Science.gov

Sample records for abuse prevention addiction

  1. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  2. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too much alcohol might forget things that happened when they were ...

  3. Gabapentin and pregabalin: abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    In Europe, in mid-2011, about 30 cases of dependence, abuse or withdrawal symptoms attributed to pregabalin had been reported to Swedish and French pharmacovigilance centres and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). About 20 cases of gabapentin addiction were published in detail. The most frequently reported disorders were withdrawal symptoms. More than half of the patients were hospitalised for withdrawal. Cases of excessive increases in the doses of gabapentin or pregabalin, unauthorised routes of administration, and combination with other substances were also reported. Some patients had no known history of substance abuse. In practice, it is better to avoid exposing patients to these risks when the expected benefits are not properly documented. Healthcare professionals should take care to prevent and detect addiction to pregabalin or gabapentin. When necessary, assistance with tapering off the medication should be offered.

  4. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  5. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made ... NAS). Opioid abuse may sometimes also lead to heroin use, because some people switch from prescription opioids ...

  6. [Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents].

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2007-01-01

    The scientific literature consistently reports that while children of substance abusers may be at biological, psychological, or environmental risk, the effects of these risks can be abbreviated through the use of effective interventions and treatments. Research has consistently demonstrated reductions in family and child dysfunction when effective family intervention programs are consistently utilized. While a number of effective family-based approaches have been developed and evaluated, only a few have been designed specifically for children of substance abusing parents. Just two have been tested in randomized control trials -The Streghtening Families Program and Focus on the Family. The Streghtening Families Program has demonstrated statistically significant reductions in family and child dysfunctions across several ethnocultural groups when consistently utilized. Clinical and advanced graduate programs should stress training in these evidence-based practices as well as how to adapt these models to be more culturally sensitive and age or gender appropriate in order to serve a growing and needy population of families.

  7. Effects of Storytelling-Based Education in the Prevention of Drug Abuse among Adolescents in Iran Based on a Readiness to Addiction Index

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mahdieh Poodineh; Sari, Mahdieh; Balouchi, Abbas; Moghadam, Khadijeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most effective strategies in the prevention of addiction is increasing awareness among young people, towards the tendency for taking drugs their physical, mental and social side effects. Storytelling is effective for increasing characteristics of happiness and resilience. This study uses storytelling, a common and popular method to increase awareness among adolescents. Aim To examine the effect of storytelling-based education on the prevention of drug abuse, based on a readiness to addiction index. Materials and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 136 high school students (grade one), selected by a cluster sampling procedure from May 2014 to February 2015 in Zabol, Iran. The instrument for gathering data was a readiness to addiction questionnaire. This questionnaire included 41 items for which the scoring of each item followed the Likerts format. The data gathered was analysed using SPSS version 21 with descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results The results revealed that the mean of the readiness to addiction index in the case group fell from 75.66±19.99 to 69.57±21.83 (paired t-test; p =0.02); in the control group the same index changed from 103.01±21.88 to 93.98±27.70 (paired t-test, p = 0.775). That is, the index decreased for both groups, but the reduction was statistically significant only for the case group (p =0.02). Conclusion This suggests that the narrative method is effective in reducing adolescents readiness to addiction. Storytelling is an effective way to raise awareness among young people about addiction and its detrimental impacts on health. Therefore, such a technique can be taken into consideration in teaching principles of prevention. PMID:28050403

  8. Addiction and Substance Abuse in Anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Ethan O.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace and outcomes have not appreciably changed. While alcoholism and other forms of impairment such as addiction to other substances and mental illness impact anesthesiologists at similar rates to other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when co-morbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt re-entry into clinical practice. PMID:18946304

  9. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  10. Internet Abuse and Internet Addiction in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to internet abuse and internet addiction in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, the paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of internet abuse, and the most extreme form of…

  11. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  12. Ensuring safe access to medication for palliative care while preventing prescription drug abuse: innovations for American inner cities, rural areas, and communities overwhelmed by addiction.

    PubMed

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes and develops novel components of community-oriented programs for creating and affording access to safe medication dispensing centers in existing retail pharmacies and in permanent or travelling pharmacy clinics that are guarded by assigned or off-duty police officers. Pharmacists at these centers would work with police, medical providers, social workers, hospital administrators, and other professionals in: planning and overseeing the safe storage of controlled substance medications in off-site community safe-deposit boxes; strengthening communication and cooperation with the prescribing medical provider; assisting the prescribing medical provider in patient monitoring (checking the state prescription registry, providing pill counts and urine samples); expanding access to lower-cost, and in some cases, abuse-resistant formulations of controlled substance medications; improving transportation access for underserved patients and caregivers to obtain prescriptions; and integrating community agencies and social networks as resources for patient support and monitoring. Novel components of two related community-oriented programs, which may be hosted outside of safe medication dispensing centers, are also suggested and described: (1) developing medication purchasing cooperatives (ie, to help patients, families, and health institutions afford the costs of medications, including tamper-or abuse-resistant/deterrent drug formulations); and (2) expanding the role of inner-city methadone maintenance treatment programs in palliative care (ie, to provide additional patient monitoring from a second treatment team focusing on narcotics addiction, and potentially, to serve as an untapped source of opioid medication for pain that is less subject to abuse, misuse, or diversion).

  13. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  14. Anti-Addiction Meds Given in ER Can Help Battle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services. More Health News on: Emergency Medical Services Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Emergency Medical Services Opioid Abuse and Addiction About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  15. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ AntonioGuillern After ... English Español "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  16. [Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Rodríguez Monje, María Teresa; Ruiz Sánchez De León, José María

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone is a relatively new technological tool, versatile and accessible, and very attractive, especially for young people, but whose use involves a risk of abuse and addictive behavior. In recent years there has been increasing interest in this problem, especially in view of the fact that it involves an increasingly younger population. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of scientific knowledge about cell phone addiction/abuse. To this end, a search was carried out in international databases, using the descriptors "mobile phone", "cellular telephones", "addiction" and "abuse", and focusing on prevalence studies, diagnostic tests, associations with psychological variables and gender differences. There is a conceptual vagueness about the concepts of abuse and addiction in relation to mobile phones, and wide disparity in the adoption of diagnostic criteria; moreover, there are numerous instruments for the assessment of these concepts. As a result, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0-38%, depending on the scale used and the characteristics of the population studied. Surprisingly, self-attribution of cell phone addiction exceeds the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The personality trait most consistently associated with addiction is low self-esteem, though extraversion is associated with more intense use. Women with low self-esteem are the most vulnerable group, and the most commonly associated psychopathological symptom was depression. In short, while the evidence suggests a problem in relation to mobile phone use, the vagueness of the cell phone addiction concept and the poor quality of the studies make it difficult to generalize the results. It is necessary to define and unify criteria with a view to carrying out quality studies that permit appropriate comparisons.

  17. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  18. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... this "the munchies." People who smoke marijuana often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  19. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug ... was addicted to heroin. Here, he describes the drug's effects on his life. Read Deon's story About the ...

  20. Curricular Guidelines for Pharmacy Education: Substance Abuse and Addictive Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy guidelines for required and elective instructional content concerning substance abuse for pharmacy students is presented. Recommended required content includes psychosocial aspects of drug use; pharmacology and toxicology; identification, intervention, and treatment of addiction; and legal issues.…

  1. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    PubMed

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.

  2. Community drug abuse prevention in a Hmong village in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Keawkingkeo, Suwanee

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this project was to implement a model of drug abuse prevention, drawing on health care, psychosocial and legal principles, in a selected village community in Thailand. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies were used within a nursing conceptual framework that included the interactions among the person, drugs, and environment. An initial community survey revealed 112 addicted individuals and identified many atrisk groups, such as children of addicted parents, adolescents, and women. Primary health care and dental health services were provided in the community, as well as drug abuse education and activities for school children and at-risk groups. Treatment camps were also established in the community on two occasions to provide detoxification and rehabilitation services for addicted individuals. At the end of the 3-year program, there were no new addicted individuals, and the number of addicted individuals decreased from 112 to 50 (after first treatment) and 26 (after second treatment). In addition, the villagers were more aware of problems related to using opium and heroin and of modern, approved drugs to treat illnesses. The prevention strategies were beneficial for the community members, as well as the addicted individuals and theirfamilies.

  3. Signs of Painkiller Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... loved one, get them from a friend, or buy them from a dealer. Some people might even ...

  4. Molecular genetic underpinnings of human substance abuse vulnerability: likely contributions to understanding addiction as a mnemonic process.

    PubMed

    Uhl, George R

    2004-01-01

    Classical genetic studies document strong complex genetic contributions to abuse of multiple addictive substances. These genetic influences are more prominent in the later phases of individuals' progressions toward substance dependence. Individual differences in human addiction vulnerability could thus derive, in part, from individual differences in mnemonic systems. These variations could add to allelic variations that could produce effects on addiction vulnerability phenotypes by other routes that could include (1) differences in drug metabolism or biodistribution, (2) differences in drug's rewarding properties, (3) differences in traits manifest by the addict, including personality differences and (4) differences in the addict's psychiatric comorbidities. Data from linkage and association genome scans now identify chromosomal regions that are likely to contain allelic gene variants that contribute to human addiction vulnerability. Converging positive results are found in several different substance-abusing populations studied in several laboratories. This convergence supports the idea that common allelic variants contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to substance dependence. Genomic markers that identify allelic variants that reproducibly alter addiction vulnerability in several populations provide tools for research in addictions, tools to improve addiction treatments, tools to improve addiction prevention, clues to the genetic bases of individual differences in mnemonic processes and clues to the genetic bases of individual differences in the other traits and disorders that co-occur with substance dependencies.

  5. Interdisciplinary research training in substance abuse and addictions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that the management of complex problems of and related to substance abuse and addictions require comprehensive approaches based on solid research. Nonetheless, timely and widespread dissemination of research findings remains uncommon, hindering nursing practice, impeding the health of individuals and families, and imposing untoward costs for society. Shifts in science paradigms underscore the need for efficient and effective interdisciplinary research teams to carry out innovative research within a translational science framework. This means that early career investigators will need the knowledge and skills to conduct research as part of an interdisciplinary team and to contribute systematically to translational research in the area of substance abuse and addictions. This brief report describes a nursing research training program sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that evolved into an interdisciplinary program administrated within a school of nursing. Factors conducive to program development are described, along with the structure and elements of the program and examples of the scholars' projects and accomplishments. The common benefits of interdisciplinary research training for both predoctoral and postdoctoral research scholars include consistent exposure to new and alternative scientific models and methodological approaches as well as endurance of cross-discipline network connections. Benefits and challenges of this program carry implications for the design of future nursing research training programs in the field of substance abuse and addictions.

  6. Co-Existent Fruit Machine Addiction and Solvent Abuse in Adolescence: A Cause for Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Data from study of gambling cross-addictions highlighted 16 agencies reporting that fruit machine gambling was specifically associated with some form of psychoactive substance abuse. Largest subgroup was cross-addictions involving solvent abuse and fruit machine gambling. Concluded that co-existence of fruit machine addiction and solvent abuse…

  7. ABUSE VICTIMIZATION IN CHILDHOOD OR ADOLESCENCE AND RISK OF FOOD ADDICTION IN ADULT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan J.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Design and Methods The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Results Over eight percent of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 units of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). Conclusions A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. PMID:23637085

  8. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given.

  9. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  10. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published. PMID:27998173

  11. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  12. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  13. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  14. Therapeutic Progression in Abused Women Following a Drug-Addiction Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl; Azanza, Paula

    2015-06-30

    This study explored the prevalence of victims of abuse and the therapeutic progression among women who sought treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 180 addicted Spanish women was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), socio-demographic factors, consumption variables, and psychological symptoms. Of the total sample, 74.4% (n = 134) of the addicted women had been victims of abuse. Psychological abuse affected 66.1% (n = 119) of the patients, followed by physical abuse (51.7%; n = 93) and sexual abuse (31.7%; n = 57). Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted women with histories of victimization scored significantly higher on several European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and psychological variables. Specifically, physical abuse and sexual abuse were related to higher levels of severity of addiction. Regarding therapeutic progression, the highest rate of dropout was observed among victims of sexual abuse (63.5%; n = 33), followed by victims of physical abuse (48.9%; n = 23). Multivariate analysis showed that medical and family areas of the EuropASI, as well as violence problems and suicide ideation, were the main variables related to physical and/or sexual abuse. Moreover, women without abuse and with fewer family problems presented the higher probability of treatment completion. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Pharmacists' role in addressing opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the scope of the problem of opioid misuse; explore pharmacists' roles and responsibilities regarding opioid use; discuss existing laws, guidelines, and regulations governing opioid management; identify potential patient and practice management strategies to address opioid abuse; and disseminate leader insights on these issues. DATA SOURCES Information presented at a conference convened by the American Pharmacists Association (Pharmacists' Role in Addressing Opioid Abuse, Addiction, and Diversion; held November 15, 2012) and discussed in conference workgroups, as well as related information from the literature. SUMMARY Opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion has grown dramatically since the early 1990s and affects public health considerably. In 2011, more individuals died from drug overdoses than from motor vehicle accidents. Strategies are available that pharmacists can use to reduce the likelihood of opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion while minimizing the impact on legitimate pain management efforts. These strategies and tools can be used to support (1) the assessment of prescriptions that are presented for opioid medications, (2) the management of patients receiving opioids, and (3) follow-up options when misuse, abuse, or diversion has been identified. CONCLUSION Implementation of systems and processes that support pharmacist management of opioid-related issues under financially viable business models would create a number of opportunities to improve patient care.

  16. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  17. Imaging dopamine’s role in drug abuse and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.J.; Baler, R.; Telang, F.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine is involved in drug reinforcement but its role in addiction is less clear. Here we describe PET imaging studies that investigate dopamine’s involvement in drug abuse in the human brain. In humans the reinforcing effects of drugs are associated with large and fast increases in extracellular dopamine, which mimic those induced by physiological dopamine cell firing but are more intense and protracted. Since dopamine cells fire in response to salient stimuli, supraphysiological activation by drugs is experienced as highly salient (driving attention, arousal, conditioned learning and motivation) and with repeated drug use may raise the thresholds required for dopamine cell activation and signaling. Indeed, imaging studies show that drug abusers have marked decreases in dopamine D2 receptors and in dopamine release. This decrease in dopamine function is associated with reduced regional activity in orbitofrontal cortex (involved in salience attribution; its disruption results in compulsive behaviors), cingulate gyrus (involved in inhibitory control; its disruption results in impulsivity) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (involved in executive function; its disruption results in impaired regulation of intentional actions). In parallel, conditioning triggered by drugs leads to enhanced dopamine signaling when exposed to conditioned cues, which then drives the motivation to procure the drug in part by activation of prefrontal and striatal regions. These findings implicate deficits in dopamine activity—inked with prefrontal and striatal deregulation—in the loss of control and compulsive drug intake that results when the addicted person takes the drugs or is exposed to conditioned cues. The decreased dopamine function in addicted individuals also reduces their sensitivity to natural reinforcers. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring brain dopaminergic tone and activity of cortical projection regions could improve prefrontal function, enhance inhibitory

  18. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  19. Emotional Disturbance and Substance Abuse/Addiction Special Education Programming for the Dually-Diagnosed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdaniak, Roman C.

    Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…

  20. Preventing Drug Abuse Through Behavior Change Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses several principles derived from learning theory which aid in understanding the use and abuse of drugs and illustrates their role in behavioral group counseling, a promising new strategy for drug abuse prevention. (JC)

  1. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction, and Relapse...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2013 - 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction...address stress and PTSD mechanisms as targets for pharmacotherapy of PTSD and alcohol abuse are proceeding on schedule . 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, alcohol

  2. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  3. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  4. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  5. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  6. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  7. Preventing Sexual Abuse. Reference Sheet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…

  8. Preventing Drug Abuse: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Through a review of the research literature, this article provides information about the characteristics of drug abusers and drug abuse programs that promise to be effective. Common themes which would have meaning for counselors involved in the development and implementation of drug prevention programs are presented. (Author)

  9. Incestuous Sexual Abuse: Preventing the Scars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)

  10. Substance abuse prevention and treatment within the criminal justice system: an overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Baird, Carolyn

    2012-02-01

    Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.

  11. Birth Order and Polydrug Abuse Among Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Steven E.; Linder, Ronald L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of possible relationships between birth order and polydrug use patterns of heroin addicts prior to undergoing treatment. Overrepresentation of "only child" heroin addicts was evident among the population studied. (Author)

  12. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    alcohol and other drug abuse , b) the results of this investigation will facilitate translating prazosin treatment to clinical implementation in the...Exp Res 36:594-603. Koob GF, Le Moal M. (1997) Drug abuse : hedonic homeostatic dys- regulation. Science 278:52-8. Krystal JH, Webb E, Grill on C et al...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse , Addiction, and Relapse

  13. Preventing Child Placement in Substance-Abusing Families: Research-Informed Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Martha Morrison; Doris, Joan M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relationship between program involvement, status of addiction treatment, and outcomes for caregivers and children participating in a placement prevention program for substance-abusing mothers and other primary caregivers reported for child maltreatment. Findings indicated that nearly half the participants were able to complete addiction…

  14. Family interventions to prevent substance abuse: children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loveland-Cherry, C J

    2000-01-01

    Substance abuse often begins in adolescence and is a major factor determining health outcomes for adolescents and adults; thus, it is an important focus for prevention strategies. The use of drugs, especially alcohol, can lead to chronic addiction to substances as well as contribute to a number of common chronic conditions. These conditions include cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability from accidents or violence, and unplanned pregnancy and are major causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. As the major social unit responsible for socialization of children and stabilization of adult personalities, the family has been the target of prevention efforts. In this chapter the empirical literature on family interventions to prevent substance use in adolescents is critically reviewed, generalizations and implications for practice identified, and directions for future research projected.

  15. Prevention of addiction in pain management

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-09-06

    The present invention provides a composition for treating pain. The composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable analgesic and a GABAergic agent, such as gamma vinyl GABA, effective in reducing or eliminating the addictive liability of the analgesic. The invention also includes a method for reducing or eliminating the addictive

  16. [Prevention of addiction in hospital staff].

    PubMed

    Picchiottino, Frédérique

    2012-11-01

    La Pitié-Salpêtrière-Charles Foix university hospital group (Paris) has set up a task force to help healthcare managers manage a member of staff suffering with addiction. An addiction awareness day is also organised, aimed at all staff, with information stands and a performance by a theatre company.

  17. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies.

  18. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS) were used for data collection. Results The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009). Conclusion Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. PMID:28182139

  19. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  20. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA.

  1. Adjuvants for Vaccines to Drugs of Abuse and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alving, Carl R.; Matyas, Gary R.; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. PMID:25111169

  2. Acetylcholine enhancement in the nucleus accumbens prevents addictive behaviors of cocaine and morphine.

    PubMed

    Hikida, Takatoshi; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Pastan, Ira; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2003-05-13

    Drug addiction poses serious social, medical, and economic problems, but effective treatments for drug addiction are still limited. Cocaine and morphine elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and the overwhelming actions of dopamine are implicated in reinforcement and addiction of abusive drugs. In our previous studies, we reported the regulatory role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the NAc function by selectively ablating the NAc cholinergic neurons with use of immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting. These studies indicated that ACh and dopamine acted convergently but oppositely on the NAc circuit and that cholinergic cell ablation enhanced long-lasting behavioral changes of cocaine addiction. In this investigation, we showed that immunotoxin-mediated ablation of the NAc cholinergic neurons enhanced not only the sensitivity to morphine in conditioned place preference but also negative reinforcement of morphine withdrawal in conditioned place aversion. Remarkably, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that act on the brain AChE suppressed both cocaine- and morphine-induced conditioned place preference and blocked the induction and persistence of cocaine-evoked hyperlocomotion. Importantly, this inhibition was abolished by ablation of the NAc cholinergic neurons. These results demonstrate that centrally active AChE inhibitors prevent long-lasting behavioral abnormalities associated with cocaine and morphine addictions by potentiating the actions of ACh released from the NAc cholinergic neurons. Centrally active AChE inhibitors could thus be approached as novel and potential therapeutic agents for drug addiction.

  3. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  4. Nicotine Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of tobacco products is one of the most critical health problems facing the country. Through the use of neuroimaging technologies, it is now possible to see some of the changes in brain functioning that occur from smoking. There may be other chemicals in cigarette smoke that contribute to addiction. The improved understanding of addiction,…

  5. Regulating gambling to prevent addiction: more necessary now than ever.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Mariano; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo

    2016-06-15

    The American Psychiatric Association published the 5th Edition of DSM in May 2013, in which the gambling disorder is included within the category of addictive disorders -a long-standing and recurrent demand from the clinical, social and scientific fields. Nevertheless, the harmful effects of gambling have not been considered by the Government, which is the main area of addiction prevention.The present article is a proposal for the regulation of gambling by the Government through the different levels of the State (national, regional and even local), which has the ultimate goal of preventing gambling addiction. This proposal has been presented to the Chamber of Deputies of the Congress, as part of the Congress-Senate Joint Committee for the Study of Drug Problems. The proposed regulation is based on the evidence provided by scientific studies on the prevention of addiction.

  6. 77 FR 12856 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Integration of Treatment and Prevention....: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  7. A Drug Abuse Prevention Strategy for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Anthony; Duncan, Terry; Irvine, A. Blair; Ary, Dennis; Smolkowski, Keith; James, Lisa

    This paper describes strategies for developing drug abuse prevention programs in rural communities, based on available evidence about factors contributing to drug abuse. Comprehensive interventions to prevent drug abuse and other youth problems are needed because drug abuse is entwined with other problem behaviors and stems from a complex set of…

  8. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  9. Program Evaluation Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substance abuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a discussion of approaches to process, outcome, and impact evaluation. Evaluation designs are reviewed with attention given to topics such as recruitment and retention of sites and participants, defining interventions,…

  10. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  11. Prediction and Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, R. A. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper uses the infectious disease model as an approach to the prevention of narcotic or poly drug abuse. It lists and discusses productive and counterproductive educational techniques on the basis of research findings and international reports on the outcomes of effective and counterproductive programs. (Author)

  12. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  13. [Correlation between childhood traumatic stress and present drug abuse: results of a nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation facilities in Japan].

    PubMed

    Umeno, Mitsuru; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koda, Minoru; Abe, Yukie; Endo, Keiko; Yabe, Yohko; Hirai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aikawa, Yuzo; Senoo, Eiichi; Nakatani, Yoji

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is known to correlate with drug abuse and interferes with recovery from substance-related disorders. To determine the prevalence and severity of child abuse among drug addicts, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of residents and outpatients at drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) in Japan. A total of 445 participants gave informed consent and completed a self-reporting questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of participants had experienced some kind of child abuse by the time they reached junior high school. The kinds of abuse experienced were physical (53.7%), psychological (60.4%), sexual (5.4%) abuse and neglect (24.5%). Comparison of female and male participants revealed that more female than male participants had experienced psychological (76.9% vs. 58.2%) and sexual (17.5% vs. 4.0%) abuse. Comparison of participants who had experienced some kind of child abuse ("Abused" group 68.3%) and those who had not experienced abuse ("Non-abused" group 24.3%) revealed that the "Abused" group was younger than the "Non-abused" group (35.7 SD9.0 vs. 39.7 SD10.8). Participants in the "Abused" group were found to have more severe psychological difficulties than those in the "Non-abused" group for the following: anxiety (73.0% vs. 61.1%), delusional atmosphere (48.0% vs. 28.7%), lack of energy (53.9% vs. 40.7%), ideas of persecution (48.7% vs. 29.6%), depression (62.2% vs. 43.5%) and suicidal ideation in the previous year (50.7% vs. 24.3%). The present results suggest that additional program that prepared to care the drug addicts who experienced child abuse and are experiencing suicidal ideation is needed. Furthermore, intervention for families with risk factors for child abuse should be developed in order to prevent the victim from suffering not only from post traumatic stress disorder but also from substance related disorders.

  14. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  15. Child abuse, drug addiction and mental health problems of incarcerated women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren

    2015-01-01

    The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. How To Prevent Roof Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways to prevent school roofing failure through good maintenance practice and the proper handling of emergency situations. What types of problems show up when roofs are not maintained are highlighted. (GR)

  17. Strategies for Preventing Substance Abuse with American Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Suggests strategies for assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs with American Indian youth. Illustrates use of each strategy with examples from drug abuse prevention activities in Northwest Indian communities. (JHZ)

  18. Sexual abuse: a comparison between resilient victims and drug-addicted victims.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M H; Nadeau, L

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which variables distinguish resilient victims from drug-addicted victims, who were sexually abused during their childhood--in addition, to measure the contribution of these variables to the level of distress experienced by the victims. There were two groups of 20 women interviewed. The resilient group showed no clinically significant symptoms of mental distress, and the addicted group were undergoing treatment for drug dependency. They all completed a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire regarding the type and severity of their sexual abuse, mental health status, self-esteem, locus of control, support and cognitive factors from Finkelhor's model. Both of these groups were equally and severely abused. Resilient and addicted women both received a moderate level of support. These women also reported the same sense of betrayal and powerlessness. Furthermore, both groups believe, to a large degree, that they now control what happens to them (internal locus of control). There were three distinguishing variables among the two groups, they were stigmatization, self-blame, and hazard for the locus of control. In comparison, resilient women had less self-blame for having been abused and they also felt less stigmatized than addicted women. In fact, stigmatization and self-blame account for 65% of the TSC-40 variance. These results suggest that cognitive strategies, particularly those that are linked to the interpretation of the event, may have some importance in the recovery.

  19. Unifying mechanism for toxicity and addiction by abused drugs: electron transfer and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Cooksy, Andrew L

    2005-01-01

    functionality capable of DNA base alkylation accompanied by ROS. LSD undergoes oxidation to a phenol which may be a quinone precursor. Therapeutic drugs display the indicated metabolic relationships: benzodiazepines, iminium; phenytoin, quinone; phenobarbital, catechol; aspirin, catechol and hydroquinone; acetaminophen, iminoquinone. Extensive evidence exists for formation of ROS, organ injury by OS, depletion of AOs, and protection by AOs for the various drugs. There is also discussion of computational approaches, addiction mechanism and prevention, and health promotion.

  20. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    PubMed

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  1. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... substance abuse are profound. Yet, we also know that they are preventable. This month, we pay tribute to all those working to prevent substance abuse in our communities, and we rededicate ourselves to building...

  2. Targeting Nicotine Addiction in a Substance Abuse Program

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, James R.; Schwartz, Steven; Nightingale, Thomas; Novak, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The potential benefits of addressing nicotine addiction as part of substance dependency treatment may include improved response to interventions for other addictions and, over the long term, reduced tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. The authors recount the experiences of three inpatient programs that instituted nicotine addiction interventions and a tobacco-free policy for both facilities and patients. After making adjustments to counter temporary adverse effects of the policy, two of the programs are achieving higher overall treatment completion rates than prior to implementation. Outstanding research issues include quantifying the costs and benefits of the antinicotine interventions, determining the long-term impact of tobacco-free treatment, and tailoring treatment to various patient groups. PMID:18552720

  3. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  4. Modelling human drug abuse and addiction with dedicated small animal positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Dalley, Jeffrey W; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Brichard, Laurent; Richards, Hugh K; Hong, Young T; Baron, Jean-Claude; Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder, which causes substantial harm to the addicted individual and society as a whole. Despite considerable research we still do not understand why some people appear particularly disposed to drug abuse and addiction, nor do we understand how frequently co-morbid brain disorders such as depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute causally to the emergence of addiction-like behaviour. In recent years positron emission tomography (PET) has come of age as a translational neuroimaging technique in the study of drug addiction, ADHD and other psychopathological states in humans. PET provides unparalleled quantitative assessment of the spatial distribution of radiolabelled molecules in the brain and because it is non-invasive permits longitudinal assessment of physiological parameters such as binding potential in the same subject over extended periods of time. However, whilst there are a burgeoning number of human PET experiments in ADHD and drug addiction there is presently a paucity of PET imaging studies in animals despite enormous advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders based on sophisticated animal models. This article highlights recent examples of successful cross-species convergence of findings from PET studies in the context of drug addiction and ADHD and identifies how small animal PET can more effectively be used to model complex psychiatric disorders involving at their core impaired behavioural self-control.

  5. The addicted brain: imaging neurological complications of recreational drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Filardi, A; Mazón, M

    Recreational drug abuse represents a serious public health problem. Neuroimaging traditionally played a secondary role in this scenario, where it was limited to detecting acute vascular events. However, thanks to advances in knowledge about disease and in morphological and functional imaging techniques, radiologists have now become very important in the diagnosis of acute and chronic neurological complications of recreational drug abuse. The main complications are neurovascular disease, infection, toxicometabolic disorders, and brain atrophy. The nonspecific symptoms and denial of abuse make the radiologist's involvement fundamental in the management of these patients. Neuroimaging makes it possible to detect early changes and to suggest an etiological diagnosis in cases with specific patterns of involvement. We aim to describe the pattern of abuse and the pathophysiological mechanisms of the drugs with the greatest neurological repercussions as well as to illustrate the depiction of the acute and chronic cerebral complications on conventional and functional imaging techniques.

  6. Substance abuse counselor certification in California: how is nicotine addiction addressed?

    PubMed

    Kurita, Keiko; Guydish, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Persons entering substance abuse treatment smoke at rates three to four times that of the general population, but programs providing substance abuse treatment rarely address comorbid nicotine addiction. With California's recent adoption of a regulation requiring alcohol and other drug (AOD) counselors to be certified, this study explored the degree to which nicotine addiction education was required or recommended to obtain certification by examining pertinent documentation and Web sites. Findings reveal two main points. First, the text of the California AOD Counselor Certification regulation and supporting documents make no mention of cigarettes, nicotine, smoking, or tobacco, and thus do not mandate or recommend they be addressed in the counselor certification process. Second, although nicotine or tobacco were not mentioned in regulatory or supporting documents, four of the 10 certifying organizations mentioned nicotine at least once in handbooks, program books, continuing education topics, or other materials available online. One certifying organization offered specialization in smoking and nicotine addiction as separate tracks within its certification training program. While systematic inclusion of smoking and nicotine addiction in counselor training offers one strategy to address smoking in substance abuse treatment settings, these topics are not addressed in regulations or supporting documents governing the certification of California AOD counselors.

  7. Overlaps in the nosology of substance abuse and overeating: the translational implications of "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Gold, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic has led to the postulation that highly palatable foods may be "addictive" for some individuals. This idea is supported by the fact that there are overlaps in brain circuitry that underlie addictive behavior as well as overeating. In this paper, we discuss the utility of the concept of "food addiction" as it may relate to treating certain disordered eating behaviors. Using criteria set forth in the DSM-IV for substance-use disorders, we review data that have emerged from animal models suggesting that overeating, in the form of binge eating, fits some of the criteria for substance abuse. Further, we discuss preclinical data revealing that the addiction-like behavioral changes observed in response to overeating are concomitant with neurochemical changes that are similar to those observed in response to drugs of abuse. With this background and evidence in mind, we conclude this article with a discussion as to how "food addiction" research may translate into clinical strategies and pharmaceutical treatments useful in curtailing overeating.

  8. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  9. The Prevention of Elder Abuse: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Deborah T.; Gwyther, Lisa P.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that research on elder abuse highlights importance of communication and conflict resolution in families of older people, and that few prevention programs are available for use with community groups. Reviews literature on elder abuse and describes an educational curriculum designed to prevent abuse and neglect in families of the elderly.…

  10. The Enough Abuse Campaign: building the movement to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.

  11. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  12. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  13. Prevention and treatment of drug addiction by environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie; Chauvet, Claudia; Jaber, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to have powerful beneficial effects on a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Accumulating evidence indicates that EE can mimic positive life experiences and prevent the development of drug addiction. More recently, EE has also been shown to eliminate already developed addiction-related behaviors and to reduce the risks of relapse. These preventive and "curative" effects of EE are associated with dramatic plastic changes in several brain areas such as the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the striatum. EE alters neurotransmitter systems, produces changes in gene expression and transcription factors, induces chromatin rearrangement, and stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we review the existent literature on behavioral, neurochemical, cellular and molecular effects of EE and we discuss different possible ways in which EE-induced neuroadaptations result in decreased vulnerability to addiction and relapse. We propose a unified theoretical framework in which EE is seen as a functional opposite of stress. On the one hand, the antistress effects of EE would reduce the reinforcing effects of drugs and their ability to induce long-lasting neuroplastic changes and, thus, they would prevent the development of drug addiction. On the other hand, permanent or transient restoration of the normal, pre-drug functioning of the stress system would facilitate resisting prepotent desire to take drug and it would decrease the risks of relapse. This theoretical framework highlights the importance of stress in each phase of drug addiction and strongly suggests that life conditions of abstinent addicts should be considered as part of their treatment.

  14. Rates of opioid misuse, abuse, and addiction in chronic pain: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vowles, Kevin E; McEntee, Mindy L; Julnes, Peter Siyahhan; Frohe, Tessa; Ney, John P; van der Goes, David N

    2015-04-01

    Opioid use in chronic pain treatment is complex, as patients may derive both benefit and harm. Identification of individuals currently using opioids in a problematic way is important given the substantial recent increases in prescription rates and consequent increases in morbidity and mortality. The present review provides updated and expanded information regarding rates of problematic opioid use in chronic pain. Because previous reviews have indicated substantial variability in this literature, several steps were taken to enhance precision and utility. First, problematic use was coded using explicitly defined terms, referring to different patterns of use (ie, misuse, abuse, and addiction). Second, average prevalence rates were calculated and weighted by sample size and study quality. Third, the influence of differences in study methodology was examined. In total, data from 38 studies were included. Rates of problematic use were quite broad, ranging from <1% to 81% across studies. Across most calculations, rates of misuse averaged between 21% and 29% (range, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13%-38%). Rates of addiction averaged between 8% and 12% (range, 95% CI: 3%-17%). Abuse was reported in only a single study. Only 1 difference emerged when study methods were examined, where rates of addiction were lower in studies that identified prevalence assessment as a primary, rather than secondary, objective. Although significant variability remains in this literature, this review provides guidance regarding possible average rates of opioid misuse and addiction and also highlights areas in need of further clarification.

  15. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  16. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  17. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  18. BAP updated guidelines: evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity: recommendations from BAP.

    PubMed

    Lingford-Hughes, A R; Welch, S; Peters, L; Nutt, D J

    2012-07-01

    The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the treatment of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity with psychiatric disorders primarily focus on their pharmacological management. They are based explicitly on the available evidence and presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners alongside a detailed review of the evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in the treatment of these disorders, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of the evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after feedback from participants. The guidelines primarily cover the pharmacological management of withdrawal, short- and long-term substitution, maintenance of abstinence and prevention of complications, where appropriate, for substance abuse or harmful use or addiction as well management in pregnancy, comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and in younger and older people.

  19. Preventing Drug Abuse in the Workplace. Drug Abuse Prevention Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Resnik, Henry

    This monograph is designed to help employers, employees, managers, and union officials develop effective workplace policies and programs to prevent drug and alcohol abuse and other health problems. The text of the monograph: (1) presents information regarding the costs of drug and alcohol use in the workplace, and evidence of potential…

  20. It Starts With People: Experiences in Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Henry S.

    The question of drug abuse prevention is examined in this booklet. Addressing itself to a variety of disciplines and professions, the book reveals the effectiveness of prevention programs implemented in classroom, school and community settings. It draws on the experiences of several dozen drug abuse prevention programs that were either visited or…

  1. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Do They Decrease the Occurrence of Child Sexual Abuse?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 825 female undergraduates found 62 percent participated in a "good touch-bad touch" sexual abuse prevention program in school. Eight percent who reported ever having had a prevention program also reported having been subsequently sexually abused, compared to 14 percent who did not ever have a prevention program. (Contains references.)…

  3. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the...

  4. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  5. Measures to prevent and reduce drug abuse among young people in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khant, U

    1985-01-01

    Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  7. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  8. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez.…

  9. Teen Involvement for Drug Abuse Prevention. Administrator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Gladys E.; Brayer, Herbert O.

    The Teen Involvement program is implemented primarily by youth, with guidance and direction from qualified, concerned adults. It aims at preventing substance abuse by utilizing positive youth-to-youth communications. Junior and senior high school students are trained to discusses causes of drug abuse and ways of preventing it with students in…

  10. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  11. Substance Abuse Prevention Education. Special Topic Curriculum Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    This curriculum resources packet provides the most current information available in substance abuse prevention education. Its stated purpose is to assist schools in combating the problem of substance abuse through effective prevention/education programs. These topic areas are discussed: (1) drugs and their effects; (2) continuum of drug use; (3)…

  12. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  13. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  14. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction A A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  15. Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Drug Abuse Opioid Abuse and Addiction Prescription Drug Abuse Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Drug Abuse Opioid Abuse and Addiction Prescription Drug Abuse About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  16. Preventing Elder Abuse: The Texas Plan for a Coordinated Service Delivery System. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention project. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for achieving a coordinated service delivery system for…

  17. Methylphenidate and μ opioid receptor interactions: a pharmacological target for prevention of stimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinmin; Spencer, Thomas J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used and highly effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. As the therapeutic use of MPH has increased, so has its abuse and illicit street-use. Yet, the mechanisms associated with development of MPH-associated abuse and dependence are not well understood making it difficult to develop methods to help its mitigation. As a result, many ADHD patients especially children and youth, that could benefit from MPH treatment do not receive it and risk lifelong disabilities associated with untreated ADHD. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms associated with development of MPH addiction and designing methods to prevent it assume high public health significance. Using a mouse model we show that supra-therapeutic doses of MPH produce rewarding effects (surrogate measure for addiction in humans) in a conditioned place preference paradigm and upregulate μ opioid receptor (MOPR) activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, brain regions associated with reward circuitry. Co-administration of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, prevents MPH-induced MOPR activation and the rewarding effects. The MPH-induced MOPR activation and rewarding effect require activation of the dopamine D1 but not the D2-receptor. These findings identify the MOPR as a potential target for attenuating rewarding effects of MPH and suggest that a formulation that combines naltrexone with MPH could be a useful pharmaceutical approach to alleviate abuse potential of MPH and other stimulants.

  18. Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…

  19. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  20. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...

  1. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Falcheri, J-P; Waelchli, M; Simon, O; Rossier, V

    2012-01-11

    The news in addiction medicine for 2011 include new knowledges coming from the neurosciences, but also new clinical concepts, as the role of hospital addiction units in an integrated network of care. The issue of cocaine vaccination is discussed from an ethical point of view. Finally, the integration of mindfulness techniques is introduced as a useful approach in the treatment of the addictions.

  2. [AIDS epidemiology and prevention in i.v. drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Uchtenhagen, A

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS cases in intravenous drug abusers is growing faster than in other risk groups, in Switzerland as well as in Europe in general. By end of May 1988, 27% of all AIDS cases registered nationally were injecting drugs. The prevalence of HIV antibodies is known from selected samples only, on the basis of voluntary testing. In 1986, among all intravenous drug users in residential treatment nation-wide, 90% were tested and thereof 55% seropositive. In a sample of drug abusers in out-patient treatment in Zurich in 1987, seropositivity was documented for 42% of male and 63% of female patients. According to registered AIDS cases, there is no differential risk for both sexes. Duration of intravenous drug abuse is the only relevant risk factor so far. Preventive change in risk taking behaviour is a minimalization of utilizing contaminated syringes/needles and a minimalization of unprotected sex (safer sex by regular use of condoms). An analysis of published data demonstrates that dissemination of information and availability of syringes/condoms are a pre-requisite for behaviour change, but by no means sufficient in order to elicit behaviour change. Drug abusers engaged in out-patient/residential treatment are available in high proportions for voluntary testing and for the intended behavioural changes. It is therefore of primary preventive interest to engage as many intravenous drug abusers as possible in treatment. Apart from drug-free residential treatment, out-patient treatment using Methadone provides positive results, whereas compulsory measures are considered to be of doubtful value.

  3. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  4. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  5. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  6. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  7. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  8. Alternatives to Drug Abuse: Steps Toward Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Allan Y.

    This publication introduces and describes new efforts based on the concept of alternatives to drug abuse. The pamphlet is designed for educators, community groups, drug abuse professionals, treatment personnel, parents and young people. According to those who espouse the alternatives approach, motives for drug-taking inevitably include the need to…

  9. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  10. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... child or someone you know is an inhalant abuser, what can you do to help? Be alert for symptoms of inhalant abuse. If you suspect there's a problem, you should consider seeking professional help. Contact a local drug rehabilitation center or other services available in your ...

  11. Addiction.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2003-01-01

    The development of addiction involves a transition from casual to compulsive patterns of drug use. This transition to addiction is accompanied by many drug-induced changes in the brain and associated changes in psychological functions. In this article we present a critical analysis of the major theoretical explanations of how drug-induced alterations in psychological function might cause a transition to addiction. These include: (a) the traditional hedonic view that drug pleasure and subsequent unpleasant withdrawal symptoms are the chief causes of addiction; (b) the view that addiction is due to aberrant learning, especially the development of strong stimulus-response habits; (c) our incentive-sensitization view, which suggests that sensitization of a neural system that attributes incentive salience causes compulsive motivation or "wanting" to take addictive drugs; and (d) the idea that dysfunction of frontal cortical systems, which normally regulate decision making and inhibitory control over behavior, leads to impaired judgment and impulsivity in addicts.

  12. Drugs of abuse and addiction: A slippery slope toward liver injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata

    2016-08-05

    Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here.

  13. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  14. Substance Abuse Prevention: Maine's 1997 Data Report. County Profiles on Risk and Protection for Substance Abuse Prevention Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Augusta.

    This document presents uniformly collected data for the State of Maine and each of its counties on selected known risk factors for alcohol and drug abuse and the prevalence of substance abuse-related problems. A "Read Me First" section presents the state's approach to prevention. Information is provided on risk and protective factors,…

  15. Circadian Rhythms and Substance Abuse: Chronobiological Considerations for the Treatment of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ian C

    2017-02-01

    Reward-related learning, including that associated with drugs of abuse, is largely mediated by the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. Mesolimbic neurophysiology and motivated behavior, in turn, are modulated by the circadian timing system which generates ∼24-h rhythms in cellular activity. Both drug taking and seeking and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission can vary widely over the day. Moreover, circadian clock genes are expressed in ventral tegmental area dopaminergic cells and in mesolimbic target regions where they can directly modulate reward-related neurophysiology and behavior. There also exists a reciprocal influence between drug taking and circadian timing as the administration of drugs of abuse can alter behavioral rhythms and circadian clock gene expression in mesocorticolimbic structures. These interactions suggest that manipulations of the circadian timing system may have some utility in the treatment of substance abuse disorders. Here, the literature on bidirectional interactions between the circadian timing system and drug taking is briefly reviewed, and potential chronotherapeutic considerations for the treatment of addiction are discussed.

  16. Anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody antagonists designed to prevent the progression of human diseases of addiction.

    PubMed

    Gentry, W B; Rüedi-Bettschen, D; Owens, S M

    2010-09-01

    Anti-(+)-methamphetamine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have the potential to reduce the devastating behavioral and societal effects of the worldwide epidemic of (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction and transform the treatment paradigm for diseases of addiction. These novel, protein-based medications could play a vital role in helping patients to achieve sustainable abstinence from METH abuse by serving as an in vivo, around-the-clock sentry against a patient's vulnerability to relapse.

  17. Addiction Research Centres and the Nurturing of Creativity. Substance abuse research in a modern health care centre: the case of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman; Gliksman, Louis; Graham, Kathryn; Le, Anh D; Mann, Robert E; Room, Robin; Rush, Brian; Tyndale, Rachel F; Wells, Samantha

    2011-04-01

    The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health is one of the premier centres for research related to substance use and addiction. This research began more than 50 years ago with the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF), an organization that contributed significantly to knowledge about the aetiology, treatment and prevention of substance use, addiction and related harm. After the merger of the ARF with three other institutions in 1998, research on substance use continued, with an additional focus on comorbid substance use and other mental health disorders. In the present paper, we describe the structure of funding and organization and selected current foci of research. We argue for the continuation of this successful model of integrating basic, epidemiological, clinical, health service and prevention research under the roof of a health centre.

  18. The Protected Addiction: Exploring Staff Beliefs toward Integrating Tobacco Dependence into Substance Abuse Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teater, Barbra; Hammond, Gretchen Clark

    2009-01-01

    Survey research was used to explore the beliefs of 963 staff members regarding the myths to treating tobacco dependence and the integration of tobacco dependence into substance abuse treatment programs. The staff represented a mixture of residential, outpatient, and prevention-based gender-specific (women only) treatment centers throughout Ohio.…

  19. A review of addiction.

    PubMed

    Clay, Steven W; Allen, Jason; Parran, Theorore

    2008-07-31

    Addiction to drugs and alcohol is often undiagnosed and untreated. Physicians are often unaware or have negative attitudes regarding these patients, such as the perception that treatment is ineffective. Addiction--psychological dependence with or without tolerance and withdrawal--is essentially compulsive uncontrolled substance use despite physical, psychological, or social consequences. We now have an understanding of the 2 major neurological pathways involved in addiction. First, the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which is essential for survival, can be physically altered by drug abuse to result in uncontrolled cravings. Second, the decision-making prefrontal cortex, which suppresses inappropriate reward response, can also be altered by drug abuse. Thus, accelerated "go" signals and impaired "stop" signals result in uncontrolled use despite severe consequences. Further, addicts can be predisposed to addiction by genetic defects in reward pathway neurotransmission and stress-related developmental brain abnormalities. Relapse to drug use can occur because of stress or cue-related reward pathway stimulation or even by a single drug dose. Individualized treatment of addiction, including pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions, can be as successful as treatment of other chronic diseases. Several pharmaceuticals are available or under study for these disorders. Waiting for the addict to "be ready" for treatment can be dangerous and detoxification alone is often ineffective. The physician's role in treating addiction includes prevention, diagnosis, brief intervention, motivational interviewing, referral, and follow-up care. An understanding of the biological reality of addiction allows physicians to understand addicts as having a brain disease. Further, the reality of effective pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for addiction allows physicians to be more optimistic in treating addicts. The challenge to the physician is to embrace the

  20. 77 FR 58855 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Use Prevention, Addiction, Treatment, and HIV (R21/R33). Date: October 25, 2012. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m... Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of...

  1. [Personality differences between alcohol abusers and matched controls: Relation to frontal symptoms and subtypes of addicts].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo José; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Olivar Arroyo, Alvaro; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies usually show a link between personality disorders and addictions. Dimensional models of personality, such as that of Cloninger, are able to diagnose and discriminate between transient dysfunctional behavior styles and relatively more stable traits. Certain brain areas have been proposed, as trait locations, based on their activation. This paper explores differences in personality traits among a sample of alcohol abusers (N= 95) and a control group of non-clinical population (N= 95), matched in sociodemographic variables, using the TCI-R-67 and the FrSBe-Sp. It is hypothesized that such differences are associated with frontal symptomatology. The existence of different subgroups of addicts based on certain combinations of traits is also analyzed. Results showed significant differences in two temperament traits (Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance) and a characterial trait (Self-Direction). We also found a correlation with a large effect size between these traits and frontal symptomatology. Cluster analysis classified the participants into several subtypes with different combinations of traits that matched diverse frontal symptomatology. Possible neurobiological explanations of these differences and their importance in the clinical practice are discussed.

  2. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  3. Opioid addiction and abuse in primary care practice: a comparison of methadone and buprenorphine as treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Jean; Shim, Ruth S; Gooden, Richard; Tyus, Dawn; Rust, George

    2012-01-01

    Opioid abuse and addiction have increased in frequency in the United States over the past 20 years. In 2009, an estimated 5.3 million persons used opioid medications nonmedically within the past month, 200000 used heroin, and approximately 9.6% of African Americans used an illicit drug. Racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and access to mental health care, including substance use disorders. Primary care practitioners are often called upon to differentiate between appropriate, medically indicated opioid use in pain management vs inappropriate abuse or addiction. Racial and ethnic minority populations tend to favor primary care treatment settings over specialty mental health settings. Recent therapeutic advances allow patients requiring specialized treatment for opioid abuse and addiction to be managed in primary care settings. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 enables qualified physicians with readily available short-term training to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting, potentially making primary care physicians active partners in the diagnosis and treatment of opioid use disorders. Methadone and buprenorphine are effective opioid replacement agents for maintenance and/or detoxification of opioid-addicted individuals. However, restrictive federal regulations and stigmatization of opioid addiction and treatment have limited the availability of methadone. The opioid partial agonist-antagonist buprenorphine/naloxone combination has proven an effective alternative. This article reviews the literature on differences between buprenorphine and methadone regarding availability, efficacy, safety, side-effects, and dosing, identifying resources for enhancing the effectiveness of medication-assisted recovery through coordination with behavioral/psychological counseling, embedded in the context of recovery-oriented systems of care.

  4. Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” ... Neill’s gripping 1941 play of family alcohol and drug addiction. It was part of the Addiction Performance Project, ...

  5. Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Misguided Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Although the propensity for child abuse is shared among adults of all occupations and economic strata, this article is concerned mainly with child care professionals. Whatever the case may be, the result is the same: tragic violation of the trust that should exist between child and adult. What can be done to correct the situation? In this article…

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  7. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  8. Perspectives on marijuana use and abuse and recommendations for preventing abuse.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J F

    1981-01-01

    Survey research on levels of use and attitudes toward marijuana by youth indicate a consistently favorable attitude toward occasional, moderate use. Use of marijuana is contrasted with the use of alcohol and tobacco by youth. Research findings re the dangers of marijuana use are summarized. The inability of legislators and law enforcement personnel to control access to and use of marijuana, coupled with the high cost of our present legal response to the marijuana challenge, leads to recommending legalization of marijuana, as well as, developing a generic primary prevention program for marijuana abuse which features distinguishing "responsible use" from "abuse." Criteria for judging marijuana abuse are provided.

  9. Prevention of child sexual abuse: a survey of 87 programs.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C A

    2001-10-01

    In the past, child sexual abuse prevention programs have been examined for changes in children's knowledge, attitude and skills about preventing sexual abuse. Although many studies challenge prevention programs to incorporate a variety of methods, including parent education and community awareness efforts, little is known about how prevention programs actually function in their community contexts. This exploratory study reports data from 87 programs as provided by program leaders and advocates. Variables considered include: funding, types of materials and approaches utilized, barriers encountered, length of program existence, demographics of target populations, and demographics of those spearheading local prevention programs. Prevention leaders indicated that program continuance is affected by factors such as adequate and secure funding, community level of denial, competing agendas, and community collaboration. This study also documents that programs are responding to challenges in the literature to improve prevention program components, although one-time programs for children are still the norm.

  10. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  11. Ex-Addicts as Streetworkers. The Boyle Heights Narcotics Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, Gilbert; And Others

    The Boyle Heights Narcotics Prevention Project, located in a Mexican-American Community, attempted to answer the question: what happens when thirty ex-heroin addicts are hired at $600.00 per month to assist practicing addicts and potential drug users? The lengthy report discusses what the project was about, what it accomplished, and how it…

  12. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    PubMed

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  13. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  14. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  15. ZNF804A variants confer risk for heroin addiction and affect decision making and gray matter volume in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Li-Yan; Wang, Gui-Bin; Yue, Wei-Hua; He, Yong; Shu, Ni; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Fan; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Wang, Hui-Min; Kosten, Thomas R; Feng, Jia-Jia; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yu-De; Liu, Shu-Xue; Deng, Gui-Fa; Diao, Gan-Huan; Tan, Yun-Long; Han, Hong-Bin; Lin, Lu; Shi, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction shares common neurobiological pathways and risk genes with other psychiatric diseases, including psychosis. One of the commonly identified risk genes associated with broad psychosis has been ZNF804A. We sought to test whether psychosis risk variants in ZNF804A increase the risk of heroin addiction by modulating neurocognitive performance and gray matter volume (GMV) in heroin addiction. Using case-control genetic analysis, we compared the distribution of ZNF804A variants (genotype and haplotype) in 1035 heroin abusers and 2887 healthy subjects. We also compared neurocognitive performance (impulsivity, global cognitive ability and decision-making ability) in 224 subjects and GMV in 154 subjects based on the ZNF804A variants. We found significant differences in the distribution of ZNF804A intronic variants (rs1344706 and rs7597593) allele and haplotype frequencies between the heroin and control groups. Decision-making impairment was worse in heroin abusers who carried the ZNF804A risk allele and haplotype. Subjects who carried more risk alleles and haplotypes of ZNF804A had greater GMV in the bilateral insular cortex, right temporal cortex and superior parietal cortex. The interaction between heroin addiction and ZNF804A variants affected GMV in the left sensorimotor cortex. Our findings revealed several ZNF804A variants that were significantly associated with the risk of heroin addiction, and these variants affected decision making and GMV in heroin abusers compared with controls. The precise neural mechanisms that underlie these associations are unknown, which requires future investigations of the effects of ZNF804A on both dopamine neurotransmission and the relative increases in the volume of various brain areas.

  16. Substance Abuse and Addiction: The Interface of the Health and Criminal Justice Systems. Second Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The purpose of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education is to promote the role of physicians in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and after-care referral for substance abuse by improving medical education and training. This policy report is the product of 2 years of work and a national conference of the consortium and presents in full…

  17. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  18. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  19. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  20. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  1. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  2. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  3. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  4. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  5. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  6. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  7. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  8. Say It Straight: Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to…

  9. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  10. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  11. Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention: Working with Staff, Parents, and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phyfe-Perkins, Elizabeth; Birtwell, Nancy

    University Child Care at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst uses written policies, a personal safety curriculum, and parent-teacher dialogues to prevent child sexual abuse. This paper discusses aspects of these three components. Discussion of written policies focuses on the mandated reporter status of caregivers, state laws, procedures for…

  12. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  13. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Six. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  14. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Four. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  15. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Three. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  16. Drug Education Curriculum: Kindergarten. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  17. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  18. Rural Drug Abuse Prevention: Establishing Needs and Implementing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; And Others

    Designed as a handout for a poster presentation, this paper describes a drug prevalence survey used in Alabama, and methods of establishing drug abuse prevention programs. All students in grade 7, 9, and 11 in the state (N=140,000+) completed a 466-variable drug prevalence survey. The survey identified rates of use for 14 substances, including…

  19. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  20. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  1. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  2. Role of Natural Helpers in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballew, Julius R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)

  3. School/Community-Based Alcoholism/Substance Abuse Prevention Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owan, Tom Choken; And Others

    This report describes school and community efforts to prevent alcoholism and substance abuse among American Indian and Alaskan Native youth. In 1986, the Indian Health Service (IHS) surveyed Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, public schools with large Indian enrollments, and community groups involved in 225 IHS-funded alcohol and substance abuse…

  4. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  5. Unifying mechanism for addiction and toxicity of abused drugs with application to dopamine and glutamate mediators: electron transfer and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2005-01-01

    of action may exist for both categories since all provide metabolites with similar properties. Stimulation of mediator production by abused drugs can occur with subsequent oxidation by ROS, some of which may be supplied by the drugs. In addition to prevention, the difficult topic of addiction mechanism is addressed from the viewpoint of ET and ROS involvement. Low levels of ROS would pertain since high concentrations are related to toxicity. A report that tetrahydrocannabinol does not comprise a substantial risk is in accord with little evidence of OS and absence of ET functionalities in the drug and reported metabolites.

  6. [Heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    Heroin is an illicit, highly addictive drug. It is either the most abused or the most rapidly acting member of opioids. Abusers describe a feeling of a surge of pleasurable sensation, named as "rush" or "high". Repeated administration of high doses of heroin results in the induction of physical dependence. Physical dependence refers to an altered physiological state produced by chronic administration of heroin which necessitates the continued administration of the drug to prevent the appearance of a characteristic syndrome, the opioid withdrawal or abstinence syndrome. Withdrawal symptoms may occur within a few hours after the last administration of heroin. Symptoms of the withdrawal include restlessness, insomnia, drug craving, diarrhea, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, and leg movements. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose of heroin and subside after about a week. At this time, weakness and depression are pronounced and nausea and vomiting are common. Nevertheless, some chronic addicts have shown persistent withdrawal signs for many months or even years. Heroin addiction is considered as a behavioural state of compulsive drug use and a high tendency to relapse after periods of abstinence. It is generally accepted that compulsive use and relapse are typically associated with the status of heroin craving or heroin hunger that are difficult to define but appear to be powerful motivational significance in the addiction process. The route of administering heroin varies largely and may indicate the degree of seriousness of the individual's addiction. Intravenous administration seems to be the predominant method of heroin use, but recently a shift in heroin use pattern has been found, i.e. from injection to sniffing and smoking. Frequent injections coupled with widespread sharing of syringes increase the risk of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, C and other blood-borne infectious diseases. Long-term use of heroin

  7. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction

    PubMed Central

    RYAN, TRACII; CHESTER, ANDREA; REECE, JOHN; XENOS, SOPHIA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Recent research suggests that use of social networking sites can be addictive for some individuals. Due to the link between motivations for media use and the development of addiction, this systematic review examines Facebook-related uses and gratifications research and Facebook addiction research. Method: Searches of three large academic databases revealed 24 studies examining the uses and gratifications of Facebook, and nine studies of Facebook addiction. Results: Comparison of uses and gratifications research reveals that the most popular mo- tives for Facebook use are relationship maintenance, passing time, entertainment, and companionship. These motivations may be related to Facebook addiction through use that is habitual, excessive, or motivated by a desire for mood alteration. Examination of Facebook addiction research indicates that Facebook use can become habitual or excessive, and some addicts use the site to escape from negative moods. However, examination of Facebook addic- tion measures highlights inconsistency in the field. Discussion: There is some evidence to support the argument that uses and gratifications of Facebook are linked with Facebook addiction. Furthermore, it appears as if the social skill model of addiction may explain Facebook addiction, but inconsistency in the measurement of this condition limits the ability to provide conclusive arguments. Conclusions: This paper recommends that further research be performed to establish the links between uses and gratifications and Facebook addiction. Furthermore, in order to enhance the construct validity of Facebook addiction, researchers should take a more systematic approach to assessment. PMID:25317337

  8. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible.

  9. Elder Abuse: Global Situation, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Burnes, David; Riffin, Catherine; Lachs, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Elder mistreatment is now recognized internationally as a pervasive and growing problem, urgently requiring the attention of health care systems, social welfare agencies, policymakers, and the general public. In this article, we provide an overview of global issues in the field of elder abuse, with a focus on prevention. Design and Methods: This article provides a scoping review of key issues in the field from an international perspective. Results: By drawing primarily on population-based studies, this scoping review provided a more valid and reliable synthesis of current knowledge about prevalence and risk factors than has been available. Despite the lack of scientifically rigorous intervention research on elder abuse, the review also identified 5 promising strategies for prevention. Implications: The findings highlight a growing consensus across studies regarding the extent and causes of elder mistreatment, as well as the urgent need for efforts to make elder mistreatment prevention programs more effective and evidence based. PMID:26994260

  10. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  11. 3 CFR 8728 - Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 8728 Proclamation 8728 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 Proc. 8728 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President... chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse Prevention...

  12. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  13. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  14. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  15. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  16. Come Closer around the Fire. Using Tribal Legends, Myths, and Stories in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Multicultural Awareness, Arlington, VA.

    Intended for people working in drug abuse prevention or trying to help American Indian youth feel pride in themselves and their culture, the booklet provides specific guidelines on how to use tribal stories in preventing drug abuse. Following a brief introduction to drug abuse problems and prevention strategies, the booklet explains three kinds of…

  17. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  18. Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents “ ... VIDEO NIHSeniorHealth Videos Offer Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles—and Much More Many of the health ...

  19. [Prevention of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam

    2004-01-01

    At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.

  20. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse... meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Testing...

  1. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... meeting will also be available on the SAMHSA Web site after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance...

  2. Exploring the perspectives of substance abusing Black men who have sex with men and women in addiction treatment programs: a need for a human sexuality educational model for addiction professionals.

    PubMed

    Washington, Thomas Alex; Brocato, Jo

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the perspectives of African American male injection drug users who have sex with both men and women (IDU-MSM/W) and who are involved in sex trade regarding the need for a human sexuality educational model (HSEM) for addiction professionals. Focus groups were conducted involving an exploratory sample (N = 105) of men who met the following parameters: aged 18 to 40 years, African American, engage in injection drug using behavior, have sex with male and female partners, and who frequent parks and other sex working areas in Baltimore City and surrounding areas. Data suggest that an HSEM may be useful for addiction professionals who work with substance abusing Black MSM/W. Moreover, the model should include opportunities for addiction professionals to (a) identify their personal biases about homosexuality in general (acknowledging personal biases so not to allow those personal biases to influence service); (b) understand the diversity within the Black MSM/W community (e.g., challenge assumptions that all Black MSM/W self-identify as gay); (c) understand how to, and the need for, assessing sexual trauma in Black MSM/W; and (d) understand the need to incorporate risk factors and safer sex practices that may be of concern to a subpopulation of Black MSM/W, such as "barebacking." These findings suggest the need for, and topics to include in, an HSEM that assists professionals with exploring their biases about sexuality and MSM/W and better prepares counselors to address HIV prevention and risky behavior using language that is appropriate for the Black IDU-MSM/W population.

  3. Strategies to Prevent Opioid Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion That May Also Reduce the Associated Costs

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of prescription opioid drugs has the potential to lead to patient abuse of these medications, addiction, and diversion. Such an abuse is associated with increased costs because of excessive healthcare utilization. Finding ways to minimize the risk for abuse and addiction can enhance patient outcomes and reduce costs to patients and to payers. Objective To review current strategies that may reduce the risk for misuse and abuse of opioid medications, which in turn can enhance patient outcomes and lower costs to health insurers and patients. Discussion Implementing approaches that will encourage the use of safe practices (universal precautions) in pain management by providers can reduce the risk for abuse and misuse associated with chronic pain medications, especially opioids. These approaches include, but are not limited to, extensive physician and patient education regarding these medications and their associated risks for abuse; the development of prescription monitoring programs to detect physician or pharmacy shopping; the detection of inappropriate prescribing and medical errors; the use of physician-patient contracts concerning opioid treatment; the requirement of presenting a photo identification to pick up an opioid prescription at the pharmacy; urine drug toxicology screening; provisions for safe disposal of unused opioids; referrals to pain and addiction specialists; and potentially encouraging the use of opioid formulations aimed at reducing abuse. Conclusion Supporting such approaches by health insurers and educating providers and patients on the risks associated with chronic pain medications can help minimize the risk of prescription opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion; reduce health services utilization associated with opioid abuse; improve patient outcomes; and reduce overall costs. PMID:25126342

  4. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  5. Prevention of Addictive Behavior Based on the Formation of Teenagers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Shubnikova, Ekaterina G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need to justify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior in the educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessary and sufficient individual resources, that are…

  6. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  7. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  8. Mindfulness-based treatment to prevent addictive behavior relapse: theoretical models and hypothesized mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Harrop, Erin N; Douglas, Haley; Enkema, Matthew; Sedgwick, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.

  9. Schooling in an Addicted Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1988-01-01

    Social consensus concerning drug use and abuse may be only skin deep. Despite numerous "anti" campaigns, Reagan administration is saying "no" to funding for drug treatment and prevention programs, while tobacco advertising and growing incentives continue unabated. Despite these and other societal addictions, schools must reason calmly and offer…

  10. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  11. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  12. The impact of child sexual abuse on addiction severity: an analysis of trauma processing.

    PubMed

    Walker, G C; Scott, P S; Koppersmith, G

    1998-03-01

    The Information of Processing Trauma Model provides a framework for understanding the dynamics and responses of childhood sexual abuse. Chemical dependency plays a role in both the cause and effect of childhood sexual abuse. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse with chemical dependency require treatment of both disorders. This treatment should emphasize the key role of the encapsulation phase in symptom formation and recovery.

  13. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  14. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target.

  15. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C.; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  16. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  17. Vaccines against morphine/heroin and its use as effective medication for preventing relapse to opiate addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anton, Benito; Salazar, Alberto; Flores, Anabel; Matus, Maura; Marin, Rodrigo; Hernandez, Jorge-Alberto; Leff, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Current pharmacotherapies for treating morphine/heroin dependence are designed to substitute or block addiction by targeting the drug itself rather than the brain. The heroin addict is still being exposed to addictive opiates, and consequently may develop tolerance to and experience withdrawal and drug's toxic effects from the treatment with high incidence of relapse to addictive drug consumption. As for other drugs of abuse, an alternative approach for morphine/heroin addiction is an antibody-based antagonism of heroin's brain entry. This review summarizes the literature examining important aspects of neurobiological and pharmacological processes involved in opiate dependence. Thereafter, classical pharmacological interventions for opiate dependence treatment and its major clinical limitations are reviewed. Finally, relevant preclinical studies are examined for comparisons in the design, use, immunogenic profile and efficacy of several models of morphine/heroin vaccine as immunologic interventions on the pharmacokinetics and behavioral of morphine/heroin in the rat as animal model.

  18. Community-based prevention support: using the interactive systems framework to facilitate grassroots evidenced-based substance abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Firesheets, E Kelly; Francis, Mary; Barnum, Ann; Rolf, Laura

    2012-12-01

    The community plays an important role in the success of substance abuse prevention efforts. However, current funding structures and a focus on limited approaches to prevention delivery have created a large gap between what substance abuse prevention professionals practice and what the community at large knows about prevention. The concept of "community" has not always been well-defined in the field of prevention, and there are few mechanisms to engage grassroots community members in evidence-based substance abuse prevention. This article explains how Wandersman et al.'s (Am J Community Psychol 41:171-181, 2008) Interactive Systems Framework can be applied to grassroots prevention efforts. The authors describe a Community Prevention Support System that collaborates with the Professional Prevention Support System to promote the adoption of evidence-based substance abuse prevention practices at the grassroots, community level.

  19. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for addiction medicine: From neurophysiological markers to cognitive rehabilitation and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Currently, relapse prevention remains the main challenge in addiction medicine, indicating that the established treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, there is a push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy- and medication-based approaches to addiction treatment. Two major cognitive factors have been identified that trigger relapse in addicted patients: attentional biases directed toward drug-related cues, which increase the urge to consume, and impaired response inhibition toward these cues, which makes it more difficult for addicted people to resist temptation. Recent studies on newly detoxified alcoholic patients have shown that by using the appropriate tasks to index these cognitive functions with event-related potentials (ERPs), it is possible to discriminate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers. These preliminary data suggest that the ERP technique has great clinical potential for preventing relapse in alcohol-dependent patients, as well as for addictive states in general. Indeed, ERPs may help to identify patients highly vulnerable to relapse and allow the development of individually adapted cognitive rehabilitation programs. The implementation of this combined approach requires an intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. The potential pitfalls and limitations of this approach are also discussed.

  20. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member benefits include: Subscription to the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect (JEAN, a $198 value) 15% discount on educational ... Stein, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect (JEAN) and the 2016 Rosalie S. Wolf Elder Abuse ...

  1. The application of crime science to the prevention of elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Cox, Karen

    The abuse of older people is a significant problem, with estimates intimating that there may be over 340,000 cases per year in the United Kingdom. Despite improvements in screening and assessment to identify and treat those who are abused or at risk of abuse, the healthcare community remains preoccupied with prevalence rather than prevention. In light of the paucity of health-related research evidence to support the effectiveness of preventative measures, the application of crime prevention theory and knowledge is appropriate. Routine activity theory and situational crime prevention literature acknowledges the vulnerability of older people to abuse and the potential of any person employed as a carer to be an abuser. Preventative measures are focused on techniques that make abuse more difficult and more risky for the perpetrator and, therefore, less 'rewarding'. The regulation of healthcare support workers and increased workplace surveillance are examples of the 25 techniques of situational prevention that could be applied in a healthcare setting.

  2. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  3. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  4. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  5. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  6. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  7. Drug Abuse Prevention Funding Resulting from the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukoski, William J.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, administration and planning of drug abuse prevention and treatment programs shifted from federal state authorities through the enhancement of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services Block Grants. Reviews the funding status of drug prevention under this programmatic change relevant to prevention service programs and prevention…

  8. Addiction severity assessment tool: development of a self-report measure for clients in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Butler, Stephen F; Budman, Simon H; McGee, Michael D; Davis, Michael Sean; Cornelli, Rebecca; Morey, Leslie C

    2005-12-12

    This article describes the development and reliability and validity testing of the Addiction Severity Assessment Tool (ASAT), a brief, 27-item multidimensional self-report measure of problem severity in daily functioning, relational functioning, dysphoric states, dependence severity, recovery skill/self-efficacy, and existential factors for adult substance abuse clients. Items generated for an Alpha version were conceptually and empirically evaluated. A Beta version underwent further empirical evaluation and item selection. Cross validation of the final version examined internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, and convergent/discriminant and known groups validity. Sensitivity to change was evaluated in a 3-month outcome study. Clients were recruited from inpatient, outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment centers, and a sample of 238 nonpatients were also recruited from community groups. The Beta version was tested with 201 clients, and cross validation involved 242 clients. Well-known standardized, self-report and interview-based comparison measures were used to test convergent/discriminant validity of the ASAT. Reliability coefficients for the six ASAT domains were acceptable. Reasonable convergent/discriminant and known groups, construct validity were demonstrated, along with sensitivity to change of the domain scale scores. The ASAT appears to comprise a useful new tool for assessing clinical outcomes of adult clients in substance abuse treatment.

  9. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  10. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  11. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Doc No: 2012-18708] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center...

  12. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  13. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure.

  14. School sexual abuse prevention: unintended consequences and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Trudell, B; Whatley, M H

    1988-01-01

    In view of the recent proliferation of school sexual abuse prevention programs and materials, this article critically examines current assumptions about the role of elementary school personnel in prevention and possible unintended consequences of such assumptions. These unintended consequences include emphasizing a simple solution to a complex social problem and contributing to victim blaming. Some dilemmas that arise for classroom teachers around predeveloped curricular materials and mandatory reporting are also explored. Teacher use of predeveloped materials may mean a diminishing of wider teaching skills and reduction of complex concepts to brief, noncontroversial interventions that may serve to mystify sexuality and unduly frighten students. Mandatory reporting, as it is frequently presented to teachers, can create further dilemmas by obscuring the ethical decisions inherent in the process, assuming consistently positive outcomes after reporting, and neglecting the context in which teachers work. The authors suggest that educators should be aware of these possible unintended consequences and dilemmas in order to maintain a broad perspective on child sexual abuse and to focus their efforts more effectively within a larger network addressing the problem.

  15. An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Analyzing Factors of Adolescent Drug Use/Abuse and the Effectiveness of Various Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearish, Pamela L.

    This document reviews literature which analyzes factors of adolescent drug use/abuse and the effectiveness of various drug abuse prevention programs. After a brief introduction to the topic of drug abuse, 16 terms such as "adolescence" and "drug abuse" are defined. Ten papers and articles on the topic of motivations and factors for drug use are…

  16. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  17. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  18. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD prevention in seven areas: recruitment practices, expectations and attitudes, education and AOD programs, policies, drug testing, discipline, and referral and counseling. Because athletic trainers often are involved in this process, this article should help them to design more effective AOD programs. PMID:16558221

  19. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Grossman, S J; Gieck, J; Fang, W L; Freedman, A

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD prevention in seven areas: recruitment practices, expectations and attitudes, education and AOD programs, policies, drug testing, discipline, and referral and counseling. Because athletic trainers often are involved in this process, this article should help them to design more effective AOD programs.

  20. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  1. From Research to Intervention: Substance Abuse Prevention among Hispanic Adolescents. Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Merrill; Garcia, Roberto

    Although there is a strong experiential sense among people in the substance abuse prevention field that Hispanic adolescents may be particularly at-risk for the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, this concern has produced only limited research or culturally sensitive, ethnically targeted prevention efforts. The following factors hinder the…

  2. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  4. Evaluation of the Cooperative Emergency Substance Abuse Prevention Training Program, 1991-1992. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weich, Leah; Philip, Radhika

    The 1991-1992 Cooperative Emergency Substance Abuse Prevention Program was the first year of a two-year program in Community School District 3 in New York City. The overall objectives of the program were to provide staff training in the knowledge and skills necessary to carry out substance abuse prevention education, to make available to students…

  5. An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Integration and Diffusion of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Lori J.; Vicary, Judith; Swisher, John; Smith, Edward; Hopkins, Abigail; Henry, Kimberly; Minner, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Effective substance abuse prevention programs help students develop knowledge as well as psychosocial competencies that can help them resist or delay the initiation of alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) use. This paper describes the integration process used in a five-year project, Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training (ADAPT), to study…

  6. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  7. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  8. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  9. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  10. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  11. An Alternative Approach to the Prevention of Child Abuse: Pre-Service Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paula M.; Burns, George E.

    1986-01-01

    Child abuse prevention expertise is sufficiently important to warrant its acquisition during pre-service teacher education training. Teacher training can address primary abuse prevention in the context of child growth and development or parenting courses. Such studies would lead to and necessitate the creation of non-punitive methods of classroom…

  12. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more about ending child abuse and how to get involved, visit www.ChildWelfare.gov/Preventing. NOW... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of...

  13. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  14. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  15. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.

  16. [Prevention of tobacco addiction in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Fomin, S A

    2011-07-01

    The problems of tobacco smoking among servicemen are analyzed from the position of their interrelations with the quality of service duties performance. On the basis of received data the conclusion is drawn that the servicemen with tobacco dependence are characterized by lower level of mental resilience, adjustment capacities and are related to lower category of fitness for duty. Based on analyzes of the world and own country experience the program of tobacco smoking prevention among servicemen is proposed.

  17. Community Action Guide to Policies for Prevention: The Recommendations of the Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This guide accompanies Join Together's recommendations for drug and alcohol abuse prevention for policymakers and communities. It presents strategic examples of how major institutions and residents in communities have paid attention to substance abuse and worked to overcome its effects. Part 1 contains the recommendations and key policies…

  18. Drugs and Addict Lifestyles. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report is the seventh in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews the research undertaken to describe the lifestyle histories of heroin users. These research findings are formulated and detailed to provide the reader with…

  19. Maintaining Addiction: Tobacco Cessation Policy and Substance Abuse Treatment for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurst-Swanger, Karel; Stockweather, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Examines how institutions, which are part of the substance abuse treatment industry, address the connection between tobacco and other drugs in youth. Results suggest that the majority of treatment programs are routinely assessing tobacco use of the youth in their care, but only a small proportion follow through with tobacco cessation as an…

  20. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  1. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  2. State of the science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research.

    PubMed

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state of the science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented.

  3. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  4. Use of Photovoice in addiction.

    PubMed

    Miller Heery, Gretchen Hope

    2013-09-01

    The addiction to narcotic substances is an increasing public health problem. Addiction relapse is preventable. Photovoice may increase the success rate by offering a deeper perspective, insight, dimension of feeling, and perception connecting with those who feel disconnected. This process uses cameras, discussion groups, storyboards, and interaction to thread through difficult discussion points created by the participant. Understanding the process of recovery from opioid substance abuse creates an opportunity to maintain socially acceptable behaviors and decreases the risk of participating in illegal activities and making poor choices. Photovoice allows for creative expression of thought by bypassing cognitive defenses.

  5. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested.

  6. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project, Phase Two, Three and Four. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This document presents the final report from an educational and community development program designed to raise awareness about the abuse and neglect of the elderly. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project is briefly described in terms of project goals, objectives, the model used, the target groups served, and the evaluation processes employed. It is…

  7. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  8. Substance Abuse in Children of Parents with Mental Illness: Risks, Resiliency, and Best Prevention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2003-01-01

    Reviews published research on the effects of parental mental illness diagnosis or symptoms on childhood substance abuse. Risk and protective factors for developing a substance use or related disorder in these children are summarized. Recommendations for substance abuse prevention in children of parents with mental illness are presented and used to…

  9. Primary Prevention of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma: A Cost Audit and Cost-Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter; Sharplin, Peter; Kelly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain comprehensive, reliable data on the direct cost of pediatric abusive head trauma in New Zealand, and to use this data to evaluate the possible cost-benefit of a national primary prevention program. Methods: A 5 year cohort of infants with abusive head trauma admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand was reviewed. We…

  10. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  11. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  12. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  15. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  16. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  17. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  18. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  19. Elder Abuse Prevention Project - Phase I. Literature Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Lori; And Others

    This document summarizes information on elder abuse collected from various sources in Canada and the United States. It is noted that document entries are often representative of more than one source, and have been selected as each adds something new and valuable to the overall research on elder abuse. An attempt has been made to choose information…

  20. Evaluation of Temple University's Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, John D.; Horman, Richard E.

    Temple University's concern for the problem of drug abuse culminated in a Retreat on the Hazards of Drug Abuse. Participants were undergraduates, graduates, and staff. An evaluation design, involving pre- and post-testing, had previously been designed to test for information gains and attitude changes. A followup was designed to focus on…

  1. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... they need our support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse..., promoting healthy families, and building a brighter future for all Americans. Every child deserves a nurturing family and a safe environment, free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual,...

  2. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…

  3. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  4. [Offer hepatitis B vaccination to the addicts. Transmission of hepatitis B among intravenous drug abusers].

    PubMed

    Struve, J; Käll, K; Oksanen, A; Stendahl, P

    1993-06-09

    Structured interviews with 75 intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs) in Stockholm showed that, despite their having had several contacts with various medical institutions or prisons, none had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as recommended by the National Board of Health and Welfare. We conclude that, as failure to offer HBV vaccination to IVDAs contributes to be continued spread of HBV infection in this category, at admission all IVDAs should undergo serological HBV-testing and vaccination be offered to HBV-negatives.

  5. The Impact of Caffeine on the Behavioral Effects of Ethanol Related to Abuse and Addiction: A Review of Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of caffeine on the behavioral effects of ethanol, including ethanol consumption and abuse, has become a topic of great interest due to the rise in popularity of the so-called energy drinks. Energy drinks high in caffeine are frequently taken in combination with ethanol under the popular belief that caffeine can offset some of the intoxicating effects of ethanol. However, scientific research has not universally supported the idea that caffeine can reduce the effects of ethanol in humans or in rodents, and the mechanisms mediating the caffeine–ethanol interactions are not well understood. Caffeine and ethanol have a common biological substrate; both act on neurochemical processes related to the neuromodulator adenosine. Caffeine acts as a nonselective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, while ethanol has been demonstrated to increase the basal adenosinergic tone via multiple mechanisms. Since adenosine transmission modulates multiple behavioral processes, the interaction of both drugs can regulate a wide range of effects related to alcohol consumption and the development of ethanol addiction. In the present review, we discuss the relatively small number of animal studies that have assessed the interactions between caffeine and ethanol, as well as the interactions between ethanol and subtype-selective adenosine receptor antagonists, to understand the basic findings and determine the possible mechanisms of action underlying the caffeine–ethanol interactions. PMID:24761272

  6. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  7. Local and National Outcomes from Community Partnerships to Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes evaluation of community partnerships to prevent substance abuse poses many methodological challenges. The nine articles of this special section illustrate the variety of approaches evaluators have taken to studies that are often complicated because of small sample size. (SLD)

  8. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  9. 77 FR 183 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... section of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009, to prevent abuse of... (b) and (d) of section 865 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). The...

  10. Balancing Program and Research Integrity in Community Drug Abuse Prevention: Project STAR Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Mary Ann; And Others

    1986-01-01

    An ongoing multiple community drug abuse prevention project is used to illustrate the process of community-based programming. Program support, quality control, and accommodation of both program and research objectives are emphasized. (Author/MT)

  11. Couples therapy for women survivors of child sexual abuse who are in addictions recovery: a comparative case study of treatment process and outcome.

    PubMed

    Trute, B; Docking, B; Hiebert-Murphy, D

    2001-01-01

    Treatment for women who are survivors of child sexual abuse and who have a history of substance abuse has largely involved gender-specific interventions. This study examines the use of conjoint couple therapy with a cohort of women who were survivors of child sexual abuse and who are in addiction recovery and with their partners. A comparative case study analysis incorporated standardized clinical measures with client and therapist interviews. Brief conjoint therapy was found to assist couples in the specific relationship skill areas of communication and mutual problem solving. Further, substantive gains were found in the realm of affective relations. The women reported an increase in support from their male partners, and the men reported a decrease in negative emotional atmosphere in the relationship.

  12. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    PubMed

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases.

  13. A Survey of Training Needs of Experienced Certified Addictions Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 208 Certified Addiction Counselors (CAC) and Certified Prevention Specialists (CPS) about education and training topics in the field of alcohol and other drug abuse. Results indicate that CAC/CPS professionals prefer training topics that encompass cultural issues, alternative forms of treatment and relapse prevention delivered in…

  14. Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a special emphasis on treatment options. The site features original content by the nation’s leading experts in the science of addiction and addiction treatment, all 14 films in chaptered form, and comprehensive informational tips and ...

  15. Homeless, mentally ill and addicted: the need for abuse and trauma services.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Richard C; Hodgkins, Candace C; Garces, Lorrie K; Estlund, Kathleen L; Miller, M David; Touchton, Reginald

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines an empirical investigation of the lifetime prevalence of trauma (defined as sexual and/or physical abuse) in a cohort of adults enrolled in a federally funded initiative that provides treatment for homeless persons suffering the effects of comorbid substance use and serious mental illness, and considers the impact of this information on clinical programming. Data collected from homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders admitted to the Seeking Treatment and Recovery (STAR) Program during a one year period (n=78) were analyzed for a history of trauma events. Of those individuals evaluated, 79.5% (62/78) acknowledged a history of either physical and/or sexual abuse at some time in their lifetimes. Of this population, 100% of the homeless women (27/27) with co-occurring disorders had experienced a life-altering traumatic event while 68.6% (35/51) of the homeless men also reported trauma histories. We describe the trauma-based interventions made in the STAR Program that have the potential for replication in other initiatives committed to serving homeless individuals with co-occurring disorders.

  16. Children of substance abusers: the life experiences of children of opiate addicts in methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kolar, A F; Brown, B S; Haertzen, C A; Michaelson, B S

    1994-01-01

    We interviewed 70 substance abusers in methadone maintenance treatment regarding the life experiences of their 188 children. Sixty-four percent of the mothers reported using psychoactive drugs during their pregnancies. Eighty percent of parents reported an arrest during the time the child was growing up, 34% reported receiving treatment for an emotional disorder, and 14% were hospitalized. Four percent of the parents reported that their children had been placed in adoptive care, 9% in foster care, and 1% had a child in a group home. Forty-one percent of the parents reported that at least one of their children repeated a grade in school, 19% were involved in truancy, and 30% had been suspended from school. Twenty percent of parents reported their children's involvement with the law, and 17% reported drug or alcohol use. Problems with the law correlated highly with 1) being held back a grade, 2) truancy, 3) suspension from school, 4) expulsion from school, and 5) treatment for alcohol or drug abuse.

  17. 20 CFR 668.630 - What are the requirements for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fraud and abuse under section 166? 668.630 Section 668.630 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166? (a) Each INA grantee must implement program and financial management procedures to prevent fraud and abuse. Such procedures must include a process...

  18. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  19. New Hope for Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Proven Solutions To Save Lives and Prevent Future Crime. A Report by Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, David; Miller, Cate; Rollin, Miriam; Evans, Phil; Shah, Rita

    Asserting that children who are abused or neglected are at risk of becoming future violent criminals, this report argues that this cycle of violence can be prevented by investing in recently confirmed abuse prevention and intervention strategies. The report presents information on the number of deaths each year due to abuse and neglect and calls…

  20. Evaluation of a drug abuse prevention program: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    LoSciuto, L; Ausetts, M A

    1988-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to evaluate Project PRIDE, a school-based affective education program offered in select schools since 1970 and throughout the entire Philadelphia Public School System since 1981. The primary purpose of the program is to increase youth's resistance to drug use and abuse through weekly small group counseling sessions. The 12 weekly student sessions focused on developing self-awareness, life skills, knowledge, and appropriate attitudes about drugs. Project PRIDE also developed training modules for teachers and parents. Evaluation was by means of a true experimental pretest-posttest design, with random assignment to treatment and control groups. Measures of attitudes, self-reported drug use, and behavioral intentions were administered to students, teachers, and parents; process evaluation measures of the student component were collected throughout the treatment period as well. Data analyses indicate that, while a few of the broad aims of the prevention program were not met, there were reliable changes in the intended direction in many of the students' attitudes and intentions. Student attitudes toward drug use and knowledge about drugs both improved. Project PRIDE participation was associated with a relative decrease in willingness to experiment with drugs, even though all groups showed strongly negative attitudes toward drug use. Treatment interacted with sex of student and/or SES on a number of items. Generally, effects were more pronounced for girls and for low SES students. All groups of participants felt they gained significant knowledge and skills from the program. Other effects for parents and teachers were infrequent and inconsistent.

  1. Public enemy number one: the US Advertising Council's first drug abuse prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Niesen, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed.

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  3. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  4. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... clothing for the weather should draw your attention. Financial abuse: Unusual patterns of spending or withdrawals from an older adult’s account; frequent purchases of inappropriate items; bank account withdrawals ...

  5. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ..., the recovery community, and all Americans to join in this effort. If we take up the mantle of healthy lifestyles together, we can help our children avoid the devastating consequences of substance abuse and...

  6. [Immunotherapies for drug addictions].

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders.

  7. Best-Practice Guideline on the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; Penney, Tasha; McNeill, Susan; Boscart, Veronique M; Podnieks, Elizabeth; Sinha, Samir K

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000-April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed.

  8. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation prevents nigrostriatal dopamine pathway activation by morphine: relevance for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Alicia; Gago, Belén; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Yoshitake, Takashi; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Medina-Luque, José; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Craenenbroeck, Kathleen Van; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Kehr, Jan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-22

    Morphine is one of the most effective drugs used for pain management, but it is also highly addictive. Morphine elicits acute and long-term adaptive changes at cellular and molecular level in the brain, which play a critical role in the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Previous studies indicated that the dopamine D4 receptor (D4 R) activation counteracts morphine-induced adaptive changes of the μ opioid receptor (MOR) signaling in the striosomes of the caudate putamen (CPu), as well as the induction of several Fos family transcription factors. Thus, it has been suggested that D4 R could play an important role avoiding some of the addictive effects of morphine. Here, using different drugs administration paradigms, it is determined that the D4 R agonist PD168,077 prevents morphine-induced activation of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and morphological changes of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurons, leading to a restoration of dopamine levels and metabolism in the CPu. Results from receptor autoradiography indicate that D4 R activation modulates MOR function in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the striosomes of the CPu, suggesting that these regions are critically involved in the modulation of SNc dopamine neuronal function through a functional D4 R/MOR interaction. In addition, D4 R activation counteracts the rewarding effects of morphine, as well as the development of hyperlocomotion and physical dependence without any effect on its analgesic properties. These results provide a novel role of D4 R agonist as a pharmacological strategy to prevent the adverse effects of morphine in the treatment of pain.

  9. Retraining the addicted brain: a review of hypothesized neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness-based relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Addiction has generally been characterized as a chronic relapsing condition (Leshner, 1999). Several laboratory, preclinical, and clinical studies have provided evidence that craving and negative affect are strong predictors of the relapse process. These states, as well as the desire to avoid them, have been described as primary motives for substance use. A recently developed behavioral treatment, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), was designed to target experiences of craving and negative affect and their roles in the relapse process. MBRP offers skills in cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention integrated with mindfulness meditation. The mindfulness practices in MBRP are intended to increase discriminative awareness, with a specific focus on acceptance of uncomfortable states or challenging situations without reacting "automatically." A recent efficacy trial found that those randomized to MBRP, as compared with those in a control group, demonstrated significantly lower rates of substance use and greater decreases in craving following treatment. Furthermore, individuals in MBRP did not report increased craving or substance use in response to negative affect. It is important to note, areas of the brain that have been associated with craving, negative affect, and relapse have also been shown to be affected by mindfulness training. Drawing from the neuroimaging literature, we review several plausible mechanisms by which MBRP might be changing neural responses to the experiences of craving and negative affect, which subsequently may reduce risk for relapse. We hypothesize that MBRP may affect numerous brain systems and may reverse, repair, or compensate for the neuroadaptive changes associated with addiction and addictive-behavior relapse.

  10. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Warren, Kenneth R; Kunos, George; Silverman, Peter B; Hewitt, Brenda G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise account of the history, mission, structure and some recent achievements of the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Created by the US Congress 40 years ago, the NIAAA has evolved from an entity charged mainly with building a national system of alcoholism treatment services to one with responsibility for developing, nurturing and supporting the biomedical and behavioral science foundation necessary to reduce the significant domestic and global public health impact of alcohol use disorders. The NIAAA is unique in that it functions both as a funding agency, supporting research at universities and other external, or 'extramural' research institutions, and is also a research institution itself, where alcohol research is carried out in-house, or 'intramurally'. Of a $450.2 million 2009 Congressional Appropriation, approximately 90% was devoted toward the former and approximately 10% towards the latter objective. The current NIAAA Strategic Plan builds on a new organizing principle for long-range research planning, based on a life-span perspective that recognizes that human biology and behavior continue to change throughout life and changes occurring throughout the life-span affect individuals' drinking patterns as well as the decisions they may make to change their drinking habits or to seek help for alcohol use problems. Within this framework, major efforts are currently being devoted to educating practitioners on clinically useful, science-based assessment and treatment methods that exist today, and development of personalized new treatments for tomorrow.

  11. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    PubMed

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  12. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  13. ‘I can't be an addict. I am.’ Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy medicines are considered relatively safe in contrast to prescribed and illicit substances, but their abuse and addiction potential is increasingly recognised. Those affected represent a hard to reach group, with little known about their experiences. Study objectives were to describe the experiences and views of those self-reporting OTC medicine abuse, and why medicines were taken, how they were obtained and associated treatment and support sought. Design Qualitative study using in-depth mainly telephone interviews. Participants A purposive sample of 25 adults, aged 20–60s, 13 women. Setting UK, via two internet support groups. Results Individuals considered themselves ‘addicted’, but socially and economically active and different from illicit substance misusers. They blamed themselves for losing control over their medicine use, which usually began for genuine medical reasons and not experimentation and was often linked to the cessation of, or ongoing, medical prescribing. Codeine, in compound analgesics, was the main medicine implicated with three distinct dose ranges emerging with decongestant and sedative antihistamine abuse also being reported. Subsequent use was for the ‘buzz’ or similar effects of the opiate, which was obtained unproblematically by having lists of pharmacies to visit and occasionally using internet suppliers. Perceived withdrawal symptoms were described for all three dose ranges, and work and health problems were reported with higher doses. Mixed views about different treatment and support options emerged with standard drug treatment services being considered inappropriate for OTC medicines and concerns that this ‘hidden addiction’ was recorded in medical notes. Most supported the continued availability of OTC medicines with appropriate addiction warnings. Conclusions Greater awareness of the addiction potential of OTC medicines is needed for the public, pharmacists and medical

  14. 15 years of genetic approaches in vivo for addiction research: Opioid receptor and peptide gene knockout in mouse models of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Charbogne, Pauline; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Befort, Katia

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is expressed throughout the brain reinforcement circuitry, and plays a major role in reward processing, mood control and the development of addiction. This neuromodulator system is composed of three receptors, mu, delta and kappa, interacting with a family of opioid peptides derived from POMC (β-endorphin), preproenkephalin (pEnk) and preprodynorphin (pDyn) precursors. Knockout mice targeting each gene of the opioid system have been created almost two decades ago. Extending classical pharmacology, these mutant mice represent unique tools to tease apart the specific role of each opioid receptor and peptide in vivo, and a powerful approach to understand how the opioid system modulates behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The present review summarizes these studies, with a focus on major drugs of abuse including morphine/heroin, cannabinoids, psychostimulants, nicotine or alcohol. Genetic data, altogether, set the mu receptor as the primary target for morphine and heroin. In addition, this receptor is essential to mediate rewarding properties of non-opioid drugs of abuse, with a demonstrated implication of β-endorphin for cocaine and nicotine. Delta receptor activity reduces levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and facilitates morphine-context association. pEnk is involved in these processes and delta/pEnk signaling likely regulates alcohol intake. The kappa receptor mainly interacts with pDyn peptides to limit drug reward, and mediate dysphoric effects of cannabinoids and nicotine. Kappa/dynorphin activity also increases sensitivity to cocaine reward under stressful conditions. The opioid system remains a prime candidate to develop successful therapies in addicted individuals, and understanding opioid-mediated processes at systems level, through emerging genetic and imaging technologies, represents the next challenging goal and a promising avenue in addiction research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA

  15. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  16. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention: An Expanded Perspective for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that a successful "war" on alcohol and other drug abuse requires cooperation among counselors and other helping professionals, beginning among professional counselors. View of counselors' roles must be expanded, as well as those of schools, government agencies, law enforcement officials, health professionals, and recreational specialists.…

  17. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    34to make her listen to me." Abuse also may be a pattern of behavior such as incest between parent and child extending over many years or parents...when his or her parents leave. "Today, I heard Jerry telling Sandy, ’Don’t cry, your mom will come back soon!’ I think that’s his way of assuring

  18. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... leaders to partner with parents. From schools to local social service agencies, we can work together to protect the well-being of our children by recognizing the signs of violence and creating safe, stable, and... mistreatment like substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also supporting programs...

  19. Preventing Drug Abuse among American Indian Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Fred

    The three-part report summarizes existing research on drug abuse in American Indian communities, suggests ways to combat the problem, and describes many different kinds of drugs and their effects. In Part I, much recent research is cited. Although methodology and results vary greatly, the research clearly points to a serious drug problem in many…

  20. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  1. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  2. Project SMART: A Social Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Anderson; And Others

    This document presents the teacher's guide for an experimental research and demonstration project which focuses on the prevention of drug abuse among youth through self-management and resistance training. The major purpose of the curriculum described in this document is to prevent and reduce the incidence of habitual cigarette smoking and of…

  3. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  4. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  5. Alternatives for Young Americans: A Catalog of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This reference book contains resumes of program descriptions geared toward youth and adults who need or want information on drug abuse prevention programs, locally or nationally. Several major entries include: (1) national program models; (2) evaluated alternative programs from all states; and (3) descriptions of prevention programs. All section…

  6. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... overcome this devastating problem, concerned Americans can visit: www.ChildWelfare.gov/Preventing. NOW... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child... 8645 of March 31, 2011 Proc. 8645 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President of...

  7. A National Study of Substance Abuse Prevention Professionals in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Mary K.; Gressard, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    There is an established body of research on the effectiveness of comprehensive substance abuse prevention strategies in higher education. There is relatively little research, however, on the characteristics and job functions of prevention professionals and their effectiveness. This study was designed to examine the characteristics of professionals…

  8. Modification of the "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect" (PCAN) Curriculum for IDEA Part C Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, Janice E.; Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic workforce training of organizations that provide services to families of young children with special needs can help strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, but few curriculua are available for this purpose. One professional development curriculum, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child…

  9. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  10. 20 CFR 668.630 - What are the requirements for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the requirements for preventing... for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166? (a) Each INA grantee must implement program and financial management procedures to prevent fraud and abuse. Such procedures must include a process...

  11. 20 CFR 668.630 - What are the requirements for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the requirements for preventing... for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166? (a) Each INA grantee must implement program and financial management procedures to prevent fraud and abuse. Such procedures must include a process...

  12. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  13. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  14. Effects of a therapeutic camping program on addiction recovery. The Algonquin Haymarket Relapse Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L W; Cardone, S; Jarczyk, J

    1998-01-01

    A group of 13 men and women in substance abuse treatment participated in a 3-day residential program experience based on integrated principles from adventure therapy, therapeutic camping, and relapse prevention. The experimental group is compared to a group of 18 men and women who received the usual and customary relapse prevention program. Both groups completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires. There were no differences in drinking-related locus of control, stress, or problem-solving between groups at postinterview, but there were significant improvements in autonomic arousal, frequency of negative thoughts, and alcohol craving. Participants in both groups were interviewed 10 months after the 3-day intervention. Considering individuals who were unreachable as relapsed, the 10-month follow-up relapse rate was 31% for the experimental group and 58% for the comparison group. These results add to the limited body of research supporting outdoor adventure and therapeutic camping experiences integrated with traditional relapse prevention activities as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment.

  15. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment.

  16. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Toxicological Evaluations of Potential Medications to Treat Drug Addiction... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...

  17. Pain Control in the Presence of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Lumermann, Leandro; Zhu, Richard; Kodumudi, Gopal; Elhassan, Amir O; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies. Optimum pain management of patients with addiction in the outpatient and inpatient setting is essential to minimize pain states. Careful selection of medications and appropriate oversight, including drug agreements, can reduce drug-induced impairments, including sleep deficits and diminished physical, social, and sexual functioning. This review, therefore, discusses the prevalence of illicit and prescription drug addiction, the challenges of achieving optimum pain control, and the therapeutic approaches to be considered in this challenging population. More research is warranted to develop improved therapies and routes of treatments for optimum pain relief and to prevent the development of central sensitization, chronic pain, and impaired physical and social functioning in patients with drug addiction.

  18. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  19. An Evaluation of the Fidelity of Implementation of a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skara, Silvana; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an implementation fidelity evaluation of the fourth experimental trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND). Two theoretical content components of the curriculum were examined to increase our understanding of the active ingredients of successful drug abuse prevention programs. A total of 18 senior high schools were randomly…

  20. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  1. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M., Ed.

    The theme of the fifth annual Symposium on Group Procedures was "The Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction." Symposium participants included professionals in counseling; clinical, school, and educational psychology, psychiatry, and social work. In addition, invitations were sent to members of…

  2. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632

  3. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  4. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  5. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  6. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation.

    PubMed

    Budman, Simon H; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-05-29

    It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns.

  7. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation

    PubMed Central

    Budman, Simon H; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns. PMID:19480676

  8. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen E.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain’s “reward system,” specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that “self expanding” experiences like romance and expanding one’s knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus

  9. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen E; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that "self expanding" experiences like romance and expanding one's knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus, researchers

  10. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.

  11. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  12. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.

  13. Addiction, the Addict, and Career: Considerations for the Employment Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Matthew D.

    2006-01-01

    Employment counselors have been resistant to working with persons in recovery from addiction except under the strictest of criteria. This article examines the relationship between this resistance and the concepts of addiction and addict. Following this is an examination of substance abuse recovery and practical suggestions on incorporating…

  14. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  15. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  16. Retention of Second Graders' Knowledge and Skills One Year after a Brief Primary Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Beth H.; Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    This study investigated the long-term cognitive effects for 40 second graders 1 year after participating in a brief, 50-minute, primary sexual abuse prevention program. It was expected that participants would retain knowledge of body safety and of sexual abuse prevention skills 1 year after the treatment program. The Personal Safety Questionnaire…

  17. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  18. The "Flavor" of the Social Ecology Paradigm in Use: Building on Mutual Social Support in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsheim, Howard I.; Roberts, Bruce B.

    The "Bottled Pain" project, a drug abuse prevention program in 24 Lutheran congregations in southern Minnesota, is based on a social ecology paradigm designed to prevent drug abuse through the development of socially supportive relationshps and through using the environment as a natural strength within the community. According to the…

  19. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  20. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  1. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  2. Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: a pilot study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

    2013-09-01

    To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention.

  3. [Substance use disorders as a cause and consequence of childhood abuse. Basic research, therapy and prevention in the BMBF-funded CANSAS-Network].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingo; Barnow, Sven; Pawils, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) belong to the most frequent behavioural consequences of childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). In community samples, about 20% of adults with experiences of abuse or neglect in childhood have a lifetime diagnosis of an SUD. About 30% of individuals seeking treatment for a post-traumatic disorder have an SUD and 24–67% of all patients in treatment for an SUD have a history of CAN. About 16% of all children and adolescents under the age of 20 in Germany grow up in families where an alcohol- and/or drug-dependence is present. The children of parents with SUDs have, in addition to other risks to their development in cognitive and psychosocial domains, an increased risk of experiencing violence and neglect. Regarding both perspectives, SUD as a cause and as a consequence of CAN, a better understanding of relevant mediators and risk factors is necessary to improve prevention and develop adequate treatments. The aims of the BMBF-funded research network CANSAS are: 1. To gain a better understanding of the relationships between these two important public health problems (basic research), 2. To provide evidence-based treatments for survivors of CAN with SUDs and to increase the awareness for the necessity to diagnose CAN in patients with SUDs in counselling and treatment facilities (research on diagnostics and therapy), 3. To improve the systematic evaluation of child welfare among children of parents with SUDs through counselling services and to promote links between addiction services and youth welfare services (prevention research and health services research). In a multidisciplinary approach, the CANSAS network brings together experts in the fields of trauma treatment, epidemiology, basic research, health services research, prevention research as well as addiction services.

  4. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  5. Domestic Abuse Prevention Education: Listening to the Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Hale, Rebecca; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings derived as part of a two-year project funded by the European Union's Daphne III scheme, involving collaboration between seven partner organisations across six European countries. The project involved an evaluation, using questionnaires and focus groups, of domestic abuse prevention education programmes delivered in…

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  7. Evaluating the Acceptability of Four Versions of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine college students used a modified version of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form to evaluate the acceptability of four versions of a sexual abuse prevention program for 10-year-old children. The four versions include an information-based training approach or a behavioral skills training (BST) approach with a focus on strangers…

  8. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  9. Assertive/Leveling Communication and Empathy in Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    This paper reports feedback from 349 fifth through eighth graders who participated in Say It Straight (SIS), a school-based drug abuse prevention program which combines assertiveness training with role playing and guided imagery. The feedback presented concerns students' feelings about sending and receiving messages using the following…

  10. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  11. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  12. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  13. Linkages: Texas Higher Education Drug Abuse Prevention Digest. Vol I, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenhorst, Deanne, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of a newsletter for those in Texas higher education who are interested in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse within higher education. The lead article, based on an unpublished study, addresses Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, in particular the link between drug and alcohol use and sexual behavior. A section…

  14. Influence of a Substance-Abuse-Prevention Curriculum on Violence-Related Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Sussman, Steve; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of a school-based substance abuse prevention program on alternative high school students' risk for violence. Analysis of students followed over 12 months indicated that there was a higher risk for victimization among male control students. No intervention effect was observed for female students or for perpetration among males.…

  15. Differences in Perceived Implementation of a Standard versus Peer-Led Interactive Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Okamoto, Janet; Pumpuang, Patchareeya; Okamoto, Paula; Sussman, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess perceived implementation of 2 substance-abuse prevention programs: a standard one and a peer-led interactive one. Methods: Data from 16 health educators were collected after 504 classroom sessions, 63 of which were observed by 24 monitors. Results: In the interactive program, health educators (HEs) followed the curriculum less…

  16. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  17. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  18. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  19. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  20. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  1. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  2. Moving the Risk and Protective Factor Framework toward Individualized Assessment in Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Loneck, Barry; Videka, Lynn; Brown, M. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has evolved towards a risk and protective factor paradigm in explaining the onset and escalation of adolescent substance use. This framework for understanding the problem has been developed and employed by researchers at the University of Washington, under Doctors Hawkins and Catalano, to assess communities…

  3. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  4. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 2009, as National Child Abuse Prevention Month. I... United States of America A Proclamation When the child next door is maltreated, we all suffer....

  5. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  6. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse: Intervention Strategies. NIDA Research Monograph 47. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of papers begins with a presentation on the role of mass media campaigns in drug abuse prevention, emphasizing the need for skill development and family involvement. The next presentation addresses general and specific influences on health behavior including society, the family, peers, the school, and the individual. A…

  7. Preventing Child Abuse: An Evaluation of Services to High-Risk Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; And Others

    In 1988 the William Penn Foundation awarded nearly $6 million to agencies in the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) area for a variety of programs aimed at preventing child abuse. The 4 programs selected targeted parents who most needed but were least likely to have access to parent education and support services. The Foundation appointed the National…

  8. The Role of Guidance Personnel in the Prevention of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, George E.; Barber, Paula

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the relational clarification of child abuse prevention roles. Presents profiles for the Ministry of Education, school boards, school principals, classroom teachers, and discusses in detail the role of guidance personnel. Illustrates that the role profiles can be developed in the context of a general framework and its organizing…

  9. Oregon Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Education (ADAPE) Infused Lesson Guide K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Holstedt, Peggy

    This resource manual and guide provides schools and communities with the most current research-based information available concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention education. It also provides model lessons, written by Oregon teachers, to infuse into current programs. The document is organized into four sections. The first, an introduction,…

  10. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  11. Evaluation of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: Cognitive and Emotional Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Renee L.; McNiel, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A school-based child sexual abuse prevention program consisting of separate two-hour workshops for children (ages 5-12), parents, and teachers was evaluated. Results indicated parents were more informed and interactive with their children following the workshops. Children showed no increased emotional stress and reported feeling safer and better…

  12. A Curriculum Framework for Junior and Senior High Child Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela R.

    This curriculum guide for junior and senior high child abuse prevention programs is designed for flexibility. Part 1, the introduction, discusses the goals and objectives for using the material, including designing presentations and assessing the needs of students. Part 2 provides a framework for presentations including examples of a 1-day and…

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  14. School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Review of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.; Barron, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    In this systematic and critical review of purely school based child sexual abuse prevention program efficacy studies, 22 studies meeting the inclusion criteria differed by target population, program implementation, and evaluation methodology. Measured outcomes for children included knowledge, skills, emotion, risk perception, touch discrimination,…

  15. Heading Off PBX Hackers: Advice on Preventing PBX Abuse and Toll Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Sara J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology that allows college staff easy access to the institution's telecommunications services can be used for unauthorized access. Although detection and prevention of abuse are difficult, the best way to limit losses is to anticipate the attempt, frustrate the perpetrator, monitor for unusual activity, and take immediate action. (MSE)

  16. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  17. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention.

  18. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. PMID:27509010

  19. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  20. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden.

  1. Commentary--Project Towards No Drug Abuse: an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Valente, Thomas W; Rohrbach, Louise A; Dent, Clyde W; Sun, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) is a research-based program that has been examined over seven group-randomized controlled trials. In all trials, an effect has been found on hard drug use. An effect has been found on alcohol use in four trials, and on cigarettes and marijuana in two trials. (Arguably, an effect is found on marijuana in three trials.) Program effects on violence-related behavior were established in earlier trials, though such effects were not assessed in later trials. Certainly, as in most scientific studies, there are limitations in the interpretation of the effects obtained, particularly regarding cigarette and marijuana use and violence-related behavior, and more empirical work is needed. For Project TND, however, numerous trial replications have been completed, and the effects within each trial could not have been obtained by chance alone more than 10 % of the time (two-tailed). These results suggest that Project TND is indeed evidence-based. To be evidence-based means that evidence has accumulated to suggest that the program is likely to work, at least under conditions that are comparable to those in which it has been tested.

  2. Exploit the Developed Countries Experiences of Primary School Education to Prevent Drug Addiction and Implications for Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Ali; Zamani, Eshrat; Hedayati, Nassim

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate various educations in primary schools to prevent drug addiction. Methods: In this qualitative study, data included the experiences of those who been students in the developed countries for some years as well as their parents. The data were collected by semi-structured and unstructured interviews as well as documents. Findings: The results showed that education for prevention of drug addiction begins in primary schools in the developed countries using various methods. These educations are not occasional but constant and infused in all curriculum subjects and grades. Students become familiar with various drugs and learn about their effects. Conclusion: Our findings showed that social problems are discussed openly in schools of the developed countries and students try to find solutions which are considered by authorities. PMID:24494082

  3. Participatory monitoring and evaluation within a statewide support system to prevent adolescent substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jerry A; Pandya, Sheetal; Sims, Momina; Jones, Jami A; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To prevent youth substance abuse, a state prevention system aims to support implementation of best practices statewide. A critical component is the prevention support system; that is, the network of people and organizations that build capacity within communities to implement prevention activities. This study describes the Kansas Prevention Network (KPN), the prevention support system within Kansas. It examines how KPN uses monitoring and evaluation to guide support for implementation of prevention activities. From 2009 to 2011, support organizations implemented nearly 4,000 activities to build capacity of local coalitions to better implement interventions. Activities focused primarily on building capacity for community-based processes, such as assessment and planning, and for dissemination of information. This report describes innovative approaches to documenting and monitoring the statewide effort as well as structured approaches for using the data to guide decision making and technical assistance.

  4. Roundtable on prevention of fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs, March 23--24, 1987, Highland Hotel, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Identification of Issues and Preventive Measures Associated with Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Conservation Programs; Working Papers Prepared by Roundtable Discussants; Annotated Bibliography of Publications Related to Prevention/Detection of Fraud and Abuse in DOE and LIHEAP Conservation Programs; and List of Members on Task Force for Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs.

  5. Resilience as a Theoretical Basis for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Patterson, Joan M.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the resilience perspective to examine the risk and protective mechanisms associated with adolescent substance use. Resilience is defined and resilience processes related to substance use are explored. Effective adolescent substance use prevention programs that promote youth resilience are reviewed. (Contains 120 references.) (GCP)

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Guide for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    The focus of this book is on the identification of practical knowledge and skill needed and an action plan to implement prevention programming in schools. The text is written as a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling. It is designed to facilitate development of knowledge necessary to implement comprehensive…

  7. Diffusion of School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Observes the preponderance of heavily marketed drug prevention programs (Project DARE, QUEST Skills for Life) over the more effective psychosocial-based programs. Reviews the literature on determinants of diffusion and recent research on strategies to increase diffusion of these programs. Considers implications for policy and future research. (MJP)

  8. Preventing elder abuse and neglect in geriatric institutions: Solutions from nursing care providers.

    PubMed

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Nordström, Karin; Kressig, Reto W

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how and why abuse and neglect occurs in geriatric institutions and presents practical prevention measures. Exploratory qualitative interviews were carried out with purposive sample of 23 nursing staff members. They were recruited from different institutions caring for older patients in the north-western region of Switzerland. These interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participating nursing staff members reported several factors pertaining to the care provider, the older patient, and the institution that precipitated abuse and neglect. They mentioned different solutions that could help them address their responsibilities in a reasonable manner. The solutions included, for example, ensuring proper education and training, better management nursing care provider's responsibilities and timely intervention to address abuse and neglect, as well as rotating care provider. Implementing these suggestions will allow geriatric institutions, its managers, and nursing care providers to improve quality of care and reduce such negative occurrences in these settings.

  9. A bio-behavioral model of addiction treatment: applying dual representation theory to craving management and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Matto, Holly

    2005-01-01

    A bio-behavioral approach to drug addiction treatment is outlined. The presented treatment model uses dual representation theory as a guiding framework for understanding the bio-behavioral processes activated during the application of expressive therapeutic methods. Specifically, the treatment model explains how visual processing techniques can supplement traditional relapse prevention therapy protocols, to help clients better manage cravings and control triggers in hard-to-treat populations such as chronic substance-dependent persons.

  10. [Resource support as the basis of projects for the prevention of violence and addiction].

    PubMed

    Keupp, Heiner

    2004-10-01

    Lastingly effective projects for the prevention of violence and addiction must ask which resources adolescents require for coping with their lives. A central criteria for a successful life is the creation of coherence in one's inner life and thus the basis for becoming capable of functioning in society. In earlier social eras, the readiness to take on ready-made identity packages was the central criteria for coping with life. Today, this depends on individual adaptation and identity work, and thus the capability for self-organisation, for "intentionality" or "embedding". Children and young people need "free spaces" in their worlds, in order to be able to outline themselves and to act formatively upon their everyday environment. The future prospects of adolescents depend upon their options for learning the "craft of freedom". Sustainable key qualifications for coping with life in globalised, digital capitalism must grasp education as a hard-headed process in which the subject's capacity for self-organisation is to be given optimal encouragement, so that the patchwork of their own identity can succeed as a self-determined creative project.

  11. Religion and addiction.

    PubMed

    Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Mateja; Poljak, Saša; Repič, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  12. Single and Repeated Ultra-Rapid Detoxification Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Morphine Addicted Rats: A Privilege for Single Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Ghamati, Leila; Hajali, Vahid; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Shojaee, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioids have been shown to affect learning and memory processes. Different protocols of morphine withdrawal can substantially vary in their success to prevent opioid induced impairments of cognitive performance. In the present study, we report the effects of single and repetitive ultra-rapid detoxification (URD) on spatial learning and memory in morphine addicted rats. Methods Morphine (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected in male rats once a day over one week and after which they were detoxified with naloxone administration under anesthesia. For the repetitive procedure, a second one week morphine treatment with a second subsequent detoxification was performed. Control groups received an equivalent volume of saline injections. Spatial learning and memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Findings Both protocols of morphine administration resulted in a severe spatial memory impairment that could be significantly prevented by both single and repetitive URD. However, memory abilities in animals treated with repetitive URD were still significantly lower than in animals of the corresponding control group. Alterations in motor activity or sensory-motor coordination between morphine treated and control animals could be ruled out by comparing swimming speed and visible platform performances that were not different between groups. Thus, URD and, specifically single URD, can prevent the spatial memory impairments in addicted rats. Conclusion As opioid addiction is an extending and serious concern in many societies, these findings may have clinical values and therapeutic implications for patients who experience multiple opioid relapses. PMID:25140218

  13. Oral Health of Drug Abusers: A Review of Health Effects and Care

    PubMed Central

    SHEKARCHIZADEH, Hajar; KHAMI, Mohammad R.; MOHEBBI, Simin Z.; EKHTIARI, Hamed; VIRTANEN, Jorma I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Oral health problems, among the most prevalent comorbidities related to addiction, require more attention by both clinicians and policy-makers. Our aims were to review oral complications associated with drugs, oral health care in addiction rehabilitation, health services available, and barriers against oral health promotion among addicts. Drug abuse is associated with serious oral health problems including generalized dental caries, periodontal diseases, mucosal dysplasia, xerostomia, bruxism, tooth wear, and tooth loss. Oral health care has positive effects in recovery from drug abuse: patients’ need for pain control, destigmatization, and HIV transmission. Health care systems worldwide deliver services for addicts, but most lack oral health care programs. Barriers against oral health promotion among addicts include difficulty in accessing addicts as a target population, lack of appropriate settings and of valid assessment protocols for conducting oral health studies, and poor collaboration between dental and general health care sectors serving addicts. These interfere with an accurate picture of the situation. Moreover, lack of appropriate policies to improve access to dental services, lack of comprehensive knowledge of and interest among dental professionals in treating addicts, and low demand for non-emergency dental care affect provision of effective interventions. Management of drug addiction as a multi-organ disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. Health care programs usually lack oral health care elements. Published evidence on oral complications related to addiction emphasizes that regardless of these barriers, oral health care at various levels including education, prevention, and treatment should be integrated into general care services for addicts. PMID:26060654

  14. The ability of elementary school children to learn child sexual abuse prevention concepts.

    PubMed

    Tutty, L M

    1992-01-01

    This research was designed to address several of the methodological problems in the current body of knowledge on the efficacy of child abuse prevention programs for elementary school-aged children. A new measure, the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire (C.K.A.Q.) was developed, and its psychometric properties assessed. In total, 400 children were tested in four groups. Half of the sample participated in a child abuse prevention program Touching, and the other half were in a waiting list control group. Half of each group were pretested, and the other half were not, in order to determine whether the pretesting sensitized the students. All children were tested again 5 months afterward to investigate the long-term retention of prevention concepts. Results showed that children who participated in the prevention program scored significantly higher on the C.K.A.Q. than children in the control condition. Age was a critical factor, with significant improvements as age increased between the kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 3 and Grade 6 students. All participants maintained their level of knowledge after 5 months had passed. The relevance and practical implications which stem from this research are discussed.

  15. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  16. Physical training as a substance abuse prevention intervention for youth.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, T R; Sunderlin, J; Reynolds, R; Kohl, H W

    2000-01-01

    Program evaluation data from school and community applications of a physical fitness drug prevention program is presented. A train-the-trainer methodology was applied to install the program in twenty-two settings within the state of Illinois. The physical training program consisted of exercise and educational modules delivered over a twelve-week time period that focused on learning values and life skills through exercise. Complete pre-post data were obtained on 329 participating youth at six school and community based sites. Significant increases were demonstrated in physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility). Youth self-report data indicated significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and number of friends who use alcohol and drugs. There were significant reductions in the percentage of youth who used cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and alcohol. It was concluded that a strong relationship was demonstrated for increased fitness leading to lowered risk factors and usage patterns. Likewise, the train-the-trainer model was shown to be an effective installation approach to expand fitness programming within prevention settings.

  17. Development and Immediate Impact of a Self-Instruction Curriculum for an Adolescent Indicated Drug Abuse Prevention Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Dent, Clyde W.; Craig, Sande; Ritt-Olsen, Anamara; McCuller, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and impact of a self-instruction indicated drug abuse prevention program, Project Towards No Drug Abuse. Describes the justification for the self-instruction program, keys to good programmed self-learning, and how a 12-session health-educator delivered program was converted to a self-instruction format. Presents the…

  18. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  19. A Look at an Interactive Classroom-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: Interactive Contents and Suggestions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Patel, Ravi; Holiday, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Interactivity has been shown to be a critical element of effective drug abuse prevention programs. This study examined the contents of Project Towards No Drug Abuse, a program that has revealed strong effects only when delivered in a highly interactive version. Types of teacher and student interactive messages were identified. It is speculated…

  20. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  1. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  2. What Have We Learned about Preventing Child Abuse? An Overview of the "Community and Minority Group Action to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect" Program. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ellen

    Results from the evaluation of 11 demonstration programs designed to prevent child abuse are summarized in this working paper. The programs were of three types: perinatal programs; community-wide education, information, and referral projects; and culturally relevant parent education efforts. The four perinatal programs focused on extended…

  3. The neurobiology of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is increasingly understood as a neurobiological illness where repetitive substance abuse corrupts the normal circuitry of rewarding and adaptive behaviors causing drug-induced neuroplastic changes. The addictive process can be examined by looking at the biological basis of substance initiation to the progression of substance abuse to dependence to the enduring risk of relapse. Critical neurotransmitters and neurocircuits underlie the pathological changes at each of these stages. Enhanced dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is part of the common pathway for the positively rewarding aspects of drugs of abuse and for initiation of the addictive process. F-Aminobutyric acid,opioid peptides, serotonin, acetylcholine, the endocannabinoids, and glutamate systems also play a role in the initial addictive process. Dopamine also plays a key role in conditioned responses to drugs of abuse, and addiction is now recognized as a disease of pathological learning and memory. In the path from substance abuse to addiction, the neurochemistry shifts from a dopamine-based behavioral system to a predominantly glutamate-based one marked by dysregulated glutamate transmission from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens in relation to drug versus biologically oriented stimuli. This is a core part of the executive dysfunction now understood as one of the hallmark features of addiction that also includes impaired decision making and impulse dysregulation.Understanding the neurobiology of the addictive process allows for a theoretical psychopharmacological approach to treating addictive disorders,one that takes into account biological interventions aimed at particular stages of the illness.

  4. Prefrontal Cortex and Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Translation to Prevention and Treatment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Jane E.; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and primates. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences factors (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. PMID:20837060

  5. Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: translation to prevention and treatment interventions.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals.

  6. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  7. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  8. Let’s talk about sex: helping substance abuse counsellors address HIV prevention with men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577

  9. How Communities Can Strengthen Their Strategies To Fight Drug Abuse Using Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). 2000 Monthly Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This kit helps communities use research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to make local prevention and treatment programs more effective. The kit describes some of NIDA's research on the nature of addiction and the anatomy of the brain's response to drugs. Suggestions are given for putting the NIDA principles of prevention to work,…

  10. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  11. Biological substrates of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Max E.; Grueter, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse, however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. PMID:24999377

  12. Can Addiction-Related Self-Help/Mutual Aid Groups Lower Demand for Professional Substance Abuse Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential of self-help/mutual-aid groups as a way to reduce the demand for professional substance-abuse treatment and proposes a model that combines the two approaches for cost-effective and therapeutically effective networks of services. (SLD)

  13. Pot Addiction and Parental Friction: Emotional Disturbance, Conduct Disorders and Unilateral Placements for Drug-Abusing Students Under the IDEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, David S.

    This paper is part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002. It addresses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Specifically, the paper examines unilateral placements for drug-abusing and delinquent students. Following the introduction, the next section of…

  14. Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: the roles of victim empathy and rape myths.

    PubMed

    Schewe, P A; O'Donohue, W

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of two sexual abuse prevention programs, one emphasizing victim empathy and the other stressing modifying rape myths, was evaluated with high-risk males. Sixty-eight high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and post-treatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scale, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced versus consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk subjects differed from low-risk subjects on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased subjects' empathy, and that subjects found both treatments to be credible and helpful. Comparisons between the empathy-, facts-, and no-treatment group contraindicated the practice of dispelling rape myths as a method of preventing rape among high-risk males.

  15. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  16. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  17. Factors associated with provision of addiction treatment information by community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Pack, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    Community pharmacists in the United States have significant opportunity to engage in community-level prescription substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts, including dissemination of information specific to available addiction treatment options. Our cross-sectional study of Tennessee community pharmacists noted that 26% had previously provided addiction treatment facility information to one or more patients in the past. The purpose of this study was to employ multivariate modeling techniques to investigate associations between community pharmacist and community pharmacy factors and past provision of addiction treatment information to pharmacy patients. Multivariate logistic regression indicated having addiction treatment facility information in a pharmacy setting (aOR=8.19; 95% CI=4.36-15.37), having high confidence in ability to discuss treatment facility options (aOR=4.16; 95% CI=2.65-6.52), having participated in prescription opioid abuse-specific continuing education (aOR=2.90; 95% CI=1.70-4.97), being male (aOR=2.23; 95% CI=1.38-3.59), and increased hours per week in the practice setting (aOR=1.02; 95% CI=1.004-1.05) were all significantly associated with provision of information about addiction treatment. Dissemination of addiction treatment information, improvements in communicative self-efficacy beliefs, and dissemination of prescription opioid abuse-specific continuing education are modifiable factors significantly associated with increased provision of addiction treatment information by community pharmacists.

  18. Drug Abuse Office, Prevention, and Treatment Amendments of 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The purpose of the testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in April, 1978 was to amend the drug abuse office and treatment act of 1972, thereby extending assistance programs for drug abuse prevention, education, treatment, rehabilitation and other purposes. Speakers represented such organizations as National…

  19. Methodology for Evaluating an Adaptation of Evidence-Based Drug Abuse Prevention in Alternative Schools

    PubMed Central

    Hopson, Laura M.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth an innovative methodological protocol for culturally grounding interventions with high risk youth in alternative schools. This study utilized mixed methods to evaluate original and adapted versions of a culturally grounded substance abuse prevention program. The qualitative and quantitative methods concurrently explore behaviors around drugs and alcohol, contextual variables for youth substance abuse and related factors, cultural perspectives regarding drug-related attitudes and behaviors, and the complex reasons behind students’ substance use choices. While questionnaires are utilized to note demographics, cultural and acculturative variables, drug use, drug and alcohol attitudes and expectancies, and school culture variables, focus groups capture the voices of the students and staff and trends that cannot be fully understood via questionnaires. In this study, focus groups aid in the understanding of student drug and alcohol choices, attitudes and behaviors and help the researchers hone in on questions and necessary changes to future research procedures. PMID:20634972

  20. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  1. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  2. Relations among Delay Discounting, Addictions, and Money Mismanagement: Implications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Delay discounting is a type of impulsivity in which smaller, immediate rewards are preferred over larger, delayed ones. Impulsivity is associated with harmful behaviors, including substance abuse and financial mismanagement. Methods Delay discounting as related to addiction and financial mismanagement was reviewed from psychological, neurobiological, and behavioral economic perspectives. Results Addiction and financial mismanagement frequently co-occur, and elevated delay discounting may be a common mechanism contributing to both of these problematic behaviors. Conclusions Future research on the relationships between delay discounting, substance abuse, and financial mismanagement can provide important insights for developing improved prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22211535

  3. Some Docs May Help Fuel Opioid Abuse Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Opioid Abuse and Addiction About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  4. Psychologist in the Educational System: His Role in the Prevention of Addiction and Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artamonova, Elena G.; Efimova, Olga I.; Khydyrova, Anjelika V.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of various types of addiction and deviance among children and adolescents has led to the necessity of psychological follow-up of children in the educational environment. Another high-priority task is to create a safe environment for childhood. The purpose of this article is to present the results of monitoring the state of work on…

  5. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  6. Prevention of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a community media campaign.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; Self-Brown, Shannon; de Arellano, Michael; Resnick, Heidi; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Given that mass media techniques have been an effective tool within the public health field for affecting behavioral change, these strategies may prove successful for the primary prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study was an independent evaluation of a CSA media campaign. Two hundred parents were recruited from eight sites across the United States. Results indicated that the combined mass media campaign affected knowledge about CSA at the time of intervention compared to no intervention. No significant differences were found in regards to CSA attitudes. A significant positive impact on primary prevention response behaviors assessed using hypothetical vignettes was found; however, no significant findings were noted for several other behavioral responses. Knowledge and behavioral gains were not maintained at the one-month follow-up. Small sample size at follow-up may have affected findings. Results of this study imply that media campaigns alone may not significantly affect primary prevention of CSA.

  7. Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Alain; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-02-26

    In rare instances, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may become addicted to their own medication or develop behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. This is surprising because PD patients typically have a very low incidence of drug abuse and display a personality type that is the polar opposite of the addictive personality. These rare addictive syndromes, which appear to result from excessive dopaminergic medication use, illustrate the link between dopamine, personality, and addiction. We describe the clinical phenomena and attempt to relate them to current models of learning and addiction. We conclude that persistently elevated dopaminergic stimulation promotes the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors.

  8. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  9. A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. PMID:25298961

  10. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  11. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  12. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  13. Stop It Now! A Pilot Study Into the Limits and Benefits of a Free Helpline Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Joan; Eisenberg, Mara; Nicholls, Carol McNaughton; Mulder, Jules; Webster, Stephen; Paskell, Caroline; Brown, Ashley; Stam, Jeantine; Kerr, Jane; Jago, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Stop It Now! aims to prevent child sexual abuse using a free anonymous helpline. It provides information, advice, and guidance to anyone concerned about child sexual abuse. It targets people who have sexually abused children or who are worried that they might do so. This article presents findings from a pilot study on the operation and outcomes of the helplines in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The findings underline the strength of the public health approach to prevention efforts. More specifically, benefits reported by helpline users are shown to correspond with the aims of the helplines. A number of factors were reported by users that helped them modify their own or others' actions to minimize risk of abuse. However, a challenge that remains is ensuring that helplines are accessible to those most in need. Recommendations are included to further expand the effect of Stop It Now! in reducing CSA.

  14. Indian Juvenile Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Prevention. Hearings on H.R. 1156 To Coordinate and Expand Services for the Prevention, Identification, Treatment, and Follow-Up Care of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Indian Youth and for Other Purposes and H.R. 2624 To Authorize Programs for the Treatment and Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among Indian Juveniles, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First and Second Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Two hearings held on October 24, 1985, and April 29, 1986, produced testimony about two House bills on prevention and treatment of Indian juvenile alcoholism and drug abuse. These bills provide for (1) programs of instruction on alcohol and drug abuse in Indian schools in kindergarten through grade 12; (2) training about alcohol and drug abuse for…

  15. North Dakota Higher Education Consortium for Substance Abuse Prevention Annual Report, July 1, 2006-June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the North Dakota Higher Education Consortium for Substance Abuse Prevention (NDHECSAP) indicates the extent to which prevention services on North Dakota (ND) campuses assist in harm reduction and student retention. Recently a number of national studies have indicated increased attention to collegiate high-risk drinking and the…

  16. Training the next generation of providers in addiction medicine.

    PubMed

    Rasyidi, Ernest; Wilkins, Jeffery N; Danovitch, Itai

    2012-06-01

    benefits. 5. The equalizer is prescription drug abuse, which is increasing recognition of addiction among populations where it was previously ignored or denied. The first three activities will create a medical office “experience” that is largely unknown but carries the power to change the perception of addiction: patients visiting their primary care physicians, who then screen them for addiction problems and give the same attention to treatment and prevention of addiction problems as they might give to treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and other medical issues. The personal experience of the aforementioned medical scene by members of US society may also provide a very positive impact on psychiatrists, including those who specialize in addiction medicine. It is quite possible that the recognition of addiction medicine as a traditional medical subspecialty as well as the integration of addiction throughout medicine will precede any substantive change in the integration of mental health care with the rest of medicine. Yet, any integration of addiction within the entire field of medicine may open a path for mental health to follow. Psychiatrists, including those who are addiction experts, need to be a part of this new medical integration process. Being a part of new treatment models is why we proposed six future skillsets for psychiatrists who specialize in addiction. The selection of these proposed skillsets anticipates an integrated health care team utilizing some form of a patient-centered approach-three are skillsets that are already required, while the last three address new skillsets that will be helpful in working with the integrative health care team model. Whatever form the future of addiction care takes, psychiatrists who specialize in addiction medicine can provide positive and core contributions as expert addiction and mental health consultants including: 1. How does one screen for major depression and/or an anxiety disorder and also determine

  17. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  18. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  19. Advances in genetic studies of substance abuse in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Meng, Shiqiu; Li, Jiali; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Summary The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substance abuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China; these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substance abuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substance abuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substance abuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substance abuse are described. PMID:24991158

  20. Treatment and prevention of elder abuse and neglect: where knowledge and practice meet-a model for intervention to prevent and treat elder abuse in Israel.

    PubMed

    Alon, Sara; Berg-Warman, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    Successful handling of elder abuse and neglect requires various interventions. This article presents findings from an evaluation study of a model for intervention implemented in three municipalities in Israel. Data from 558 older adults, exposed to abuse and treated through the program, and interviews with victims, abusers, and professionals revealed that improvement was achieved in 66% of the cases. In 20% of the cases, the abuse was stopped. The most widespread type of intervention consisted of individual counseling. Legal intervention yielded the highest rate of improvement (82%). Provision of supportive services for victims of neglect was found to be most effective (82% of improvement in the situation).

  1. Amnesia Affecting Some Opioid Abusers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  2. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  3. Trauma adapted family connections: reducing developmental and complex trauma symptomatology to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn S; Strieder, Frederick H; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Freeman, Pamela A Clarkson; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and prevent child abuse and neglect. Trauma Adapted Family Connections (TA-FC) is a manualized trauma-focused practice rooted in the principles of Family Connections (FC), an evidence supported preventive intervention developed to address the glaring gap in services for this specific, growing, and underserved population. This paper describes the science based development of TA-FC, its phases and essential components, which are based on theories of attachment, neglect, trauma, and family interaction within a comprehensive community-based family focused intervention framework.

  4. Iran’s Activities on Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher; Jadidi, Mohsen; Khalili, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the present review study, authors investigated Iran’s activities regarding prevention, abuse and harm reduction of drugs nationwide. The issue appears to be important in order to show the trend of activities in the country. Evidence Acquisition: In this report, authors gathered data from different Farsi/English peer review journals issued both in printed and online versions. These journals have been indexed in PubMed, ISI, ISC, SID, Magiran, UN, etc. These are among the most referred and cited databases. Results: Summarizing the data led to three distinguished sections: 1) drug supply reduction activities; 2) drug demand reduction activities; 3) harm reduction activities. Conclusions: As the results showed, the trend of activities was encouraging and some additional activities could be included to future programs relying on early-onset preventions. PMID:26870709

  5. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes.

  6. A survey of substance abuse prevention efforts at Virginia's colleges and universities.

    PubMed

    West, Steven L; Graham, Carolyn W

    2005-01-01

    The extremes of college student substance use and the negative consequences students face as a result of such use are of great public health concern. Although a multitude of campus-based substance abuse prevention efforts have appeared in literature, a clear picture of the programs and policies currently in use at colleges and universities is not readily available. This research was undertaken to detail both the efforts aimed at general student samples and those targeting at-risk (eg, Greeks, student athletes) and historically underserved (eg, ethnic minorities, students with disabilities) student groups at colleges and universities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. While a variety of efforts were being made, there was a reliance on program orientations with limited scientific support. Four-year institutions used a wider array of outlets for their prevention messages. Targeted programs for at-risk groups were common but were largely unavailable specifically for ethnic minority students and students with disabilities.

  7. Obstacles to Help-Seeking for Sexual Offenders: Implications for Prevention of Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Vicencio, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    Persons with potentially harmful sexual interests such as attraction to minors are unlikely to seek or receive treatment before a sexual offense has been committed. The current study explored barriers to help-seeking in a sample of 372 individuals in treatment for sexual offending. Results revealed that the shame and secrecy resulting from stigma associated with pedophilic interests often prevented our respondents from seeking professional counseling, and only about 20% tried to talk to anyone about their sexual interests prior to their arrest. Barriers to seeking and receiving psychological services included concerns about confidentiality, fears of social and legal consequences, personal shame or confusion about the problem, affordability, and challenges finding competent therapists who were adequately equipped to help them. Understanding and ultimately reducing obstacles to help-seeking can improve the quality of life for people with harmful sexual interests and potentially prevent sexual abuse of children or other vulnerable individuals.

  8. Elder abuse and neglect--"old phenomenon": new directions for research, legislation, and service developments. (2008 Rosalie S. Wolf Memorial Elder Abuse Prevention Award--International Category Lecture).

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ariela

    2009-01-01

    This article poses the question: Is elder abuse and neglect a social problem, showing that it is. Elder abuse, though, is still the most hidden form of mistreatment and a key to governmental responses to an ageing population. It is an important facet as a family violence problem, an intergenerational concern, as well as a health, justice and human rights issue. Because the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect is so complex and multi-dimensional, it has to be addressed by multi-professional and inter-disciplinary approaches. Raising awareness is a fundamental prevention strategy and an important step in causing changes in attitudes and behaviors. This has been accomplished by INPEA and the article was developed from the lecture given by the author on receiving the International Rosalie Wolf Award from INPEA. The discussion focuses on elder abuse as a product of global ageing, stemming from population ageing, which is consistent with an increased prevalence of abuse of all vulnerable groups, older people among them. It is pointed out that baseline and trend data on the nature and prevalence of senior abuse are crucial to policy responses and the development of appropriate programs and services. Difficulties in assessing the scope of the phenomenon, though, are due to: problems in definitions and methodology, which create difficulties in comparing data from various countries; lack of social and familial awareness; isolation of some elders, especially migrants; elder abuse as a 'hidden issue' that usually occurs in the privacy of the home and is viewed as a family affair; limited access to institutional settings. Difficulties also exist in constructing a unifying research framework in order to study the phenomenon due to a lack of comparison groups, a lack of representative national surveys and difficulties in measurement. There is currently, however, an increase in prevalence and incidence studies from both sides of the Atlantic and especially from Europe. But while

  9. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... cancellation of the March 8, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration..., Telephone: 240-276-2600, FAX: 240-276-2610. Toian Vaughn, Committee Management Officer, Substance Abuse...

  10. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  11. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  12. Alter Ego. Drug and brain--information to prevent. Compared analysis of opinions, knowledge and habits among a multicentric sample of secondary school students about drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, M; Gentile, A; Langiano, E; De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Ricciardi, G

    2006-03-01

    Repression and control have been shown to be inadequate for drug addiction issues. Recent history, however has proved that information is one of the most effective measures against the spread of drugs. The wide range of drug circulation and the need for the spread of correct information on the effects of drugs in man, especially his brain, have led the Center for Scientific Culture Diffusion of Cassino University, to widen the scope of "Alter Ego. Drugs and the brain", a touring educational exhibition, which opened in 1994, by dedicating more attention to socially accepted drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco, and to new substances like ecstasy and similar drugs. Concurrently with the Alter Ego touring exhibition, a study was undertaken to obtain information on public awareness of the dangers of psychotropic drug abuse and to assess the effectiveness of the exhibition as an instrument of scientific information about drug addiction among its visitors, during its tour of over 60 Italian towns.

  13. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  14. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  15. Prevention-enhancing interactions: a Critical Interpretive Synthesis of the evidence about children who sexually abuse other children.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing interest in English-speaking jurisdictions, including Australia, North America, Canada, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, about the prevention of sexual abuse perpetrated by children against other children. The aim of this review was to identify opportunities for research, policy and practice which could enhance the prevention agenda relating to the perpetration of sexual abuse by children through conducting a Critical Interpretive Synthesis. Eleven electronic databases were searched in the period from 22 April to 23 May 2013 and included: SocINDEX, Social Services Abstracts, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, Project Muse, PsychINFO, Family and Society Plus, Jstor, Expanded Academic ASAP, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Key individual journals were also searched, including Child Abuse and Neglect and the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, as well as the grey literature. The search was guided by the research question: How could the prevention agenda relating to sexual abuse perpetrated by children be enhanced? The systematic literature search yielded 3323 titles, and 34 of these papers were included in the final synthesis. The authors identified five domains operating in the evidence base: characteristics, causes, communications, interventions and treatments. A synthesising construct emerged from the review: prevention-enhancing interactions. This construct referred to the potential for enhancing the prevention agenda which exists as the evidence domains interact with one another, and with the public health model of prevention. The authors consider this review to be a timely contribution to the current agenda pertaining to sexual abuse perpetrated by children. It provides researchers, policy makers and practitioners in the field with an evidence-informed conceptualisation of opportunities for enhancing prevention work.

  16. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  17. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior using a composition of topiramate

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-06-14

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.

  18. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  19. Hearing on Drug Abuse Prevention and Education. Hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The text of a hearing on drug abuse prevention and education is provided in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Augustus Hawkins which briefly describes progress that has been made towards drug abuse prevention legislation, statements are given by these witnesses: (1) Carolyn Burns of the National Federation of Parents for…

  20. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken.

  1. A media campaign prevention program for child sexual abuse: community members' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants' attitudes and opinions regarding the campaign and the unique effects of ethnic or cultural norms on participants' acceptance of the media materials. Six groups, established based on participant ethnicity (i.e., three Caucasian groups, two African American groups, one Hispanic group), met at two sites in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. Quantitative data suggest that participants reported increased CSA knowledge and low levels of discomfort or anxiety related to exposure to the materials. Focus group results suggest that study participants, regardless of ethnic background, agreed that the media campaign can have a positive impact on public knowledge of CSA. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  3. Narcotic Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Fern, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the major features of narcotic addictions, focusing on the role of methadone as a means of controlling or removing the addiction. It concludes with some observations on society's attitude towards addicts, addictions and programs for control of addiction. PMID:21308103

  4. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents.

  5. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  6. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

  7. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barth, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors-substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems-that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly focus on improving parenting skills, says Richard Barth, remains uncertain. Barth begins by describing how each of the four parental issues is related to child maltreatment. He then examines a variety of parent education interventions aimed at preventing child abuse. He cautions that many of the interventions have not been carefully evaluated and those that have been have shown little effect on child maltreatment or its risk factors. Although some argue that parent education cannot succeed unless family problems are also addressed, much evidence suggests that first helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs and improve the chances of substance abuse recovery. Barth recommends increased public support for research trials to compare the effectiveness of programs focused on parenting education and those aiming to reduce related risk factors. Child welfare services and evidence-based parent training, says Barth, are in a period of transformation. Evidence-based methods are rapidly emerging from a development phase that has primarily involved local and highly controlled studies into more national implementation and greater engagement with the child welfare system. The next step is effectiveness trials. Citing the importance and success of multifaceted campaigns in public health policy, Barth discusses a multifaceted parenting campaign that has demonstrated substantial promise in several large trials. The goal of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is to help parents deal with the full gamut of children's health and behavioral issues. The campaign includes five levels of intervention

  8. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Skobić, Helena; Sinanović, Osman; Skobić Bovan, Nada; Ivanković, Ante; Pejanović Skobić, Natasa

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the general population of Mostar region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study was conducted on a stratified sample of 704 participants. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was determined using standardized questionnaire on alcohol consumption--Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Prevalence of alcohol abuse with high risk for alcoholism was 9.9% and prevalence of alcohol addiction was 2.1%. In student population, there were 3.9% of alcohol addicts and 11.1% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In high school population, there were 1.7% of alcohol addicts and 14.4% of persons with high risk of alcoholism. In Mostar region there was a high prevalence of alcoholism and problematic drinking, especially in high school and student population. There is a need for extensive preventive measures that have to include education, early diagnosis and intervention.

  9. A Prevention Education Project on the Abuse and Mistreatment of Older Adults in Northern Saskatchewan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    A project was designed to begin an Elder Abuse Prevention Education initiative specific to northern and Aboriginal needs in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key principle in every dimension of the project was getting to know one another and talking with Aboriginal older adults and those who work with them. In early 1993, LaRonge, Saskatchewan,…

  10. Model Child Care Standards Act--Guidance to States to Prevent Child Abuse in Day Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    The document offers guidelines to states regarding review and revision of child care statutes, standards, and policies to address the prevention of child sexual abuse in day care facilities. General information is also provided on changes in state standards in recent years. Each of six sections examines findings of the 1981 Comparative Licensing…

  11. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention 1987-1991. Working Paper Number 840.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard

    This report summarizes key findings of a series of national public opinion polls to determine the public's attitudes and actions with respect to child abuse prevention. Findings are reported for four areas: public attitudes toward specific parental discipline practices; the frequency of specific parental discipline practices; the public's support…

  12. Saying No to Ron and Nancy: School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, David

    1987-01-01

    The recent drug scare has intensified some programs' social control functions. Through drug abuse prevention programs in particular, schools have encouraged the accumulation of social skills as a means to ensure success, and they have increasingly applied authoritarian sanctions along with psychological manipulations in an attempt to regulate…

  13. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  14. Addressing Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Evaluation of Washington's Prevention and Intervention Services Program. 2001-03 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deck, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…

  15. The Safe Futures Substance Abuse and Violence Prevention Program at Chief Leschi Elementary School, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.; Whited, David L.

    A 3-year intervention project focused on preventing substance abuse, violence, gang violence, and truancy among K-12 students at the Chief Leschi School in Tacoma, Washington, a tribally controlled, urban school for high risk and adjudicated Native youth. This paper reports the elementary school results. The Positive Reinforcement in Drug…

  16. Let's Prevent Abuse: A Prevention Handbook for Early Childhood Professionals and Families with Young Children, with Special Emphasis on the Needs of Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deb; Martinson, Sue Ann, Ed.

    This handbook on preventing child abuse is intended to help families with young children, especially young children who have or are at risk for disabilities, and to help people working with such families. After an introductory section which presents basic definitions, the first chapter presents highlights of the Education of the Handicapped Act…

  17. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  19. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  20. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…