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Sample records for abuse prevention intervention

  1. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  2. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  3. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  4. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  5. Preventive Interventions under Managed Care: Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Sharon L.

    Programs and services that prevent substance abuse and mental health disorders have the potential to lessen an enormous burden of suffering and to reduce both the cost of future treatment and lost productivity at work and home. The availability and accessibility of these interventions to Americans whose health care is provided by managed care…

  6. Family Effectiveness Training: An Intervention to Prevent Drug Abuse and Problem Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studies efficacy of Family Effectiveness Training (FET), a prevention and intervention model used with Hispanic families of preadolescents at risk of drug abuse. Studies 79 Hispanic families assigned to FET or control group. FET families showed greater improvement in structural family functioning, reported problem behaviors, and child…

  7. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention: An Expanded Perspective for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that a successful "war" on alcohol and other drug abuse requires cooperation among counselors and other helping professionals, beginning among professional counselors. View of counselors' roles must be expanded, as well as those of schools, government agencies, law enforcement officials, health professionals, and recreational specialists.…

  8. Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs--from psychoeducational and support groups to…

  9. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  10. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  11. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  12. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  13. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  14. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  15. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  16. Prefrontal Cortex and Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Translation to Prevention and Treatment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Jane E.; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and primates. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences factors (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. PMID:20837060

  17. Community-based parenting and family support interventions and the prevention of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the development of a comprehensive, multilevel, preventively-oriented parenting and family support strategy to reduce family risk factors associated with drug abuse in young people. If parenting interventions are to make a significant impact at a population level on the prevalence of dysfunctional parenting practices, there is a need for an ecological approach to parenting support. Such an approach needs to target a variety of social contexts that are in a position to provide parents with access to evidence-based parenting interventions. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is discussed as an example of such an approach to illustrate the distinguishing features of a population level strategy. The core constructs underpinning the Triple P system include the promotion of parental self-regulation (self-sufficiency, self-efficacy, self-management, personal agency, and problem solving), through making parenting programs of adequate intensity widely available in the community through flexible delivery modalities (individual, group, telephone assisted and self-directed). The system comprises a tiered continuum of increasingly intensive parenting interventions ranging from media interventions with wide reach, to intensive behavioural family interventions with narrow reach for high-risk families where parenting problems are complicated by other factors including marital conflict, parental mood disturbance, and lack of social support. The scientific basis of the system of intervention and possible directions for future research is discussed.

  18. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  19. Treatment and prevention of elder abuse and neglect: where knowledge and practice meet-a model for intervention to prevent and treat elder abuse in Israel.

    PubMed

    Alon, Sara; Berg-Warman, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    Successful handling of elder abuse and neglect requires various interventions. This article presents findings from an evaluation study of a model for intervention implemented in three municipalities in Israel. Data from 558 older adults, exposed to abuse and treated through the program, and interviews with victims, abusers, and professionals revealed that improvement was achieved in 66% of the cases. In 20% of the cases, the abuse was stopped. The most widespread type of intervention consisted of individual counseling. Legal intervention yielded the highest rate of improvement (82%). Provision of supportive services for victims of neglect was found to be most effective (82% of improvement in the situation).

  20. Measuring fidelity to a culturally adapted HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Burlew, A. Kathleen; Turnbull, Sharriann; Robinson, Michael; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    A fidelity measure was developed for use with Real Men Are Safe-Culturally Adapted (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment. The aims of this analysis were to: 1) assess the reliability of the Fidelity Rating and Skill Evaluation (FRASE); 2) measure improvement in therapist competence and adherence over time while delivering REMAS-CA; and 3) identify which modules of REMAS-CA were most difficult to deliver. Results showed that, 1) the FRASE was a reliable instrument; 2) therapists achieved adequate adherence and competence after training and demonstrated significant improvement over time in Global Empathy; and 3) Sessions 4 and 5 of REMAS-CA contained the most challenging modules for therapists to deliver. Recommendations for future REMAS-CA therapist trainings and fidelity monitoring are made. PMID:23810229

  1. Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is

  2. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  3. [Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents].

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2007-01-01

    The scientific literature consistently reports that while children of substance abusers may be at biological, psychological, or environmental risk, the effects of these risks can be abbreviated through the use of effective interventions and treatments. Research has consistently demonstrated reductions in family and child dysfunction when effective family intervention programs are consistently utilized. While a number of effective family-based approaches have been developed and evaluated, only a few have been designed specifically for children of substance abusing parents. Just two have been tested in randomized control trials -The Streghtening Families Program and Focus on the Family. The Streghtening Families Program has demonstrated statistically significant reductions in family and child dysfunctions across several ethnocultural groups when consistently utilized. Clinical and advanced graduate programs should stress training in these evidence-based practices as well as how to adapt these models to be more culturally sensitive and age or gender appropriate in order to serve a growing and needy population of families.

  4. Preventing Drug Abuse among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…

  5. A Review of Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Amaro, Hortensia; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the effectiveness of traditional alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention approaches with girls and with boys, as well as available evidence from gender-specific or gender-informed interventions focused specifically on girls. Recommends needed research and prevention strategies that take gender into account. (Author/DLH)

  6. The relative autonomy of schools and educational interventions for substance abuse prevention, sex education, and gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Shamai, S; Coambs, R B

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates intervention programs in schools using the theoretical framework of the critical sociology of education, and most specifically, the extent to which schools are autonomous from the larger society. Three different types of intervention programs are reviewed: drug abuse prevention, sex education, and programs to change gender stereotypes, all of which were found to have limited effectiveness. Schools appear unable to change behaviors which are prevalent in a culture because they themselves are strongly influenced by that culture, and because adolescents are influenced by forces outside school. To be effective, such interventions would seem to require governmental agencies, community groups, and the media to work with the schools in order to influence the culture and thus produce behavioral changes in individuals.

  7. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive–behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:26500421

  8. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  9. Screening American Indian Youth for Referral to Drug Abuse Prevention and Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Dewolfe, Jerome; Graham, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The development and psychometric properties of a brief screening tool for use with American Indian youth suspected of abusing substances is described. The Indian Health Service-Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (IHS-PESQ) is a brief questionnaire that screens for drug abuse problem severity, response distortion tendencies, and…

  10. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Saini, Michael; Wu, Meng-Jia; MacFadden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Internet has created a new communication tool, particularly for young people whose use of electronic communication is exploding worldwide. While there are many benefits that result from electronic-based communication, the Internet is concurrently a potential site for abuse and victimization. Methods: This paper systematically…

  11. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  12. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Females’ Condom Use Behavior Following Participation in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious HIV intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with “failure to change” high risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents’ failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. 44.1% did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the STI/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  13. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  14. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley; Haller, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group. PMID:24474853

  15. Intervention Type Matters in Primary Prevention of Abusive Head Injury: Event History Analysis Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.; Trudeau, Jeremiah; Britner, Preston A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current study sought to compare interventional materials intended to raise public awareness of the caregiving practices connected to Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS). Two hundred and sixty four adults (mean age 32 years) were recruited for participation through convenience sampling at a large Northeastern university. Participants fell into…

  16. Substance abuse by men in partner abuse intervention programs: current issues and promising trends.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Larry W

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses key studies linking intervention for co-occurring substance abuse and partner abuse. Findings are grouped into three areas: (a) the effect of addictions treatment on partner violence; (b) application of transtheoretical, motivational, and culturally focused approaches to improve engagement and prevent attrition; and (c) assessment-based matching of services. Finally, the relative value of serial, coordinated, and integrated substance abuse programs and partner abuse intervention programs are considered. We reached three primary conclusions: (a) Addiction treatment alone reduces the risk for future domestic violence in a subset of men who batter, (b) screening and assessment for substance abuse by all men in partner abuse intervention programs is a standard of practice but needs to extend beyond "intake" and occur periodically, and (c) coordinated and integrated substance abuse and domestic violence programs probably offer more safety than traditional serial substance abuse treatment followed by partner abuse intervention.

  17. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  18. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  19. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  20. Interventions in Cases of Elderly Abuse within Medical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooyman, Nancy R.; Tomita, Sue

    This paper describes a model, to be adopted or adapted by human services professionals, for overcoming barriers to the detection, intervention, and prevention of elder abuse. The barriers (professional denial of abuse problems, lack of detection, guidelines and intervention procedures, and the absence of community support services) are identified…

  1. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  2. Intervention Strategies for Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rencken, Robert H.

    This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…

  3. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  4. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  5. Evaluating Prevention and Intervention Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Arthur P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    States the process-outcome research and evaluation paradigm applied to alcohol and substance abuse prevention and intervention programs. Shows its application to efforts to improve students' and patients' self-esteem to be deficient in certain aspects and advocates additions to the evaluation procedures, most notably analysis of in-session change.…

  6. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  7. Feasibility of a Community Intervention for the Prevention of Suicide and Alcohol Abuse with Yup’ik Alaska Native Youth: The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-01-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research (CBPR) process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30–.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial. PMID:24952248

  8. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    PubMed

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial.

  9. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  10. The School's Role in the Prevention/Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect. A Manual for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…

  11. Prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Durfee, M

    1989-06-01

    Child sexual abuse prevention programs are a growing phenomenon addressing an expanding number of topics raised by a variety of violent and perverse acts. Currently programs tend to focus on a fairly narrow age group and use an educational model for children. There is a need for broad-based programs with a strong focus on the adults around children. Perinatal prevention programs require an adult focus and must take advantage of a special time in child and family development to address lesson of health and intimacy in a way that may decrease the incidence of future child sexual abuse. PMID:2748446

  12. The School's Role in the Prevention and Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for School Personnel. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…

  13. The neonatal nurse's role in preventing abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Abusive head trauma in infants occurs in 24.6 to 39.8 per 100,000 infants in developed countries. Abusive head trauma refers to any type of intentional head trauma an infant sustains, as a result of an injury to the skull or intracranial contents from a blunt force and/or violent shaking. The clinical question was: what evidence-based interventions have been implemented by neonatal nurses to prevent abusive head trauma in infants? PubMed was searched to obtain English language publications from 2005 to May 2014 for interventions focused on preventing abusive head trauma using the key term "shaken baby syndrome." A total of 10 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All of the interventions targeted prevention of abusive head trauma with information about abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome and the "normal" infant crying behaviors. Interventions taught parents why infants cried, how to calm the infants, ways to cope with inconsolable infants, and how to develop a plan for what to do if they could not cope anymore. Parents who participated in the interventions were consistently able to explain the information and tell others about the dangers of shaking infants compared to the control parents. Only 2 studies calculated the preintervention abusive head trauma rate and the postintervention frequency of abusive head trauma. Each found significant differences in abusive head trauma.

  14. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... children. Join us. Find out more Get involved Bullying Prevention and The National Conversation: It's Up to ... has released her initial plans to help stop bullying across the United States . We are glad that ...

  15. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  16. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  17. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  18. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  19. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  20. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    PubMed

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  1. Preventing abuse of older people.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Aileen

    2010-10-01

    The author travelled to the United States on a Florence Nightingale Travel Scholarship to study the systems in place to respond to and prevent elder abuse. She visited centres in Orange County, California, and New York City that are involved in dealing with the issue. This article provides a summary of her findings, with emphasis on education and training strategies for healthcare professionals working with older people, and provides recommendations for developments in safeguarding older people in the UK. The author also reviews models of service, models of evaluation and approaches to older people who self-neglect.

  2. Drug Abuse Prevention for You and Your Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Novelli and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written for adolescents, focuses on the individual's role and responsibility, both to themselves and their friends, in preventing drug abuse problems. Short statements define the influence of peer pressure on prevention, friendship, and intervention. The results of a ninth grade student survey list 22 reasons for using drugs,…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  4. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  5. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  6. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  7. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  8. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  9. Teachers and Child Abuse Prevention. Item 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...

  11. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  12. The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Brown, C Hendricks; Ompad, Danielle C; Or, Flora; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Poduska, Jeanne M; Windham, Amy

    2014-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19-21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors. PMID:23070695

  13. The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Brown, C Hendricks; Ompad, Danielle C; Or, Flora; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Poduska, Jeanne M; Windham, Amy

    2014-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19-21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors.

  14. The Impact of the Good Behavior Game, a Universal Classroom-Based Preventive Intervention in First and Second Grades, on High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Drug Abuse and Dependence Disorders into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Mackenzie, Amelia C. L.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Ompad, Danielle C.; Or, Flora; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Windham, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first-and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985–1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19–21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors. PMID:23070695

  15. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  16. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  17. Teen dating abuse: recognition and interventions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sally Ann; Rosenbluth, Barri; Cotton, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Teen dating abuse, also known as teen dating violence, is a significant public health issue. Adolescents with a history of dating abuse may struggle academically and experience increased risk for serious injury or even death. They may engage in risky sexual behavior, substance abuse, and unhealthy dieting and exhibit suicidal behaviors. School nurses may be the first adults that teens confide in when experiencing dating abuse and may lack the knowledge and skills to intervene with teens involved in unhealthy dating relationships. Beginning in 2008, Dell Children s Medical Center in Austin, Texas, partnered with SafePlace (a local nonprofit that serves survivors of sexual and domestic violence) to address dating abuse. This collaboration is part of Start Strong Austin, one of 11 communities nationwide participating in the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships Initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The Start Strong model employs innovative strategies in education, community engagement, policy change, and social marketing to prevent dating abuse before it starts.

  18. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  19. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  20. The assessment of child abuse potential and the prevention of child abuse and neglect: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, R A; Bogat, G A; Davidson, W S

    1988-10-01

    A frequently advocated strategy for increasing the efficiency of child abuse prevention programs is to deliver prevention services to "high-risk" populations. This article critically reviews procedures for the reliable and valid assessment of child abuse potential within an ecological perspective. Factors that limit the usefulness of child abuse risk assessment are discussed. These factors include the uncertain criteria of child abuse and neglect, the low base rate of the phenomenon, and the financial and social costs of such procedures. Finally, the prevention implications of the current and future state of the art in child abuse risk assessment are considered and preventive interventions that do not depend on individual case risk screening are advocated.

  1. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  2. New Hope for Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Proven Solutions To Save Lives and Prevent Future Crime. A Report by Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, David; Miller, Cate; Rollin, Miriam; Evans, Phil; Shah, Rita

    Asserting that children who are abused or neglected are at risk of becoming future violent criminals, this report argues that this cycle of violence can be prevented by investing in recently confirmed abuse prevention and intervention strategies. The report presents information on the number of deaths each year due to abuse and neglect and calls…

  3. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  4. A meta-analysis of direct and mediating effects of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance abuse prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of the effects of a set of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance use prevention interventions as part of a State Incentive Grant (SIG) in Kentucky. The analysis included assessment of direct effects on prevalence of substance use among adolescents as well as assessment of what "risk" and "protective" factors mediated the coalition effects. In addition, we tested whether multiple science-based prevention interventions enhanced the effects of coalitions on youth substance use. Short-term results (using 8th-grade data) showed no significant decreases in six prevalence of substance use outcomes -- and, in fact, a significant though small increase in prevalence of use of one substance (inhalants). Sustained results (using 10th-grade data), however, showed significant, though small decreases in three of six substance use outcomes -- past month prevalence of cigarette use, alcohol use, and binge drinking. We found evidence that the sustained effects on these three prevalence outcomes were mediated by two posited risk factors: friends' drug use and perceived availability of drugs. Finally, we found that the number of science-based prevention interventions implemented in schools within the coalitions did not moderate the effects of the coalitions on the prevalence of drug use. Study limitations are noted.

  5. Preventing Substance Abuse among Children and Adolescents: Family-Centered Approaches. Practitioner's Guide. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…

  6. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  7. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  8. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips ...

  9. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  10. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  11. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  12. Health promotion in the city: a structured review of the literature on interventions to prevent heart disease, substance abuse, violence and HIV infection in US metropolitan areas, 1980-1995.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, N; Silver, D; Carmona, J M; Kass, D; Lancaster, B; Speers, M

    2000-09-01

    To achieve its national public health goals, the US must improve the health of low-income urban populations. To contribute to this process, this study reviewed published reports of health promotion interventions designed to prevent heart disease, HIV infection, substance abuse, and violence in US cities. The study's objectives were to describe the target populations, settings, and program characteristics of these interventions and to assess the extent to which these programs followed accepted principles for health promotion. Investigators searched five computerized databases and references of selected articles for articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 1980 and 1995. Selected articles listed as a main goal primary prevention of one of four index conditions; were carried out within a US city; included sufficient information to characterize the intervention; and organized at least 25% of its activities within a community setting. In general, programs reached a diverse population of low-income city residents in a variety of settings, employed multiple strategies, and recognized at least some of the principles of effective health promotion. Most programs reported a systematic evaluation. However, many programs did not involve participants in planning, intervene to change underlying social causes, last more than a year, or tailor for the subpopulations they targeted, limiting their potential effectiveness. Few programs addressed the unique characteristics of urban communities.

  13. Drawing on Wisdom from the Past: An Elder Abuse Intervention with Tribal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holkup, Patricia A.; Salois, Emily Matt; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Weinert, Clarann

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Family Care Conference (FCC) is an elder-focused, family-centered, community-based intervention for the prevention and mitigation of elder abuse. It is based on a family conference intervention developed by the Maori people of New Zealand, who determined that Western European ways of working with child welfare issues were undermining…

  14. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  15. Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Magyari, Trish; Langenberg, Patricia; Chesney, Margaret; Berman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse participated in a pilot study comprising an 8-week mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction (MBSR) program and daily home practice of mindfulness skills. Three refresher classes were provided through final follow-up at 24 weeks. Assessments of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and mindfulness, were conducted at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks. At 8 weeks, depressive symptoms were reduced by 65%. Statistically significant improvements were observed in all outcomes post-MBSR, with effect sizes above 1.0. Improvements were largely sustained until 24 weeks. Of three PTSD symptom criteria, symptoms of avoidance/numbing were most greatly reduced. Compliance to class attendance and home practice was high, with the intervention proving safe and acceptable to participants. These results warrant further investigation of the MBSR approach in a randomized, controlled trial in this patient population.

  16. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  17. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  18. The prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Implications from etiological, developmental, behavioral, and environmental models.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Murray, D M

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the contributions of varying theoretical models for the development of more effective drug abuse prevention programs. Etiological research is emphasized because of its direct application to prevention interventions. This research includes etiological work on stages of development, socialization and selection, self-esteem, antisocial behavior, distribution of consumption, problem behavior, domain theory, and learning theory. Developmental, behavioral, and environmental models refine the actual intervention development. Implications from this research for further, necessary etiological work for improving prevention programs are proposed.

  19. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Shafil, M; Lavely, R; Jaffe, R

    1975-09-01

    The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N equals 126) and a matched control group (N equals 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than 2 years reported discontinuation within the first 6 months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus 1 percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.

  20. Methodological issues in workplace substance abuse prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hersch, R K; Cook, R F; Deitz, D K; Trudeau, J V

    2000-05-01

    Substance abuse among working adults represents billions of dollars in preventable health care costs and industry financial loss. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and test effective substance abuse prevention programs for the workplace. However, applied workplace substance abuse prevention research is fraught with numerous methodological challenges. This article highlights a number of these challenges, which include (1) reaching a broad audience with prevention messages, (2) handling the concerns of the employer, (3) collecting substance use data in the workplace, (4) accessing and using records-based data, and (5) linking survey and records-based data. Using examples from the authors' ongoing research assessing a workplace health promotion and substance abuse prevention program, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the authors address these challenges.

  1. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  2. Systemic Interventions in the Treatment of Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earles, Jay E.

    The widespread problem of substance abuse negatively affects users and their families. This paper provides a methodological review of empirical studies that focused on systemic interventions (particularly marital and family therapy) in the treatment of substance abuse. The articles examined here focused on engaging the addict in treatment,…

  3. Child Abuse Intervention: Conflicts in Current Practice and Legal Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    Recent litigation of child abuse cases indicates that two contradictory policies compete for court approval. One policy would reduce the amount of intervention into abusive families on grounds of privacy. The other seeks to maintain and expand channels of investigation and treatment. Journal Availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. 1304,…

  4. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  5. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  6. Developmentally Appropriate Criteria for Evaluating Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Nancy S.; Wright, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    Proposes using a developmentally appropriate practice framework to determine if a sexual abuse prevention program takes into consideration the unique learning abilities of preschool children. Reviews definition of and statistics related to sexual abuse. Compares appropriate and inappropriate teaching practices in child sexual abuse prevention…

  7. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  8. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  9. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  10. Detecting elder abuse and neglect: assessment and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Robert M; Polson, Michol

    2014-03-15

    Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is expected to increase. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence that screening for elder abuse reduces harm, physicians in most states have professional and legal obligations to appropriately diagnose, report, and refer persons who have been abused. Screening or systematic inquiry can detect abuse. A detailed medical evaluation of patients suspected of being abused is necessary because medical and psychiatric conditions can mimic abuse. Signs of abuse may include specific patterns of injury. Interviewing patients and caregivers separately is helpful. Evaluation for possible abuse should include assessment of cognitive function. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index is validated to screen for abuse in cognitively intact patients. A more detailed two-step process is used to screen patients with cognitive impairment. The National Center on Elder Abuse website provides detailed, state-specific reporting and resource information for family physicians.

  11. Special Considerations for Substance Abuse Intervention with Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…

  12. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  13. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  14. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  15. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  16. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  17. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  18. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  19. "A 28-Day Program Ain't Helping the Crack Smoker" -- Perceptions of Effective Drug Abuse Prevention Interventions by North Central Florida African Americans Who Use Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma J.; Hill, Mary Angelique; Giroux, Stacey A.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine is a major problem in the rural South, but knowledge is limited regarding the impact on African American populations. Purpose: This study of 18-39-year-old black drug users assessed perceptions of contributing factors to drug use and possible interventions. The study design was qualitative-descriptive, utilizing 4 focus groups with 5 rural…

  20. Interagency Intervention with Perinatal Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Michael; Tilton-Durfee, Deanne

    1990-01-01

    The lack of agreement on the nature and extent of the problem of prenatal exposure to substances is discussed. Comprehensive coordination of services is called for. The 14 programs in the Los Angeles County Interagency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN) are discussed. (GH)

  1. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...

  2. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  3. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  4. The Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program: A Mental Health-Law Enforcement Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Schlessinger, Kari M.; DiCicco, Tina M.; Anzalone, William F.; Leslie, Tricia L.; George, John A.; Werder, Edward J.; Massey, Larry L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study provides preliminary data concerning the efficacy of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program, a collaborative effort involving mental health and law enforcement. ADAPT is a multi-component, cognitive-behavioral outpatient intervention serving children and youth referred directly from local police…

  5. Methodology for Evaluating an Adaptation of Evidence-Based Drug Abuse Prevention in Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Laura M.; Steiker, Lori K. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth an innovative methodological protocol for culturally grounding interventions with high-risk youths in alternative schools. This study used mixed methods to evaluate original and adapted versions of a culturally grounded substance abuse prevention program. The qualitative and quantitative methods…

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  7. Drug abuse treatment as AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, D S; Navaline, H; Woody, G E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among drug users enters its third decade in the United States, it is important to consider the role playing by substance abuse treatment in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The authors review the research literature, examining findings from studies with behavioral and serologic measures on the association among treatment participation, HIV risk reduction, and HIV infection. RESULTS: Numerous studies have now documented that significantly lower rates of drug use and related risk behaviors are practiced by injecting drug users (IDUs) who are in treatment. Importantly, these behavioral differences, based primarily on self-report, are consistent with studies that have examined HIV seroprevalence and seroincidence among drug users. CONCLUSION: The underlying mechanism of action suggested by the collective findings of the available literature is rather simple-- individuals who enter and remain in treatment reduce their drug use, when leads to fewer instances of drug-related risk behavior. This lower rate of exposure results in fewer infections with HIV. The protective effects of treatment, however, can only be achieved when programs are accessible and responsive to the changing needs of drug users. Future research needs to be directed at developing a better understanding of the factors that enhance treatment entry and retention. PMID:9722815

  8. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  9. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  10. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  11. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  12. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  13. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  14. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  15. Treatment of child abuse: a review of the behavioral interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, C D

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse. Burgess (1978) believes that conceptual problems exist because abuse falls along a continuum of parent-child relationships--a continuum that at one end might include verbal punishment (e.g., threats, ridicule) or milder forms of physical punishment (e.g., slap on the hand, spanking), and at the other end include extreme forms of physical punishment that exceed community mores (for example, hitting a child with a closed fist, scalding a child in hot water, torturing or killing a child). Thus, the question-- where does discipline stop and abuse begin?-- faces every researcher who must operationally define abuse. Identifying the consequences of abuse in a child's development is another area of inquiry that remains untreated. Most of the literature is filled with the subjective impressions of professionals speculating that abused children become the juvenile delinquents and the child abusers of the future; however, as yet no longitudinal studies have been conducted that compare the developmental outcomes of abused and non-abused children from early childhood to later adulthood. What if there were no differences? How might this influence our approaches to the treatment of abuse? Answers to these and other questions will take years of study. Increased awareness of the problem of child abuse has led to greater efforts to remediate the problem. Treatment efforts with abusive families are still in the initial stages, but, undoubtedly, information from these early programs can be the

  16. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  17. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  18. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  19. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Seth M.; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed. PMID:22519523

  20. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  1. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  2. An Intervention in Classroom Gender Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Deirdre; Long, Nicholas

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a female student who was harassed by a male peer broke free of the victim role. Includes background information of this "Manipulation of Body Boundaries" crisis. Interview with the 12-year-old girl reflects the six stages of "Life Space Crisis Intervention," through which she learned strategies to resist provocation. (LSR)

  3. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  4. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  5. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  6. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  7. Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.

  8. Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? Issues in policy, programming and research.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J

    1986-01-01

    Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? As the field of child abuse and neglect prevention matures intellectually and as more and more agencies require evaluative research to substantiate claims of programmatic success, this issue is emerging with ever growing vigor. This paper reviews efforts to set prevention goals in the United States, e.g., by the federal government's Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and by the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. For such goal setting to be defensible and socially productive, it must be linked to a research base. This research base is growing and maturing. The home health visitor concept, in particular, has received clear and powerful support as a preventive strategy. However, many issues remain concerning other strategies. Of equal or greater importance are the many difficulties we face in documenting base rates of maltreatment with which to assess the impact of preventive interventions. Questions remain about the adequacy of infant mortality data, child injury rates, and the validity of officially reported cases of child maltreatment. The paper reviews the data available to clarify and resolve these issues, and outlines a strategy for assessing success of efforts to reduce severity and incidence of child abuse in the United States. These efforts are presented in the context of a series of principles regarding child abuse prevention, e.g., the difference between prevention linked to broad social and economic reforms versus preventive programming targeted at ameliorating the lives of high-risk families in the absence of broad socioeconomic change.

  9. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  10. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  11. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  12. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  13. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given.

  14. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug...

  15. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  16. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  17. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug...

  18. Adolescent health-risk sexual behaviors: effects of a drug abuse intervention.

    PubMed

    Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Waldron, Holly B; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W; Brody, Janet L; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk. PMID:21833690

  19. Adolescent Health-Risk Sexual Behaviors: Effects of a Drug Abuse Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk. PMID:21833690

  20. Adolescent health-risk sexual behaviors: effects of a drug abuse intervention.

    PubMed

    Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J; Waldron, Holly B; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W; Brody, Janet L; Barrera, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  2. Prevent elder abuse--using a family systems approach.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G P

    1989-03-01

    1. Family stressors occur when the adult child is caregiver for an elderly parent, particularly when care is intensive or protracted. Under certain circumstances of high risk, severe and unresolved strains in intergenerational relationships can develop into elder abuse. 2. Elder abuse is a non-accidental act or omission that causes physical, psychological, or financial harm to an older person. 3. Using a family systems perspective, an original validated instrument is presented that evaluates the risk of elder abuse in the home (REAH). Using this instrument, the nurse can construct two profiles of 1) the older person, including personal data and dependency needs, and 2) the caregiver, including personal data and family dynamics. 4. The instrument provides a simple method for recognizing family strains and noting changes over time within the family system. Appropriate interventions and referrals can be initiated that may avert the crisis of elder abuse. PMID:2926101

  3. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden. PMID:17890200

  4. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden.

  5. Identification of structural interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention: the concept mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Collins, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Structural interventions have been defined as those prevention interventions that include physical, social, cultural, organizational, community, economic, legal, and policy factors. In an effort to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a project that involved asking experts in HIV prevention and other areas of public health-including injury and violence prevention, tobacco control, drug abuse, and nutrition-to provide input on the identification of structural interventions based on the aforementioned definition. The process resulted in a list of 123 interventions that met the definition. The experts were asked to group these interventions into categories based on similarity of ideas. They were also asked to rate these interventions in terms of impact they would have, if implemented, on reducing HIV transmission. The findings highlight the need for conducting further research on structural interventions, including feasibility of implementation and effectiveness of reducing HIV transmission risks. PMID:22043093

  6. Interventions targeting substance abuse among women survivors of intimate partner abuse: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Dawnovise N; Faulkner, Monica

    2011-12-01

    In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population.

  7. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  8. An STD/HIV prevention intervention framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Scribner, R

    2000-01-01

    Historically, interventions to prevent STD/HIV transmission have been categorized by program methodology rather than defining the content and nature of the intervention. A new taxonomy is needed to help expand the scope of interventions that can be used to prevent STD and HIV transmission. The taxonomy defines two major types of interventions, individual-level and structural level. The former targets risk factors attributable to individuals. Structural interventions target conditions outside the control of the individual. Individual-level interventions focus on counseling, screening, and treatment. They include psychological and biological interventions. Structural-level interventions address accessibility of relevant consumer products (condoms, needles), physical structures (e.g. blighted and abandoned housing, lighting, design of social facilities), social structures (policies that facilitate or constrain behaviors such as supervision of youth, and enforcement of alcohol beverage laws); and media messages (messages and images in the broadcast and print media that portray high-risk behaviors as positive and without serious consequences). A new taxonomy not only clarifies the content of preventive interventions but highlights neglected strategies involving individual biological interventions and structural interventions to prevent STD/HIV transmission.

  9. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  10. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse...

  11. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  12. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  13. Another Look at Sexual Abuse Prevention for Young Children: A Revised Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Susan; Sippel, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the revision of "Let's Talk about Touching," a child sexual abuse prevention program widely used in early childhood and kindergarten programs in British Columbia since 1986. Describes the program as comprised of a manual providing information about sexual abuse, information on the teacher's role, detailed lesson plans, family information…

  14. Adulthood Animal Abuse among Women Court-Referred to Batterer Intervention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Zucosky, Heather C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Andersen, Shawna M.; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The substantial increase in the enrollment of women in batterer intervention programs (BIPs) over the past thirty years has greatly outpaced research on women who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, it is unknown whether existing programs, which were originally designed to treat male perpetrators, are effective at preventing recidivism among women. Recent research shows that men who perpetrate IPV may also aggress against non-intimate partners, children, and animals, and that the reach of their aggressive tendencies has implications for treatment. Conducting similar investigations on women who perpetrate IPV may help to inform treatment delivery in BIPs. This study examined the prevalence of adulthood animal abuse perpetration and its association with psychological and physical IPV perpetration in a sample of women arrested for domestic violence (N= 87). Seventeen percent (n= 15) of the women committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 0.28% prevalence rate reported in the general population. The overrepresentation of animal abuse in this sample was consistent with that of men arrested for domestic violence. Further, women who reported committing animal abuse as an adult showed moderately higher rates of psychological aggression and physical assault perpetration against their partners, relative to women who did not report animal abuse. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22550142

  15. Adulthood animal abuse among women court-referred to batterer intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zucosky, Heather C; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Bucossi, Meggan M; Andersen, Shawna M; Schonbrun, Yael C; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-10-01

    The substantial increase in the enrollment of women in batterer intervention programs (BIPs) over the past 30 years has greatly outpaced research on women who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, it is unknown whether existing programs, which were originally designed to treat male perpetrators, are effective at preventing recidivism among women. Recent research shows that men who perpetrate IPV may also aggress against nonintimate partners, children, and animals, and that the reach of their aggressive tendencies has implications for treatment. Conducting similar investigations on women who perpetrate IPV may help to inform treatment delivery in BIPs. This study examined the prevalence of adulthood animal abuse perpetration and its association with psychological and physical IPV perpetration in a sample of women arrested for domestic violence (N = 87). Seventeen percent (n = 15) of the women committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 0.28% prevalence rate reported in the general population. The overrepresentation of animal abuse in this sample was consistent with that of men arrested for domestic violence. Furthermore, women who reported committing animal abuse as an adult showed moderately higher rates of psychological aggression and physical assault perpetration against their partners, relative to women who did not report animal abuse. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Introduction to the special issue on the impact of childhood psychopathology interventions on subsequent substance abuse: pieces of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Meyer D

    2002-12-01

    Studies of adolescents and adults have reported high levels of co-occurrence of substance abuse with other psychiatric disorders, suggesting influence between the conditions. The comorbidity seems complex and variable, indicating that there may be more than I type of association between the comorbid disorders. When occurring in childhood. some of the frequently comorbid psychopathologies typically precede later drug and alcohol abuse and may have implications for substance abuse prevention as early risk indicators and as targets for intervention. Research discussed in this article and in this special issue provides a foundation for investigating the question of whether effective treatment of childhood psychopathologies can prevent or at least mitigate substance abuse for some adolescents. Clinical, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:12472297

  17. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  18. Minority Families Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Carmen P.

    The main purpose of Avance-San Antonio, Inc. is to strengthen and support families, especially "high risk" Mexican American families, and to help to prevent child abuse and neglect through parenting education services. Avance actively reaches out to the Hispanic population in their own neighborhoods through door-to-door recruiting, flyers, and…

  19. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  20. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  2. Guidelines for School Programs in the Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This publication is intended as an initial effort by the New York state education department to provide pragmatic and realistic suggestions for the development by schools of successful drug abuse prevention programs. The information provided covers: (1) the nature of the problem; (2) present school district policies and procedures; (3) program…

  3. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8318 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound...

  4. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  5. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  6. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon; Britner, Preston A.; Woolard, Jennifer L.

    In 1993, the Community Research Group (CRG) at the University of Virginia was provided the opportunity to gather systematic information on parent education and family support programs for the prevention of abuse and neglect throughout Virginia. Based on the group's research into 25 distinct parenting programs, this book outlines an empowering…

  7. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  8. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  9. Child abuse and dental neglect: the dental team's role in identification and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, Mm; Montagna, F; Marcario, V; De Rosa, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2009-05-01

    Health, education and social services are placing increasing emphasis on preventing abuse and neglect by early intervention to support families where children and young people may be at risk. Dental hygienist and dental assistants, like all other health professionals, can have a part in recognizing and preventing children from those who would cause them harm. They should be aware of the warning signs, recognizing what to consider as abuse or dental neglect and know how to deal with these young patients, and to fulfil their legal and ethical obligation to report suspected cases. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and dental neglect thus helping the dental team in detecting such conditions. In particular, this report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, early childhood caries and diseases that may be indicative of child abuse or neglect. Emphasis is placed on an appropriate protocol to follow in the dental practice to best treat and protect children who may have suffered abuse, helping the team in the diagnosis and documentation. PMID:19413546

  10. Use of Brief Interventions for Drug Abusing Teenagers within a Middle and High School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Leitten, Willa; Wagner, Eric; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Promising and encouraging results have been recently reported on the use of briefer interventions for adolescent drug abusers. Because middle- and high-school-based drug abuse intervention programs have grown in popularity over the past several decades, the use of brief interventions (BIs) in school settings merits consideration.…

  11. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and

  12. Group psychotherapy with sexually abused boys: dynamics in interventions.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, K; Adams, C

    1997-01-01

    Group psychotherapy is an important component of treatment of sexually abused children. The purpose of this article is to add to our understanding of the unique dynamics and some of the challenges encountered during the course of group treatment with this population. Specifically the dynamics of a traumatic experience (i.e., loss of power and helplessness in a context of dependency) and the accompanying defensive responses (i.e., identification with the aggressor, denial, splitting, projection, emotional isolation, and dissociation) are examined in the context of group process. The process of one group is described to detail the themes, issues, and interventions used in each phase of treatment. PMID:9069665

  13. Prevention of construction falls by organizational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P; Fullen, M; Akladios, M; Hobbs, G

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Determine if a university based (third party) intervention can improve construction contractor organizational performance to increase use of fall prevention practices and technologies. Setting—Falls are the leading cause of worker injury and death in the construction industry. Equipment and practices that can prevent falls are often not used appropriately in the dynamic construction work environment. Methods—A contractual partnership between a university and construction contractors created management systems to ensure use of fall protection measures. Audits by university faculty provided accountability for implementing the fall prevention system. Evaluation was conducted by quasiexperimental methodology comparing changes in audit score from baseline to fifth quarter from baseline for intervention and control contractors. Results—Audit scores improvement was greater for intervention than for control contractor group. Conclusion—A third party intervention can improve contractor fall prevention performance. PMID:11565975

  14. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  15. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible.

  16. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible. PMID:17296002

  17. Come Closer around the Fire. Using Tribal Legends, Myths, and Stories in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Multicultural Awareness, Arlington, VA.

    Intended for people working in drug abuse prevention or trying to help American Indian youth feel pride in themselves and their culture, the booklet provides specific guidelines on how to use tribal stories in preventing drug abuse. Following a brief introduction to drug abuse problems and prevention strategies, the booklet explains three kinds of…

  18. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the Web conference... Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB) on May 3 and 4, 2011. A portion of the... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  19. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  20. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given for the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Health Services, Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, National Advisory Council....

  1. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug Testing Advisory Board. Dates/Time/Type: August...

  2. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given for the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... and Mental Health Services; Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention National...

  3. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP... Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention National Advisory Council. Date/Time/Type: June 9, 2010,...

  4. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing Advisory Board. Dates/Time/Type: September...

  5. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the...

  6. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  7. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  8. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  9. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  10. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  11. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  12. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  13. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  14. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  15. Culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban Native youth.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Solis; Plasencia, Ana Vanesa

    2005-09-01

    This article will examine HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention for urban Native youth in Oakland, California. It will highlight the Native American Health Center's Youth Services programs. These programs incorporate solutions based on a traditional value system rooted in Native culture and consisting of youth empowerment, leadership training, prevention activities, traditional cultural activities and wellness and life skills education. They aim to reduce HIV/AIDS and substance abuse risk for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth through structured, community-based interventions. The Youth Services Program's events, such as the Seventh Native American Generation and the Gathering of Native Americans, offer effective and culturally relevant ways of teaching youth about American Indian/Alaska Native history, intergenerational trauma, and traditional Native culture. Satisfaction surveys gathered from these youth provide invaluable data on the positive effects of these prevention efforts. The need for culturally relevant and culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is apparent. These prevention efforts must be creatively integrated into the multidimensional and complex social structures of Native American youth.

  16. Interventions to Reduce Drug Abuse in Pars Special Economic Energy Zone

    PubMed Central

    Damari, Behzad; Ahmadi Pishkuhi, Mahin; Masoudiasl, Irvan; Bostanmanesh, Golamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Pars special economic energy zone is the world's second largest gas reservoir that was established two decades ago. High incidence of social harms is observed in this region due to various problems such as drug addiction which is of high prevalence. Objectives: The current study aimed at finding the strategies to prevent drug abuse and formulating policies in the region. Materials and Methods: The research method was a combination of nested type (qualitative-quantitative) and analysis of participated stakeholders’ views. The study was conducted from January 2014 to May 2015 in Bushehr province. Intentional sampling was used in qualitative section. Collected data were classified in 3 areas: recognition, directions, and implementation requirements. Results: Different factors were identified affecting the prevalence of drug addiction. Various prevention and treatment interventions have been conducted in response to drug abuse in the region, though they have been often sectional, insular, inconsistent, and immeasurable in terms of impact. After the study, a combination of compulsory, facilitative, and promotional interventions was proposed to reduce drug abuse by 10% within a strategic 5-year plan. These interventions are based on 3 aspects: people, industry, and governance, which have been announced and approved based on a memorandum of understanding. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement simultaneous national interventions as soon as possible to improve the economic, social, political, technological, international, and environmental conditions. In the current study, unlike the previous attempts, national stakeholders, including ministry of petroleum, ministry of health and medical education, interior ministry, ministry of cooperatives, labor, and social welfare, and Iran drug control headquarters have played active roles. This fact is evident in their formulation of a policy document in the region and action plan after reaching a memorandum of

  17. Shifting perspectives: culturally responsive interventions with latino substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Miguel E; Curry, Shannon J

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, there were 35 million Latinos living in the United States. It is estimated that by 2050 Latinos will comprise 97 million people in the United States, or one-fourth of the U.S. population, establishing this ethnic group as the fastest growing and soon to be largest in the country (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 ). These numbers highlight the need for a multicultural paradigm shift, or the inclusion of culture-specific skills and culturally responsive interventions in psychological practice. Latinos face challenges as a racial/ethnic group that the traditional Euro-American model of treatment neither addresses nor validates. Unfortunately, substance abuse serves a purposeful function for many Latinos as a means of escape from the problems related to the social, environmental, and political structures. The current article adapts the model set forth by Parham ( 2002 ) as a strength-based therapeutic framework for intervention. The following stages are outlined to serve as the basis for most therapeutic encounters with clients from all racial and ethnic groups presenting with substance abuse problems: therapeutic alliance building, culturally appropriate assessment, sociopolitical awareness and liberation, creating collaborative change, and addressing sustainability of change. PMID:25985072

  18. Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims…

  19. Early Intervention To Prevent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    2000-01-01

    This publication summarizes five works exploring the key role schools can play in dealing with emotionally disturbed students, in part because teachers are more reliable sources of information about troubled youths. The importance of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills is analyzed in "Preventing Violence the Problem Solving Way"…

  20. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Intervention: An Exploratory Study of Policy Concerns and Implications for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser-Stuart, Joan E.; Skibinski, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines public opinion regarding intervention options for intrafamilial child sexual abuse offenders, victims, and families. Investigates the public's willingness to support strategies of victim protection, offender control, and treatment services. Respondents generally supported established, adversarial intervention strategies, and had mixed…

  2. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  3. Evidence-Based Interventions for Preventing Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Substantial progress has been made in developing prevention programs for adolescent drug abuse. The most effective interventions target salient risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and/or community levels and are guided by relevant psychosocial theories regarding the etiology of substance use and abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology, etiologic risk and protective factors, and evidence-based approaches that have been found to be most effective in preventing adolescent substance use and abuse. Exemplary school and family-based prevention programs for universal (everyone in population), selected (members of at-risk groups), and indicated (at-risk individuals) target populations are reviewed, along with model community-based prevention approaches. Challenges remain in widely disseminating evidence-based prevention programs into schools, families, and communities. PMID:20682218

  4. Study: interventions help prevent readmissions.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    In a study by the Bronx Collaborative, patients who received two or more interventions by a dedicated care transition manager had a 17.6% readmission rate compared to a rate of 26.3% for patients who received the current standard of care. Three hospital systems and two health plans collaborated to develop the pilot project. Care transition managers, whose only job was facilitating transitions, visited patients in the hospital and followed up within 48 hours after discharge and again 14 days after discharge. The care transition managers educated the patients on their treatment plan, gave them a personalized booklet with details of their treatment plan, and followed up to answer questions and concerns and make sure they were following the plan. PMID:24032138

  5. Outpatient Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Quality of Evidence Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous reviews of outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse have been limited in the extent to which they considered the methodological quality of individual studies. The authors assessed 31 randomized trials of outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse on 14 attributes of trial quality. A quality of evidence score…

  6. Effectiveness of Skill-Based Substance Abuse Intervention among Male Adolescents in an Islamic Country: Case of the Islamic Republic of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Hidarnia, Alireza; Bashirian, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents from low- and middle-income countries is increasing drastically and requires immediate intervention. The objective of this longitudinal quasi-experimental panel study was to design and implement a skill-based intervention to prevent and reduce substance use among urban adolescents who attended 2…

  7. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  8. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  9. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  10. The Abuse Intervention Model: A Pragmatic Approach to Intervention for Elder Mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Gironda, Melanie W; Moore, Alison A; Robinson, Jehni; Olsen, Bonnie

    2016-09-01

    Ten percent of older adults experience elder mistreatment, and it is much more common in older adults with dementia. It is associated with higher rates of psychological distress, hospitalization, and death and, in the United States, costs billions of dollars each year. Although elder mistreatment is relatively common and costly, it is estimated that fewer than 10% of instances of elder mistreatment are reported. Given these data, there is a great need for research on interventions to mitigate elder mistreatment and for a practical model or framework to use in approaching such interventions. Although many theories have been proposed, adapted, and applied to understand elder mistreatment, there has not been a simple, coherent framework of known risk factors of the victim, perpetrator, and environment that applies to all types of abuse. This article presents a new model to examine the multidimensional and complex relationships between risk factors. Theories of elder mistreatment, research on risk factors for elder mistreatment, and 10 years of experience of faculty and staff at an Elder Abuse Forensics Center who have investigated more than 1,000 cases of elder mistreatment inform this model. It is hoped that this model, the Abuse Intervention Model, will be used to study and intervene in elder mistreatment. PMID:27550723

  11. The Ability of Elementary School Children to Learn Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutty, Leslie M.

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…

  12. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  13. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  14. 3 CFR 8791 - Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8791 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8791 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President of the... Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support... a million American children suffer neglect or abuse every year. A strong and well-informed...

  15. Emotional Abuse in the Classroom: Implications and Interventions for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional abuse of students by teachers is a topic infrequently discussed in the child abuse literature. In some classrooms, it can be a daily occurrence. This article defines emotional abuse and discusses the types of classroom behaviors teachers may demonstrate that are emotionally abusive to students. The role of school-based counselors in the…

  16. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  17. Malaise, motivation and motherhood: predictors of engagement in behavioral interventions from a randomized controlled trial for HIV+ women in drug abuse recovery.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Victoria B; Feaster, Daniel J; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi S; McCabe, Brian E

    2011-02-01

    Drug abuse has serious consequences for the wellbeing of persons with HIV/AIDS but suboptimal rates of client engagement limit the efficacy of interventions. The present study examines and compares client characteristics that predicted engagement (defined as attendance at two or more sessions) in a family intervention (SET) and a group intervention within a randomized trial aimed at preventing relapse and improving medication adherence for 126 predominantly African American HIV+ women in drug abuse recovery. Intervention engagement (60% overall) was not significantly different across the two interventions. Fewer physical and mental symptoms (malaise) (P < 0.05), living independently (P < 0.05), living with children (P < 0.05), and readiness to change (P < 0.05) were associated with engagement across the two interventions. Results from this study can be used to inform outreach and engagement approaches for women dually affected by drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. PMID:20512409

  18. Malaise, Motivation and Motherhood: Predictors of Engagement in Behavioral Interventions from a Randomized Controlled Trial for HIV+ Women in Drug Abuse Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Daniel J.; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi S.; McCabe, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse has serious consequences for the wellbeing of persons with HIV/AIDS but suboptimal rates of client engagement limit the efficacy of interventions. The present study examines and compares client characteristics that predicted engagement (defined as attendance at two or more sessions) in a family intervention (SET) and a group intervention within a randomized trial aimed at preventing relapse and improving medication adherence for 126 predominantly African American HIV+ women in drug abuse recovery. Intervention engagement (60% overall) was not significantly different across the two interventions. Fewer physical and mental symptoms (malaise) (P < 0.05), living independently (P < 0.05), living with children (P < 0.05), and readiness to change (P < 0.05) were associated with engagement across the two interventions. Results from this study can be used to inform outreach and engagement approaches for women dually affected by drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. PMID:20512409

  19. Online security and cyberbystander relations in mobilizing sex abuse intervention.

    PubMed

    Palasinski, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Two studies examined men's interventions in a virtual reality situation involving child grooming. In Study 1, 92 men observed an online encounter between an apparent minor and a sex offender. The results suggest that the bystander effect was stronger under computerized rather than user-assisted surveillance, and when the fellow cyberbystander was unknown rather than known. In Study 2, where 100 men observed the same encounter, the effect also emerged under computerized surveillance as long as the number unknown cyberbystanders was increased. Thus, vesting more responsibility for security in the average netizen rather than just in the automated abuse-detection technology is cautiously suggested, the relevance of which lies in increasing minors' health and safety. PMID:22891609

  20. Preventing substance abuse: the state of the art.

    PubMed Central

    Durell, J; Bukoski, W

    1984-01-01

    While drug abuse among adolescents and young adults has begun to decline from the epidemic levels of the late 1970s, it remains a serious national health problem. Much information from research suggests that young people at the junior and senior high school levels are the most vulnerable to the social pressures that lead to experimental and then regular use of psychoactive substances. Well-designed prevention programs for youngsters in these age groups have the potential to prevent the onset and development of regular drug use. Primary prevention strategies developed over the past two decades--media campaigns, school drug education programs, and "generic" programs--are reviewed, and evaluative research is discussed. The authors describe two additional prevention approaches--the "macro" approach (creating a climate of nondrug use) and positive peer pressure strategies--for which early data suggest genuine promise for the future. PMID:6422491

  1. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  2. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  3. Preventive involvement in child abuse and neglect by general pediatrician in a military community.

    PubMed

    Brown, G W

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three cases among nineteen troubled families of U.S. Coast Guard personnel with problems of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii were managed by joint U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Army, State and County child protection, social and health staff, and local and area-wide lay volunteers. These cases ranged from inaccurate accusations in an emergency room to abdominal gunshot wounds. The preventive role of primary pediatric involvement in community health areas such as pre-school, day care, prenatal infant care education, parent discussion groups, and lay therapists is stressed. The early intervention therapy of pediatric advocacy for social and psychological services to families in stress is emphasized. Continued pediatric leadership for prevention and early intervention is essential in our times of pervasive family breakdown.

  4. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  5. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C.; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  6. Bullying in Middle Schools: Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Gallo, Laura L.

    2006-01-01

    A main characteristic of a bully is his or her need to gain control over another. Bullies can gain control over others through physical force or threats, verbal teasing, and exclusion from peers. This article talks about bullying in United States middle schools, and prevention and intervention strategies for bullying. In this article, the authors…

  7. Community-based Injury Prevention Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Terry P.; MacKay, J. Morag; Moher, David; Walker, Annie; Jones, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed 32 studies that evaluated the impact of community-based injury prevention efforts on childhood injuries, safety behaviors, and adoption of safety devices. Interventions targeted schools, municipalities, and cities. This approach effectively increased some safety practices (e.g, bicycle helmet and car seat use) but not others. Common…

  8. Strategies for Crises Prevention/Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Glen R.

    Crises intervention and prevention techniques developed by the Echo Glen Children's Center school in Washington are listed here, along with a description of climate improvement and problem-solving methods developed by the school's staff. The students in this special residential school are emotionally disturbed or socially maladjusted delinquent…

  9. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Interventions and Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    Widespread concern about teenage childbearing led to the establishment of numerous intervention programs throughout the United States during the 1980s. Nevertheless, between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s, the teen birth rate rose in every state. This volume examines numerous prevention programs and makes recommendations for establishing…

  10. An integrated model for prevention and treatment of drug abuse among American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F

    1992-01-01

    American Indian youth have been shown to be at high risk for drug abuse. Epidemiological studies of Indian school students over the past two decades have revealed rates of use consistently higher than those found for other youth. Socioeconomic and historical factors have led to conditions that put a great deal of stress on the family and other support systems which in part account for the seriousness of the problem. A model is presented which can guide both prevention and treatment efforts addressing drug abuse in Indian communities. Five variable domains, social structure, socialization factors, psychological variables, peer associations and drug use, are related in an integrated structure. By following the progression of the etiological variables, a stepwise plan can be developed to organize interventions. Although the model has immediate utility, a number of further research questions are outlined that will enhance its application.

  11. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  12. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  13. After Abuse: Child Coping Patterns and Social Work Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.

    The hypothesis that abused children develop a life style of overt expression of aggression and depression was examined in a study of 56 physically abused first grade children who were placed in foster care due to parental physical abuse. As no test instrument existed, the Childhood Social Functioning Inventory was developed, pretested, and used to…

  14. Interventions to prevent overweight in children.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Danielzik, S; Landsberg, B; Pust, S

    2006-07-01

    There are only few controlled studies on prevention of overweight in children and adolescence. These studies differ with respect to strategy, setting, duration, focus, variables of outcome and statistical power. Universal and school-based interventions show some improvement of health knowledge and health-related behaviours but they have only minor or no effects on nutritional status. However they reduce the incidence of overweight. The effects seem to be more pronounced in girls than in boys. Children of middle and high class as well as children with intact families benefit better from intervention than children with low socioeconomic status. Selected prevention in overweight children was most successful when children were treated together with their parents. However there are social barriers limiting the success. Simple interventions in a single area are unlikely to work on their own. The development of effective preventive interventions likely require strategies that affect multiple settings simultaneously. At present there is no concerted action but many strategies are followed in isolation. There is need for national campaigns and action plans on childhood overweight and obesity. It is tempting to speculate that this will also increase the effects of isolated approaches.

  15. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  16. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  17. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development☆

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater

  18. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... across disciplines working to address abuse, neglect, and exploitation of elders and vulnerable adults. With members representing ... Abuse (INPEA) will host the Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation of the Elderly Interest Group Meeting on November ...

  19. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  20. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  1. Understanding a Need...Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This booklet provides an overview of alcohol and other drug abuse prevention, disability, and the relationship between the two issues. It cites the incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse among people with disabilities. It looks at alcohol and other drug abuse risk factors that are disability related, such as medication use, chronic pain,…

  2. Keeping Kids Safe: A Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson

    The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…

  3. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  4. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  5. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  6. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools.

  7. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  8. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  9. Disentangling life events, stress and social support: implications for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Howze, D C; Kotch, J B

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature linking stress and child abuse and neglect, but the relationship is not unambiguously supported by empirical data. Two considerations regarding Garbarino's ecological model of child abuse and neglect may explain this research problem. First, any of the predisposing factors, which are grouped into four levels called individual, familial, social, and cultural, may either positively or negatively affect the potential for child abuse and neglect depending upon the quality of social networks and social supports available to families. Second, these factors operate most importantly, not between the perception of stress and the act of abuse or neglect, but through the interpretation of whether a given life event is stressful or not. This clarification of the ecological model points the way to redefining interventions for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Existing support systems can be strengthened in order to increase a family's ability to cope with untoward events before these become stressful. In addition, advocacy activities which support children and families in general can be major components in the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect.

  10. Cyber Bullying Prevention: Intervention in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. Methodology/Findings The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student’s knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student’s knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. Conclusions/Significance The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted. PMID:23724018

  11. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter (< or = 6 months) rather than longer follow-up (> or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and

  12. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter (< or = 6 months) rather than longer follow-up (> or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and

  13. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  14. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  15. Early Intervention for Abused and Neglected Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Children who suffer abuse or neglect, or have parents who suffer from mental health problems (especially maternal depression), substance abuse, or family violence, have as high a probability of experiencing developmental delays as do children with medical conditions that are automatically eligible for Part C services under the Individuals with…

  16. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  17. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  18. African-American crack abusers and drug treatment initiation: barriers and effects of a pretreatment intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Zule, William A; Riehman, Kara S; Luseno, Winnie K; Lam, Wendy KK

    2007-01-01

    Background Individual and sociocultural factors may pose significant barriers for drug abusers seeking treatment, particularly for African-American crack cocaine abusers. However, there is evidence that pretreatment interventions may reduce treatment initiation barriers. This study examined the effects of a pretreatment intervention designed to enhance treatment motivation, decrease crack use, and prepare crack abusers for treatment entry. Methods Using street outreach, 443 African-American crack users were recruited in North Carolina and randomly assigned to either the pretreatment intervention or control group. Results At 3-month follow-up, both groups significantly reduced their crack use but the intervention group participants were more likely to have initiated treatment. Conclusion The intervention helped motivate change but structural barriers to treatment remained keeping actual admissions low. Policy makers may be interested in these pretreatment sites as an alternative to treatment for short term outcomes. PMID:17394653

  19. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  20. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  1. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  2. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  3. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  5. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  6. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Four. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This revised curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' affective and cognitive skills. The introductory section presents the rationale for the school-community drug abuse prevention program…

  7. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  8. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  9. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  10. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  11. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  12. Elder abuse and neglect--"old phenomenon": new directions for research, legislation, and service developments. (2008 Rosalie S. Wolf Memorial Elder Abuse Prevention Award--International Category Lecture).

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ariela

    2009-01-01

    This article poses the question: Is elder abuse and neglect a social problem, showing that it is. Elder abuse, though, is still the most hidden form of mistreatment and a key to governmental responses to an ageing population. It is an important facet as a family violence problem, an intergenerational concern, as well as a health, justice and human rights issue. Because the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect is so complex and multi-dimensional, it has to be addressed by multi-professional and inter-disciplinary approaches. Raising awareness is a fundamental prevention strategy and an important step in causing changes in attitudes and behaviors. This has been accomplished by INPEA and the article was developed from the lecture given by the author on receiving the International Rosalie Wolf Award from INPEA. The discussion focuses on elder abuse as a product of global ageing, stemming from population ageing, which is consistent with an increased prevalence of abuse of all vulnerable groups, older people among them. It is pointed out that baseline and trend data on the nature and prevalence of senior abuse are crucial to policy responses and the development of appropriate programs and services. Difficulties in assessing the scope of the phenomenon, though, are due to: problems in definitions and methodology, which create difficulties in comparing data from various countries; lack of social and familial awareness; isolation of some elders, especially migrants; elder abuse as a 'hidden issue' that usually occurs in the privacy of the home and is viewed as a family affair; limited access to institutional settings. Difficulties also exist in constructing a unifying research framework in order to study the phenomenon due to a lack of comparison groups, a lack of representative national surveys and difficulties in measurement. There is currently, however, an increase in prevalence and incidence studies from both sides of the Atlantic and especially from Europe. But while

  13. Neurocognitive skills moderate urban male adolescents' responses to preventive intervention materials.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty

    2006-03-15

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials. PMID:16154296

  14. National Institutes of Health funding for behavioral interventions to prevent chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Calitz, Chris; Pollack, Keshia M; Millard, Chris; Yach, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause the majority of premature deaths, disability, and healthcare expenditures in the U.S. Six largely modifiable risk behaviors and factors (tobacco use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and poor mental health) account for more than 50% of premature mortality and considerably more morbidity and disability. The IOM proposed that population burden of disease and preventability should be major determinants of the amount of research funding provided by the U.S. NIH. Data on NIH prevention funding between fiscal years 2010 and 2012 for human behavioral interventions that target the modifiable risk factors of NCDs were analyzed during 2013-2014. The NIH prevention portfolio comprises approximately 37% human behavioral studies and 63% basic biomedical, genetic, and animal studies. Approximately 65% of studies were secondary prevention versus 23% for primary prevention, and 71% of studies intervened at the individual and family levels. Diet and exercise were the most-studied risk factors (41%), and few studies conducted economic analyses (12%). NIH spends an estimated $2.2-$2.6 billion annually (7%-9% of the total of $30 billion) on human behavioral interventions to prevent NCDs. Although NIH prevention funding broadly aligns with the current burden of disease, overall funding remains low compared to funding for treatment, which suggests funding misalignment with the preventability of chronic diseases. PMID:25576496

  15. National Institutes of Health funding for behavioral interventions to prevent chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Calitz, Chris; Pollack, Keshia M; Millard, Chris; Yach, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause the majority of premature deaths, disability, and healthcare expenditures in the U.S. Six largely modifiable risk behaviors and factors (tobacco use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and poor mental health) account for more than 50% of premature mortality and considerably more morbidity and disability. The IOM proposed that population burden of disease and preventability should be major determinants of the amount of research funding provided by the U.S. NIH. Data on NIH prevention funding between fiscal years 2010 and 2012 for human behavioral interventions that target the modifiable risk factors of NCDs were analyzed during 2013-2014. The NIH prevention portfolio comprises approximately 37% human behavioral studies and 63% basic biomedical, genetic, and animal studies. Approximately 65% of studies were secondary prevention versus 23% for primary prevention, and 71% of studies intervened at the individual and family levels. Diet and exercise were the most-studied risk factors (41%), and few studies conducted economic analyses (12%). NIH spends an estimated $2.2-$2.6 billion annually (7%-9% of the total of $30 billion) on human behavioral interventions to prevent NCDs. Although NIH prevention funding broadly aligns with the current burden of disease, overall funding remains low compared to funding for treatment, which suggests funding misalignment with the preventability of chronic diseases.

  16. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  17. No Evidence of the Effect of the Interventions to Combat Health Care Fraud and Abuse: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Joudaki, Hossein; Vian, Taryn

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of health care fraud and the political, legislative and administrative attentions paid to it, combating fraud remains a challenge to the health systems. We aimed to identify, categorize and assess the effectiveness of the interventions to combat health care fraud and abuse. Methods The interventions to combat health care fraud can be categorized as the interventions for ‘prevention’ and ‘detection’ of fraud, and ‘response’ to fraud. We conducted sensitive search strategies on Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 1975 to 2008, and Medline from 1975–2010, and on relevant professional and organizational websites. Articles assessing the effectiveness of any intervention to combat health care fraud were eligible for inclusion in our review. We considered including the interventional studies with or without a concurrent control group. Two authors assessed the studies for inclusion, and appraised the quality of the included studies. As a limited number of studies were found, we analyzed the data using narrative synthesis. Findings The searches retrieved 2229 titles, of which 221 full-text studies were assessed. We found no studies using an RCT design. Only four original articles (from the US and Taiwan) were included: two studies within the detection category, one in the response category, one under the detection and response categories, and no studies under the prevention category. The findings suggest that data-mining may improve fraud detection, and legal interventions as well as investment in anti-fraud activities may reduce fraud. Discussion Our analysis shows a lack of evidence of effect of the interventions to combat health care fraud. Further studies using robust research methodologies are required in all aspects of dealing with health care fraud and abuse, assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methods to prevent, detect, and respond to fraud in health care. PMID:22936981

  18. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested.

  19. Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

  20. Elder abuse and neglect: detection, reporting, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T E; Boccia, A D; Strayer, M S

    2001-01-01

    Dental providers are in an excellent position to identify elder abuse and neglect (EAN), yet they are often reluctant to report or intervene in cases of suspected elder maltreatment. This problem is widespread, and the negative impact of this dilemma cannot be ignored. In 1999, the American Dental Association's House of Delegates, through Resolution 44H-1999, urged constituent dental societies to educate their members about abuse and neglect and individual states' legal reporting requirements. The American Society for Geriatric Dentistry (ASGD), responding to a need to inform its members about this issue, requested this literature review on elder abuse and neglect. This paper emphasizes the role of the dental profession in ameliorating EAN and offers ASGD members recommendations to aid individual practitioners and staff in educating and assisting the profession in recognizing and reporting EAN. PMID:11669062

  1. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  2. Effectiveness of Culturally Specific Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention: Findings from CSAP's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High Risk Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Winter, William; Sambrano, Soledad; Chipungu, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the degree to which culturally specific interventions enhance substance abuse prevention effectiveness for targeted cultural groups. A large and diverse (African American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian) sample of 10,500 youth across 48 programs was obtained. Youth participating in culturally specific programming showed…

  3. Long-Term Impact of a District-Wide School/Community-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative on Gateway Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.; Alter, Randi J.; Greene, Robert; Younoszai, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined long-term effects of a school/family/community substance abuse prevention partnership intervention lead by a Midwestern school district. Previous findings suggested that the program contributed to decreased tobacco and marijuana, but not alcohol, use prior to and after implementation between 1987 and 1991. The current study…

  4. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barth, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors-substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems-that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly focus on improving parenting skills, says Richard Barth, remains uncertain. Barth begins by describing how each of the four parental issues is related to child maltreatment. He then examines a variety of parent education interventions aimed at preventing child abuse. He cautions that many of the interventions have not been carefully evaluated and those that have been have shown little effect on child maltreatment or its risk factors. Although some argue that parent education cannot succeed unless family problems are also addressed, much evidence suggests that first helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs and improve the chances of substance abuse recovery. Barth recommends increased public support for research trials to compare the effectiveness of programs focused on parenting education and those aiming to reduce related risk factors. Child welfare services and evidence-based parent training, says Barth, are in a period of transformation. Evidence-based methods are rapidly emerging from a development phase that has primarily involved local and highly controlled studies into more national implementation and greater engagement with the child welfare system. The next step is effectiveness trials. Citing the importance and success of multifaceted campaigns in public health policy, Barth discusses a multifaceted parenting campaign that has demonstrated substantial promise in several large trials. The goal of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is to help parents deal with the full gamut of children's health and behavioral issues. The campaign includes five levels of intervention

  5. Preventive interventions for ADHD: a neurodevelopmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T

    2012-07-01

    It is proposed that the time is ripe for the development of secondary preventive interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By targeting preschool children, a developmental stage during which ADHD symptoms first become evident in most children with the disorder, many of the adverse long-term consequences that typify the trajectory of ADHD may be avoided. A dynamic/interactive model of the biological and environmental factors that contribute to the emergence and persistence of ADHD throughout the lifespan is proposed. Based on this model, it is argued that environmental influences and physical exercise can be used to enhance neural growth and development, which in turn should have an enduring and long-term impact on the trajectory of ADHD. Central to this notion are 2 hypotheses: 1) environmental influences can facilitate structural and functional brain development, and 2) changes in brain structure and function are directly related to ADHD severity over the course of development and the degree to which the disorder persists or remits with time. We present experimental and correlational data supporting the first hypothesis and longitudinal data in individuals with ADHD supporting the second. The case is made for initiating such an intervention during the preschool years, when the brain is likely to be more "plastic" and perhaps susceptible to lasting modifications, and before complicating factors, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, academic failure, and poor social and family relationships emerge, making successful treatment more difficult. Finally, we review recent studies in young children with ADHD that might fall under the umbrella of secondary prevention.

  6. Best Practices in School Crisis Prevention and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Lazarus, Philip J., Jr., Ed.; Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.

    This publication on best practices in crisis prevention and intervention is divided among the concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The introductory chapter examines crisis theory and establishes a foundation for the comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention team. It also attempts to bridge the gap between theory and…

  7. Prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims and on society. It costs states billions of dollars a year to arrest, prosecute, incarcerate, and treat juvenile offenders. Investing in successful delinquency-prevention programs can save taxpayers seven to ten dollars for every dollar invested, primarily in the form of reduced spending on prisons. According to Greenwood, researchers have identified a dozen "proven" delinquency-prevention programs. Another twenty to thirty "promising" programs are still being tested. In his article, Greenwood reviews the methods used to identify the best programs, explains how program success is measured, provides an overview of programs that work, and offers guidance on how jurisdictions can shift toward more evidence-based practices The most successful programs are those that prevent youth from engaging in delinquent behaviors in the first place. Greenwood specifically cites home-visiting programs that target pregnant teens and their at-risk infants and preschool education for at-risk children that includes home visits or work with parents. Successful school-based programs can prevent drug use, delinquency, anti-social behavior, and early school drop-out. Greenwood also discusses community-based programs that can divert first-time offenders from further encounters with the justice system. The most successful community programs emphasize family interactions and provide skills to the adults who supervise and train the child. Progress in implementing effective programs, says Greenwood, is slow. Although more than ten years of solid evidence is now available on evidence-based programs, only about 5 percent of youth who should be eligible

  8. Assertiveness training to prevent verbal abuse in the OR.

    PubMed

    Buback, Debra

    2004-01-01

    THE HIGH INCIDENCE OF VERBAL ABUSE directed toward perioperative nurses by surgeons has been the subject of recent research studies. REPEATED INCIDENTS of verbal abuse in the OR contribute to increased incidence of errors, low morale, and high turnover among nursing staff members. ASSERTIVENESS TRAINING that focuses on conflict resolution and communication skills is an effective method of coping with verbal abuse. EACH MEMBER is a vital part of the perioperative team. Any disruption to the team, including verbal abuse, can compromise patient safety. Collaboration among team members is critical to ensure safe patient outcomes. PMID:14763584

  9. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies).

  10. Hope-Focused Interventions in Substance Abuse Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; O'Neill, Linda; Sherry, John

    2012-01-01

    Hope is a vital component of psychological healing and plays a critical role in counselling. With despair so prominent for individuals with serious substance abuse problems, the question arises as to how to foster hope in such clients. There are recent suggestions in the general counselling literature that some of the work in counselling involve…

  11. Multiple Intervention Programs for the Abused and Neglected Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Morris J.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed is the need for programs directed specifically toward the treatment, study, and followup of the abused child; and outlined are the responsibilities of professionals in such areas as hospitals, schools, public health services, and law enforcement. Available from: EC 090 265. (IM)

  12. Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Warning Signs and School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, LaShonda B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…

  13. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students. PMID:26990389

  14. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  15. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project, Phase Two, Three and Four. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This document presents the final report from an educational and community development program designed to raise awareness about the abuse and neglect of the elderly. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project is briefly described in terms of project goals, objectives, the model used, the target groups served, and the evaluation processes employed. It is…

  16. Moving Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs Forward: Improving Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene; McCloskey, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen evaluations of programs to prevent child abuse and neglect are reviewed. The evaluations were characterized by careful attention to methodologic detail but lacked definitions of abuse or neglect. Important topics are omitted, such as the consequences and costs of medical neglect. (Author/JDD)

  17. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  19. Family Support Programs and the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition, Chicago, IL.

    This overview examines underlying precepts and components of family support programs. The role of the family in a child's resistance to alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse is discussed. Comprehensive prevention programs encompassing the family, school, and community have shown more promise in helping children avoid AOD abuse than programs that rely…

  20. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  1. Schools and Drugs: A Guide to Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Curricula & Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This guide to kindergarten through 12th grade drug abuse prevention curricula and programs addresses the need for thorough training of all school personnel, including teachers, counselors, nurses, administrators, and school board members. The first chapter discusses what can realistically be expected of school-based substance abuse prevention…

  2. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program: Impact in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…

  3. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance...

  4. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-462, notice is hereby given of...

  5. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  6. Primary Prevention of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma: A Cost Audit and Cost-Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter; Sharplin, Peter; Kelly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain comprehensive, reliable data on the direct cost of pediatric abusive head trauma in New Zealand, and to use this data to evaluate the possible cost-benefit of a national primary prevention program. Methods: A 5 year cohort of infants with abusive head trauma admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand was reviewed. We…

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment in Rural Communities: Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    The two reports reprinted here address prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect in rural areas through self-help programs. The larger report, that of the Appalachian Citizens for Children's Rights (ACCR) Project, describes project purposes: to develop a community development model for child abuse/neglect using resources already existing…

  8. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  9. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  10. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  11. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  12. Minority Drug Abuse Prevention: An Overview of the State of the Art. (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, John L.

    This paper describes (1) the role of the Center for Multicultural Awareness (CMA) in providing technical assistance and identifying and designing culturally relevant materials for the prevention of drug abuse among minority groups, and (2) the current status of State and local drug abuse programs in relation to minority groups. The development of…

  13. Identifying and preventing family-mediated abuse and neglect of elderly persons.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, T A; Everitt, D E; O'Malley, H C; Campion, E W

    1983-06-01

    Unexplained trauma, neglected medical problems, failure to thrive, malnutrition, and misuse of medications may be manifestations of family-mediated abuse and neglect of the non-institutionalized elderly person. Physicians frequently overlook or misdiagnose this form of family violence. Access to these persons, assessment, and intervention are facilitated by focusing on the unmet care needs of the elderly person and by moving to meet those needs. Issues of intervention can be clarified by categorizing abuse or neglect as occurring in situations in which the dependency and care needs of the elderly person are paramount or in which the pathologic behavior of the abuser is most evident. The provision of specific support services or legally mandated separation of the elderly person and the abuser can be attempted but the elderly person's right to refuse any intervention must be recognized.

  14. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  15. Elder Abuse Prevention Project - Phase I. Literature Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Lori; And Others

    This document summarizes information on elder abuse collected from various sources in Canada and the United States. It is noted that document entries are often representative of more than one source, and have been selected as each adds something new and valuable to the overall research on elder abuse. An attempt has been made to choose information…

  16. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  17. Responding Effectively to Women Experiencing Severe Abuse: Identifying Key Components of a British Advocacy Intervention.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Emma; Robinson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article presents key findings from a multisite evaluation of Independent Domestic Violence Advisor (IDVA) services--a form of intervention targeted specifically at women experiencing severe domestic abuse. Results highlight the complex lives of women accessing these services and the efforts of IDVAs to connect women with multiple community resources. Women remaining engaged with services reported positive safety outcomes. Frequency of contact with an IDVA and the number of community resources accessed were positively associated with the odds of achieving safety. These findings suggest this intervention is a promising strategy for tackling severe and complex cases of domestic abuse. PMID:26250716

  18. Drug Abuse, Relapse, and Prevention Education in Malaysia: Perspective of University Students Through a Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students’ perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed. PMID:25999867

  19. Drug abuse, relapse, and prevention education in malaysia: perspective of university students through a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students' perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed.

  20. Knowledge Gains Following a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program Among Urban Students: A Cluster-Randomized Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Sarah; Tully, Brenda A.; Hamilton, Paige; Smith, Michael J.; Freeman, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a school-based child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention program, Safe Touches, in a low–socioeconomic status, racially diverse sample. Methods. Participants were 492 second- and third-grade students at 6 public elementary schools in New York City. The study period spanned fall 2012 through summer 2014. We cluster-randomized classrooms to the Safe Touches intervention or control groups and assessed outcomes with the Children’s Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire. Hierarchical models tested change in children’s knowledge of inappropriate and appropriate touch. Results. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group on knowledge of inappropriate touch. Children in second grade and children in schools with a greater proportion of students in general (vs special) education showed greater gains than other participants in knowledge of inappropriate touch. We observed no significant change in knowledge of appropriate touch among control or intervention groups. Conclusions. Young children benefited from a school-based, 1-time CSA prevention program. Future research should explore the efficacy of CSA prevention programs with children before the second grade to determine optimal age for participation. PMID:25973809

  1. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ..., including specimen characteristics, collection, preparation, and stability; drug analytes, analyte stability... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... scientific ] supportability of the hair specimen for federal workplace drug testing, a historical...

  2. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  3. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  4. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-11-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  5. Child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting intervention preservice content preferred by student teachers.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers.

  6. Prediction and Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse: Role of Preclinical Assessment of Substance Abuse Liability.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Novak, Scott P; Blough, Bruce E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical benefit. To facilitate scheduling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published guidance for industry that describes assessment of abuse liability. The purpose of this paper is to review methods that may be used to satisfy the FDA's regulatory requirements for animal behavioral and dependence pharmacology. Methods include psychomotor activity, self-administration (an animal model of the rewarding effects of a drug), drug discrimination (an animal model of the subjective effects of a drug), and evaluation of tolerance and dependence. Data from tests conducted at RTI with known drugs of abuse illustrate typical results, and demonstrate that RTI is capable of performing these tests. While using preclinical data to predict abuse liability is an imperfect process, it has substantial predictive validity. The ultimate goal is to increase consumer safety through appropriate scheduling of new medications.

  7. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  8. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... nationwide. Through the Affordable Care Act, we expanded substance use disorder and mental health benefits... from drug and alcohol abuse. I encourage parents, schools, health officials, law enforcement... limited by substance use, which threatens health, safety, and academic performance. Substance...

  9. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8022 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... nurturing family and a safe environment, free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual,...

  10. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  11. After Abuse: Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers. FPG Snapshot. Number 54. August 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    By law each state is required to ensure that all substantiated cases of maltreated infants and toddlers are referred to Part C early intervention services. In reality, many children may not be receiving the child development services they need. Researchers have known for some time that children who have been abused are at greater risk for…

  12. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  13. Elder Abuse and Neglect: Assessment Tools, Interventions, and Recommendations for Effective Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbody, Bethany; Vandsburger, Etty

    2011-01-01

    With our communities rapidly aging, there is always a clear need for greater knowledge on how to serve elders. Professionals must be able to recognize cases of abuse and neglect and provide appropriate follow up services. Through reviewing recent literature, this paper surveys existing assessment tools and interventions, describes characteristics…

  14. Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: National Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This report provides a description of a national consultation that was undertaken in 2001-2002 to provide feedback on two companion national policy documents: "National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000" and "Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: A Monograph," and to…

  15. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Intervention Model and Primary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a…

  16. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan Was'aka, Denver,…

  17. Being real and being realistic: chemical abuse prevention, teen counselors, and an ethic of care.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, N G

    1997-01-01

    Despite the national goal of "drug-free" schools, recent data suggest that chemical abuse among school-aged children remains a concern. This qualitative case study presents a "unique case" within one school's substance abuse prevention program. In this program, pioneered in 1973, pairs of teen counselors "adopt" a middle school classroom and make regularly scheduled visits to conduct chemical abuse prevention sessions. Two of the teen counselors were perceived by both themselves and the faculty advisor as unlike other teen counselors. This study explores themes surrounding how they viewed their mission and carried it out. Two themes emerged as significant. These particular teen counselors saw both their role and their mission as being "real" and being "realistic." This perspective represents a concrete expression of the ethic of care described by Nel Noddings. It is a perspective which should be considered in developing teen counselor programs or any chemical abuse prevention program.

  18. Preventing cancer: dietary lifestyle or clinical intervention?

    PubMed

    Young, Graeme P; Le Leu, Richard K

    2002-01-01

    In Australia, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers are the most frequently occurring cancers in our society, a pattern that is quite different from that of underdeveloped countries. While diet is largely responsible for these differences, technological advances mean that the solutions can be viewed as systematic, financial, lifestyle or technological. They range from those that require self-discipline and care for personal well-being through to those that are seemingly a quick technological fix that will work in spite of an unhealthy lifestyle. There are three main approaches available for prevention of these cancers: dietary lifestyle, chemoprevention and screening. It has been estimated that the potential for prevention by a healthy dietary lifestyle is excellent and might reduce the burden of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer by 33-55%, 10-20% and 66-75%, respectively. This should be safe and inexpensive and have collateral benefit such as reduced cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. But, population compliance with more plant-based, less calorie dense foods is uncertain, the most healthy are likely to be the most compliant and evidence for effectiveness when interventional programs are undertaken is disappointing. It is not clear how dependable the dietary approach would be where inherited genetic factors determine risk for one of these cancers. Chemoprevention, the administration of natural or synthetic agents that delay, slow down or inhibit the process of tumorigenesis, are still under development and study. Hormone receptor modulators for breast and derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colorectal cancers seem to have most promise and may reduce tumour incidence or death by as much as 50%. These agents are simpler to comply with than changing dietary lifestyle and they are more potent, hence they may be of particular value in high-risk settings. But they are likely to be more costly and run the risk of adverse effects with few

  19. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  20. A Forgiveness Intervention for Women With Fibromyalgia Who Were Abused in Childhood: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study compared the efficacy of a forgiveness intervention with a fibromyalgia (FM) health intervention on women with FM who have experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and emotional or physical neglect, in childhood by one of their parents. Eleven women with FM between the ages of 21 and 68 were randomized to the forgiveness intervention (n = 5) or the FM health intervention (n = 6), and completed the once-weekly individualized program for 24 weeks. The participants completed measures assessing forgiveness, overall FM health, depression, anger, anxiety, self-esteem, and coping strategies at the pretest, the posttest, and the 12-week follow-up test. They also completed the forgiveness intervention and FM health intervention final tests at the posttest, which assessed their knowledge on forgiveness and FM health. The forgiveness intervention participants had greater improvements in forgiveness (p < .001) and overall FM health (p = .046) from the pretest to the posttest, and in forgiveness (p = .018) and state anger (p = .027) from the pretest to the follow-up test than the FM health intervention participants. Moreover, the forgiveness intervention participants scored higher on the forgiveness final test than the FM health intervention participants (p < .001), and the FM health intervention participants scored higher on the FM health final test than the forgiveness intervention participants (p < .001). The results indicate that the forgiveness intervention was potentially helpful in improving forgiveness and overall FM health, and in decreasing state anger of this particular sample of women with FM. PMID:25914886

  1. Homocysteine lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Solà, Ivan; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Salanti, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, stroke and congestive heart failure, is a leading cause of death worldwide. A postulated risk factor is elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) levels which is influenced mainly by blood levels of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), folic acid (vitamin B9) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). There is uncertainty regarding the strength of association between tHcy and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness of homocysteine-lowering interventions (HLI) in people with or without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (issue 3 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2008), EMBASE (1988 to August 2008), and LILACS (1982 to September 2, 2008). We also searched in Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED; 1985 to August 2008), ISI Web of Science (1993 to August 2008), and the Cochrane Stroke Group Specialised Register (April 2007). We hand searched pertinent journals and the reference lists of included papers. We also contacted researchers in the field. There was no language restriction in the search. Selection criteria We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of HLI for preventing cardiovascular events with a follow-up period of 1 year or longer. We considered myocardial infarction and stroke as the primary outcomes. We excluded studies in patients with end-stage renal disease. Data collection and analysis We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We estimated relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I2. We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. Main results We included eight RCTs involving 24,210 participants with a low risk of bias in general terms. HLI did not reduce the risk of non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or

  2. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  3. Risk of Behaviors Associated with Lethal Violence and Functional Outcomes for Abused Women Who Do and Do Not Return to the Abuser Following a Community-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: To determine the differential risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence and functioning outcomes for abused women with children who received an intervention of shelter or justice services and return to the abuser were compared with women who did not return. Methods: The study was carried out using a matched-pair analysis of 152 women. Measures of risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence, type, and severity of abuse, and poor mental health symptoms were measured every 4 months for 24 months. Results: Irrespective of service used, women returning to the abuser reported significantly (p<0.001) more risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence compared to women who did not return. Additionally, severity of physical abuse was significantly higher (p<0.01) for women returning to the abuser who had been in a shelter but not for women who received a protection order. Similarly, levels of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety were significantly higher (p<0.01) for sheltered women who returned to the abuser but not for women using a protection order who returned. Conclusions: Risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence increases when abused women return to live with the abuser. Abused women should be informed of the heightened risk and greater probability for poor mental health. PMID:25714332

  4. Drama-based education to motivate participation in substance abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Hernandez, Aileen B; Livingston, Jonathan N; Dacons-Brock, Karen; Craft, Howard L; Cameron, Amura; Franklin, Steven O; Howlett, Allyn C

    2007-01-01

    Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing the play. It was found that the

  5. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial: a dual design to test reduction of risk for conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure in childhood.

    PubMed

    Prinz, R J; Dumas, J E; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J E

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes a preventive intervention trial called EARLY ALLIANCE which is aimed at reducing risk for three adverse outcomes in childhood and adolescence: conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure. The structure of the prevention trial is unique because two linked designs are being implemented concurrently. The primary design focuses on children at elevated risk for adverse outcomes, and compares a targeted, multicontextual preventive intervention with family, classroom, peer relational, and academic components to a universal, schoolwide preventive intervention that emphasizes peaceful conflict management and serves as a "usual care" control condition. The secondary design focuses on children at lower risk for adverse outcomes and compares a universally administered classroom program to the control condition. The paper describes the theoretical foundation for EARLY ALLIANCE, the goals of the prevention trial, the rationale for design choices, and the methods employed. PMID:10822124

  6. Undue influence and elder abuse: recognition and intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Mary Joy

    2002-01-01

    Undue influence is the substitution of one person's will for the true desires of another. Unlike common persuasion and sales techniques, such influence often entails fraud, duress, threats, or other deceits and pressures. Undue influence takes place when one person uses his or her role and power to exploit the trust, dependency, or fear of another to gain psychologic control over the weaker person's decision-making, usually for financial gain. Dependent and impaired people are particularly susceptible, but it can happen to anyone who otherwise would be considered capable and competent. The current interest in undue influence represents the union of three major forces: current and historical legal concepts, knowledge learned from domestic violence, specifically the field of elder abuse and neglect, and the distillation of relevant psychologic processes. PMID:11865252

  7. [Effectiveness of the brief intervention for the use of abusive alcohol in primary care: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Odete; Anginoni, Bárbara Marques; Ferreira, Natany da Costa; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; de Vargas, Divane; Colvero, Luciana de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The research identified clinical studies on the brief interventions for the abusive use of alcohol and analyzed the effectiveness of professional advises proposed to alcohol consumers. The systematic bibliographical study was based on articles published during the period of 1997 to 2010. Brief intervention strategy is effective in the reduction on the frequency and amount of alcohol use, with better results when the strategy is applied to the primary attention situations. All professionals obtained good results using this therapy. It was not possible to determine if the strategy is most effective when applied to harmful drinkers or to chronic drinkers, since the intervention also depends on the patient's availability of motivational resources and on changes in attitude regarding the abusive use of alcohol. PMID:23887793

  8. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue.

  9. Detection, diagnosis, and prevention of child abuse: the role of the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Johan; Deneyer, Michel; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    It is the pediatrician's role to promote the child's well-being and to help parents raise healthy, well-adjusted children. Today's pediatricians are confronted with a patient population in which there is a high prevalence of child abuse in its different presentations (physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and/or neglect). The immediate and long-term consequences of child abuse often are lifelong and even life-threatening in its most dramatic presentation. Unfortunately, detection of child abuse remains a difficult challenge for many physicians but also for the "well-trained" pediatrician, leaving many abused children unreported. This paper addresses the important role pediatricians can play in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of child maltreatment. PMID:22105870

  10. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  11. The effect of a family-based intervention with a cognitive-behavioral approach on elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Khanlary, Zahra; Maarefvand, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse may become a health issue in developing countries, including Iran. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Social Work (FBCBSW) in reducing elder abuse. In a randomized clinical trial in Iran, 27 elders participated in intervention and control groups. The intervention groups received a five-session FBCBSW intervention and completed the Domestic-Elder-Abuse-Questionnaire (DEAQ), which evaluates elder abuse at baseline and follow-ups. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Wilcoxon test were used to analyze the data. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed that FBCBSW was successful in reducing elder abuse. The Wilcoxon test indicated that emotional neglect, care neglect, financial neglect, curtailment of personal autonomy, psychological abuse, and financial abuse significantly decreased over time, but there was no statistically significant difference in physical abuse before and after the intervention. The findings from this study suggest that FBCBSW is a promising approach to reducing elder abuse and warrants further study with larger samples.

  12. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    PubMed

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  13. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  14. Drug Abuse Prevention: School-based Strategies That Work. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris

    This Digest discusses the role of the school, the community, and teacher preparation programs in alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) prevention among adolescents. It proposes that a comprehensive drug abuse prevention curriculum should incorporate: (1) normative education to help students realize that use of ATOD is not the norm for…

  15. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  16. Twenty Years Later: We Do Know How to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, John M.

    1996-01-01

    This review of the past 20 years in child abuse and neglect prevention discusses the effectiveness of both general and targeted prevention services, especially home visiting; 9 ingredients of a successful home visiting program; the need for additional resources to cover home visiting services; and cautions against overselling or underselling…

  17. Alternatives for Young Americans: A Catalog of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This reference book contains resumes of program descriptions geared toward youth and adults who need or want information on drug abuse prevention programs, locally or nationally. Several major entries include: (1) national program models; (2) evaluated alternative programs from all states; and (3) descriptions of prevention programs. All section…

  18. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  19. Drug Abuse Education and Prevention Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    In a national poll conducted in 1988, 83 percent of the American people felt that the nation's drug problem was "out of control." In 1988, Congress, responding to the public mandate, passed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. Title III of the Act specifically addressed these issues by authorizing two anti-drug programs for youth. These two programs…

  20. Sexual Abuse Prevention Treatment Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    The paper describes a federally funded project of the University of Alberta (Canada) addressing sexual assault and sexual abuse of people with disabilities. Written in outline style, the paper briefly describes project activities and general conclusions. Phase I of the project documented the nature and extent of the problem. It was concluded that…

  1. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  2. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  3. Compliance, medical records, and the FBI: preventing fraud and abuse.

    PubMed

    Vincze, L S

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of an investigation related to fraud and abuse is the last thing most people want to think about, but it's important to be prepared, just in case. The author gives some advice on how to react if your facility is the target of an investigation and points out some important steps to take to ensure compliance.

  4. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... protect the well-being of our children by recognizing the signs of violence and creating safe, stable, and... mistreatment like substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also supporting programs that expand coordination of early childhood services in order to improve outcomes for young children. As...

  5. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  6. Prediction and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jane D.; And Others

    Examined was the feasibility of predicting the potential for abnormal child rearing practices, including child abuse and neglect among 350 mothers. Through interviews, questionnaires, and observations during labor, delivery and the postpartum period, 100 mothers were identified as at high risk for abnormal parenting procedures. Ss were then…

  7. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  8. E-Health Interventions for Suicide Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J.; O’Dea, Bridianne

    2014-01-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  9. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  10. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  11. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald G

    2012-10-16

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant's caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant-caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally.

  12. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant’s caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant–caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  13. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  14. Perinatal Substance Abuse and Public Health Nursing Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of public health nurses in the health care of infants and children prenatally exposed to drugs is discussed. Such nurses work in the family setting to promote health and prevent disease. Concepts of Kathryn Barnard have been used to develop policies and protocols for services to families with infants exposed to controlled substances. (GH)

  15. Intervention Costs From Communities Putting Prevention to Work

    PubMed Central

    Khavjou, Olga A.; Bradley, Christina; Neuwahl, Simon; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Bellard, David; Cash, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded 50 communities to participate in the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program. CPPW supported community-based approaches to prevent or delay chronic disease and promote wellness by reducing tobacco use and obesity. We collected the direct costs of CPPW for the 44 communities funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and analyzed costs per person reached for all CPPW interventions and by intervention category. Methods From 2011 through 2013, we collected quarterly data on costs from the 44 CPPW ARRA-funded communities. We estimated CPPW program costs as spending on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead activities; and partners plus the value of in-kind donations. We estimated communities’ costs per person reached for each intervention implemented and compared cost allocations across communities that focused on reducing tobacco use, or obesity, or both. Analyses were conducted in 2014; costs are reported in 2012 dollars. Results The largest share of CPPW total costs of $363 million supported interventions in communities that focused on obesity ($228 million). Average costs per person reached were less than $5 for 84% of tobacco-related interventions, 88% of nutrition interventions, and 89% of physical activity interventions. Costs per person reached were highest for social support and services interventions, almost $3 for tobacco‑use interventions and $1 for obesity prevention interventions. Conclusions CPPW cost estimates are useful for comparing intervention cost per person reached with health outcomes and for addressing how community health intervention costs vary by type of intervention and by community size. PMID:27468157

  16. Effects of a Culturally Informed Intervention on Abused, Suicidal African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D.; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J.; Siegelman, Asher E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined 1) the relative efficacy of a culturally-sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing three protective factors—self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources—versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and 2) the impact of participants’ readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the two conditions. Methods The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Results Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants that were “less ready to change” (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Conclusion Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally-informed intervention. PMID:25403027

  17. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  19. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  20. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  1. An Evaluation of the Fidelity of Implementation of a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skara, Silvana; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an implementation fidelity evaluation of the fourth experimental trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND). Two theoretical content components of the curriculum were examined to increase our understanding of the active ingredients of successful drug abuse prevention programs. A total of 18 senior high schools were randomly…

  2. One-Year Outcomes from the CASAWORKS for Families Intervention for Substance-Abusing Women on Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclellan, A. Thomas; Gutman, Marjorie; Lynch, Kevin; Mckay, James R.; Ketterlinus, Robert; Morgenstern, Jon; Woolis, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multiservice intervention designed to move substance-abusing women on welfare to sobriety and self-sufficiency by addressing their substance abuse, domestic violence, employment, and basic needs. Design: A field evaluation with repeated measures at 6 and 12 months on an intent-to-treat sample of 529 women…

  3. Efficacy of a Preventive Intervention for Youths Living with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lee, Martha B.; Murphy, Debra A.; Futterman, Donna; Duan, Naihua; Birnbaum, Jeffrey M.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2001-01-01

    Examined HIV transmission behaviors and health practices among HIV-infected youths over 15 months following participation in a preventive intervention that emphasized coping with HIV and reducing risky behaviors. The intervention resulted in increases in social support coping and reductions in risky sexual and lifestyle behaviors specifically…

  4. Screening and Brief Interventions: Research Update. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…

  5. Nutritional interventions for Alzheimer's prevention: a clinical precision medicine approach.

    PubMed

    Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. PMID:27116241

  6. Drug Abuse Prevention for At-Risk Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Leona; Kumpfer, Karol L.

    The purpose of this resource manual is to provide the reader with an increased understanding of the concept of indicated prevention. The manual describes key features of indicated prevention strategies, briefly describes some examples of successful indicated prevention programs implemented in different settings, and presents a detailed description…

  7. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  8. Introduction to Ecological Description of a Community Intervention: Building Prevention through Collaborative Field Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth ages 12 to 18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science. PMID:24912872

  9. Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Yuen, K H; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.

  10. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse physical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. This study was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency among gym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panel study to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about side effects of AAS (P<0.001), attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally after intervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group. Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and ado­lescences would be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them not to use AAS. PMID:24688897

  11. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  12. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  13. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors.

  14. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  15. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  16. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  17. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  18. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  19. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  20. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  1. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  2. Narrative Means to Preventative Ends: A Narrative Engagement Framework for Designing Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613

  3. Athletes Coaching Teens (ACT) for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Steven J.

    Athletes Coaching Teens (ACT) is a school-based prevention program for seventh grade students in Richmond, Virginia. The project is a collaborative effort between the Department of Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University and the Richmond City Public Schools. The ACT program is directed at preventing and changing health-compromising…

  4. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  5. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  6. Federal Standards for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment Programs and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, A. Catherine

    Presented are federal standards designed to synthesize and describe the knowledge available on the prevention and treatment of child abuse and negect. A summary chapter (Chapter I) covers background information, organization and content of the standards, and utilization of the standards. Chapter II discusses the relationships among children,…

  7. 3 CFR 8490 - Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... healthy families, and building a brighter future for all Americans. Every child deserves a nurturing... plays a critical role as well. My Administration is committed to helping future generations succeed. We... activities that help prevent child abuse and provide for children's physical, emotional, and...

  8. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  9. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  10. Improving Preschoolers' Comprehension of Sex Abuse Prevention Concepts through Video Repetition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Marites F.; Hulsey, Timothy L.; Woodland, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Determined whether having preschoolers review video segments they did not initially comprehend would increase their comprehension of sex abuse prevention concepts. States that children who viewed repetition of program segment learned more than children who viewed the segment once. Concludes that this method of enhancing children's comprehension of…

  11. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  12. School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Review of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.; Barron, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    In this systematic and critical review of purely school based child sexual abuse prevention program efficacy studies, 22 studies meeting the inclusion criteria differed by target population, program implementation, and evaluation methodology. Measured outcomes for children included knowledge, skills, emotion, risk perception, touch discrimination,…

  13. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  14. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  15. Community Notification: Perceptions of Its Effectiveness in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2001-01-01

    Megan's law enables law enforcement to notify communities when convicted sex offenders reside in their neighborhoods. Investigates community members', law enforcement officials', and law students' attitudes toward community notification and other child abuse prevention measures. The groups significantly differed in support of Megan's Law and…

  16. Evaluating the Acceptability of Four Versions of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine college students used a modified version of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form to evaluate the acceptability of four versions of a sexual abuse prevention program for 10-year-old children. The four versions include an information-based training approach or a behavioral skills training (BST) approach with a focus on strangers…

  17. Domestic Abuse Prevention Education: Listening to the Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Hale, Rebecca; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings derived as part of a two-year project funded by the European Union's Daphne III scheme, involving collaboration between seven partner organisations across six European countries. The project involved an evaluation, using questionnaires and focus groups, of domestic abuse prevention education programmes delivered…

  18. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  19. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  20. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  1. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  2. Teaching Personal Safety Skills for Potential Prevention of Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of various educational approaches for teaching personal safety skills to children in an effort to possibly prevent sexual abuse: (a) a filmed program ("Touch"), (b) a behavioral skills training program in which modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and social reinforcement were used to teach safety skills, (c) a combination of…

  3. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  4. The Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: Successfully Out of the Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, John M.

    2001-01-01

    This commentary reviews progress towards the development and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect and promoting the health and development of the infant and mother. The effectiveness of the Healthy Families model and the Olds' model are highlighted, and challenges facing home visitation programs are…

  5. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  6. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Workshop in a Multicultural, Impoverished Urban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Frappier, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Participants in the ESPACE sexual abuse prevention workshop were in grades 1 through 4 and attended three Montreal, Canada, public schools in low socioeconomic areas. The sample was culturally diverse, with half born outside of Canada. An evaluation was conducted to explore the effects associated with participating in the workshop and the effects…

  7. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  8. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  9. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  10. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  11. The Relationship Between Friends' Marijuana Use, Family Cohesion, School Interest and Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babst, Dean V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of students respond to various drug abuse prevention areas. This study is based on a school survey completed by 4,000 rural students and 2,700 suburban students. Students most involved with drugs were those least receptive to traditional educational programs. (Author)

  12. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest children…

  13. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  14. Preventing alcohol abuse in the gay community: toward a theory and model.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, J E; Ziebold, T O

    1982-01-01

    Urban gay communities present unique populations for a comprehensive prevention program. They are well defined, bounded communities with rapid internal communication, can be considered "at risk" for alcoholism, and are traditionally "underserved" for prevention and treatment. Models of alcoholism epidemiology elucidate critical factors relevant to the urban gay population, and indigenous gay organizations afford effective means of implementing a program. The model presented in this paper is based upon current research about successful prevention programs and uses accepted strategies tailored to the specific characteristics of the urban gay community. The basic premise of the model is that community self help is the most effective approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention. PMID:7130692

  15. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.

  16. An Evaluation Framework for Obesity Prevention Policy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2012-01-01

    As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention. PMID:22742594

  17. An evaluation framework for obesity prevention policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer; Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2012-01-01

    As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention.

  18. Elder abuse: speak out for justice.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jenna M; Hoglund, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 older adults experience abuse, but only 1 in 5 to as little as 1 in 24 cases are reported. Elder abuse is expected to increase as the population ages. Nurses are in a prime position to identify, assess, manage, and prevent elder abuse. This article explores elder abuse and its prevalence, potential causes, and risk factors offering case studies, assessment tools, resources, and interventions.

  19. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Fisher, Philip A

    2006-01-01

    A major focus in developmental psychopathology is on understanding developmental mechanisms and, armed with this information, intervening to improve children's outcomes. Translational research attempts to bridge the distance between understanding and intervention. In the collaborations that have formed the core of our research network on early experience, stress, and prevention science, we have focused on translating basic research on early experiences and stress neurobiology into preventive interventions for neglected and abused children. Our experiences in attempting to move from bench to bedside have led us to recognize the many challenges that face translational researchers. This review provides a brief synopsis of the animal model literature on early experience and stress neurobiology from which we glean several key bridging issues. We then review what is currently known about the impact of childhood neglect and abuse on stress neurobiology in human adults and children. Next, we describe how this work has informed the evaluation of our preventive interventions with maltreated children. Finally, we discuss several considerations that should facilitate a more complete integration of basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology into preventive intervention strategies. PMID:17152395

  20. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. PMID:27509010

  1. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention.

  2. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  3. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Girls’ rates of drug use have met up with, and in some instances, surpassed boys’ use. Though girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls’ drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods One such intervention, called RealTeen, is a 9-session, web-based drug abuse prevention program designed to address such gender-specific risk factors associated with young girls’ drug use as depressed mood, low self-esteem, and high levels of perceived stress as well as general drug use risk factors of peer and social influences. Web-based delivery enables girls to interact with the program at their own pace and in a location of their choosing. Implications This paper describes the processes and challenges associated with developing and programming a gender-specific, web-based intervention to prevent drug use among adolescent girls. PMID:26778909

  4. HIV prevention: integrating biomedical and behevioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Carlos

    Recommendations for HIV prevention in clinical care settings by an IAS-USA panel were recently published. They include recommendations on HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy initiation, risk-reduction counseling, and antiretroviral therapy adherence counseling for HIV-infected individuals. For individuals at risk for HIV infection, recommendations for preexposure prophylaxis, other risk-reduction strategies, adherence counseling, and postexposure prophylaxis are included. Many HIV-infected individuals in the United States are not fully engaged in HIV care and are not virologically suppressed, thus a crucial component of efforts to reduce HIV transmission is moving patients through the HIV care continuum. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Carlos del Rio, MD, in September 2014.

  5. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625

  6. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625

  7. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-06-30

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.

  8. Aging intervention, prevention, and therapy through hormesis.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2004-07-01

    The phenomenon of hormesis is represented by mild stress-induced stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways resulting in beneficial effects for the cells and organisms. Anti-aging and life-prolonging effects of a wide variety of the so-called stressors, such as pro-oxidants, aldehydes, calorie restriction, irradiation, heat shock, and hypergravity, have been reported. Molecular mechanisms of hormesis due to different stresses are yet to be elucidated, but there are indications that relatively small individual hormetic effects become biologically amplified resulting in the collective significant improvement of cellular and organismic functions and survival. Accepting that some important issues with respect to establishing the optimal hormetic conditions still need to be resolved by future research, hormesis appears to be a promising and effective approach for modulating aging, for preventing or delaying the onset of age-related diseases, and for improving quality of life in old age.

  9. Nondrug interventions in hypertension prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin; Ayala, Carma

    2002-05-01

    This review was undertaken to address the relation of various factors to HBP and their potential for preventing and controlling this widespread problem. With respect to salt intake and BP, the 1999 Workshop on Sodium and Blood Pressure of the (US) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [5] will serve the reader well as a point of departure. The body of the present review provides more detailed discussion especially of recent epidemiologic research, including the DASH-Sodium trial, published more recently than the proceedings of that workshop. The DASH-Sodium trial demonstrates significant increases in SBP and DBP, with sodium intake greater than 65 mmol/d (= 3.7 g NaCl--see equivalencies in Appendix A) and with the usual American diet (versus the DASH diet). These results provide substantial evidence against current dietary practices in many populations where daily intakes of salt are much higher than recommended. We also have addressed alcohol consumption, micronutrients/macronutrients, physical activity and inactivity, obesity, cigarette smoking, and alternative approaches to treatment such as stress reduction/biofeedback, yoga/meditation, and acupuncture. Evidence for the efficacy of certain nonpharmacologic approaches to preventing and controlling HBP is strong. This evidence offers a basis for public health policies and clinical approaches that can greatly affect the incidence and consequences of HBP in the population at large. What is needed now is implementation of the policies and practices addressed here. Unless such action is taken on a large scale, we will have made poor use of the knowledge accrued over decades of research. The clinician is referred to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Web site at www.nhlbi.gov/health/prof/heart/index.htm for resource and guideline information for hypertension. Patients and the general public are referred to the sister web page at www.nhlbi.gov\\health\\public\\heart\\index.htm for educational fact sheets

  10. Effects of a Behavioral Sleep Medicine Intervention on Trauma Symptoms in Adolescents Recently Treated for Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…

  11. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes.

  12. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Graham; Reeders, Daniel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Ellard, Jeanne; Carman, Marina; Hendry, Natalie; Wallace, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for understanding these

  13. Intervention for homeless, substance abusing mothers: findings from a non-randomized pilot.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Little empirically-based information is available regarding how best to intervene with substance-abusing homeless mothers. This study pilot-tested a comprehensive intervention with 15 homeless women and their 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from a local family shelter. All participants were offered integrated intervention with three major components. The first component was housing which included 3 months of rental and utility assistance, and these services were not contingent upon women's abstinence from drugs or alcohol. The second and third components included 6 months of case management services and an evidence-based substance abuse treatment (Community Reinforcement Approach; CRA). Analysis revealed that women showed reductions in substance use (F(2,22) = 3.63; p < .05), homelessness (F(2,24) = 25.31; p < .001), and mental health problems (F(2,20) = 8.5; p < .01). Further, women reported reduced internalizing (F(2,22) = 4.08; p < .05) and externalizing problems (F(2,24) = 7.7; p = .01) among their children. The findings suggest that the intervention is a promising approach to meet the multiple needs of this vulnerable population. These positive outcomes support the need for future research to replicate the findings with a larger sample using a randomized design.

  14. One-Year Outcomes and Mediators of a Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Lee, Susanne; Botzet, Andria; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Nicholson, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Two manually-guided brief interventions were evaluated with a randomized controlled trial. Adolescents (aged 13-17 years) suspected of abusing alcohol and other drugs and their parent were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A), 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP), or assessment only control condition (CON). Adolescents were identified in a school setting and the intervention was delivered by trained counselors. Outcome analyses (N=284; 90% of those enrolled) of relative change (from intake to 12-months) and absolute status (at 12-months) revealed a general pattern of reductions in drug use behaviors, particularly with the cannabis outcome measures, in both active conditions (BI-A and BI-AP). Students in the control condition showed worse outcome compared to the BI-A and BI-AP groups. Among the four mediating variables measured at 6-months, use of additional services, motivation to change and parenting practices had significant influences on 12-month outcome; problem solving skills approached significance as a mediator. The potential value of a brief intervention for drug abusing adolescents is discussed. PMID:24955669

  15. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Guide for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    The focus of this book is on the identification of practical knowledge and skill needed and an action plan to implement prevention programming in schools. The text is written as a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling. It is designed to facilitate development of knowledge necessary to implement comprehensive…

  16. Finding Ways to Effectively Prevent Sexual Abuse by Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alisa; Tabachnick, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Youth with sexual behavior problems pose a complicated challenge to the society. Yet the society has succeeded in developing only a limited range of actions and attitudes to grapple with and prevent this problem. Very few of the social service and criminal justice systems have rallied to create compassionate models that not only address and…

  17. The prevention of analgesic opioids abuse: expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, I; Gerra, G; Ripamonti, I C; Mugelli, A; Allegri, M; Viganò, R; Romualdi, P; Pinto, C; Raffaeli, W; Coluzzi, F; Gatti, R C; Mammucari, M; Fanelli, G

    2015-11-01

    Opioids are drugs of reference for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Their proper use and a periodic assessment of the patient are crucial to prevent misuse. A multidisciplinary group suggests strategies for all stakeholders involved in the management of pain and suggests the importance of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:26592848

  18. Roundtable on prevention of fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs, March 23--24, 1987, Highland Hotel, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Identification of Issues and Preventive Measures Associated with Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Conservation Programs; Working Papers Prepared by Roundtable Discussants; Annotated Bibliography of Publications Related to Prevention/Detection of Fraud and Abuse in DOE and LIHEAP Conservation Programs; and List of Members on Task Force for Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs.

  19. Intervention Fidelity in Family-Based Prevention Counseling for Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.; Singer, Alisa; Leckrone, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    This study examined fidelity in multidimensional family prevention (MDFP), a family-based prevention counseling model for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse and related behavior problems, in comparison to two empirically based treatments for adolescent drug abuse: multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  20. Contribution of Family-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Program to Attitude and Self-efficacy of Mothers Trained by Mental Health Facilitators.

    PubMed

    Khoshzaban, Eilnaz; Matlabi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Family plays a key role in the prevention and intervention of drug abuse among children and teenagers. Information about drugs provides parents with the exact knowledge on how to demonstrate attitudes and healthy behaviours. Therefore, the present study tried to investigate the effect of preventive and interventional trainings on self-efficacy and attitudes of mothers covered by mental health facilitators (MHFs) in this regard. This interventional study used case and control groups/pretest-posttest design. Based on the inclusion criteria, randomized sampling, and sample size formulation, 150 qualified mothers were recruited. Eligible participants were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. A researcher-designed and self-administered questionnaire was used to gather the required data. Six instructive, communicative oral sessions and individual interviews were held by the facilitators for case group members. After two months, attitudes and self-efficacy of the mothers toward drug abuse issues were measured again by the same questionnaire. The results showed that the difference in intervention and control group was significant in terms of increasing self-efficacy and modifying attitudes (p<0.001). Furthermore, the case group members reported less misconceptions, stigma, and ignorance toward those suffering from addiction. PMID:27241418

  1. Prioritizing risk factors to identify preventive interventions for economic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Foster, Rachel H; Hadorn, David; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore a risk factor approach for identifying preventive interventions that require more in-depth economic assessment, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods A three-step approach was employed to: (i) identify the risk factors that contribute most substantially to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); (ii) re-rank these risk factors based on the availability of effective preventive interventions warranting further cost-effectiveness analysis (and in some instances on evidence from existing cost-effectiveness analyses); and (iii) re-rank these risk factors in accordance with their relative contribution to health inequalities. Health inequalities between the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand were used by way of illustration. Findings Seven of the top 10 risk factors prioritized for research on preventive interventions in New Zealand were also among the 10 risk factors most highly ranked as contributing to DALYs in high-income countries of the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region. The final list of priority risk factors included tobacco use; alcohol use; high blood pressure; high blood cholesterol; overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. All of these factors contributed to health inequalities. Effective interventions for preventing all of them are available, and for each risk factor there is at least one documented cost-saving preventive intervention. Conclusion The straightforward approach to prioritizing risk factors described in this paper may be applicable in many countries, and even in those countries that lack the capacity to perform additional cost-effectiveness analyses, this approach will still make it possible to determine which cost-effective interventions should be implemented in the short run. PMID:22423159

  2. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people. PMID:22400468

  3. Implementing Research-Based Substance Abuse Prevention in Communities: Effects of a Coalition-Based Prevention Initiative in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Austin, David; Hale, Kelly; LaPlante, Marcia; Liebig, Melissa; Piasecki, Linda; Uerz, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity and perceived potential effectiveness of community-based coalitions in helping to prevent and reduce adolescent substance use, empirical evidence supporting this approach is sparse. Many reasons have been suggested for why coalition-based prevention initiatives, and community-level interventions in general, have not…

  4. The ability of elementary school children to learn child sexual abuse prevention concepts.

    PubMed

    Tutty, L M

    1992-01-01

    This research was designed to address several of the methodological problems in the current body of knowledge on the efficacy of child abuse prevention programs for elementary school-aged children. A new measure, the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire (C.K.A.Q.) was developed, and its psychometric properties assessed. In total, 400 children were tested in four groups. Half of the sample participated in a child abuse prevention program Touching, and the other half were in a waiting list control group. Half of each group were pretested, and the other half were not, in order to determine whether the pretesting sensitized the students. All children were tested again 5 months afterward to investigate the long-term retention of prevention concepts. Results showed that children who participated in the prevention program scored significantly higher on the C.K.A.Q. than children in the control condition. Age was a critical factor, with significant improvements as age increased between the kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 3 and Grade 6 students. All participants maintained their level of knowledge after 5 months had passed. The relevance and practical implications which stem from this research are discussed. PMID:1617471

  5. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  6. An HIV-Preventive Intervention for Youth Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tevendale, Heather

    2007-01-01

    As the number of youth infected with HIV rises, secondary prevention programs are needed to help youth living with HIV meet three goals: (1) increase self-care behaviors, medical adherence, and health-related interactions; (2) reduce transmission acts; and (3) enhance their quality of life. This article describes an intervention program for youth…

  7. Burnout Prevention and Intervention: Rationale and Institutional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Anne Louis; Jeffress, Conway A.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale in burnout prevention and intervention is providing employees with variety, flexibility, and personal control within the work situation. Variety results from multiple teaching methods, courses and schedules, sabbaticals and released time for projects, interchanging faculty and administrative role, flex time, job sharing, flexible…

  8. Training for Counseling Psychologists in Suicide Prevention, Intervention, and Postvention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Jamie L.

    Training in suicide prevention, intervention, and postvention is lacking in most counseling psychology training programs despite the likelihood of trainees encountering suicidal individuals in their careers. Part of the reluctance to address this issue may be due to the potential problems of incorporating training into existing counseling programs…

  9. Strengthening Schools: Involving Paraprofessionals in Crisis Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, M.; Ashbaker, B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Two important questions arise when creating a school crisis plan: (a) Who should be trained as part of the crisis team? and (b) What type of training will be the most effective and practical? The authors suggest that paraprofessionals are a valuable resource to consider for assisting with crisis prevention and intervention. Practical suggestions…

  10. Brazelton Intervention with Substance Abusing Mothers and Their Infants: An Experimental Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Gena Covell; Myers, Barbara J.

    Research on the effectiveness of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) in enhancing the mother-newborn relationship has had inconsistent results. A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an NBAS intervention with a high-risk mother group. The study focused on low-income, drug-using mothers, measuring the effectiveness of the…

  11. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  12. Awareness of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education among Parents of Grade 3 Elementary School Pupils in Fuxin City, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few…

  13. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  14. "SPECDA"-A Comprehensive Approach to the Delivery of Substance Abuse Prevention Services in the New York City School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotner, Roberta; Lilly, Levander

    1986-01-01

    Evaluates SPECDA (School Program to Educate and Control Drug Abuse) a comprehensive substance abuse prevention program which links drug counselors and police officers in teams to provide drug education. Results indicated significant positive changes in children's knowledge about drugs, attitudes toward drugs, and attitudes toward polic officers…

  15. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  16. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  17. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  18. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  19. Forensic Interviews for Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: An Investigation into the Effects of Animal-Assisted Intervention on Stress Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Gulick, Elsie E

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapy animals during forensic interviews for child sexual abuse allegations is a recommendation by the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids Program to help ease children's discomfort during the forensic interview process. Based on this recommendation, this study incorporated a certified therapy canine into the forensic interview process for child sexual abuse allegations. This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, blood pressure, and heart rate as a result of forensic interview phenomenon (e.g., outcry) incorporating animal-assisted intervention versus a control condition in children (N = 42) interviewed for alleged child sexual abuse. The results supported significantly greater heart rate values for the control group (n = 23) who experienced sexual contact and/or indecency than the experience of aggravated sexual assault compared to no difference in HR for the intervention group (n = 19). The results suggest that the presence of the canine in the forensic interview may have acted as a buffer or safeguard for the children when disclosing details of sexual abuse. In the intervention group, children's HR was lower at the start of the forensic interview compared to the control group. Finding an effect of having a certified handler-canine team available during the forensic interview on physiological measures of stress has real-world value for children, child welfare personnel, and clinical therapists. It is suggested that animal-assisted intervention be expanded to children facing other types of trauma and to treatment programs for child survivors of sexual abuse.

  20. A brief image-based prevention intervention for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Werch, Chudley E Chad; Bian, Hui; Diclemente, Carlo C; Moore, Michelle J; Thombs, Dennis; Ames, Steven C; Huang, I-Chan; Pokorny, Steven

    2010-03-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of a brief image-based prevention intervention and assessed current drug use as a moderator of intervention effects. In a clinical trial, 416 high school-age adolescents were randomized to either the brief intervention or usual care control, with data collected at baseline and 3-month follow-up. The brief intervention consisted of a tailored in-person communication and a series of parent/guardian print materials based on the behavior-image model. Health behavior goal setting increased for participants receiving the brief intervention, with an effect size in the small range (d = 0.33). Overall effect sizes for cigarette smoking frequency and quantity and alcohol use frequency and quantity were small (ds = 0.16-0.21) and in favor of the brief intervention. However, adolescents reporting current substance use who received the brief intervention reduced their frequency and heavy use of alcohol, frequency and quantity of cigarette smoking, and reported fewer alcohol/drug problems, with larger effects ranging from small to approaching medium in size (ds = 0.32-0.43, ps < .01). This study suggests that brief image-based messages may increase health behavior goal setting and reduce substance use, particularly among drug-using older adolescents.