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Sample records for abuse prevention addiction

  1. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  2. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  3. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  4. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  5. Trimebutine: abuse, addiction and overdose.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Trimebutine, an antispasmodic drug, is used to relieve pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome, despite a lack of proven efficacy. Trimebutine has been shown to act on peripheral opioid receptors. Cases of trimebutine abuse and addiction have been reported in young adults, especially with the injectable form. Cases of serious accidental or intentional trimebutine overdose have been reported in infants and young adults, leading to neurological disorders (loss of consciousness, coma, drowsiness and convulsions) and cardiac disorders (bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, arterial hypertension). Time to symptom onset was less than 3 hours after trimebutine intake. In practice, trimebutine is by no means a harmless drug, contrary to the impression given by the limited safety data available. Patients with pain due to irritable bowel syndrome should be informed of the adverse effects of trimebutine, and the harm-benefit balance should be reassessed in patients already taking this drug. PMID:24298588

  6. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  7. Chronic pain, substance abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Compton, Peggy; Athanasos, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Health care professionals face numerous challenges in assessing and treating chronic pain patients with a substance abuse history. Societal perspectives on morality and criminality, imprecise addiction terminology, litigation fears, and genuine concern for a patient's relapse into or escalation of substance abuse result in unrelieved and under-relieved pain in precisely the population that--as increasing evidence indicates--is generally intolerant of pain. Before adequate pain relief can occur in chronic pain patients with current or past substance abuse issues, it is imperative that the clinician recognize addiction as a disease with known symptoms and treatments. Further, the clinician must realize the difference between true addiction and similar conditions, so the patient's condition can be monitored and regulated properly. Although clinicians are often reluctant to medicate with opioids, it is always best to err on the side of adequate pain relief. Withholding opioids from chronic pain patients in order to avoid the onset or relapse of addiction is contrary to the growing body of evidence and results only in unnecessary pain for the patient. Chronic pain in patients with a history of addictive disease can be treated successfully with opiate analgesia; it just requires caution and careful monitoring of medication use. If addiction is treated as a known risk when providing opioid analgesia to a recovering addict, its development can be minimized while pain relief is provided. PMID:14567207

  8. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... addiction. For example: Photo by © Aleshyn_Andrei /Shutterstock Biology . The genes that people are born with account ... Passes Tests in Animals Childhood Maltreatment Changes Cortical Network Architecture and May Raise Risk for Substance Use ...

  9. Addiction and Substance Abuse in Anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Ethan O.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace and outcomes have not appreciably changed. While alcoholism and other forms of impairment such as addiction to other substances and mental illness impact anesthesiologists at similar rates to other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when co-morbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt re-entry into clinical practice. PMID:18946304

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  11. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  12. Many Addicts Going without Meds That Curb Opioid Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Addicts Going Without Meds That Curb Opioid Abuse In 2013, just 17 percent were given ... is in the grip of an epidemic of opioid abuse. However, new research suggests that drugs that ...

  13. Real-Life Stories about Addiction Struggles

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles ... IMAGE TO PLAY THE VIDEO Read More "Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction" Articles Scientific Research has Revolutionized our ...

  14. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  15. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  16. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen People who are trying ... Español English Español PDF Version Download "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  17. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change. PMID:21771314

  18. Association between Parental Addiction and Types of Child Abuse in High-School Students of Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Amir; Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Kalantari, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background Child abuse is one of the vulnerabilities that threaten child's physical and mental health in childhood and is associated with serious short-term and long-term complications. The present study aimed to review the association of parental addiction with types of child abuse in high-school students of Kerman, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 360 students were recruited and studied through cluster sampling method. Abuse and the related factors were assessed using a standard self-report 48-item questionnaire. Findings Average child abuse among the study subjects was 27.6%. Physical behavior, negligence, and emotional abuse were seen in 9.7%, 23.6%, and 17.9% of the subjects, respectively. Parental addiction had a significant association (P = 0.001) with incidence of all the child abuse domains. Conclusion Special consideration to families of addicted parents and early identification of child abuse cases may prevent the adverse side effects. PMID:24494167

  19. Internet Abuse and Internet Addiction in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to internet abuse and internet addiction in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, the paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of internet abuse, and the most extreme form of…

  20. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  1. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  2. Mississippi Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.

    This document presents the Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum developed for use in Mississippi elementary and secondary schools. The curriculum uses a developmental approach to substance abuse prevention which emphasizes helping students gain information needed to make sound decisions about drug use. Incorporated into the curriculum are all…

  3. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  4. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen After the "high" of ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  5. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  6. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  7. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the munchies." When someone smokes marijuana, they often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  8. Curricular Guidelines for Pharmacy Education: Substance Abuse and Addictive Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy guidelines for required and elective instructional content concerning substance abuse for pharmacy students is presented. Recommended required content includes psychosocial aspects of drug use; pharmacology and toxicology; identification, intervention, and treatment of addiction; and legal issues.…

  9. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    PubMed

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695

  10. Cocaine abuse among opioid addicts: demographic and diagnostic factors in treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Gawin, F H; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1986-01-01

    Cocaine is becoming a major drug of abuse among the general population and among opiate addicts. Reports from the early 1970s found that most abusers were older Black males with some antisocial characteristics. Cocaine abuse at that time was reported by about 17% of opiate addicts seeking treatment and by 7 to 11% of ex-addicts on methadone maintenance. However, that rate increased dramatically during the 1970s, and in our 1980 study of 533 addicts we found that 74% of opiate addicts applying for treatment used cocaine. It was the second most abused nonopioid drug after marijuana, surpassing alcohol intoxication. Although the mean number of days of abuse over the previous 30 days was substantially lower among the addicts on our methadone maintenance program (mean = 1.4 days, n = 120) than among the addicts applying for treatment (mean = 9 days, n = 204), the following associations with cocaine abuse were consistent in both subsamples. Cocaine abuse was more frequent among Blacks. It was associated with a variety of antisocial indices including Research Diagnostic Criteria antisocial personality disorder, number of arrests, and legal, family, employment, and drug abuse problems as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index and the Social Adjustment Scale. Several differences emerged between Black and White cocaine-abusing addicts, the most interesting being an increased rate of anxiety disorders among White cocaine abusers. Based on these associations, we offer several guidelines for treating cocaine abuse in opiate addicts. PMID:3788892

  11. Co-Existent Fruit Machine Addiction and Solvent Abuse in Adolescence: A Cause for Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Data from study of gambling cross-addictions highlighted 16 agencies reporting that fruit machine gambling was specifically associated with some form of psychoactive substance abuse. Largest subgroup was cross-addictions involving solvent abuse and fruit machine gambling. Concluded that co-existence of fruit machine addiction and solvent abuse…

  12. Interdisciplinary research training in substance abuse and addictions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence shows that the management of complex problems of and related to substance abuse and addictions require comprehensive approaches based on solid research. Nonetheless, timely and widespread dissemination of research findings remains uncommon, hindering nursing practice, impeding the health of individuals and families, and imposing untoward costs for society. Shifts in science paradigms underscore the need for efficient and effective interdisciplinary research teams to carry out innovative research within a translational science framework. This means that early career investigators will need the knowledge and skills to conduct research as part of an interdisciplinary team and to contribute systematically to translational research in the area of substance abuse and addictions. This brief report describes a nursing research training program sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that evolved into an interdisciplinary program administrated within a school of nursing. Factors conducive to program development are described, along with the structure and elements of the program and examples of the scholars' projects and accomplishments. The common benefits of interdisciplinary research training for both predoctoral and postdoctoral research scholars include consistent exposure to new and alternative scientific models and methodological approaches as well as endurance of cross-discipline network connections. Benefits and challenges of this program carry implications for the design of future nursing research training programs in the field of substance abuse and addictions. PMID:24622528

  13. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given. PMID:24341196

  14. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557

  15. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  16. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  17. Problems of drug abuse and preventive measures in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tobolska-Rydz, H

    1986-01-01

    An increasing abuse of drugs emerged among young people in Poland at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to information provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, there are currently 35,000 drug abusers, but the actual number is estimated at approximately 200,000. The abuse of extract from poppy straw and the inhalation of volatile solvents, such as glue and paint remover, are the major drug abuse problems. Addicts prepare a decoction of poppy straw for injection, and morphine and heroin have been clandestinely manufactured in very elementary home-made laboratories. Recently, methamphetamine hydrochloride and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have also been illicitly produced in such home-made laboratories. The increasing drug abuse problem has prompted the authorities to prepare new complementary drug control legislation, the Act on the Prevention of Narcotic Addiction, which was adopted on 31 January 1985. The Act provides for more effective preventive and treatment measures, as well as severe punishment for involvement in illicit drug trafficking. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug-dependent persons is provided on a voluntary basis, except for persons convicted of drug-related offences and for persons under 18 years of age, in which case treatment may be compulsory. PMID:3779183

  18. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:24992952

  19. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  20. Emotional Disturbance and Substance Abuse/Addiction Special Education Programming for the Dually-Diagnosed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdaniak, Roman C.

    Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…

  1. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…

  2. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan Was'aka, Denver,…

  3. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models. PMID:20579432

  4. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  5. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  7. Addiction.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Zangen, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol addiction is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking behaviors despite negative physiological, medical, or social consequences. Neurobiological models of addiction propose that the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs are associated with altered neurotransmission within the reward 'mesocorticolimbic' circuitry in the brain. Immense efforts are therefore designed to target the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in attenuating drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. Yet, to date, most addiction treatments have demonstrated only limited success in reducing addiction-related behaviors. Accumulating and compelling evidence suggests that novel nonsurgical brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could serve as promising tools for indexing altered neurotransmission associated with repetitive drug use, and moreover, may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. This chapter reviews and discusses the current and potential applications of such techniques in the study and treatment of addiction; we focus on a number of common drugs of abuse, including nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and ecstasy. PMID:24112928

  8. Preventing Sexual Abuse. Reference Sheet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…

  9. Parent Support Groups to Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, C. Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Describes the organization and training of a parent support group to prevent child abuse. Initial training assisted group members to become aware of their attitudes toward child abusers. Training also focused on developing listening skills, procedures for making referrals, and the handling of confidential information. (RC)

  10. Teachers and Child Abuse Prevention. Item 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…

  11. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  12. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  13. Incestuous Sexual Abuse: Preventing the Scars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)

  14. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Child Abuse and Drug Addiction in 178 Patients: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Frederick S.; Densen-Gerber, Judianne

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire on family intactness, parental and sibling relationships, and personal physical/sexual abuse histories was completed by 178 adults in treatment for drug/alcohol addiction. Results revealed that 84 percent of the sample reported a history of child abuse/neglect. (Author/CL)

  16. Prevention of addiction in pain management

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-09-06

    The present invention provides a composition for treating pain. The composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable analgesic and a GABAergic agent, such as gamma vinyl GABA, effective in reducing or eliminating the addictive liability of the analgesic. The invention also includes a method for reducing or eliminating the addictive

  17. [Prevention of addiction in hospital staff].

    PubMed

    Picchiottino, Frédérique

    2012-11-01

    La Pitié-Salpêtrière-Charles Foix university hospital group (Paris) has set up a task force to help healthcare managers manage a member of staff suffering with addiction. An addiction awareness day is also organised, aimed at all staff, with information stands and a performance by a theatre company. PMID:23173491

  18. Birth Order and Polydrug Abuse Among Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Steven E.; Linder, Ronald L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of possible relationships between birth order and polydrug use patterns of heroin addicts prior to undergoing treatment. Overrepresentation of "only child" heroin addicts was evident among the population studied. (Author)

  19. Regulating gambling to prevent addiction: more necessary now than ever.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Mariano; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association published the 5th Edition of DSM in May 2013, in which the gambling disorder is included within the category of addictive disorders -a long-standing and recurrent demand from the clinical, social and scientific fields. Nevertheless, the harmful effects of gambling have not been considered by the Government, which is the main area of addiction prevention.The present article is a proposal for the regulation of gambling by the Government through the different levels of the State (national, regional and even local), which has the ultimate goal of preventing gambling addiction. This proposal has been presented to the Chamber of Deputies of the Congress, as part of the Congress-Senate Joint Committee for the Study of Drug Problems. The proposed regulation is based on the evidence provided by scientific studies on the prevention of addiction. PMID:27399227

  20. Misguided Intentions in Drug-Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    1994-01-01

    Many drug abuse prevention programs and materials, such as the "Smart Choices" newsletter for kindergartners, are developmentally inappropriate for young children. Successful preventive measures need to address the mixed messages that society itself gives to children about alcohol and other drugs and present developmentally appropriate instruction…

  1. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  2. Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... TO PLAY THE VIDEO NIHSeniorHealth Videos Offer Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles—and Much More Many ...

  3. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  4. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  5. Prevention of alcohol use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, W B

    1994-09-01

    The primary goal of educational alcohol prevention programs is to lower the overall prevalence of alcohol use and abuse among populations at risk for negative alcohol-related outcomes. Youth are primarily targeted for prevention since there is ample evidence that alcohol-related injuries constitute a major risk for this group in particular. Prevention includes a goal to delay the onset of regular consumption and decrease high-risk consumption among youth who do drink. No matter what definition of alcohol use or abuse is adopted, the goal of prevention is to lower the proportion of youth who engage in that type of use. Among those who already use or abuse alcohol by any definition, the goal of prevention is to reduce the average intensity of use and prevent the progression of consumption to more severe levels. Reducing high-risk consumption may include preventing drinking while driving as well as promoting "responsible" drinking. Prevention programs may include a focus on reducing or eliminating consumption among occasional users. Prevention is also targeted at adults, primarily focusing on reduction of alcohol-impaired driving, reduction of alcohol-related violence, and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:7845939

  6. Women Who Abuse Prescription Opioids: Findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version® Connect Prescription Opioid Database

    PubMed Central

    Green, Traci C.; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Methods Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV® Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. Results 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3,821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, p< 0.001) and abuse of any prescription opioid (15.4% females vs. 11.1% males, p < 0.001) in the past month. Route of administration and source of prescription opioids displayed gender-specific tendencies. Women-specific correlates of recent prescription opioid abuse were problem drinking, age <54, inhalant use, residence outside of West US Census region, and history of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age <34, currently living with their children, residence in the South and Midwest, hallucinogen use, and recent depression. Women prescription opioid abusers were less likely to report a pain problem although they were more likely to report medical problems than women who abused other drugs. Conclusions Gender-specific factors should be taken into account in efforts to screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted. PMID:19409735

  7. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. PMID:25111169

  8. A Drug Abuse Prevention Strategy for Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Anthony; Duncan, Terry; Irvine, A. Blair; Ary, Dennis; Smolkowski, Keith; James, Lisa

    This paper describes strategies for developing drug abuse prevention programs in rural communities, based on available evidence about factors contributing to drug abuse. Comprehensive interventions to prevent drug abuse and other youth problems are needed because drug abuse is entwined with other problem behaviors and stems from a complex set of…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…

  10. Nicotine Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of tobacco products is one of the most critical health problems facing the country. Through the use of neuroimaging technologies, it is now possible to see some of the changes in brain functioning that occur from smoking. There may be other chemicals in cigarette smoke that contribute to addiction. The improved understanding of addiction,…

  11. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  12. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  13. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  14. Prediction and Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, R. A. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This paper uses the infectious disease model as an approach to the prevention of narcotic or poly drug abuse. It lists and discusses productive and counterproductive educational techniques on the basis of research findings and international reports on the outcomes of effective and counterproductive programs. (Author)

  15. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  16. Substance Abuse Prevention in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This is a Searchlight Plus document, an informational analysis paper based on a computer search of the ERIC database from 1966 through November 1985 and on pertinent outside resources. This paper reviews, analyzes, and interprets the literature on the topic of substance abuse prevention in schools and points out the implications of the information…

  17. Parental Involvement in Sexual Abuse Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Jeanne M.; Rubin, Roger H.

    1993-01-01

    Parental knowledge of child sexual abuse and interest in educating themselves and their children for primary prevention was studied, via interviews with 51 mothers and 50 fathers of preschool and day-care center children. There were significant differences by sex of parent for sources of preferred information, preferred educators, and types of…

  18. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips ...

  19. Effect of Primary Medical Care on Addiction and Medical Severity in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D; Zhang, Zhiwei; Hendrickson, James; Stein, Michael D; Gerstein, Dean R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether the availability of primary medical care on-site at addiction treatment programs or off-site by referral improves patients' addiction severity and medical outcomes, compared to programs that offer no primary care. DESIGN Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients admitted to a purposive national sample of substance abuse treatment programs. SETTING Substance abuse treatment programs in major U.S. metropolitan areas eligible for demonstration grant funding from the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. RESPONDENTS Administrators at 52 substance abuse treatment programs, and 2,878 of their patients who completed treatment intake, discharge, and follow-up interviews. MEASUREMENTS Program administrators reported whether the program had primary medical care available on-site, only off-site, or not at all. Patients responded to multiple questions regarding their addiction and medical status in intake and 12-month follow-up interviews. These items were combined into multi-item composite scores of addiction and medical severity. The addiction severity score includes items measuring alcohol and drug use, employment, illegal activities, legal supervision, family and other social support, housing, physical conditions, and psychiatric status. The medical severity score includes measures of perceived health, functional limitations, and comorbid physical conditions. MAIN RESULTS After controlling for treatment modality, geographic region, and multiple patient-level characteristics, patients who attended programs with on-site primary medical care experienced significantly less addiction severity at 12-month follow-up (regression coefficient, −25.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], −43.2 to −8.5), compared with patients who attended programs with no primary medical care. However, on-site care did not significantly influence medical severity at follow-up (coefficient, −0.28; 95% CI, −0.69 to 0

  20. Child abuse, drug addiction and mental health problems of incarcerated women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren

    2015-01-01

    The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25660063

  1. Recovering substance abuse staff members' beliefs about addiction.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, K; Noke, J M; Moos, R H

    1996-01-01

    This study of 329 substance abuse treatment staff assessed how recovery status, in combination with other variables, influences beliefs about the causes and treatment of substance abuse. About 15% (n = 47) of participants were "in recovery" from substance abuse problems; these staff members were not significantly different than nonrecovering staff members on education, age, race/ethnicity, years of clinical experience, or amount of client contact. When examined in a multiple regression equation that also included age, education, and treatment program goals and activities, staff members' recovery status was not associated with endorsement of disease and psychosocial models of substance abuse. However, being in recovery was associated with endorsing an eclectic approach to substance abuse treatment. The importance of recognizing the diversity of beliefs about substance abuse among recovering staff and of acknowledging that multiple influences affect all staff members viewpoints on treatment is discussed. PMID:8699546

  2. Lifetime positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis abuse are partially explained by co-morbid addiction.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, Caroline; Bidard, Isabelle; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Recent prospective findings have shown that cannabis use by young people could be a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, but the long-term impact of cannabis abuse on the clinical features of declared schizophrenia remains to be explored. We assessed the independent influence of cannabis abuse on the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, after controlling for frequently co-occurring addictive disorders. Patients with schizophrenia, and with (N=66), or without (N=139) cannabis abuse, were compared for lifetime positive and negative symptoms, taking into account presence of any other addictive disorders. The incidence of the abuse of drugs other than cannabis was nearly five times greater amongst patients with both schizophrenia and cannabis abuse. When the analyses were limited to subjects with no other abuse, less avolution and fewer apathy symptoms were still detected in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis abuse than in those with no abuse (p=0.0001). In contrast, between-group differences for positive symptoms were abolished when multiple substance abuses were taken into account. The strong association between cannabis abuse and fewer negative symptoms in schizophrenia was thus replicated in this sample, but once co-morbid addictive disorders had been controlled no influence of cannabis abuse on hallucinations was detected. Distinguishing the effects of co-occurring addictive disorder(s) in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis dependence may thus be important when attempting to analyse the impact of cannabis abuse. PMID:16806837

  3. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  4. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse treatment systems. Seeking to expand international research and infrastructure, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s International Program has engaged international investigators and institutions in addiction research to promote dissemination of addiction science globally. This paper presents three mixed-methods case studies to exemplify the use of advancements in evidence-based practice in addiction treatment as guides and tools for the creation or further development of treatment systems in three countries, Vietnam, Lebanon, and Abu Dhabi. Results indicate that a framework of evidence-based medicine and empirical science creates a necessary platform from which objective conversations about addictions may begin. Other facilitative factors that help create treatment programs internationally include: a receptive and supportive government, support from international donors and technical experts, networking and interest from other international organizations, and often a synergistic and concerted effort by multiple entities and partners. Despite substantial differences in the circumstances that generated these initiatives and the varying scope of the services, common themes across these efforts have been the implementation of science-based approaches to systems transformation and support for a public health approach to addressing drug abuse and addiction. PMID:26752803

  5. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  6. Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo

    2014-07-29

    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors. PMID:25024177

  7. Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo

    2014-01-01

    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [11C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral (“self-reports” for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [11C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors. PMID:25024177

  8. A study of multiple behavioral addictions in a substance abuse sample.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa; Lung, John; Froias, Autumn; Paull, Nancy; Bailey, Genie

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral addictions (BAs) are underrecognized, even in addiction programs. We assessed BAs in a substance abuse sample (n = 51; data collection 2011-2012). A self-report Behavioral Addictions Screen, assessing eight BAs, was administered using an automated telephone system. Most endorsed at least one BA, with the most common shopping/spending; eating; work; computer/internet; and sex/pornography. Lowest were gambling, self-harm, and exercise. Some BAs were correlated with others. Gender, ethnicity, age, and positive depression and posttraumatic stress disorder screens were associated with specific BAs. Future research could address interpretation of "addiction," comparison to diagnostic interviews, relationship to substance use disorders, and larger samples. PMID:24304172

  9. Drug-induced neurotoxicity in addiction medicine: From prevention to harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, S; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative disorders. Most drugs of abuse have nonnegligible neurotoxic effects many of which are primarily mediated by several dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems. Although many researchers have investigated the medical and cognitive consequences of drug abuse, the neurotoxicity induced by these drugs still requires comprehensive attention. The science of neurotoxicity promises to improve preventive and therapeutic strategies for brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson's disease. However, its clinical applications for addiction medicine remain to be defined adequately. This chapter reviews the most commonly discussed mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity induced by common drugs of abuse including amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and alcohol. In addition, the known factors that trigger and/or predispose to drug-induced neurotoxicity are discussed. These factors include drug-related, individual-related, and environmental insults. Moreover, we introduce some of the potential pharmacological antineurotoxic interventions deduced from experimental animal studies. These interventions involve various targets such as dopaminergic system, mitochondria, cell death signaling, and NMDA receptors, among others. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of addicted patients who might benefit from such interventions. PMID:26806769

  10. Overlaps in the nosology of substance abuse and overeating: the translational implications of "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Gold, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic has led to the postulation that highly palatable foods may be "addictive" for some individuals. This idea is supported by the fact that there are overlaps in brain circuitry that underlie addictive behavior as well as overeating. In this paper, we discuss the utility of the concept of "food addiction" as it may relate to treating certain disordered eating behaviors. Using criteria set forth in the DSM-IV for substance-use disorders, we review data that have emerged from animal models suggesting that overeating, in the form of binge eating, fits some of the criteria for substance abuse. Further, we discuss preclinical data revealing that the addiction-like behavioral changes observed in response to overeating are concomitant with neurochemical changes that are similar to those observed in response to drugs of abuse. With this background and evidence in mind, we conclude this article with a discussion as to how "food addiction" research may translate into clinical strategies and pharmaceutical treatments useful in curtailing overeating. PMID:21999687

  11. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  12. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  13. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... income and assets. Elder Abuse News NCPEA’s POLYVICTIMIZATION PROJECT The National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA) is engaged in an interdisciplinary national project to explore and address polyvictimization in late life, ...

  14. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  15. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  16. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  17. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  18. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  19. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... within three weeks after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

  20. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  1. Actress Debra Winger: "Everyone Is Touched by Addiction."

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched ... Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), discuss the actress’s participation in the NIDA- ...

  2. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleemeier, Carol; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…

  4. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  5. Sociodemographic profile and pattern of opioid abuse among patients presenting to a de-addiction centre in tertiary care Hospital of Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Samina; Hussain, Syed Sajad; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Hussain, Syed Karrar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The substances abuse has become one of the major public health problems of present society. Recently there has been an increase in the incidence of substance abuse including that of opioids throughout the world. The proper assessment of the current trends and pattern of opioid abuse can be helpful in more effective intervention of this menace. Materials and Methods: To find out various socio-demographic variables and pattern of opioid abuse, a predevised questionnaire was administered to 200 opioid patients who presented to de-addiction center for treatment. Results: Majority of the participants (75%) were of young age group (20–30 years) and the mean age of subjects was 27.6 years. More than half of participants (55%) were abusing the opioid substances for < 3 years followed by 30% of the abusers who were using the opioids for 4–6 years. Oral route was the most common route(35%)of substance administration followed by chasing(13%) and intravenous(11%) routes. Diverted pharmaceuticals emerged as one of the common substances of abuse, and peer pressure was found to be the main reason to start substance abuse. Conclusion: A comprehensive preventive program targeting young adults needs to be formulated and strict laws against sales of diverted pharmaceuticals to be implemented. PMID:26229346

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity differences between women with history of childhood sexual abuse who are methadone-maintained former opiate addicts and non-addicts.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-09-30

    Following our finding of high rates of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among methadone maintained (MMT) former opiate addict women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, we compared 68 MMT sexually abused women to 48 women from a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center (SATC) without a history of opiate addiction, for clinical-OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale), dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), complex-post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Non-Other Specify), sexual PTSD (the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and trauma events history (Life Event Inventory). MMT patients were treated for longer periods and were older and less educated. Clinical OCD was more prevalent among the MMT patients (66.2% vs. 30.4%, respectively), while complex-PTSD and high dissociation score (DES≥30) were more prevalent among the non-addicts (46.9% vs. 19.1%, and 57.1% vs. 11.8% respectively). The high rate of OCD among sexually abused MMT women was not found in women who are sexually abused non-addicts. As dissociation was rare among the MMT group, it may just be that the opioids (either as street-drugs or as MMT) serve as an external coping mechanism when the access to the internal one is not possible. Future study about OCD and dissociation before entry to MMT are needed. PMID:24908543

  7. From addiction to infection: managing drug abuse in the context of HIV/AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Akindipe, Taiwo; Abiodun, Lolade; Adebajo, Sylvia; Lawal, Rahman; Rataemane, Solomon

    2014-09-01

    People who use drugs are at higher risk of HIV: directly through the sharing of injecting equipment, indirectly through associated risk behavior, and physiologically through the substances' impact on the immune system. Drug users, especially people who inject drugs (PWID) are a bridge to the general population. The treatment of drug addiction and provision of harm reduction interventions have impact on HIV transmission and incidence. Addiction treatment reduces the frequency of drug-related risky behaviors and enhances access and adherence to HIV treatment, resulting in fewer new infections. However, the drug policies of many African countries are punitive and hostile to harm reduction programs. These fuel criminalization of drug use and discrimination against the drug user thereby preventing individuals with drug addiction from accessing treatment programs. There is need to formulate policies aimed at protecting the rights of people with drug addiction and address the ethical aspects of treatment. PMID:26050376

  8. Measures to prevent and reduce drug abuse among young people in Burma.

    PubMed

    Khant, U

    1985-01-01

    Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2934106

  9. Biological Contributions to Addictions in Adolescents and Adults: Prevention, Treatment and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biological bases of addictions, these disorders continue to represent a huge public health burden that is associated with substantial personal suffering. Efforts to target addictions require consideration of how the improved biological understanding of addictions may lead to improved prevention, treatment and policy initiatives. Method In this article, we provide a narrative review of current biological models for addictions with a goal of placing existing data and theories within a translational and developmental framework targeting the advancement of prevention, treatment and policy strategies. Results Data regarding individual differences, intermediary phenotypes, and main and interactive influences of genetic and environmental contributions in the setting of developmental trajectories that may be influenced by addictive drugs or behavior indicate complex underpinnings of addictions. Conclusions Consideration and further elucidation of the biological etiologies of addictions hold significant potential for making important gains and reducing the public health impact of addictions. PMID:23332567

  10. Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Approach to Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…

  11. Law Enforcement and Substance Abuse Prevention: Training and Strategy Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a training program and a specific information strategy for police promoting substance abuse prevention. Discusses training components for a successful drug abuse presentation and selection of an appropriate prevention strategy. Presents a model of types of drug information. Discusses problems with negative attitudes and use of drug…

  12. Corporal Punishment and Primary Prevention of Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses the end of the use of corporal punishment as a potentially important aspect of primary prevention of physical abuse, explains why this potential has been ignored, and suggests that ending use of corporal punishment should become an explicit goal of those concerned with preventing physical abuse. (Contains references.)…

  13. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez. It…

  14. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  15. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  16. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  17. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  18. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  19. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in America: Policies for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse has formulated six recommendations that can facilitate community efforts to prevent substance abuse. These recommendations are directed to federal, state, and local policymakers and the communities they serve. The recommendations are: (1) federal, state, and local policies should…

  20. A Guide to Multicultural Drug Abuse Prevention: Funding. Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison-Burns, Bettye; And Others

    This booklet explores sources of money for multicultural and minority drug abuse prevention programs and provides an overview of fundraising methods and resources. Local, State and Federal agencies (including private organizations) that provide funds for drug abuse prevention programs are listed. Ways to go about soliciting funds are outlined.…

  1. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  2. Preventing Elder Abuse: The Texas Plan for a Coordinated Service Delivery System. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention project. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for achieving a coordinated service delivery system for…

  3. Adoption and Diffusion of Evidence-Based Addiction Medications in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Carolyn J; Cummings, Grant R

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the roles of facility-and state-level factors in treatment facilities’ adoption and diffusion of pharmaceutical agents used in addiction treatment. Data SourcesSecondary data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Alcohol Policy Information System, and Kaiser Family Foundation. Study DesignWe estimate ordered logit and multinomial logit models to examine the relationship of state and treatment facility characteristics to the adoption and diffusion of three pharmaceutical agents over 4 years when each was at a different stage of adoption or diffusion. Data CollectionN-SSATS data with facility codes, obtained directly from SAMHSA, were linked by state identifiers to the other publicly available, secondary data. Principal FindingsThe analysis confirms the importance of awareness and exposure to the adoption behavior of others, dissemination of information about the feasibility and effectiveness of innovations, geographical clustering, and licensing and accreditation in legitimizing facilities’ adoption and continued use of pharmacotherapies in addiction treatment. ConclusionsPolicy and administrative levers exist to increase the availability of pharmaceutical technologies and their continued use by substance abuse treatment facilities. PMID:23855719

  4. Methylphenidate and μ opioid receptor interactions: A pharmacological target for prevention of stimulant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinmin; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kachroo, Anil; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used and highly effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. As the therapeutic use of MPH has increased, so has its abuse and illicit street-use. Yet, the mechanisms associated with development of MPH-associated abuse and dependence are not well understood making it difficult to develop methods to help its mitigation. As a result, many ADHD patients especially children and youth, that could benefit from MPH treatment do not receive it and risk life-long disabilities associated with untreated ADHD. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms associated with development of MPH addiction and designing methods to prevent it assume high public health significance. Using a mouse model we show that supra-therapeutic doses of MPH produce rewarding effects (surrogate measure for addiction in humans) in a conditioned place preference paradigm and upregulate μ opioid receptor (MOPR) activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, brain regions associated with reward circuitry. Co-administration of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, prevents MPH-induced MOPR activation and the rewarding effects. The MPH-induced MOPR activation and rewarding effect require activation of the dopamine D1 but not the D2 receptor. These findings identify the MOPR as a potential target for attenuating rewarding effects of MPH and suggest that a formulation that combines naltrexone with MPH could be a useful pharmaceutical approach to alleviate abuse potential of MPH and other stimulants. PMID:21545805

  5. 75 FR 77733 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts AGENCIES: Department of Defense... Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2009 requirements for preventing abuse of interagency contracts....

  6. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Gothuey, I; Andronicos, M; Babel, H; Nunweiler, S

    2013-01-01

    What's new in addiction medicine in 2012? The news are presented according three axes: first, in the field of neuroscience, the process of extinction of addiction memories. Then in the clinical field, a reflexion is reported on how to treat addiction in psychiatric hospitals. At last, in the area of teaching, an e-learning development with a virtual patient shows a great interest in addiction psychiatry. PMID:23367696

  7. The neonatal nurse's role in preventing abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Abusive head trauma in infants occurs in 24.6 to 39.8 per 100,000 infants in developed countries. Abusive head trauma refers to any type of intentional head trauma an infant sustains, as a result of an injury to the skull or intracranial contents from a blunt force and/or violent shaking. The clinical question was: what evidence-based interventions have been implemented by neonatal nurses to prevent abusive head trauma in infants? PubMed was searched to obtain English language publications from 2005 to May 2014 for interventions focused on preventing abusive head trauma using the key term "shaken baby syndrome." A total of 10 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All of the interventions targeted prevention of abusive head trauma with information about abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome and the "normal" infant crying behaviors. Interventions taught parents why infants cried, how to calm the infants, ways to cope with inconsolable infants, and how to develop a plan for what to do if they could not cope anymore. Parents who participated in the interventions were consistently able to explain the information and tell others about the dangers of shaking infants compared to the control parents. Only 2 studies calculated the preintervention abusive head trauma rate and the postintervention frequency of abusive head trauma. Each found significant differences in abusive head trauma. PMID:25137601

  8. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  9. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  10. Substance Abuse among Latino Youth. Prevention Research Update, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A.; Gilbert, M. Jean

    This publication is one of a series summarizing recent research on adolescent drug abuse and its prevention. The report provides an overview of research and reviews its implications for dealing with substance abuse among Latino youth, placing new information in the context of past findings. Research has shown that drug use patterns in several…

  11. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-24703 Filed 10-3-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... hurt by alcohol and drug abuse. From diminished achievement in our schools, to greater risks on...

  12. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  14. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  15. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  16. Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…

  17. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  18. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  19. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  20. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  1. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  2. A review of addiction.

    PubMed

    Clay, Steven W; Allen, Jason; Parran, Theorore

    2008-07-01

    Addiction to drugs and alcohol is often undiagnosed and untreated. Physicians are often unaware or have negative attitudes regarding these patients, such as the perception that treatment is ineffective. Addiction--psychological dependence with or without tolerance and withdrawal--is essentially compulsive uncontrolled substance use despite physical, psychological, or social consequences. We now have an understanding of the 2 major neurological pathways involved in addiction. First, the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which is essential for survival, can be physically altered by drug abuse to result in uncontrolled cravings. Second, the decision-making prefrontal cortex, which suppresses inappropriate reward response, can also be altered by drug abuse. Thus, accelerated "go" signals and impaired "stop" signals result in uncontrolled use despite severe consequences. Further, addicts can be predisposed to addiction by genetic defects in reward pathway neurotransmission and stress-related developmental brain abnormalities. Relapse to drug use can occur because of stress or cue-related reward pathway stimulation or even by a single drug dose. Individualized treatment of addiction, including pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions, can be as successful as treatment of other chronic diseases. Several pharmaceuticals are available or under study for these disorders. Waiting for the addict to "be ready" for treatment can be dangerous and detoxification alone is often ineffective. The physician's role in treating addiction includes prevention, diagnosis, brief intervention, motivational interviewing, referral, and follow-up care. An understanding of the biological reality of addiction allows physicians to understand addicts as having a brain disease. Further, the reality of effective pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for addiction allows physicians to be more optimistic in treating addicts. The challenge to the physician is to embrace the

  3. Clinical presentations of substance abuse in bipolar heroin addicts at time of treatment entry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on the ‘self-medication hypothesis’ have focused on substance abuse as an attempt to alleviate emotional suffering. Methods We have investigated concomitant substances of abuse in 150 bipolar heroin addicts clustered according to their clinical presentation at treatment entry (depressive episode, hypomanic episode, manic episode and mixed episode). Bipolar heroin addicted patients were chosen because they tend to have a concomitant poly-substance abuse and because, as compared with patients suffering for other mental illnesses, they more clearly reveal a variety of identifiable affective states. Results Patients with a depressive episode more frequently used non-prescribed anxiolytic-hypnotics. They were found to use cocaine-amphetamines more frequently during a hypomanic episode, whereas the use of cannabis and cocaine-amphetamines occurred more frequently during a manic episode. The associated use of alcohol, cocaine-amphetamines and cannabinoids was more frequently encountered during a mixed episode. Limitations: apart from the difficulty in determining whether the substance use modifies the mood or the mood state determines the substance used, this is a report on a retrospective analysis, rather than a study specifically designed to elucidate the issue; in addition, no information was available on the temperament of our subjects. Assessments of the same subject in various clinical presentations would have provided a better level of information. Conclusions Besides one expected result – the prominent use of CNS stimulants during a depressive phase of bipolar patients – this study supports the hypothesis that mood elation is a pleasurable, rewarding experience that, in bipolar patients, can be started or prolonged by means of CNS stimulant drugs. Stimulant use was, therefore, more prevalent during the ‘up’ rather than the ‘down’ phase of the illness. PMID:22943591

  4. Loved One's Substance Abuse Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the age when drug use begins. Many cultural factors affect drug abuse trends. Research has shown that addiction often begins in childhood or adolescence. NIH-funded studies have found that prevention programs targeting this time ...

  5. Drugs of abuse and addiction: A slippery slope toward liver injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata

    2016-08-01

    Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. PMID:26409324

  6. [Detoxication in opiate addiction and prevention of recurrence: administration of naltrexone and cognitive behavior therapy].

    PubMed

    Roozen, H G; Deden, A L; Kerkhof, A J; Vorsteveld, J P; van den Brink, W

    1997-12-01

    Rapid opiate withdrawal and relapse prevention in opiate addicts are made possible by naltrexone, clonidine and diazepam in combination with cognitive behavioural therapy according to the Community Reinforcement Approach. In an open pilot experiment 12 addicted patients achieved initial detoxification. At follow-up after a minimum of 6 months, 10 of these had not relapsed. Good results with this detoxification method could be booked by selecting highly motivated opiate addicts. PMID:9554156

  7. Child sexual abuse prevention: evaluation of a teacher training model.

    PubMed

    Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J

    1988-01-01

    Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520

  8. Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” ... Neill’s gripping 1941 play of family alcohol and drug addiction. It was part of the Addiction Performance Project, ...

  9. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  10. The Protected Addiction: Exploring Staff Beliefs toward Integrating Tobacco Dependence into Substance Abuse Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teater, Barbra; Hammond, Gretchen Clark

    2009-01-01

    Survey research was used to explore the beliefs of 963 staff members regarding the myths to treating tobacco dependence and the integration of tobacco dependence into substance abuse treatment programs. The staff represented a mixture of residential, outpatient, and prevention-based gender-specific (women only) treatment centers throughout Ohio.…

  11. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  12. The Multicultural Model in Chemical Abuse Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold-Ezekoye, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Applies the concept of multiculturalism to chemical abuse prevention and intervention programs. Provides a model for implementation and describes projects with a similar conceptual basis. Acknowledges the cultural foundations for developing positive self-understanding. Promotes the development of culture-specific prevention strategies. (Author/LHW)

  13. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  14. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  15. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  16. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empey, Donald W.

    This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substance abuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…

  17. Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Misguided Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    Although the propensity for child abuse is shared among adults of all occupations and economic strata, this article is concerned mainly with child care professionals. Whatever the case may be, the result is the same: tragic violation of the trust that should exist between child and adult. What can be done to correct the situation? In this article…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  19. Opioid addiction and abuse in primary care practice: a comparison of methadone and buprenorphine as treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Jean; Shim, Ruth S; Gooden, Richard; Tyus, Dawn; Rust, George

    2012-01-01

    Opioid abuse and addiction have increased in frequency in the United States over the past 20 years. In 2009, an estimated 5.3 million persons used opioid medications nonmedically within the past month, 200000 used heroin, and approximately 9.6% of African Americans used an illicit drug. Racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and access to mental health care, including substance use disorders. Primary care practitioners are often called upon to differentiate between appropriate, medically indicated opioid use in pain management vs inappropriate abuse or addiction. Racial and ethnic minority populations tend to favor primary care treatment settings over specialty mental health settings. Recent therapeutic advances allow patients requiring specialized treatment for opioid abuse and addiction to be managed in primary care settings. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 enables qualified physicians with readily available short-term training to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting, potentially making primary care physicians active partners in the diagnosis and treatment of opioid use disorders. Methadone and buprenorphine are effective opioid replacement agents for maintenance and/or detoxification of opioid-addicted individuals. However, restrictive federal regulations and stigmatization of opioid addiction and treatment have limited the availability of methadone. The opioid partial agonist-antagonist buprenorphine/naloxone combination has proven an effective alternative. This article reviews the literature on differences between buprenorphine and methadone regarding availability, efficacy, safety, side-effects, and dosing, identifying resources for enhancing the effectiveness of medication-assisted recovery through coordination with behavioral/psychological counseling, embedded in the context of recovery-oriented systems of care. PMID:23092049

  20. Factors in Successful Relapse Prevention among Hong Kong Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Lee, Tak-Yan; Lee, Chak-Man

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study involving intensive interviews with 21 former drug addicts who had successfully maintained abstinence for periods ranging from one-and-a-half to four years. They were among the 74 successful former drug addicts out of a pool of more than 2,000 participating in a major rehabilitation program in Hong…

  1. Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched By Addiction.” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Actress Debra Winger: “Everyone Is Touched ... Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), discuss the actress’s participation in the NIDA- ...

  2. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  3. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  4. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204

  5. Prevention of physical child abuse: concept, evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa

    2008-06-01

    Given a lack of standardised procedures for preventing child abuse, what can be done in terms of thinking and action about the prevention of physical child abuse in health visiting and community practice? This paper reflects on knowledge gained while undertaking case series research into non-accidental head injury (NAHI), qualitative research with health visitors and mothers and fathers into the feasibility of preventing NAHI, and work as a team member of the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Prevention is an abstract term, with dimensions of an ethical nature, and requires prompt and timely action. To identify when preventive action is required, an understanding is needed of where there is risk, and what benefit or outcome may follow interventions. However, the knowledge in this field is limited, which means that it is wise to be cautious in claiming effectiveness of prevention activity. Nonetheless, if prevention is not seen to be practised, the development of skills and the means to evaluate interventions will not become embedded in the routine care of families with small children, and physical child abuse will not be prevented. PMID:18672856

  6. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Hans; Fuchs, Katharina A; Fegert, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  7. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  8. Another Look at Sexual Abuse Prevention for Young Children: A Revised Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Susan; Sippel, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the revision of "Let's Talk about Touching," a child sexual abuse prevention program widely used in early childhood and kindergarten programs in British Columbia since 1986. Describes the program as comprised of a manual providing information about sexual abuse, information on the teacher's role, detailed lesson plans, family information…

  9. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  10. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  11. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  12. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  13. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  14. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  15. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  16. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  17. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  18. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  19. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  20. ZNF804A variants confer risk for heroin addiction and affect decision making and gray matter volume in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Li-Yan; Wang, Gui-Bin; Yue, Wei-Hua; He, Yong; Shu, Ni; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Fan; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Wang, Hui-Min; Kosten, Thomas R; Feng, Jia-Jia; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yu-De; Liu, Shu-Xue; Deng, Gui-Fa; Diao, Gan-Huan; Tan, Yun-Long; Han, Hong-Bin; Lin, Lu; Shi, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction shares common neurobiological pathways and risk genes with other psychiatric diseases, including psychosis. One of the commonly identified risk genes associated with broad psychosis has been ZNF804A. We sought to test whether psychosis risk variants in ZNF804A increase the risk of heroin addiction by modulating neurocognitive performance and gray matter volume (GMV) in heroin addiction. Using case-control genetic analysis, we compared the distribution of ZNF804A variants (genotype and haplotype) in 1035 heroin abusers and 2887 healthy subjects. We also compared neurocognitive performance (impulsivity, global cognitive ability and decision-making ability) in 224 subjects and GMV in 154 subjects based on the ZNF804A variants. We found significant differences in the distribution of ZNF804A intronic variants (rs1344706 and rs7597593) allele and haplotype frequencies between the heroin and control groups. Decision-making impairment was worse in heroin abusers who carried the ZNF804A risk allele and haplotype. Subjects who carried more risk alleles and haplotypes of ZNF804A had greater GMV in the bilateral insular cortex, right temporal cortex and superior parietal cortex. The interaction between heroin addiction and ZNF804A variants affected GMV in the left sensorimotor cortex. Our findings revealed several ZNF804A variants that were significantly associated with the risk of heroin addiction, and these variants affected decision making and GMV in heroin abusers compared with controls. The precise neural mechanisms that underlie these associations are unknown, which requires future investigations of the effects of ZNF804A on both dopamine neurotransmission and the relative increases in the volume of various brain areas. PMID:25708696

  1. Uncovering sexual abuse: evaluation of the effectiveness of The Victims of Violence and Abuse Prevention Programme.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, J

    2010-02-01

    Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302

  2. Drug Education Curriculum: Kindergarten. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  3. Say It Straight: Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to an offer…

  4. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  5. Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program: Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.

    This paper describes the research and evaluation efforts of the Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program at the University of Arizona. The importance and usefulness of formative and summative evaluations are discussed and specific evaluation tasks are identified. The first of these tasks is associated with personnel selection; the functions and…

  6. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among Latino Adolescents: A Strategy for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Aquirre-Molina, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a prevention program funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1978 for Latino youth in East Harlem. Literature on Latino youth and alcohol use is reviewed, followed by a description of the program, its setting, and its evaluative methodology. (Author/JAZ)

  7. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  8. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8382 Filed 4-5-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation's children are our hope for the...

  9. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8022 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our children are our most valuable resource,...

  10. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8318 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound...

  11. 78 FR 20215 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07920 Filed 4-3-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the... to pursue our own measure of happiness and live free from fear. But for the millions of children...

  12. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26148... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance...

  13. Preventing Sexual Abuse in Day Care Programs: National Program Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimlich, Norm; And Others

    In October 1984, a national program inspection on preventing child sexual abuse in day care programs was begun. Program inspections are short-term studies designed to provide qualitative information and quantitative data for use by the Department of Health and Human Services as an additional source of information. Participants in this study, from…

  14. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  15. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention and Treatment. Continuing Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, Bennie

    This self-study manual, for use by individuals or groups, was developed for social work practitioners, and focuses on total family assessment to determine prevention and treatment intervention in cases of child sexual abuse and neglect. The introduction presents the philosophy of continuing education on which the manual is based, an overview of…

  17. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  19. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  20. Different Strokes: Models of Drug Abuse Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Martin R.

    This paper delineates models of drug abuse prevention education that have been indicated in the literature during the past six years, and discusses the research related to each. The nine models were considered according to: (1) basic premises, (2) positive and negative salient criticisms, and, (3) implications and modes of application for drug…

  1. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  2. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  3. A Teaching Guide to Preventing Adolescent Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebill, Joan; Taylor, Julie

    This teaching guide was created for school districts and other agencies to use in developing and teaching sexual abuse prevention education programs at the secondary school level. The first section presents an eight-step approach to the development of a program at the secondary school level. The second section discusses special issues in teaching…

  4. Child Abuse Prevention Optional Unit. Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This teacher resource manual complements the optional Child Abuse Prevention Unit of the Elementary Health Program for schools in Alberta, Canada. The activities and suggestions contained in the manual are intended to be supportive, not prescriptive. The stated goal of this unit is to enable all children to develop the knowledge, skills, and…

  5. Substance Abuse and Addiction: The Interface of the Health and Criminal Justice Systems. Second Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The purpose of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education is to promote the role of physicians in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and after-care referral for substance abuse by improving medical education and training. This policy report is the product of 2 years of work and a national conference of the consortium and presents in full…

  6. [Experiences from two HIV prevention projects among drug abusers in Oslo. Is methadone maintenance treatment useful?].

    PubMed

    Skogstad, M

    1990-06-10

    Experience from two HIV-preventive projects among drug abusers in Oslo, Norway, shows that HIV-positive drug abusers carry on their drug abuse independent of visits to residential drug-free treatment or prison. HIV-positive former drug abusers show a tendency to relapse to drug abuse. In terms of HIV-prevention among drug abusers it is important to reduce injection of drugs among HIV-positive drug abusers. Thus, methadone maintenance programmes should be considered in HIV-prevention in Norway. PMID:2363170

  7. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    PubMed

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  8. [Approaches for the prevention of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Watzl, H

    1996-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of alcohol problems have demonstrated a considerable variation between countries and epoches. Two types of primary prevention strategies of alcohol problems are examined. Firstly, efforts to control and reduce the availability of alcohol including increase of price, restriction of alcohol retail outlets or hours during which alcohol can be sold, minimum legal age for purchase or consumption, drinking-driving laws and enforcement programmes, restriction of alcohol advertising. The second type consists of educational prevention programmes aiming at the reduction of risk factors or the increase of protective factors within the general population. This type includes information to change knowledge and attitudes, education of affects and values, life skill training, resistance training, and mass media campaigns. Programmes aiming at high risk groups and the development of standardised secondary prevention programmes might be more effective and cost-efficient. PMID:8963092

  9. Unifying mechanism for addiction and toxicity of abused drugs with application to dopamine and glutamate mediators: electron transfer and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2005-01-01

    of action may exist for both categories since all provide metabolites with similar properties. Stimulation of mediator production by abused drugs can occur with subsequent oxidation by ROS, some of which may be supplied by the drugs. In addition to prevention, the difficult topic of addiction mechanism is addressed from the viewpoint of ET and ROS involvement. Low levels of ROS would pertain since high concentrations are related to toxicity. A report that tetrahydrocannabinol does not comprise a substantial risk is in accord with little evidence of OS and absence of ET functionalities in the drug and reported metabolites. PMID:15893124

  10. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  11. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the...

  12. 3 CFR 8728 - Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 8728 Proclamation 8728 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 Proc. 8728 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President... chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse Prevention...

  13. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8645 of March 31, 2011 Proc. 8645 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President of the... them is one of our greatest responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect by promoting healthy families,...

  14. Come Closer around the Fire. Using Tribal Legends, Myths, and Stories in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Multicultural Awareness, Arlington, VA.

    Intended for people working in drug abuse prevention or trying to help American Indian youth feel pride in themselves and their culture, the booklet provides specific guidelines on how to use tribal stories in preventing drug abuse. Following a brief introduction to drug abuse problems and prevention strategies, the booklet explains three kinds of…

  15. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  16. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  17. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  18. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  19. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  20. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  1. Parent-Focused Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health issue. Current after-the-fact approaches to treating victims and punishing offenders are not adequate to address a problem of this magnitude; development and rigorous evaluation of CSA prevention strategies are critical. We propose that CSA prevention efforts should target parents of young children. Parents have been neglected as a focus of CSA prevention; they merit attention given their potential to improve children's safety via effective communication and monitoring. This paper provides an overview of current strategies for reducing CSA prevalence and their limitations, presents a rationale for parent-focused CSA prevention, and discusses considerations pertinent to development of an effective parent-focused approach. Parent-focused CSA prevention offers potential as a public health approach to prevention of CSA, and it is time that we devote resources toward developing and studying this important area. PMID:25757528

  2. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction

    PubMed Central

    RYAN, TRACII; CHESTER, ANDREA; REECE, JOHN; XENOS, SOPHIA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Recent research suggests that use of social networking sites can be addictive for some individuals. Due to the link between motivations for media use and the development of addiction, this systematic review examines Facebook-related uses and gratifications research and Facebook addiction research. Method: Searches of three large academic databases revealed 24 studies examining the uses and gratifications of Facebook, and nine studies of Facebook addiction. Results: Comparison of uses and gratifications research reveals that the most popular mo- tives for Facebook use are relationship maintenance, passing time, entertainment, and companionship. These motivations may be related to Facebook addiction through use that is habitual, excessive, or motivated by a desire for mood alteration. Examination of Facebook addiction research indicates that Facebook use can become habitual or excessive, and some addicts use the site to escape from negative moods. However, examination of Facebook addic- tion measures highlights inconsistency in the field. Discussion: There is some evidence to support the argument that uses and gratifications of Facebook are linked with Facebook addiction. Furthermore, it appears as if the social skill model of addiction may explain Facebook addiction, but inconsistency in the measurement of this condition limits the ability to provide conclusive arguments. Conclusions: This paper recommends that further research be performed to establish the links between uses and gratifications and Facebook addiction. Furthermore, in order to enhance the construct validity of Facebook addiction, researchers should take a more systematic approach to assessment. PMID:25317337

  3. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  4. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...

  5. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse... meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Testing...

  6. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... meeting will also be available on the SAMHSA Web site after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance...

  7. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  8. The impact of managed care on substance abuse treatment: a report of the American Society of Addiction Medicine.

    PubMed

    Galanter, M; Keller, D S; Dermatis, H; Egelko, S

    2000-01-01

    This report examines the impact of managed care (MC) and related developments on substance abuse treatment, and evaluates how it has been associated with a decline in the availability of proper treatment for many addicted patients. A trend toward carve-out and for-profit MC organizations is associated with lower financial incentives for intensive treatment than in earlier staff-model and not-for-profit MC organizations. The value of substance abuse insurance coverage has declined by 75% between 1988 and 1998 for employees of mid-to large-size companies, compared with only an 11.5% decline for general health insurance. The shift towards MC has also been associated with a drastic reduction in frequency and duration of inpatient hospitalization, and there is no clear evidence that this reduction has been offset by a corresponding increase in outpatient support. In a survey of physicians treating addiction, the majority felt that MC had a negative impact on detoxification and rehabilitation, and on their ethical practice of addiction medicine. PMID:11076117

  9. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:9307894

  10. 3 CFR 8791 - Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8791 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8791 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President of the... Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support... unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and parents and caregivers who have...

  11. The Ability of Elementary School Children to Learn Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutty, Leslie M.

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…

  12. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  13. Schooling in an Addicted Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1988-01-01

    Social consensus concerning drug use and abuse may be only skin deep. Despite numerous "anti" campaigns, Reagan administration is saying "no" to funding for drug treatment and prevention programs, while tobacco advertising and growing incentives continue unabated. Despite these and other societal addictions, schools must reason calmly and offer…

  14. Prevention of abusive head trauma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Bethany; Anderson, Judy K

    2013-01-01

    Abusive head trauma, formerly known as shaken baby syndrome, is a condition with physical, psychosocial, and fiscal implications presenting opportunities for nurses to intervene with prevention strategies. This integrative review of the literature explored the empirical evidence to identify prevention strategies effective in decreasing abusive head trauma. Education, medical, and nursing databases yielded 14 quality research studies providing the basis for the review. Multiple facets of prevention strategies were identified with patterns in the literature of community involvement, early detection and involvement by health professionals, and parental education programming. A five-component model of prevention strategies is proposed to provide nurses with a comprehensive approach to the issue. These components consist of a) completion of personal inventory, b) involvement in multi-modal parental education, c) commitment to a prevention program, d) participation of the family and community, and e) connection to a spiritual element. Through these components, it is hoped there is enhancement of the quality of life for parents and infants, and a discouragement of situations that increase the risk of infant injury. PMID:24640317

  15. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  16. Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural versus Urban Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Pullen, Erin; Harp, Kathi LH

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors are vulnerable to burnout, which has negative repercussions for the counselor, employing organization, and clients. However, little is known about differences in counselor burnout from the counselors’ perspective in rural versus urban treatment centers. In 2008, focus group data from 28 rural and urban counselors in a southern state was analyzed, revealing three burnout themes across all counselors: causes, consequences, and prevention. However, there were various differences between rural and urban counselors in sub-themes with only rural counselors citing office politics and low occupational prestige as causes of burnout. Only urban counselors reported responses endorsing the sub-themes of role reversal, clients trying to choose their counselors, and changing jobs as consequences of burnout. All counselors cited co-worker support, clinical supervision, and self-care as important strategies for managing burnout. In sum, context clearly matters as rural counselors cited more causes of burnout; yet, the implications of burnout are universal in that they often lead to poor quality clinical care. There is a continued need for greater understanding of addiction as a disease, which would reduce stigma, especially in rural areas, as well as increase the prestige and earning potential of the substance abuse counseling occupation. PMID:23662328

  17. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Ferdosi, Masoud; Jannatifard, Fereshte; Eslami, Mehdi; Alaghemandan, Hamed; Setare, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral science experts believe that all entities capable of stimulating a person can be addictive; and whenever a habit changes into an obligation, it can be considered as an addiction. Researchers also believe that there are a number of similarities as well as some differences between drug addiction and behavioral addiction diagnostic symptoms. The purpose of this study is to consider different approaches in this field. Methods: This is a descriptive research using content analysis method. First, differences and similarities of various perspectives on addiction and addiction behavior in different substances were obtained, thereafter, the data was coded and categorized, subjects were discussed and major issues were extracted. Results: Behavioral addiction such as internet addiction is similar to drug addiction except that in the former, the individual is not addicted to a substance but the behavior or the feeling brought about by the relevant action. In addition, the physical signs of drug addiction, are absent in behavioral addiction. Others have stated that behaviorally addicted individuals have certain symptoms and will undergo the same consequences brought about by addiction to alcohol and drugs as well as other obsessive behaviors. Conclusion: Similar to substance abuse prevention, programs aimed at addicted individuals and specialized training can educate adolescents about the warning signs of online addiction, in order to assist the early detection of this disorder. For prevention of behavioral addiction (such as internet addiction) authorities, cultural institutions and parents should monitor the use of internet and teach to the adolescent and children, the useful and appropriate methods of internet use. PMID:22624087

  18. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  19. From one addiction to another: life after alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, A S

    1989-11-01

    Once the alcoholic or drug addict has stopped drinking or using drugs, other addictive behaviors are frequently adopted. These factors must be considered in planning the overall recovery program. Substances likely to be used to excess include nicotine, caffeine, sugar, chocolate, nutritional supplements and medicinal herbs. Addictive behaviors adopted by recovering persons include eating disorders, exercise and body building, workaholism, and dependency on one's own adrenalin. Breaking the cycle of addiction requires commitment to a program of self-growth and becoming responsible for one's actions. PMID:2586856

  20. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  1. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for addiction medicine: From neurophysiological markers to cognitive rehabilitation and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Currently, relapse prevention remains the main challenge in addiction medicine, indicating that the established treatment methods combining psychotherapy with neuropharmacological interventions are not entirely effective. Therefore, there is a push to develop alternatives to psychotherapy- and medication-based approaches to addiction treatment. Two major cognitive factors have been identified that trigger relapse in addicted patients: attentional biases directed toward drug-related cues, which increase the urge to consume, and impaired response inhibition toward these cues, which makes it more difficult for addicted people to resist temptation. Recent studies on newly detoxified alcoholic patients have shown that by using the appropriate tasks to index these cognitive functions with event-related potentials (ERPs), it is possible to discriminate between future relapsers and nonrelapsers. These preliminary data suggest that the ERP technique has great clinical potential for preventing relapse in alcohol-dependent patients, as well as for addictive states in general. Indeed, ERPs may help to identify patients highly vulnerable to relapse and allow the development of individually adapted cognitive rehabilitation programs. The implementation of this combined approach requires an intense collaboration between psychiatry departments, clinical neurophysiology laboratories, and neuropsychological rehabilitation centers. The potential pitfalls and limitations of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26822355

  2. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua C; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  3. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C.; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  4. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  5. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  6. [Characteristics of addictions in Bosnia and Herzegovina a review of prevention programs].

    PubMed

    Mehić-Basara, Nermana

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and drugs, accompany human race for centuries, and represents transcultural phenomena as well as one of the problems that still does not have solution. According to consequences that it's causing to individual, family and community it is one of the most severe social problems. Although, international community is investing more and more efforts and money to prevent illicit drug traffic, reduce consumption of alcohol and improve prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of addicts, still some significant results are not reached. War in Bosnia and Herzegovina cause severe injuries to population and left devastation and misery. War crimes are reflected in 200,000 deaths, several thousand wounded and over one million traumatized. Transition societies, as our, are characterized with big social changes such as migrations, urbanization and destruction of traditional social values. Due to this extensive drinking and drug use, as a form of escape from the reality and social difficulties are characteristic of our society and current civilization. It is estimated that currently in B&H exist 10,000 opioid addicts, and 20,000 alcoholics. Rapid incensement in number of addicts, and problems caused by that was the reason why we after the war started with preparations of Preventive Programme with focus on primary prevention. Beside programs that was made on the local levels, during 2002 Federal Programme of prevention was accepted which anticipated activities at all three preventive levels. PMID:15022565

  7. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  8. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  9. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  10. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    PubMed

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  11. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure. PMID:22054526

  12. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  13. Drugs--Not Here!--Model of Group Intervention as Preventative Therapeutic Tool for Children of Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta

    2002-01-01

    Describes a model of group intervention as one of the preventive therapeutic tools for children of addicts. This article deals with the characteristics of children of addicts, the group intervention model with reference to the group framework, and the work carried out with the group, as well as its evaluation. The evaluation indicated positive…

  14. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  15. For Kids' Sake: A Child Abuse Prevention and Reporting Kit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazi, Sherry P., Ed.; Grimes, Linda J., Ed.

    This guidebook was designed to help concerned citizens identify and prevent child abuse. The guidebook provides information about the extent of child abuse in the United States generally and within Oklahoma specifically, and stresses that under Oklahoma state law every adult has the responsibility to report suspected abuse. Programs and services…

  16. Keeping Kids Safe: A Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson

    The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…

  17. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  18. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  19. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  20. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  1. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  2. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  3. Drug Abuse Prevention Research Needs among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the literature regarding alcohol and drug abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives noting four major knowledge gaps in the literature. Discusses abuse prevention efforts among American Indians and notes research questions to be considered regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. Makes eight recommendations…

  4. 3 CFR 8490 - Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child... 8490 of April 1, 2010 Proc. 8490 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010By the President of the... support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention...

  5. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  6. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  8. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  9. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  10. 77 FR 183 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., 17, 18, 35, and 41 RIN 9000-AL69 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Preventing Abuse of Interagency... section of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009, to prevent abuse of... an interim rule in the Federal Register at 75 FR 77733 on December 13, 2010, to implement...

  11. An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Integration and Diffusion of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Lori J.; Vicary, Judith; Swisher, John; Smith, Edward; Hopkins, Abigail; Henry, Kimberly; Minner, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Effective substance abuse prevention programs help students develop knowledge as well as psychosocial competencies that can help them resist or delay the initiation of alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) use. This paper describes the integration process used in a five-year project, Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training (ADAPT), to study…

  12. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  13. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  14. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project. Final Report: Innovations in Protective Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This final report is a process evaluation of the Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Project describing the efforts to develop a statewide philosophy and an operational plan in Texas toward primary and secondary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Discussion focuses on the background and origin of the project, first and second year operations…

  16. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. PMID:23040954

  17. From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zurina; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Rajakumar; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Amato, Davide; von Hörsten, Stephan; Ismail, Nurul I W; Jayabalan, Nanthini; Hazim, Ammar I; Mansor, Sharif M; Müller, Christian P

    2013-02-01

    Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currently spreads around the world. Thus, addiction potential and adverse health consequences are becoming an important issue for health authorities. Here we reviewed the available evidence and identified future research needs. It was found that mitragynine and M. speciosa preparations are systematically consumed with rather well defined instrumentalization goals, e.g. to enhance tolerance for hard work or as a substitute in the self-treatment of opiate addiction. There is also evidence from experimental animal models supporting analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory as well as strong anorectic effects. In humans, regular consumption may escalate, lead to tolerance and may yield aversive withdrawal effects. Mitragynine and its derivatives actions in the central nervous system involve μ-opioid receptors, neuronal Ca²⁺ channels and descending monoaminergic projections. Altogether, available data currently suggest both, a therapeutic as well as an abuse potential. PMID:23206666

  18. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  19. Cue exposure and relapse prevention in the treatment of addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G A

    1990-01-01

    Cue exposure techniques have been increasingly applied in the treatment of addictive behaviors. The role of cue exposure in a comprehensive approach to relapse prevention is considered from several theoretical perspectives. Issues discussed include the optimal definition of both cue and response variables in cue exposure, the relation between exposure to drug-taking cues and elicitation of outcome expectancies, and the combination of extinction-based cue exposure methods and skill training in relapse prevention programs. Whether cue exposure effects are mediated by extinction of appetitive craving responses and/or by the modification of efficacy and outcome expectancies is discussed. PMID:2248112

  20. Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Curtain on Addiction Why the “Addiction Performance Project”? In 2010, 23.1 million people needed treatment ... See accompanying Debra Winger interview. ) The Addiction Performance Project includes a dramatic reading of Act III of ...

  1. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  2. Community Action Guide to Policies for Prevention: The Recommendations of the Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This guide accompanies Join Together's recommendations for drug and alcohol abuse prevention for policymakers and communities. It presents strategic examples of how major institutions and residents in communities have paid attention to substance abuse and worked to overcome its effects. Part 1 contains the recommendations and key policies…

  3. Preventing Substance Abuse among Children and Adolescents: Family-Centered Approaches. Practitioner's Guide. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…

  4. 76 FR 35227 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, SecuRX: Preventing Prescription...

  5. Science-Based Prevention Programs and Principles, 2002. Effective Substance Abuse and Mental Health Programs for Every Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, S.; Brounstein, P.; Gardner, S.

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) are committed to bringing effective substance abuse prevention and behavioral health promotion programs to every community in the Nation. As more knowledge is gained about efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and…

  6. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested. PMID:26914077

  7. Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

  8. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  9. Socio-demographic and Clinical Profile of Substance Abusers Attending a Regional Drug De-addiction Centre in Chronic Conflict Area: Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Yasir Hassan; Bashir, Wiqar; Sheikh, Ajaz Ahmad; Amin, Marya; Zahgeer, Yasir Arafat

    2013-01-01

    Background: The menace of substance abuse is not only a socially unacceptable reality, but in its entirety is a disease and emerging as a major public health challenge. Objective: To study the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients attending the drug de-addiction centre. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken in a drug de-addiction centre at the Police Hospital in Srinagar, and all patients (198) who were admitted during this period were interviewed. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 26.8 years (SD 7.37), and over half (56%) belonged to the lower-middle social class. Poly-substance abuse was seen in 91.9%; medicinal opioids and cannabis were the most common substances abused. Most common age of initiation was 11–20 years (76.8%), with peer pressure and relief from a negative mood state being the most common reasons given for starting the drug(s). Prevalence of a co-morbid psychiatric disorder was high, on the order of 49.5%. A high rate of volatile substance use was observed among adolescents (54.5%). Conclusion: A pattern of poly-substance abuse was found to be quite common in patients, and use of volatile substances at a very young age emerged as a new trend. The dreadful repercussions of substance abuse justify the urgency to evolve a comprehensive strategy. PMID:23966822

  10. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  11. Maintaining Addiction: Tobacco Cessation Policy and Substance Abuse Treatment for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurst-Swanger, Karel; Stockweather, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Examines how institutions, which are part of the substance abuse treatment industry, address the connection between tobacco and other drugs in youth. Results suggest that the majority of treatment programs are routinely assessing tobacco use of the youth in their care, but only a small proportion follow through with tobacco cessation as an…

  12. Drugs and Addict Lifestyles. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report is the seventh in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews the research undertaken to describe the lifestyle histories of heroin users. These research findings are formulated and detailed to provide the reader with…

  13. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  14. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  15. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  16. Primary Prevention of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma: A Cost Audit and Cost-Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter; Sharplin, Peter; Kelly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain comprehensive, reliable data on the direct cost of pediatric abusive head trauma in New Zealand, and to use this data to evaluate the possible cost-benefit of a national primary prevention program. Methods: A 5 year cohort of infants with abusive head trauma admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand was reviewed. We…

  17. Criteria for the Selection of Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula: A Workbook. [Updated].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill; Sancho, Anthony

    This workbook was created to enable a school district or school to select a drug abuse prevention curriculum that is educationally sound and effective. It was produced to assist in the selection of pre-developed curricula, but the criteria may be easily adapted for use in developing curricula. Criteria for selecting a drug abuse prevention…

  18. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  19. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  20. Intervening with New Parents: An Effective Way To Prevent Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current trends in child abuse prevention and to provide program administrators and policymakers with guidelines for implementing successful new parent programs in their communities. Contents address: (1) the scope of the child abuse problem; (2) a theoretical framework or conceptual model for use in…

  1. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  2. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  3. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program: Impact in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…

  4. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  5. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs: A Macroscopic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determines the overall strategy for initiating benefit-cost analysis (BCA) in relation to drug abuse prevention programs, followed by definitions of BCA and cost-effectiveness analysis. Determines the most likely population benefit-cost efficiency ratio of 15:1, indicating that there is a $15 savings on every dollar spent on drug abuse education.…

  6. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  7. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project, Phase Two, Three and Four. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This document presents the final report from an educational and community development program designed to raise awareness about the abuse and neglect of the elderly. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project is briefly described in terms of project goals, objectives, the model used, the target groups served, and the evaluation processes employed. It is…

  8. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  9. A Survey of Training Needs of Experienced Certified Addictions Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 208 Certified Addiction Counselors (CAC) and Certified Prevention Specialists (CPS) about education and training topics in the field of alcohol and other drug abuse. Results indicate that CAC/CPS professionals prefer training topics that encompass cultural issues, alternative forms of treatment and relapse prevention delivered in…

  10. Substance Abuse among Adolescent Females. Prevention Research Update No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-de Uriarte, Cristina; Austin, Gregory

    This document examines what is known about alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) among adolescent females. The first half of the document discusses the following topics: (1) prevalence and patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among female adolescents; (2) correlates and risk of substance abuse, including age of initiation,…

  11. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…

  12. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  13. Elder Abuse Prevention Project - Phase I. Literature Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Lori; And Others

    This document summarizes information on elder abuse collected from various sources in Canada and the United States. It is noted that document entries are often representative of more than one source, and have been selected as each adds something new and valuable to the overall research on elder abuse. An attempt has been made to choose information…

  14. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  15. Preventing sexual abusers of children from reoffending: systematic review of medical and psychological interventions

    PubMed Central

    Enebrink, Pia; Laurén, Eva-Marie; Lindblom, Jonas; Werkö, Sophie; Hanson, R Karl

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of current medical and psychological interventions for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children, both in known abusers and those at risk of abusing. Design Systematic review of interventions designed to prevent reoffending among known abusers and prevention for individuals at risk of sexually abusing children. Randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were eligible. Primary outcomes were arrests, convictions, breaches of conditions, and self reported sexual abuse of children after one year or more. Results After review of 1447 abstracts, we retrieved 167 full text studies, and finally included eight studies with low to moderate risk of bias. We found weak evidence for interventions aimed at reducing reoffending in identified sexual abusers of children. For adults, evidence from five trials was insufficient regarding both benefits and risks with psychological treatment and pharmacotherapy. For adolescents, limited evidence from one trial suggested that multisystemic therapy prevented reoffence (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.73); lack of adequate research prevented conclusions about effects of other treatments. Evidence was also inadequate regarding effectiveness of treatment for children with sexual behavioural problems in the one trial identified. Finally, we found no eligible research on preventive methods for adults and adolescents who had not sexually abused children but were at higher risk of doing so (such as those with paedophilic sexual preference). Conclusion There are major weaknesses in the scientific evidence, particularly regarding adult men, the main category of sexual abusers of children. Better coordinated and funded high quality studies including several countries are urgently needed. Until conclusive evidence is available, realistic clinical strategies might involve reduction of specific risk factors for sex crimes, such as sexual preoccupation, in

  16. Local and National Outcomes from Community Partnerships to Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes evaluation of community partnerships to prevent substance abuse poses many methodological challenges. The nine articles of this special section illustrate the variety of approaches evaluators have taken to studies that are often complicated because of small sample size. (SLD)

  17. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  18. New Hope for Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Proven Solutions To Save Lives and Prevent Future Crime. A Report by Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, David; Miller, Cate; Rollin, Miriam; Evans, Phil; Shah, Rita

    Asserting that children who are abused or neglected are at risk of becoming future violent criminals, this report argues that this cycle of violence can be prevented by investing in recently confirmed abuse prevention and intervention strategies. The report presents information on the number of deaths each year due to abuse and neglect and calls…

  19. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  20. Training the next generation of providers in addiction medicine.

    PubMed

    Rasyidi, Ernest; Wilkins, Jeffery N; Danovitch, Itai

    2012-06-01

    benefits. 5. The equalizer is prescription drug abuse, which is increasing recognition of addiction among populations where it was previously ignored or denied. The first three activities will create a medical office “experience” that is largely unknown but carries the power to change the perception of addiction: patients visiting their primary care physicians, who then screen them for addiction problems and give the same attention to treatment and prevention of addiction problems as they might give to treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and other medical issues. The personal experience of the aforementioned medical scene by members of US society may also provide a very positive impact on psychiatrists, including those who specialize in addiction medicine. It is quite possible that the recognition of addiction medicine as a traditional medical subspecialty as well as the integration of addiction throughout medicine will precede any substantive change in the integration of mental health care with the rest of medicine. Yet, any integration of addiction within the entire field of medicine may open a path for mental health to follow. Psychiatrists, including those who are addiction experts, need to be a part of this new medical integration process. Being a part of new treatment models is why we proposed six future skillsets for psychiatrists who specialize in addiction. The selection of these proposed skillsets anticipates an integrated health care team utilizing some form of a patient-centered approach-three are skillsets that are already required, while the last three address new skillsets that will be helpful in working with the integrative health care team model. Whatever form the future of addiction care takes, psychiatrists who specialize in addiction medicine can provide positive and core contributions as expert addiction and mental health consultants including: 1. How does one screen for major depression and/or an anxiety disorder and also determine

  1. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  2. Best-Practice Guideline on the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; Penney, Tasha; McNeill, Susan; Boscart, Veronique M; Podnieks, Elizabeth; Sinha, Samir K

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000-April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed. PMID:27086668

  3. Knowledge Mapping: A Psychoeducational Tool in Drug Abuse Relapse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kevin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of relapse prevention training (RPT), part of outpatient-drug education program for 83 drug addicted probationers, with special attention to knowledge maps as supplemental instructional materials. Found that program participation improved during use of RPT. Participants who successfully completed RPT sessions had lower rates…

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  5. Integration of Technology-based Behavioral Health Interventions in Substance Abuse and Addiction Services

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed revolutionary changes to the delivery of health services, ushered in to a great extent by the introduction of electronic health record systems. More recently, a new class of technological advancements—technology-based behavioral health interventions, which involve the delivery of evidence-informed practices via computers, web-based applications, mobile phones, wearable sensors, or other technological platforms—has emerged and is primed to once again radically shift current models for behavioral healthcare. Despite the promise and potential of these new therapeutic approaches, a greater understanding of the impact of technology-based interventions on cornerstone issues of mental health and addiction services—namely access, quality, and cost—is needed. The current review highlights 1) relevant conceptual frameworks that guide this area of research, 2) key studies that inform the relevance of technology-based interventions for behavioral healthcare access, quality, and cost, 3) pressing methodological issues that require attention, 4) unresolved questions that warrant further investigation, and 5) practical implications that underscore important new directions for this emerging area of research. PMID:26161047

  6. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  7. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M., Ed.

    The theme of the fifth annual Symposium on Group Procedures was "The Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction." Symposium participants included professionals in counseling; clinical, school, and educational psychology, psychiatry, and social work. In addition, invitations were sent to members of…

  8. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors.

  9. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement. PMID:21675327

  10. Disability and the Family: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention in individuals with disabilities and the influence of the family. It points out the family's potential negative reactions to a disability and reasons why a person with a disability uses alcohol or other drugs. Prevention guidelines for families are provided, such as expressing concerns…

  11. Criteria for the Selection of Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula: A Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill

    The overwhelming number of drug abuse prevention curricula available to public schools often impedes the rational selection of a program based on sound prevention education strategies. Guidelines for the selection of either predeveloped or for developing curricula are included in this workbook. Suggestions for the formation of a district selection…

  12. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  13. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  14. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  15. Project SMART: A Social Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Anderson; And Others

    This document presents the teacher's guide for an experimental research and demonstration project which focuses on the prevention of drug abuse among youth through self-management and resistance training. The major purpose of the curriculum described in this document is to prevent and reduce the incidence of habitual cigarette smoking and of…

  16. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  17. Alternatives for Young Americans: A Catalog of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This reference book contains resumes of program descriptions geared toward youth and adults who need or want information on drug abuse prevention programs, locally or nationally. Several major entries include: (1) national program models; (2) evaluated alternative programs from all states; and (3) descriptions of prevention programs. All section…

  18. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  19. Curricula for the Prevention of Sexual Abuse of Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Jennifer; And Others

    A compilation of material prepared for the prevention of sexual abuse of children and youth is presented in this resource manual. A brief introduction to the prevention of sexual assault leads into discussion of ten references useful for preschool, elementary, and secondary settings. Titles and descriptions of curricula and activities are…

  20. Neuroscience of alcohol for addiction medicine: Neurobiological targets for prevention and intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that heavy alcohol use during adolescence may be neurotoxic to the brain. This chapter reviews the neuroimaging findings in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescent heavy alcohol users. These youth exhibit reductions in prefrontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar brain volume, decreased frontoparietal, and increased frontolimbic white matter integrity, as well as alterations in blood oxygen level-dependent response during working memory, inhibitory control, verbal encoding, decision making, and reward processing-some of which appear to differ between males and females. Although some exist, additional longitudinal studies will significantly advance addiction medicine by aiding prevention scientists and treatment providers to develop neurobiologically informed ways of strengthening neural networks prior to and after the onset of heavy alcohol use, thereby promoting healthy cognitive functioning across the adolescent period. PMID:26806778

  1. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  2. Elder Abuse and Black Americans: Incidence, Correlates, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    Existing evidence on family violence rates by age and race as well as the available data on race and physical elder abuse incidence rates suggests that because such data are not based on random or representative samples and tend to reflect a "sampling artifact" of the particular client populations served by the professionals surveyed, there are no…

  3. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  4. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  5. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  6. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment. PMID:25751444

  7. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Warren, Kenneth R; Kunos, George; Silverman, Peter B; Hewitt, Brenda G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise account of the history, mission, structure and some recent achievements of the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Created by the US Congress 40 years ago, the NIAAA has evolved from an entity charged mainly with building a national system of alcoholism treatment services to one with responsibility for developing, nurturing and supporting the biomedical and behavioral science foundation necessary to reduce the significant domestic and global public health impact of alcohol use disorders. The NIAAA is unique in that it functions both as a funding agency, supporting research at universities and other external, or 'extramural' research institutions, and is also a research institution itself, where alcohol research is carried out in-house, or 'intramurally'. Of a $450.2 million 2009 Congressional Appropriation, approximately 90% was devoted toward the former and approximately 10% towards the latter objective. The current NIAAA Strategic Plan builds on a new organizing principle for long-range research planning, based on a life-span perspective that recognizes that human biology and behavior continue to change throughout life and changes occurring throughout the life-span affect individuals' drinking patterns as well as the decisions they may make to change their drinking habits or to seek help for alcohol use problems. Within this framework, major efforts are currently being devoted to educating practitioners on clinically useful, science-based assessment and treatment methods that exist today, and development of personalized new treatments for tomorrow. PMID:20569230

  8. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed. PMID:25287405

  9. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald G

    2012-10-16

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant's caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant-caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  10. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant’s caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant–caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  11. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  12. Pain Control in the Presence of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Lumermann, Leandro; Zhu, Richard; Kodumudi, Gopal; Elhassan, Amir O; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies. Optimum pain management of patients with addiction in the outpatient and inpatient setting is essential to minimize pain states. Careful selection of medications and appropriate oversight, including drug agreements, can reduce drug-induced impairments, including sleep deficits and diminished physical, social, and sexual functioning. This review, therefore, discusses the prevalence of illicit and prescription drug addiction, the challenges of achieving optimum pain control, and the therapeutic approaches to be considered in this challenging population. More research is warranted to develop improved therapies and routes of treatments for optimum pain relief and to prevent the development of central sensitization, chronic pain, and impaired physical and social functioning in patients with drug addiction. PMID:27068665

  13. ‘I can't be an addict. I am.’ Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy medicines are considered relatively safe in contrast to prescribed and illicit substances, but their abuse and addiction potential is increasingly recognised. Those affected represent a hard to reach group, with little known about their experiences. Study objectives were to describe the experiences and views of those self-reporting OTC medicine abuse, and why medicines were taken, how they were obtained and associated treatment and support sought. Design Qualitative study using in-depth mainly telephone interviews. Participants A purposive sample of 25 adults, aged 20–60s, 13 women. Setting UK, via two internet support groups. Results Individuals considered themselves ‘addicted’, but socially and economically active and different from illicit substance misusers. They blamed themselves for losing control over their medicine use, which usually began for genuine medical reasons and not experimentation and was often linked to the cessation of, or ongoing, medical prescribing. Codeine, in compound analgesics, was the main medicine implicated with three distinct dose ranges emerging with decongestant and sedative antihistamine abuse also being reported. Subsequent use was for the ‘buzz’ or similar effects of the opiate, which was obtained unproblematically by having lists of pharmacies to visit and occasionally using internet suppliers. Perceived withdrawal symptoms were described for all three dose ranges, and work and health problems were reported with higher doses. Mixed views about different treatment and support options emerged with standard drug treatment services being considered inappropriate for OTC medicines and concerns that this ‘hidden addiction’ was recorded in medical notes. Most supported the continued availability of OTC medicines with appropriate addiction warnings. Conclusions Greater awareness of the addiction potential of OTC medicines is needed for the public, pharmacists and medical

  14. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  15. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  16. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  17. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  18. Prevention Validation and Accounting Platform: A Framework for Establishing Accountability and Performance Measures of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; McLeod, Jonnie H.; Williams, Charles; Hepler, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Faced with the absence of a conceptual framework and the terminology for establishing evaluation criteria in the substance abuse prevention services field, this special issue is devoted to exploring the topics of accountability and performance measures. It discusses the requisite components (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, data)…

  19. Responsibility and choice in addiction.

    PubMed

    2002-06-01

    The treatment of patients with substance use disorders requires that providers be aware of their own views on the relative roles of personal responsibility and of forces outside personal control in the onset and progression of and recovery from these disorders. The authors review the role of responsibility for addiction from several viewpoints: biological, psychological, sociocultural, self-help, religious, and forensic. Factors that affect personal responsibility in addictive diseases include awareness of the problem, knowledge of a genetic predisposition, understanding of addictive processes, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, adequacy of the support network, nature of the early environment, degree of tolerance of substance abuse in the sociocultural context, and the availability of competent psychiatric, medical, and chemical dependency treatment. Factors that affect societal responsibility include degree of access to illicit drugs, society's level of tolerance of drug use, the courts' approach to deterring substance abuse (punishment versus treatment), individuals' refusal to obtain substance abuse treatment, presence of clear behavioral norms, availability of early assessment and prevention, presence of community education, and degree of access to outpatient and community treatment. PMID:12045307

  20. Simulation of the Impact of Programs for Prevention and Screening of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bailhache, Marion; Bénard, Antoine; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2016-07-15

    Primary prevention programs of pediatric abusive head trauma (PAHT) exist and early screening is proposed, but negative effects of mislabeling parents as abusers, an important issue, are not well documented. The aim of our study was to simulate the possible impact of programs for the primary prevention and screening of PAHT. We developed Markov models that simulate the life histories of PAHT with no intervention, with primary prevention program only, with screening program, and with both programs in a hypothetical cohort of 800,000 newborns in a high-income country. Screening program would be addressed to all families until children are 2 years old, during repeated consultations. Potential side effects for parents being mislabeled as abusers were supposed to increase the probability of PAHT and decrease participation in screening. Time horizon was 2 years with cycles of 15 days. Outcomes were number of deaths and abused children avoided. Uncertainty was specified with probability distributions. After 2 years, the median number of deaths avoided through primary prevention would vary from 6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-11) to 28 (95% CI 6-51) per 100,000 newborns. Screening could prevent up to 6 (95% CI 0-29) or cause up to 66 (95% CI 0-361) deaths per 100,000 children born alive. The impact of both programs was uncertain. Our model confirmed the potential benefits of primary prevention and documented the uncertainty associated with screening of PAHT. PMID:26566679

  1. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  2. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  3. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  4. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  5. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.

  6. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen E; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that "self expanding" experiences like romance and expanding one's knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus, researchers

  7. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen E.; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain’s “reward system,” specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that “self expanding” experiences like romance and expanding one’s knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus

  8. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling. PMID:22612024

  9. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  10. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  11. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  12. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  13. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  14. [Substance use disorders as a cause and consequence of childhood abuse. Basic research, therapy and prevention in the BMBF-funded CANSAS-Network].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingo; Barnow, Sven; Pawils, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) belong to the most frequent behavioural consequences of childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). In community samples, about 20% of adults with experiences of abuse or neglect in childhood have a lifetime diagnosis of an SUD. About 30% of individuals seeking treatment for a post-traumatic disorder have an SUD and 24–67% of all patients in treatment for an SUD have a history of CAN. About 16% of all children and adolescents under the age of 20 in Germany grow up in families where an alcohol- and/or drug-dependence is present. The children of parents with SUDs have, in addition to other risks to their development in cognitive and psychosocial domains, an increased risk of experiencing violence and neglect. Regarding both perspectives, SUD as a cause and as a consequence of CAN, a better understanding of relevant mediators and risk factors is necessary to improve prevention and develop adequate treatments. The aims of the BMBF-funded research network CANSAS are: 1. To gain a better understanding of the relationships between these two important public health problems (basic research), 2. To provide evidence-based treatments for survivors of CAN with SUDs and to increase the awareness for the necessity to diagnose CAN in patients with SUDs in counselling and treatment facilities (research on diagnostics and therapy), 3. To improve the systematic evaluation of child welfare among children of parents with SUDs through counselling services and to promote links between addiction services and youth welfare services (prevention research and health services research). In a multidisciplinary approach, the CANSAS network brings together experts in the fields of trauma treatment, epidemiology, basic research, health services research, prevention research as well as addiction services. PMID:26497814

  15. Cocaine addiction in mothers: potential effects on maternal care and infant development.

    PubMed

    Strathearn, Lane; Mayes, Linda C

    2010-02-01

    Maternal cocaine addiction is a significant public health issue particularly affecting children, with high rates of reported abuse, neglect, and foster care placement. This review examines both preclinical and clinical evidence for how cocaine abuse may affect maternal care and infant development, exploring brain, behavioral, and neuroendocrine mechanisms. There is evidence that cocaine affects infant development both directly, via in utero exposure, and indirectly via alterations in maternal care. Two neural systems known to play an important role in both maternal care and cocaine addiction are the oxytocin and dopamine systems, mediating social and reward-related behaviors and stress reactivity. These same neural mechanisms may also be involved in the infant's development of vulnerability to addiction. Understanding the neuroendocrine pathways involved in maternal behavior and addiction may help facilitate earlier, more effective interventions to help substance-abusing mothers provide adequate care for their infant and perhaps prevent the intergenerational transmission of risk. PMID:20201853

  16. Cocaine Addiction in Mothers: Potential Effects on Maternal Care and Infant Development

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal cocaine addiction is a significant public health issue particularly affecting children, with high rates of reported abuse, neglect and foster care placement. This review examines both preclinical and clinical evidence for how cocaine abuse may impact maternal care and infant development, exploring brain, behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. There is evidence that cocaine may affect infant development both directly, via in utero exposure, and indirectly via alterations in maternal care. Two neural systems known to play an important role in both maternal care and cocaine addiction are the oxytocin and dopamine systems, mediating social and reward-related behaviors and stress reactivity. These same neural mechanisms may also be involved in the infant’s development of vulnerability to addiction. Understanding the neuroendocrine pathways involved in maternal behavior and addiction may help facilitate earlier, more effective interventions to help substance abusing mothers provide adequate care for their infant, and perhaps prevent the intergenerational transmission of risk. PMID:20201853

  17. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  18. [Neurobiology of behavioral addictions].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M; Heinz, A; Mann, K

    2013-05-01

    Reward learning represents a crucial mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behavior. The underlying neurobiological foundations and associated neurobiological pathways are identified in this review and similarities between substance abuse and behavioral addictions will be discussed. In the second section current neuroimaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of pathological gambling and computer and internet addiction are discussed. The main focuses are on changes in neurocognitive processes, such as cue reactivity, reward and punishment processing and behavioral control. PMID:23632569

  19. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  20. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  1. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  2. Methodology for Evaluating an Adaptation of Evidence-Based Drug Abuse Prevention in Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Laura M.; Steiker, Lori K. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth an innovative methodological protocol for culturally grounding interventions with high-risk youths in alternative schools. This study used mixed methods to evaluate original and adapted versions of a culturally grounded substance abuse prevention program. The qualitative and quantitative methods…

  3. Domestic Abuse Prevention Education: Listening to the Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Hale, Rebecca; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings derived as part of a two-year project funded by the European Union's Daphne III scheme, involving collaboration between seven partner organisations across six European countries. The project involved an evaluation, using questionnaires and focus groups, of domestic abuse prevention education programmes delivered…

  4. Mobility Limitations: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mobility limitations outlines types of problems with mobility and their incidence. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are examined, emphasizing that this population is generally at higher risk for alcohol and other drug-related problems. Possible solutions to…

  5. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  6. Federal Standards for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment Programs and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, A. Catherine

    Presented are federal standards designed to synthesize and describe the knowledge available on the prevention and treatment of child abuse and negect. A summary chapter (Chapter I) covers background information, organization and content of the standards, and utilization of the standards. Chapter II discusses the relationships among children,…

  7. Assertive/Leveling Communication and Empathy in Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    This paper reports feedback from 349 fifth through eighth graders who participated in Say It Straight (SIS), a school-based drug abuse prevention program which combines assertiveness training with role playing and guided imagery. The feedback presented concerns students' feelings about sending and receiving messages using the following…

  8. Heading Off PBX Hackers: Advice on Preventing PBX Abuse and Toll Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Sara J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology that allows college staff easy access to the institution's telecommunications services can be used for unauthorized access. Although detection and prevention of abuse are difficult, the best way to limit losses is to anticipate the attempt, frustrate the perpetrator, monitor for unusual activity, and take immediate action. (MSE)

  9. Reducing Gender Role Conflict among Men Attending Partner Abuse Prevention Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Waldo, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An intervention was created to help resolve gender role conflicts among men attending partner abuse prevention groups. The experimental intervention was conducted in two groups (7 men in each group) over the course of 10 weeks. The groups engaged in gender role conflict resolution interventions addressing conflicts between work and family…

  10. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention Model Learning Systems: Preliminary Designs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Saul H.

    The final report on a project designed to develop a model learning system for alcohol abuse and alcoholism prevention contains format details of four specific programs. Each program is geared to obtain maximum success in reinforcing responsible behavior, to change learner behavior, and to insure effective implementation in a variety of…

  11. Early Identification of Maternal Depression as a Strategy in the Prevention of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dorothy

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of broadening the traditional infant health focus of the Australian Maternal and Child Health Nurse or Public Health Nurse to encompass maternal emotional and social well-being to identify maternal depression and prevent child abuse. Conditions under which mothers would find this role expansion acceptable…

  12. Oregon Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Education (ADAPE) Infused Lesson Guide K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Holstedt, Peggy

    This resource manual and guide provides schools and communities with the most current research-based information available concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention education. It also provides model lessons, written by Oregon teachers, to infuse into current programs. The document is organized into four sections. The first, an introduction,…

  13. Improving Preschoolers' Comprehension of Sex Abuse Prevention Concepts through Video Repetition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Marites F.; Hulsey, Timothy L.; Woodland, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Determined whether having preschoolers review video segments they did not initially comprehend would increase their comprehension of sex abuse prevention concepts. States that children who viewed repetition of program segment learned more than children who viewed the segment once. Concludes that this method of enhancing children's comprehension of…

  14. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  15. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  16. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  17. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  18. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  19. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  20. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  1. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  2. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  3. School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Review of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.; Barron, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    In this systematic and critical review of purely school based child sexual abuse prevention program efficacy studies, 22 studies meeting the inclusion criteria differed by target population, program implementation, and evaluation methodology. Measured outcomes for children included knowledge, skills, emotion, risk perception, touch discrimination,…

  4. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  5. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  6. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  7. Community Notification: Perceptions of Its Effectiveness in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2001-01-01

    Megan's law enables law enforcement to notify communities when convicted sex offenders reside in their neighborhoods. Investigates community members', law enforcement officials', and law students' attitudes toward community notification and other child abuse prevention measures. The groups significantly differed in support of Megan's Law and…

  8. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  9. Evaluating the Acceptability of Four Versions of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine college students used a modified version of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form to evaluate the acceptability of four versions of a sexual abuse prevention program for 10-year-old children. The four versions include an information-based training approach or a behavioral skills training (BST) approach with a focus on strangers…

  10. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  11. The Relationship Between Friends' Marijuana Use, Family Cohesion, School Interest and Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babst, Dean V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of students respond to various drug abuse prevention areas. This study is based on a school survey completed by 4,000 rural students and 2,700 suburban students. Students most involved with drugs were those least receptive to traditional educational programs. (Author)

  12. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  14. Being Real and Being Realistic: Chemical Abuse Prevention, Teen Counselors, and an Ethic of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsch, Nina G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a program in which two teen counselors model relatedness and authenticity with their sixth-grade counselees. Investigates the background of the program and identifies being "real" and being "realistic" as expressions of an ethic of caring, which gives power to the program's vision of drug-abuse prevention. (EMK)

  15. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest children…

  16. Evaluation of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: Cognitive and Emotional Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Renee L.; McNiel, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A school-based child sexual abuse prevention program consisting of separate two-hour workshops for children (ages 5-12), parents, and teachers was evaluated. Results indicated parents were more informed and interactive with their children following the workshops. Children showed no increased emotional stress and reported feeling safer and better…

  17. Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Child Abuse and Its Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Nadine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide survey of teachers (568 responses) from 40 school districts found that, although the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings concerned teachers' reporting behavior, barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and…

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  19. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  20. Single and Repeated Ultra-Rapid Detoxification Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Morphine Addicted Rats: A Privilege for Single Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Ghamati, Leila; Hajali, Vahid; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Shojaee, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioids have been shown to affect learning and memory processes. Different protocols of morphine withdrawal can substantially vary in their success to prevent opioid induced impairments of cognitive performance. In the present study, we report the effects of single and repetitive ultra-rapid detoxification (URD) on spatial learning and memory in morphine addicted rats. Methods Morphine (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected in male rats once a day over one week and after which they were detoxified with naloxone administration under anesthesia. For the repetitive procedure, a second one week morphine treatment with a second subsequent detoxification was performed. Control groups received an equivalent volume of saline injections. Spatial learning and memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Findings Both protocols of morphine administration resulted in a severe spatial memory impairment that could be significantly prevented by both single and repetitive URD. However, memory abilities in animals treated with repetitive URD were still significantly lower than in animals of the corresponding control group. Alterations in motor activity or sensory-motor coordination between morphine treated and control animals could be ruled out by comparing swimming speed and visible platform performances that were not different between groups. Thus, URD and, specifically single URD, can prevent the spatial memory impairments in addicted rats. Conclusion As opioid addiction is an extending and serious concern in many societies, these findings may have clinical values and therapeutic implications for patients who experience multiple opioid relapses. PMID:25140218

  1. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. PMID:25484318

  2. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. PMID:27509010

  3. [Gambling addiction].

    PubMed

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly. PMID:23529775

  4. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid

    PubMed Central

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Smith, Joshua P.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between subjects in two studies—one involving socially anxious individuals (n=38) seeking treatment for addictions; the other (n=41) subjects with social anxiety and an alcohol use disorder, seeking treatment for social anxiety. Baseline severity scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for social anxiety were compared between the groups. No significant differences were found. For both groups, social anxiety was largely in the severe range. The results suggest that clinicians should attend to social anxiety symptom severity in patients with co-occurring social anxiety and addiction, regardless of the condition for which treatment is sought. PMID:22658305

  5. Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program--HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1985-04-15

    This rule contains a new basic State grant requirement to implement the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-457). As a condition of receiving State grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, States must establish programs and/or procedures within the State's child protective service system to respond to reports of medical neglect, including reports of the withholding of medically indicated treatment for disabled infants with life-threatening conditions. Other changes in regulations required by these Amendments will be published as a separate NPRM at a later date. PMID:10270565

  6. Child abuse and neglect prevention and treatment program--HHS. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1984-12-10

    This rule proposes a new basic State grant requirement to implement the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-457). As a condition of receiving State grants under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, States must establish programs and/or procedures within the State's child protective service system to respond to reports of medical neglect, including reports of the withholding of medically indicated treatment for disabled infants with life-threatening conditions. Other changes in regulations required by these Amendments will be published as a separate NPRM at a later date. PMID:10269290

  7. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  8. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028

  9. Roundtable on prevention of fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs, March 23--24, 1987, Highland Hotel, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Identification of Issues and Preventive Measures Associated with Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Conservation Programs; Working Papers Prepared by Roundtable Discussants; Annotated Bibliography of Publications Related to Prevention/Detection of Fraud and Abuse in DOE and LIHEAP Conservation Programs; and List of Members on Task Force for Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs.

  10. Finding Ways to Effectively Prevent Sexual Abuse by Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alisa; Tabachnick, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Youth with sexual behavior problems pose a complicated challenge to the society. Yet the society has succeeded in developing only a limited range of actions and attitudes to grapple with and prevent this problem. Very few of the social service and criminal justice systems have rallied to create compassionate models that not only address and…

  11. Black Churches in Substance Use and Abuse Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane R.; Scott, Wilma; Lacey, Krim; Blount, Joan; Roman, Dorothy; Brown, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    In light of their historical role in African American communities, faith-based organizations are uniquely positioned to offer substance use prevention programs to urban African American youth. This article describes the efforts of a university-based program to provide training and technical assistance to faith-based organizations in the…

  12. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... programs that work to prevent substance use where young people learn, grow, and play. We support substance... insurance can sign up for affordable coverage by visiting www.HealthCare.gov . Because adult role models... community organizations as they advance their drive to keep young people, families, and neighborhoods...

  13. The prevention of analgesic opioids abuse: expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, I; Gerra, G; Ripamonti, I C; Mugelli, A; Allegri, M; Viganò, R; Romualdi, P; Pinto, C; Raffaeli, W; Coluzzi, F; Gatti, R C; Mammucari, M; Fanelli, G

    2015-11-01

    Opioids are drugs of reference for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Their proper use and a periodic assessment of the patient are crucial to prevent misuse. A multidisciplinary group suggests strategies for all stakeholders involved in the management of pain and suggests the importance of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:26592848

  14. Peer Leaders in Drug Abuse Prevention. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohai, Caroline E.

    Although peer leaders have been effectively assisting school staffs since the 1960s, they have recently assumed their most critical role to date. Peer leaders are leading other students through drug prevention curricula, particularly those based on the Special Influence Model (SIM), which seeks to stregthen students' awareness of and resistance to…

  15. Diffusion of School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Observes the preponderance of heavily marketed drug prevention programs (Project DARE, QUEST Skills for Life) over the more effective psychosocial-based programs. Reviews the literature on determinants of diffusion and recent research on strategies to increase diffusion of these programs. Considers implications for policy and future research. (MJP)

  16. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  17. Diversity in relapse prevention needs: gender and race comparisons among substance abuse treatment patients.

    PubMed

    Walton, M A; Blow, F C; Booth, B M

    2001-05-01

    Attempts to address high relapse rates following substance abuse treatment have focused on identifying relapse prevention needs and development of subsequent relapse prevention programs. Few studies have examined whether women and African-Americans have unique relapse prevention needs. Research in this area could provide an initial basis for the development of alternative relapse prevention approaches that could be more appropriate for this pop ulation. This study examined gender and race differences in psychosocial concerns among patients recruited from substance abuse treatment as potential indicators of relapse prevention needs. Participants (N = 331) completed several questionnaires during their first month of substance abuse treatment. Assessment packets included measures of coping, self-efficacy, resource needs, cravings, social influences, exposure, and leisure activities. Analyses focused on gender and race differences in these variables before and after controlling for background characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, income, polysubstance use, treatment type, and problem severity). Gender differences found were that men reported poorer coping skills and more negative social influences and exposure to substances than women; these differences remained significant when controlling for background characteristics. Significant race differences were found on all scales except negative social influences. After controlling for background characteristics, African-Americans reported significantly greater coping skills and self-efficacy than did Caucasians; however, African-Americans also reported greater resource needs in comparison to Caucasians. Results highlight the diversity in psychosocial issues among substance abusers in treatment, particularly between Caucasians and African-Americans. Implications for developing alternative relapse prevention approaches to address this diversity are discussed. PMID:11417937

  18. Contribution of Family-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Program to Attitude and Self-efficacy of Mothers Trained by Mental Health Facilitators.

    PubMed

    Khoshzaban, Eilnaz; Matlabi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Family plays a key role in the prevention and intervention of drug abuse among children and teenagers. Information about drugs provides parents with the exact knowledge on how to demonstrate attitudes and healthy behaviours. Therefore, the present study tried to investigate the effect of preventive and interventional trainings on self-efficacy and attitudes of mothers covered by mental health facilitators (MHFs) in this regard. This interventional study used case and control groups/pretest-posttest design. Based on the inclusion criteria, randomized sampling, and sample size formulation, 150 qualified mothers were recruited. Eligible participants were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. A researcher-designed and self-administered questionnaire was used to gather the required data. Six instructive, communicative oral sessions and individual interviews were held by the facilitators for case group members. After two months, attitudes and self-efficacy of the mothers toward drug abuse issues were measured again by the same questionnaire. The results showed that the difference in intervention and control group was significant in terms of increasing self-efficacy and modifying attitudes (p<0.001). Furthermore, the case group members reported less misconceptions, stigma, and ignorance toward those suffering from addiction. PMID:27241418

  19. Re-Training the Addicted Brain: A Review of Hypothesized Neurobiological Mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Addiction has generally been characterized as a chronic relapsing condition. Several laboratory, preclinical, and clinical studies have provided evidence that craving and negative affect are strong predictors of the relapse process. These states, as well as the desire to avoid them, have been described as primary motives for substance use. A recently developed behavioral treatment, Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), was designed to target experiences of craving and negative affect and their roles in the relapse process. MBRP offers skills in cognitive behavioral relapse prevention integrated with mindfulness meditation. The mindfulness practices in MBRP are intended to increase discriminative awareness, with a specific focus on acceptance of uncomfortable states or challenging situations without reacting “automatically.” A recent efficacy trial found that those randomized to MBRP, as compared to those in a control group, demonstrated significantly lower rates of substance use and greater decreases in craving following treatment. Furthermore, individuals in MBRP did not report increased craving or substance use in response to negative affect. Importantly, areas of the brain that have been associated with craving, negative affect, and relapse have also been shown to be affected by mindfulness training. Drawing from the neuroimaging literature, we review several plausible mechanisms by which MBRP might be changing neural responses to the experiences of craving and negative affect, which subsequently may reduce risk for relapse. We hypothesize that MBRP may affect numerous brain systems and may reverse, repair, or compensate for the neuroadaptive changes associated with addiction and addictive behavior relapse. PMID:22775773

  20. FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159050.html FDA Approves Implant to Battle Opioid Addiction Experts say steady dosing eliminates need to take ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Opioid abuse and addiction have taken a devastating toll on American families. ...

  1. Societal interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Hay, T; Jones, L

    1994-01-01

    A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560

  2. Oral Health of Drug Abusers: A Review of Health Effects and Care

    PubMed Central

    SHEKARCHIZADEH, Hajar; KHAMI, Mohammad R.; MOHEBBI, Simin Z.; EKHTIARI, Hamed; VIRTANEN, Jorma I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Oral health problems, among the most prevalent comorbidities related to addiction, require more attention by both clinicians and policy-makers. Our aims were to review oral complications associated with drugs, oral health care in addiction rehabilitation, health services available, and barriers against oral health promotion among addicts. Drug abuse is associated with serious oral health problems including generalized dental caries, periodontal diseases, mucosal dysplasia, xerostomia, bruxism, tooth wear, and tooth loss. Oral health care has positive effects in recovery from drug abuse: patients’ need for pain control, destigmatization, and HIV transmission. Health care systems worldwide deliver services for addicts, but most lack oral health care programs. Barriers against oral health promotion among addicts include difficulty in accessing addicts as a target population, lack of appropriate settings and of valid assessment protocols for conducting oral health studies, and poor collaboration between dental and general health care sectors serving addicts. These interfere with an accurate picture of the situation. Moreover, lack of appropriate policies to improve access to dental services, lack of comprehensive knowledge of and interest among dental professionals in treating addicts, and low demand for non-emergency dental care affect provision of effective interventions. Management of drug addiction as a multi-organ disease requires a multidisciplinary approach. Health care programs usually lack oral health care elements. Published evidence on oral complications related to addiction emphasizes that regardless of these barriers, oral health care at various levels including education, prevention, and treatment should be integrated into general care services for addicts. PMID:26060654

  3. What Have We Learned about Preventing Child Abuse? An Overview of the "Community and Minority Group Action to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect" Program. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ellen

    Results from the evaluation of 11 demonstration programs designed to prevent child abuse are summarized in this working paper. The programs were of three types: perinatal programs; community-wide education, information, and referral projects; and culturally relevant parent education efforts. The four perinatal programs focused on extended…

  4. Awareness of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education among Parents of Grade 3 Elementary School Pupils in Fuxin City, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few…

  5. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  6. "When You Tell, Does the Hurt Go Away?" The Impact of Theatre in Education in Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Relates how a professor, for a Theater in Education project in British Columbia, produced and directed "No More Secrets," focusing on preventing child sexual abuse. States that grades five through eight were targeted to transfer learning about sexual abuse, and to tap the emotional experiences of the child to encourage disclosure. (PA)

  7. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  8. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  9. Intact inhibitory control processes in abstinent drug abusers (II): a high-density electrical mapping study in former cocaine and heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Morie, Kristen P; Garavan, Hugh; Bell, Ryan P; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Krakowski, Menachem I; Foxe, John J

    2014-07-01

    Response inhibition deficits are well-documented in drug users, and are related to the impulsive tendencies characteristic of the addictive phenotype. Addicts also show significant motivational issues that may accentuate these inhibitory deficits. We investigated the extent to which these inhibitory deficits are present in abstinence. Salience of the task stimuli was also manipulated on the premise that emotionally-valenced inputs might impact inhibitory efficacy by overcoming the blunted responses to everyday environmental inputs characteristic of this population. Participants performed response inhibition tasks consisting of both neutral and emotionally valenced stimuli while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses (N2/P3 components) to successful inhibitions in abstinent abusers (N = 20) and non-using participants (N = 21) were compared. In contrast to previous work in current users, our abstinent cohort showed no detectable behavioral or electrophysiological differences in their inhibitory responses, and no differences on self-reports of impulsivity, despite their long histories of chronic use (mean = 10.3 years). The current findings are consistent with a recovery of inhibitory control processes as a function of abstinence. Abstinent former users, however, did show a reduced modulation, relative to controls, of their ERPs to valenced input while performing successful inhibitions, although contrary to our hypothesis, the use of valenced inputs had no impact on inhibitory performance. Reduced ERP modulation to emotionally valenced inputs may have implications for relapse in emotional contexts outside the treatment center. PMID:23507565

  10. Analysis of legal cases for prevention of elder abuse: decisions from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Diesfeld, Kate

    2011-06-01

    Elder abuse is a universal concern and is gaining greater public and professional attention. This increased concern to protect elders is internationally evident in policy reform, multidisciplinary research and education. Yet neglect in care settings continues. This research responds by contributing to the international effort to promote humane care for elders who are in a position of dependence, particularly in residential facilities. The legal cases that result from some complaints by aggrieved elders and their advocates may offer insights that are relevant for prevention. While the law is often viewed merely as a system of control, it may also be a resource for learning, particularly in the context of abuse prevention. Although the analysis references New Zealand law, the discussion may have broader application by indicating factors that precede, or trigger, unacceptable conduct. By understanding what went wrong and why, we may decrease the likelihood of future incidents. Also, understanding the legal ramifications may have a deterrent effect. Many advocates and activists have asked how we can ensure that abuses do not recur; some answers may lie within the legal cases themselves. How may recent legal cases be used to prevent mistreatment of elders in residential facilities? This question is applied to select decisions of New Zealand's Health and Disability Commissioner, Human Rights Review Tribunal and Health Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal. While each body has distinct functions, relevant factors identified within the cases may reveal information that is of interest to elderly people and their advocates, caregivers, health educators and professional registration bodies. The research is timely in light of New Zealand's Review of Elder Abuse and Neglect Prevention Services in New Zealand (Department of Child Youth and Family Services, 2004) and New Zealand's Positive Ageing Strategy (Office of Senior Citizens, 2001). This article incorporates current debates

  11. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  12. Prefrontal Cortex and Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Translation to Prevention and Treatment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Jane E.; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and primates. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences factors (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. PMID:20837060

  13. Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be wrongfully assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower, and that they could stop ... for the genetic variations that contribute to the development and progression of the disease.” With nearly one ...

  14. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  15. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  16. Long-term alterations in vulnerability to addiction to drugs of abuse and in brain gene expression after early life ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Vaudry, David; Vaudry, Hubert; Daoust, Martine; Naassila, Mickaël

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to ethanol early in life can have long-lasting implications on brain function and drug of abuse response later in life. The present study investigated in rats, the long-term consequences of pre- and postnatal (early life) ethanol exposure on drug consumption/reward and the molecular targets potentially associated with these behavioral alterations. Since a relationship has been demonstrated between heightened drugs intake and susceptibility to drugs-induced locomotor activity/sensitization, anxiolysis, we tested these behavioral responses, depending on the drug, in control and early life ethanol-exposed animals. Our results show that progeny exposed to early life ethanol displayed increased consumption of ethanol solutions and increased sensitivity to cocaine rewarding effects assessed in the conditioned place preference test. Offspring exposed to ethanol were more sensitive to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol and the increased sensitivity could, at least in part, explain the alteration in the consumption of ethanol for its anxiolytic effects. In addition, the sensitivity to hypothermic effects of ethanol and ethanol metabolism were not altered by early life ethanol exposure. The sensitization to cocaine (20 mg/kg) and to amphetamine (1.2 mg/kg) was increased after early life ethanol exposure and, could partly explain, an increase in the rewarding properties of psychostimulants. Gene expression analysis revealed that expression of a large number of genes was altered in brain regions involved in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Dopaminergic receptors and transporter binding sites were also down-regulated in the striatum of ethanol-exposed offspring. Such long-term neurochemical alterations in transmitter systems and in the behavioral responses to ethanol and other drugs of abuse may confer an increased liability for addiction in exposed offspring. PMID:18713641

  17. The role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Parolaro, D; Rubino, T

    2008-04-01

    This review aims to present the more recent knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction. For a long time, dopamine has been consistently associated with the reinforcing effects of most drugs of abuse but, recently, pharmacological evidence points to the possibility that pharmacological management of the endocannabinoid system might not only block the direct reinforcing effect of cannabis, opioids, nicotine and ethanol, but also prevent the relapse to various drugs of abuse including opioids, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and amphetamine. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the manipulation of the endocannabinoid system through the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR-141716A (rimonabant) might constitute a new therapeutical strategy for treating addiction across different classes of abused drugs. PMID:18560613

  18. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  19. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  20. Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: the roles of victim empathy and rape myths.

    PubMed

    Schewe, P A; O'Donohue, W

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of two sexual abuse prevention programs, one emphasizing victim empathy and the other stressing modifying rape myths, was evaluated with high-risk males. Sixty-eight high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and post-treatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scale, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced versus consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk subjects differed from low-risk subjects on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased subjects' empathy, and that subjects found both treatments to be credible and helpful. Comparisons between the empathy-, facts-, and no-treatment group contraindicated the practice of dispelling rape myths as a method of preventing rape among high-risk males. PMID:8060907

  1. Prevention Research Findings: 1988. Proceedings of the Meeting of the National Conference on Prevention Research Findings (1st, Kansas City, Missouri, March 1988): Implications for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Planning. OSAP Prevention Monograph-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Sixteen papers from a conference on findings from prevention research are presented in this document. The papers are categorized into these six areas: (1) state and federal roles in prevention; (2) prevention research perspectives, including prevention research, school-based drug education research findings, and drug abuse prevention research…

  2. Relations among Delay Discounting, Addictions, and Money Mismanagement: Implications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Delay discounting is a type of impulsivity in which smaller, immediate rewards are preferred over larger, delayed ones. Impulsivity is associated with harmful behaviors, including substance abuse and financial mismanagement. Methods Delay discounting as related to addiction and financial mismanagement was reviewed from psychological, neurobiological, and behavioral economic perspectives. Results Addiction and financial mismanagement frequently co-occur, and elevated delay discounting may be a common mechanism contributing to both of these problematic behaviors. Conclusions Future research on the relationships between delay discounting, substance abuse, and financial mismanagement can provide important insights for developing improved prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22211535

  3. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  4. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  5. Drug Abuse Office, Prevention, and Treatment Amendments of 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The purpose of the testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in April, 1978 was to amend the drug abuse office and treatment act of 1972, thereby extending assistance programs for drug abuse prevention, education, treatment, rehabilitation and other purposes. Speakers represented such organizations as National…

  6. Drug addiction in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Xi

    2008-10-01

    Drug addiction in China began with the importation of Indian opium by the British in the 16th century and brought severe social and health problems. While drug abuse abated following the establishment of People's Republic of China, modernization and Westernization in the 1980s led to the reemergence of this problem. Drug abuse in China became epidemic, facilitating the spread of HIV/AIDS. The Chinese government has made great efforts to address these problems, focusing both on treatments of drug addiction and on harm-reduction programs. Although the new trends of drug addiction in China pose great public health challenges, these government interventions are likely to successfully stem the problem of drug abuse in the future. PMID:18991965

  7. Pot Addiction and Parental Friction: Emotional Disturbance, Conduct Disorders and Unilateral Placements for Drug-Abusing Students Under the IDEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, David S.

    This paper is part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002. It addresses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Specifically, the paper examines unilateral placements for drug-abusing and delinquent students. Following the introduction, the next section of…

  8. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    PubMed

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain. PMID:23858068

  9. Coexisting Addiction and Pain in People Receiving Methadone for Addiction

    PubMed Central

    St. Marie, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants’ experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain. PMID:23858068

  10. A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings.

    PubMed

    Dusenbury, Linda; Brannigan, Rosalind; Falco, Mathea; Hansen, William B

    2003-04-01

    To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, we conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period. Fidelity has been measured in five ways: (1) adherence, (2) dose, (3) quality of program delivery, (4) participant responsiveness and (5) program differentiation. Definitions and measures of fidelity were found not to be consistent across studies, and new definitions are proposed. While there has been limited research on fidelity of implementation in the social sciences, research in drug abuse prevention provides evidence that poor implementation is likely to result in a loss of program effectiveness. Studies indicate that most teachers do not cover everything in a curriculum, they are likely to teach less over time and training alone is not sufficient to ensure fidelity of implementation. Key elements of high fidelity include teacher training, program characteristics, teacher characteristics and organizational characteristics. The review concludes with a discussion of the tension between fidelity and reinvention/adaptation, and ways of resolving this tension. Recommendations are made for developing a consistent methodology for measuring and analyzing fidelity of implementation. Further, researchers and providers should collaborate to develop ways of introducing flexibility into prevention programs. PMID:12729182

  11. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  12. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  13. A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. PMID:25298961

  14. Longitudinal Outcomes of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program for Urban Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Fang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Methods Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CDP), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CDP arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CDP arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CDP-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Results Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CDP arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CDP arms. Conclusions Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. PMID:20413081

  15. Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Cindy

    This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…

  16. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  17. 78 FR 8987 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section in the NPRM (77 FR 75300) for further information on how to comment on...

  18. Early Childhood Education/Drug Abuse Prevention Curricula/Materials Project Mini-Conference Materials (Washington, D.C., June 8-9, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredekamp, Sue; And Others

    This collection of conference materials presents papers on the following topics: (1) approaches and targeting; (2) the BABES Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children; (3) a prekindergarten substance abuse prevention education curriculum; (4) a parent-oriented, pilot Head Start primary prevention, drug education project; (5) evaluation…

  19. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  20. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  1. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  2. Periodic health examination, 1994 update: 4. Secondary prevention of elder abuse and mistreatment. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for family physicians on the detection, assessment and management of abuse or mistreatment in patients over 65 years of age. OPTIONS: Detection of elder abuse by history and examination or by specific protocols; intervention through mandatory reporting, removing the victim from the situation or acting as an advocate for the patient. OUTCOMES: Termination of abusive situation and prevention of further abuse. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted with the use of medical subject headings "elder abuse" and "epidemiology" for articles published from January 1980 to October 1992 and headings "elder abuse" and "clinical trials" for articles published from January 1980 to February 1994. Standard references and review articles and their bibliographies were scrutinized, and experts were consulted. VALUES: The evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination were used. Since senior citizens are among the most disadvantaged people in Canadian society, prevention of abuse and promotion of their autonomy were the highest values selected. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The principal benefits are cessation and prevention of abuse. Potential harms include the loss of a personal residence, the erosion of an established family structure and the loss of autonomy for the victim. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is poor evidence to include case finding for elder abuse in or exclude it from the periodic health examination. However, it is prudent for physicians to be alert for indications of elder abuse and, if such abuse is discovered, to take measures to prevent further abuse. PMID:7954135

  3. Family-based interventions for the prevention of substance abuse and other impulse control disorders in girls.

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, K L

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  4. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  5. Addiction medicine: a model osteopathic medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lande, R Gregory; Wyatt, Stephen A; Przekop, Peter R

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has identified nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drugs as among the top 10 contributors of morbidity and mortality in the world. Substance use disorders are preventable conditions that are major contributors to poor health, family dysfunction, and various social problems in the United States-problems that have a profound economic impact. The American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine seeks to promote teaching of addiction medicine at colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs), which-honoring the osteopathic concepts of holistic medicine and disease prevention-are well poised to develop a model addiction medicine curriculum. Educators and students at COMs can use guidelines from Project MAINSTREAM, a core addiction medicine curriculum designed to improve education of health professionals in substance abuse, for developing addiction medicine curricula and for gauging their professional growth. These guidelines should be incorporated into the first 2 years of osteopathic medical students' basic science didactics. The authors encourage the development of addiction medicine courses and curricula at all COMs. PMID:20386021

  6. Iran’s Activities on Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher; Jadidi, Mohsen; Khalili, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the present review study, authors investigated Iran’s activities regarding prevention, abuse and harm reduction of drugs nationwide. The issue appears to be important in order to show the trend of activities in the country. Evidence Acquisition: In this report, authors gathered data from different Farsi/English peer review journals issued both in printed and online versions. These journals have been indexed in PubMed, ISI, ISC, SID, Magiran, UN, etc. These are among the most referred and cited databases. Results: Summarizing the data led to three distinguished sections: 1) drug supply reduction activities; 2) drug demand reduction activities; 3) harm reduction activities. Conclusions: As the results showed, the trend of activities was encouraging and some additional activities could be included to future programs relying on early-onset preventions. PMID:26870709

  7. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes. PMID:22206348

  8. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  9. The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project: the development of a computer-based alcohol abuse prevention program for employees.

    PubMed

    Matano, R A; Futa, K T; Wanat, S F; Mussman, L M; Leung, C W

    2000-05-01

    The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project (ESAP) developed an interactive computer-based alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention program accessible to employees over the Internet. Behavioral health research recommends that specialists develop and provide comprehensive yet cost-effective approaches to alcohol abuse prevention, early intervention, and treatment within the context of workplace managed care. ESAP is implementing this web site for a diverse 8,567-employee work site. ESAP's web site enables employees to self-assess their stress levels, coping styles, and risk for alcohol-related problems. It provides personalized feedback, recommendations, mini-workshops, a drinking journal, links to other online resources, and an interactive forum for direct participant-to-participant communication. ESAP's web site provides resources for employees who are concerned about another individual's drinking as well as information about adolescent alcohol use. This article discusses the implications of incorporating the ESAP web site into worksite alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention programming. PMID:10795126

  10. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... cancellation of the March 8, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration..., Telephone: 240-276-2600, FAX: 240-276-2610. Toian Vaughn, Committee Management Officer, Substance Abuse...

  11. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  12. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  13. Relationship of Child Abuse to the Workplace: Employer-Based Strategies for Prevention. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolson, Peter

    This background paper examines the relationship between child abuse and the workplace and discusses employer-based strategies that can reduce the stress levels of working parents and provide a buffer against problems of child abuse and neglect. Part 1, "Child Abuse and the World of Work," discusses the kinds of stress experienced by working…

  14. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was ... prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants. Every medicine has ...

  16. Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160358.html Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids: ... many worry that post-surgical use might trigger addiction. But a new study suggests that painkiller abuse ...

  17. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198

  18. An HIV Prevention Intervention for Ethnically Diverse Men in Substance Abuse Treatment: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. Methods. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Results. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). Conclusions. REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele. PMID:23488494

  19. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects. PMID:25776110

  20. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior using a composition of topiramate

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-06-14

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.