority of those with evidence of Substance Abuse have a concurrent disorder that would be covered by the remaining criteria. PMID:8575925

  9. Adaptive practices in heart failure care teams: implications for patient-centered care in the context of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Glendon R; Bates, Joanna; LaDonna, Kori A; Schulz, Valerie N; Strachan, Patricia H; McDougall, Allan; Lingard, Lorelei

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), one of the three leading causes of death, is a chronic, progressive, incurable disease. There is growing support for integration of palliative care’s holistic approach to suffering, but insufficient understanding of how this would happen in the complex team context of HF care. This study examined how HF care teams, as defined by patients, work together to provide care to patients with advanced disease. Methods Team members were identified by each participating patient, generating team sampling units (TSUs) for each patient. Drawn from five study sites in three Canadian provinces, our dataset consists of 209 interviews from 50 TSUs. Drawing on a theoretical framing of HF teams as complex adaptive systems (CAS), interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with constructivist grounded theory. Results This paper centers on the dominant theme of system practices, how HF care delivery is reported to work organizationally, socially, and practically, and describes two subthemes: “the way things work around here”, which were commonplace, routine ways of doing things, and “the way we make things work around here”, which were more conscious, effortful adaptations to usual practice in response to emergent needs. An adaptive practice, often a small alteration to routine, could have amplified effects beyond those intended by the innovating team member and could extend to other settings. Conclusion Adaptive practices emerged unpredictably and were variably experienced by team members. Our study offers an empirically grounded explanation of how HF care teams self-organize and how adaptive practices emerge from nonlinear interdependencies among diverse agents. We use these insights to reframe the question of palliative care integration, to ask how best to foster palliative care-aligned adaptive practices in HF care. This work has implications for health care’s growing challenge of providing care to those with

  10. Substance Abuse among Latino Youth. Prevention Research Update, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A.; Gilbert, M. Jean

    This publication is one of a series summarizing recent research on adolescent drug abuse and its prevention. The report provides an overview of research and reviews its implications for dealing with substance abuse among Latino youth, placing new information in the context of past findings. Research has shown that drug use patterns in several…

  11. School Psychology 2010--Part 2: School Psychologists' Professional Practices and Implications for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Gelley, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Every 5 years, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) conducts a national study of the field. Surveys are sent to randomly selected regular members of NASP to gather information on school psychologists' demographic characteristics, context for professional practices, and professional practices. The latest iteration of the national…

  12. Female Genital Cutting and Children's Rights: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Donna; Davies, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is an ancient practice that affects girls and young women around the world, defining the identity of women in cultures where it is practiced. FGC is carried out for a range of social and cultural reasons. The United Kingdom as a point of inward migration receives families from countries and cultures where FGC is the…

  13. Environmental Education and Nigerian Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP): Implications for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansaray, A.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    Nigerian secondary students were surveyed regarding selected environmental issues to determine prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Students performed very poorly in the knowledge component of the questionnaire and demonstrated negative attitudes towards issues. Students also indicated practices that were harmful to a healthy…

  14. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  15. Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,…

  16. Visiting Shrines: A Turkish Religious Practice and Its Mental Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canel-Cinarbas, Deniz; Ciftci, Ayse; Bulgan, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore through qualitative methodology the practice of visiting shrines, a religious practice indigenous to Turkish Muslims, and its potential mental health benefits. Thirteen individuals were interviewed at two shrines in Istanbul, Turkey. The researchers focused on visitors' presenting issues, beliefs…

  17. Is Positive Feedback a Forgotten Classroom Practice? Findings and Implications for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouls, Katie; Mathur, Sarup R.; Upreti, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Although using higher rates of positive to negative feedback is one best practice often recommended to teachers, particularly when it comes to students experiencing behavioral problems in classroom settings, research on the use of positive feedback in classroom teaching practice has revealed inconsistent results. Research has documented…

  18. Outsourcing and Digitized Work Spaces: Some Implications of the Intersections of Globalization, Development, and Work Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Beatrice Quarshie

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on an ongoing project examining the literacies prevalent at an outsourcing site, this article explores the changing nature of workplace practices enabled by new information and communication technologies. It also examines the complex geopolitical dynamics of these practices, the discourses of development, and globalization. The author…

  19. Assessment of the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Implications for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonge, Adewale Johnson; Martin, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed farmers (115 of 150) were very positive about the profitability and compatibility of sustainable agriculture, although certain practices elicited negative reactions. They wanted research and development directed toward maximizing profitability and compatibility to facilitate their adoption of these practices. (SK)

  20. Experiences and Implications of Social Workers Practicing in a Pediatric Hospital Environment Affected by SARS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Saini, Michael; McNeill, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study's purpose was threefold: to detail the experiences of social workers practicing in a hospital environment affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to describe essential themes and structures of social work practices within this crisis environment, and to explore recommendations for better preparedness to…

  1. Determinism and Underdetermination in Genetics: Implications for Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Epistemic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in "Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and…

  2. Beyond Research "on" Cultural Minorities: Challenges and Implications of Research as Situated Cultural Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzubiaga, Angela E.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; King, Kathleen A.; Harris-Murri, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the cultural nature of research. This is a consequential idea as research knowledge is expected to inform professional practices for our increasingly multicultural society. We highlight theoretical and methodological limits of the traditional practice of research on cultural groups and outline research as situated cultural…

  3. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  4. A Survey of Current Disability Management Practice: Emerging Trends and Implications for Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, David A.; Hursh, Norman; Lui, John; Isom, Rodney; Sasson, Joy

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent role and function study completed in 2004 to determine the prevailing domains of disability management practice. The study also sought to establish an empirical basis for a certification exam for disability management specialists consistent with evolving standards of practice. Based on the expert…

  5. Implications for Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Research and Practice in Foreign Language Learning, NFLC Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Ralph B.

    Most of the now commonplace computer-assisted instruction (CAI) uses computers to increase the capacity to perform logical, numerical, and symbolic computations. However, computers are an interactive and potentially intelligent medium. The implications of artificial intelligence (AI) for learning are more radical than those for traditional CAI. AI…

  6. Peer Learning in Primary School Science: Theoretical Perspectives and Implications for Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, A.; Van de Keere, K.; Kosack, W.; Gatt, S.; Marchal, J.; Mestdagh, N.; Schmeinck, D.; Sidor, W.; Topping, K. J.; Donnert, K.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines cognitive models of peer learning in school and the implications that these models have for the teaching of science in primary schools. The article is a product of the European Commission, Socrates Comenius 2.1 funded project "The Implementation of Scientific Thinking in (Pre) Primary Schools Settings (STIPPS)" project…

  7. "Learning to Listen": Boys' Gender Narratives--Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate year 6 and year 9 boys' constructions of masculinity in the light of theories of inclusive masculinity and to consider the implications of the findings for critical masculinities scholarship in educational research. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative data was collected through…

  8. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  9. An Examination of the Role of Emotions in Antiracist Pedagogy: Implications, Scholarship, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosland, Tanetha J.

    2013-01-01

    Tanetha Grosland's goal is to inform and extend the current knowledge base concerning the intersection of antiracist pedagogy and emotions, and its implications for reconceptualizing such pedagogy. Therefore, she begins by addressing some fundamental theoretical claims about antiracist education. Then utilizing two sources to contextualize…

  10. Implications of Electronic Newspapers for Public Relations Teaching, Practice, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Patricia A.; Cameron, Glen T.

    Electronic newspapers offer a new media channel for public relations materials, but a study of their proposed use and implications for the profession does not fit well into already established research areas. This paper reviews the development and features of electronic newspapers and suggests new avenues of research and uses pertinent to the…

  11. Early Child Contingency Learning and Detection: Research Evidence and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Masiello, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    The types of contingency experiences infants and young children are typically exposed to are examined with a focus on the implications for early childhood intervention with young children who have developmental disabilities and delays. Studies of response-contingent child learning, the manner in which contingencies are not under direct child…

  12. Major Social Theories of Aging and Their Implications for Counseling Concepts and Practice: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses counseling implications and applications of several social theories of aging. Explores effects of some rather distinct perspectives on aging, beginning with conceptualizations, research studies, and criticisms of disengagement theory, activity theory, and role theory, leading up to continuity theory and liberation perspective. Focuses on…

  13. Widening Participation and English Language Proficiency: A Convergence with Implications for Assessment Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The widening participation agenda has important implications for those in English-medium higher education institutions responsible for the provision of English language support. Importantly, given the diverse nature of the "non-traditional" student cohort that is the focus of this agenda, that section of the student population…

  14. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Implications for Professional Practice in Relation to Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennens, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the wider implications of a pattern of behaviour in which a parent, usually the mother, persistently presents a false story of illness or disability in the child. Such behaviour can be harmful to the child. The parent may deliberately produce symptoms of illness; the child may be exposed to unnecessary but painful and…

  15. Vaginal practices: eroticism and implications for women's health and condom use in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda

    2008-08-01

    This paper analyses two female sexual practices in Tete Province, Mozambique: (1) the practice of elongating the labia minora and (2) what is sometimes called 'dry sex' involving the insertion of natural and/or synthetic products into the vagina or the ingestion of these products orally. These practices are fundamental to the construction of female identity, eroticism and the experience of pleasure. Notions such as 'closed/open', 'dry/damp', 'hot/cold', 'heavy/light', 'life/death', 'wealth/poverty' and 'sweet/not sweet' are central to local understandings of sexual practices and reproduction. These notions may affect the women's sexual health because they influence preferences for sex without a condom. These practices may also be associated with the alteration of the vaginal flora and vaginal lesions that may make women more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18649196

  16. An Opportunity to Bridge the Gap Between Clinical Research and Clinical Practice: Implications for Clinical Training

    PubMed Central

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Vivian, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Clinical researchers and clinical practitioners share a goal of increasing the integration of research and clinical practice, which is reflected in an evidence-based practice (EBP) approach to psychology. The EBP framework involves the integration of research findings with clinical expertise and client characteristics, values, and preferences, and consequently provides an important foundation for conducting clinically relevant research, as well as empirically based and clinically sensitive practice. Given the critical role that early training can play in the integration of science and practice and in promoting the future of the field, the present article addresses predoctoral training programs as a context for adopting an EBP approach to clinical work. We address training in the three components of EBP and provide suggestions for curriculum development and practicum training that we hope will contribute to bridging the gap between research and practice. PMID:22642520

  17. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    PubMed

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

  18. Implications of the concept of minimal risk in research on informed choice in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kyoko; Nisker, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    The concept of a minimal risk threshold in research, beneath which exception to informed consent and ethics review processes may occur, has been codified for over 30 years in many national research regulations and by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Although minimal risk in research constitutes one of the criteria for allowing waiver of informed consent or modification to the consent process and a large body of literature exists, discussion of a minimal risk threshold in clinical practice has not occurred. One reason for lack of discussion may be that implicit consent is accepted for a wide range of routine clinical practices. Extending the role of minimal risk in research to clinical practice might assist clinicians in identifying circumstances for which implicit consent is indeed sufficient and circumstances in which it is not. Further, concepts from minimal risk in research might assist clinicians regarding when information provision in health promotion is required. We begin by reviewing concepts in both minimal risk in research and informed choice in clinical practice. We then explore how a clinical minimal risk concept may clarify recommendations for information provision in clinical practice and support the patient's informed choice regarding therapeutic and diagnostic procedures and also health promotion. Given that clinical practice involves a broad scope of health information, professional practice guidelines on information provision based on the application of the minimal risk threshold in research could be developed to guide clinicians in what information must be provided to their patients. PMID:26108215

  19. Implications of the concept of minimal risk in research on informed choice in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kyoko; Nisker, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a minimal risk threshold in research, beneath which exception to informed consent and ethics review processes may occur, has been codified for over 30 years in many national research regulations and by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Although minimal risk in research constitutes one of the criteria for allowing waiver of informed consent or modification to the consent process and a large body of literature exists, discussion of a minimal risk threshold in clinical practice has not occurred. One reason for lack of discussion may be that implicit consent is accepted for a wide range of routine clinical practices. Extending the role of minimal risk in research to clinical practice might assist clinicians in identifying circumstances for which implicit consent is indeed sufficient and circumstances in which it is not. Further, concepts from minimal risk in research might assist clinicians regarding when information provision in health promotion is required. We begin by reviewing concepts in both minimal risk in research and informed choice in clinical practice. We then explore how a clinical minimal risk concept may clarify recommendations for information provision in clinical practice and support the patient's informed choice regarding therapeutic and diagnostic procedures and also health promotion. Given that clinical practice involves a broad scope of health information, professional practice guidelines on information provision based on the application of the minimal risk threshold in research could be developed to guide clinicians in what information must be provided to their patients. PMID:26108215

  20. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different