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Sample records for abuse prevention sub-region

  1. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  2. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  3. Prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Durfee, M

    1989-06-01

    Child sexual abuse prevention programs are a growing phenomenon addressing an expanding number of topics raised by a variety of violent and perverse acts. Currently programs tend to focus on a fairly narrow age group and use an educational model for children. There is a need for broad-based programs with a strong focus on the adults around children. Perinatal prevention programs require an adult focus and must take advantage of a special time in child and family development to address lesson of health and intimacy in a way that may decrease the incidence of future child sexual abuse. PMID:2748446

  4. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... children. Join us. Find out more Get involved Bullying Prevention and The National Conversation: It's Up to ... has released her initial plans to help stop bullying across the United States . We are glad that ...

  5. Drug Abuse Prevention For Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst G.

    Drug abuse is not confined to the young, but if a young person between the ages of 8 and 20 can be prevented from abusing drugs, chances are that he/she will never have a serious drug problem. Drug abuse prevention means helping young people develop personal strengths and values to reduce the chance that they will hurt themselves or others by…

  6. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  7. Preventing abuse of older people.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Aileen

    2010-10-01

    The author travelled to the United States on a Florence Nightingale Travel Scholarship to study the systems in place to respond to and prevent elder abuse. She visited centres in Orange County, California, and New York City that are involved in dealing with the issue. This article provides a summary of her findings, with emphasis on education and training strategies for healthcare professionals working with older people, and provides recommendations for developments in safeguarding older people in the UK. The author also reviews models of service, models of evaluation and approaches to older people who self-neglect.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  9. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  10. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  11. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  12. Teachers and Child Abuse Prevention. Item 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Joy

    1988-01-01

    The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…

  13. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  14. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  15. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  16. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  17. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  18. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  19. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  20. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  1. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips ...

  2. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  3. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  4. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  5. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  6. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  7. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Shafil, M; Lavely, R; Jaffe, R

    1975-09-01

    The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N equals 126) and a matched control group (N equals 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than 2 years reported discontinuation within the first 6 months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus 1 percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.

  8. Methodological issues in workplace substance abuse prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hersch, R K; Cook, R F; Deitz, D K; Trudeau, J V

    2000-05-01

    Substance abuse among working adults represents billions of dollars in preventable health care costs and industry financial loss. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and test effective substance abuse prevention programs for the workplace. However, applied workplace substance abuse prevention research is fraught with numerous methodological challenges. This article highlights a number of these challenges, which include (1) reaching a broad audience with prevention messages, (2) handling the concerns of the employer, (3) collecting substance use data in the workplace, (4) accessing and using records-based data, and (5) linking survey and records-based data. Using examples from the authors' ongoing research assessing a workplace health promotion and substance abuse prevention program, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the authors address these challenges.

  9. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  10. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  11. Planning, Funding, and Implementing a Child Abuse Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.

    Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…

  12. Developmentally Appropriate Criteria for Evaluating Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Nancy S.; Wright, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    Proposes using a developmentally appropriate practice framework to determine if a sexual abuse prevention program takes into consideration the unique learning abilities of preschool children. Reviews definition of and statistics related to sexual abuse. Compares appropriate and inappropriate teaching practices in child sexual abuse prevention…

  13. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  14. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  15. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  16. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  17. 38 CFR 21.224 - Prevention of abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of abuse. 21.224 Section 21.224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Supplies § 21.224 Prevention of abuse. Supplies are to be furnished under the most careful checks by...

  18. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  19. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  20. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  1. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...

  2. The neonatal nurse's role in preventing abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    Abusive head trauma in infants occurs in 24.6 to 39.8 per 100,000 infants in developed countries. Abusive head trauma refers to any type of intentional head trauma an infant sustains, as a result of an injury to the skull or intracranial contents from a blunt force and/or violent shaking. The clinical question was: what evidence-based interventions have been implemented by neonatal nurses to prevent abusive head trauma in infants? PubMed was searched to obtain English language publications from 2005 to May 2014 for interventions focused on preventing abusive head trauma using the key term "shaken baby syndrome." A total of 10 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. All of the interventions targeted prevention of abusive head trauma with information about abusive head trauma/shaken baby syndrome and the "normal" infant crying behaviors. Interventions taught parents why infants cried, how to calm the infants, ways to cope with inconsolable infants, and how to develop a plan for what to do if they could not cope anymore. Parents who participated in the interventions were consistently able to explain the information and tell others about the dangers of shaking infants compared to the control parents. Only 2 studies calculated the preintervention abusive head trauma rate and the postintervention frequency of abusive head trauma. Each found significant differences in abusive head trauma.

  3. Drug abuse treatment as AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, D S; Navaline, H; Woody, G E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among drug users enters its third decade in the United States, it is important to consider the role playing by substance abuse treatment in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The authors review the research literature, examining findings from studies with behavioral and serologic measures on the association among treatment participation, HIV risk reduction, and HIV infection. RESULTS: Numerous studies have now documented that significantly lower rates of drug use and related risk behaviors are practiced by injecting drug users (IDUs) who are in treatment. Importantly, these behavioral differences, based primarily on self-report, are consistent with studies that have examined HIV seroprevalence and seroincidence among drug users. CONCLUSION: The underlying mechanism of action suggested by the collective findings of the available literature is rather simple-- individuals who enter and remain in treatment reduce their drug use, when leads to fewer instances of drug-related risk behavior. This lower rate of exposure results in fewer infections with HIV. The protective effects of treatment, however, can only be achieved when programs are accessible and responsive to the changing needs of drug users. Future research needs to be directed at developing a better understanding of the factors that enhance treatment entry and retention. PMID:9722815

  4. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  5. Student Assistance Programs: An Important Approach to Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.; DuPont, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new approach to school-based drug abuse prevention called Student Assistance Programs (SAP). SAP offers various approaches tailored to particular settings and includes students, teachers, parents, and community representatives who define and resolve student problems including substance abuse. SAP facilitates the use of 12-step…

  6. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  7. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    The Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972 directed the development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic control functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal Government. This second annual report of the Strategy Council builds on the…

  8. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  9. Perspectives on Preventing Student Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedone, Ronald, Ed.; Gwaltney, Margaret K., Ed.

    This set of papers is one part of the United States Department of Education's effort to establish a research agenda for drug use. It consists of a foreword and 10 papers that examine issues of drug abuse, students, and schools. It presents different views on the drug abuse problem in order to affect research on schools, drugs, and drug education.…

  10. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  11. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  12. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  13. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  14. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  15. Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.

  16. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  17. Drug Abuse Prevention for You and Your Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Novelli and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written for adolescents, focuses on the individual's role and responsibility, both to themselves and their friends, in preventing drug abuse problems. Short statements define the influence of peer pressure on prevention, friendship, and intervention. The results of a ninth grade student survey list 22 reasons for using drugs,…

  18. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  19. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  20. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given.

  1. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug...

  2. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  3. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  4. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug...

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: What Makes them Effective in Protecting Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)

  6. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  7. Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long, consequences and is a serious problem on an individual, familial and societal level. Therefore, prevention measures on different levels are a public health issue. Minors as well as adults should be involved in prevention work in order to prevent sexual abuse of minors in a sustainable way. Besides norms, structures and values in society, the respective laws as well as attitudes and structures should be changed and amended in such a way that abusers and the abuse are clearly confronted everywhere. In the last decades, numerous prevention programs for victims have been developed for various target groups (e.g. parenting education classes, home-visiting programs, public education, training sessions for teachers, E-Learning Programs of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Centre for Child Protection). Many of these programs have proven partially effective. Nevertheless, until now there is no consensus in the scientific community on what constitutes effectiveness in this context. Reasons for this are the discrepancies in definitions or the scarcity of attention which the evaluation of prevention measures has received. PMID:24517625

  8. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  9. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse...

  10. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  11. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  12. Another Look at Sexual Abuse Prevention for Young Children: A Revised Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Susan; Sippel, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the revision of "Let's Talk about Touching," a child sexual abuse prevention program widely used in early childhood and kindergarten programs in British Columbia since 1986. Describes the program as comprised of a manual providing information about sexual abuse, information on the teacher's role, detailed lesson plans, family information…

  13. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  14. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  15. Minority Families Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Carmen P.

    The main purpose of Avance-San Antonio, Inc. is to strengthen and support families, especially "high risk" Mexican American families, and to help to prevent child abuse and neglect through parenting education services. Avance actively reaches out to the Hispanic population in their own neighborhoods through door-to-door recruiting, flyers, and…

  16. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  17. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  19. Guidelines for School Programs in the Prevention of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This publication is intended as an initial effort by the New York state education department to provide pragmatic and realistic suggestions for the development by schools of successful drug abuse prevention programs. The information provided covers: (1) the nature of the problem; (2) present school district policies and procedures; (3) program…

  20. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8318 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound...

  1. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  2. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  3. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  4. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon; Britner, Preston A.; Woolard, Jennifer L.

    In 1993, the Community Research Group (CRG) at the University of Virginia was provided the opportunity to gather systematic information on parent education and family support programs for the prevention of abuse and neglect throughout Virginia. Based on the group's research into 25 distinct parenting programs, this book outlines an empowering…

  5. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  6. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  7. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible.

  8. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible. PMID:17296002

  9. Come Closer around the Fire. Using Tribal Legends, Myths, and Stories in Preventing Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Multicultural Awareness, Arlington, VA.

    Intended for people working in drug abuse prevention or trying to help American Indian youth feel pride in themselves and their culture, the booklet provides specific guidelines on how to use tribal stories in preventing drug abuse. Following a brief introduction to drug abuse problems and prevention strategies, the booklet explains three kinds of…

  10. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the Web conference... Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug Testing Advisory Board (DTAB) on May 3 and 4, 2011. A portion of the... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  11. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  12. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given for the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Health Services, Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, National Advisory Council....

  13. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug Testing Advisory Board. Dates/Time/Type: August...

  14. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given for the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... and Mental Health Services; Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention National...

  15. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP... Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention National Advisory Council. Date/Time/Type: June 9, 2010,...

  16. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing Advisory Board. Dates/Time/Type: September...

  17. 3 CFR 8355 - Proclamation 8355 of April 1, 2009. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the...

  18. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  19. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  20. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  1. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  2. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  3. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  4. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...

  5. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  6. The assessment of child abuse potential and the prevention of child abuse and neglect: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, R A; Bogat, G A; Davidson, W S

    1988-10-01

    A frequently advocated strategy for increasing the efficiency of child abuse prevention programs is to deliver prevention services to "high-risk" populations. This article critically reviews procedures for the reliable and valid assessment of child abuse potential within an ecological perspective. Factors that limit the usefulness of child abuse risk assessment are discussed. These factors include the uncertain criteria of child abuse and neglect, the low base rate of the phenomenon, and the financial and social costs of such procedures. Finally, the prevention implications of the current and future state of the art in child abuse risk assessment are considered and preventive interventions that do not depend on individual case risk screening are advocated.

  7. The Ability of Elementary School Children to Learn Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutty, Leslie M.

    1992-01-01

    This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…

  8. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  9. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  10. 3 CFR 8791 - Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8791 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8791 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President of the... Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support... a million American children suffer neglect or abuse every year. A strong and well-informed...

  11. Preventing substance abuse: the state of the art.

    PubMed Central

    Durell, J; Bukoski, W

    1984-01-01

    While drug abuse among adolescents and young adults has begun to decline from the epidemic levels of the late 1970s, it remains a serious national health problem. Much information from research suggests that young people at the junior and senior high school levels are the most vulnerable to the social pressures that lead to experimental and then regular use of psychoactive substances. Well-designed prevention programs for youngsters in these age groups have the potential to prevent the onset and development of regular drug use. Primary prevention strategies developed over the past two decades--media campaigns, school drug education programs, and "generic" programs--are reviewed, and evaluative research is discussed. The authors describe two additional prevention approaches--the "macro" approach (creating a climate of nondrug use) and positive peer pressure strategies--for which early data suggest genuine promise for the future. PMID:6422491

  12. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  13. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  14. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  15. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  16. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  17. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... across disciplines working to address abuse, neglect, and exploitation of elders and vulnerable adults. With members representing ... Abuse (INPEA) will host the Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation of the Elderly Interest Group Meeting on November ...

  18. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  19. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  20. Understanding a Need...Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This booklet provides an overview of alcohol and other drug abuse prevention, disability, and the relationship between the two issues. It cites the incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse among people with disabilities. It looks at alcohol and other drug abuse risk factors that are disability related, such as medication use, chronic pain,…

  1. Keeping Kids Safe: A Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson

    The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…

  2. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  3. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  4. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  5. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  6. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools.

  7. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  8. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  9. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  10. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  11. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  12. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  13. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  15. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  16. Comprehensive Outcomes Planning: Strategies for a Non-Profit Child Abuse Prevention Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christina Olenik; Davis, Stephanie Rice

    This paper discusses the development of evaluation strategies for a nonprofit child abuse prevention agency in Maryland. The Family Tree, an organization associated with National Parents Anonymous and the National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse, serves more than 15,000 people per year through community training,…

  17. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Four. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This revised curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' affective and cognitive skills. The introductory section presents the rationale for the school-community drug abuse prevention program…

  18. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  19. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  20. Preventing Substance Abuse among Children and Adolescents: Family-Centered Approaches. Practitioner's Guide. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…

  1. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  2. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested.

  3. Proximate Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Piche, Christiane; Poitras, Michele

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the sexual child abuse prevention program ESPACE were evaluated with 133 Canadian children (grades 1-3). Children participating in the prevention program showed greater preventive knowledge and skills relative to children not participating. Follow-up data showed knowledge gains were maintained while the preventive skill gains may…

  4. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  5. Assertiveness training to prevent verbal abuse in the OR.

    PubMed

    Buback, Debra

    2004-01-01

    THE HIGH INCIDENCE OF VERBAL ABUSE directed toward perioperative nurses by surgeons has been the subject of recent research studies. REPEATED INCIDENTS of verbal abuse in the OR contribute to increased incidence of errors, low morale, and high turnover among nursing staff members. ASSERTIVENESS TRAINING that focuses on conflict resolution and communication skills is an effective method of coping with verbal abuse. EACH MEMBER is a vital part of the perioperative team. Any disruption to the team, including verbal abuse, can compromise patient safety. Collaboration among team members is critical to ensure safe patient outcomes. PMID:14763584

  6. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project, Phase Two, Three and Four. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This document presents the final report from an educational and community development program designed to raise awareness about the abuse and neglect of the elderly. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project is briefly described in terms of project goals, objectives, the model used, the target groups served, and the evaluation processes employed. It is…

  7. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  8. Moving Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs Forward: Improving Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene; McCloskey, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen evaluations of programs to prevent child abuse and neglect are reviewed. The evaluations were characterized by careful attention to methodologic detail but lacked definitions of abuse or neglect. Important topics are omitted, such as the consequences and costs of medical neglect. (Author/JDD)

  9. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  11. Family Support Programs and the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition, Chicago, IL.

    This overview examines underlying precepts and components of family support programs. The role of the family in a child's resistance to alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse is discussed. Comprehensive prevention programs encompassing the family, school, and community have shown more promise in helping children avoid AOD abuse than programs that rely…

  12. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  13. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  14. Schools and Drugs: A Guide to Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Curricula & Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This guide to kindergarten through 12th grade drug abuse prevention curricula and programs addresses the need for thorough training of all school personnel, including teachers, counselors, nurses, administrators, and school board members. The first chapter discusses what can realistically be expected of school-based substance abuse prevention…

  15. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program: Impact in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…

  16. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance...

  17. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-462, notice is hereby given of...

  18. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  19. Primary Prevention of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma: A Cost Audit and Cost-Utility Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter; Sharplin, Peter; Kelly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain comprehensive, reliable data on the direct cost of pediatric abusive head trauma in New Zealand, and to use this data to evaluate the possible cost-benefit of a national primary prevention program. Methods: A 5 year cohort of infants with abusive head trauma admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand was reviewed. We…

  20. Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment in Rural Communities: Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    The two reports reprinted here address prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect in rural areas through self-help programs. The larger report, that of the Appalachian Citizens for Children's Rights (ACCR) Project, describes project purposes: to develop a community development model for child abuse/neglect using resources already existing…

  1. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  2. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  3. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  4. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  5. Minority Drug Abuse Prevention: An Overview of the State of the Art. (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, John L.

    This paper describes (1) the role of the Center for Multicultural Awareness (CMA) in providing technical assistance and identifying and designing culturally relevant materials for the prevention of drug abuse among minority groups, and (2) the current status of State and local drug abuse programs in relation to minority groups. The development of…

  6. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  7. Elder Abuse Prevention Project - Phase I. Literature Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Lori; And Others

    This document summarizes information on elder abuse collected from various sources in Canada and the United States. It is noted that document entries are often representative of more than one source, and have been selected as each adds something new and valuable to the overall research on elder abuse. An attempt has been made to choose information…

  8. Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention for Abuse among Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah; Dubard, Melanie; Henderson, Amanda; Mcintosh, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are at increased risk for abuse by their parents, caretakers, and the staff who are entrusted with their care as well as from the general population. Many individuals with disabilities have cognitive or communication impairments that place them at even higher risk for abuse. These limitations also make it more…

  9. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ..., including specimen characteristics, collection, preparation, and stability; drug analytes, analyte stability... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... scientific ] supportability of the hair specimen for federal workplace drug testing, a historical...

  10. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  11. New Hope for Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Proven Solutions To Save Lives and Prevent Future Crime. A Report by Fight Crime: Invest in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, David; Miller, Cate; Rollin, Miriam; Evans, Phil; Shah, Rita

    Asserting that children who are abused or neglected are at risk of becoming future violent criminals, this report argues that this cycle of violence can be prevented by investing in recently confirmed abuse prevention and intervention strategies. The report presents information on the number of deaths each year due to abuse and neglect and calls…

  12. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  13. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-11-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  14. Prediction and Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse: Role of Preclinical Assessment of Substance Abuse Liability.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Novak, Scott P; Blough, Bruce E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical benefit. To facilitate scheduling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published guidance for industry that describes assessment of abuse liability. The purpose of this paper is to review methods that may be used to satisfy the FDA's regulatory requirements for animal behavioral and dependence pharmacology. Methods include psychomotor activity, self-administration (an animal model of the rewarding effects of a drug), drug discrimination (an animal model of the subjective effects of a drug), and evaluation of tolerance and dependence. Data from tests conducted at RTI with known drugs of abuse illustrate typical results, and demonstrate that RTI is capable of performing these tests. While using preclinical data to predict abuse liability is an imperfect process, it has substantial predictive validity. The ultimate goal is to increase consumer safety through appropriate scheduling of new medications.

  15. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  16. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... nationwide. Through the Affordable Care Act, we expanded substance use disorder and mental health benefits... from drug and alcohol abuse. I encourage parents, schools, health officials, law enforcement... limited by substance use, which threatens health, safety, and academic performance. Substance...

  17. Prevent elder abuse--using a family systems approach.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G P

    1989-03-01

    1. Family stressors occur when the adult child is caregiver for an elderly parent, particularly when care is intensive or protracted. Under certain circumstances of high risk, severe and unresolved strains in intergenerational relationships can develop into elder abuse. 2. Elder abuse is a non-accidental act or omission that causes physical, psychological, or financial harm to an older person. 3. Using a family systems perspective, an original validated instrument is presented that evaluates the risk of elder abuse in the home (REAH). Using this instrument, the nurse can construct two profiles of 1) the older person, including personal data and dependency needs, and 2) the caregiver, including personal data and family dynamics. 4. The instrument provides a simple method for recognizing family strains and noting changes over time within the family system. Appropriate interventions and referrals can be initiated that may avert the crisis of elder abuse. PMID:2926101

  18. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8022 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... nurturing family and a safe environment, free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual,...

  19. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  20. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan Was'aka, Denver,…

  1. Being real and being realistic: chemical abuse prevention, teen counselors, and an ethic of care.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, N G

    1997-01-01

    Despite the national goal of "drug-free" schools, recent data suggest that chemical abuse among school-aged children remains a concern. This qualitative case study presents a "unique case" within one school's substance abuse prevention program. In this program, pioneered in 1973, pairs of teen counselors "adopt" a middle school classroom and make regularly scheduled visits to conduct chemical abuse prevention sessions. Two of the teen counselors were perceived by both themselves and the faculty advisor as unlike other teen counselors. This study explores themes surrounding how they viewed their mission and carried it out. Two themes emerged as significant. These particular teen counselors saw both their role and their mission as being "real" and being "realistic." This perspective represents a concrete expression of the ethic of care described by Nel Noddings. It is a perspective which should be considered in developing teen counselor programs or any chemical abuse prevention program.

  2. Drama-based education to motivate participation in substance abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stephens-Hernandez, Aileen B; Livingston, Jonathan N; Dacons-Brock, Karen; Craft, Howard L; Cameron, Amura; Franklin, Steven O; Howlett, Allyn C

    2007-01-01

    Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing the play. It was found that the

  3. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue.

  4. Detection, diagnosis, and prevention of child abuse: the role of the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Johan; Deneyer, Michel; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    It is the pediatrician's role to promote the child's well-being and to help parents raise healthy, well-adjusted children. Today's pediatricians are confronted with a patient population in which there is a high prevalence of child abuse in its different presentations (physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and/or neglect). The immediate and long-term consequences of child abuse often are lifelong and even life-threatening in its most dramatic presentation. Unfortunately, detection of child abuse remains a difficult challenge for many physicians but also for the "well-trained" pediatrician, leaving many abused children unreported. This paper addresses the important role pediatricians can play in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of child maltreatment. PMID:22105870

  5. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  6. Drug Abuse Prevention: School-based Strategies That Work. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris

    This Digest discusses the role of the school, the community, and teacher preparation programs in alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) prevention among adolescents. It proposes that a comprehensive drug abuse prevention curriculum should incorporate: (1) normative education to help students realize that use of ATOD is not the norm for…

  7. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  8. Twenty Years Later: We Do Know How to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, John M.

    1996-01-01

    This review of the past 20 years in child abuse and neglect prevention discusses the effectiveness of both general and targeted prevention services, especially home visiting; 9 ingredients of a successful home visiting program; the need for additional resources to cover home visiting services; and cautions against overselling or underselling…

  9. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  10. Alternatives for Young Americans: A Catalog of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This reference book contains resumes of program descriptions geared toward youth and adults who need or want information on drug abuse prevention programs, locally or nationally. Several major entries include: (1) national program models; (2) evaluated alternative programs from all states; and (3) descriptions of prevention programs. All section…

  11. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  12. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention: An Expanded Perspective for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that a successful "war" on alcohol and other drug abuse requires cooperation among counselors and other helping professionals, beginning among professional counselors. View of counselors' roles must be expanded, as well as those of schools, government agencies, law enforcement officials, health professionals, and recreational specialists.…

  13. Drug Abuse Education and Prevention Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    In a national poll conducted in 1988, 83 percent of the American people felt that the nation's drug problem was "out of control." In 1988, Congress, responding to the public mandate, passed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. Title III of the Act specifically addressed these issues by authorizing two anti-drug programs for youth. These two programs…

  14. Sexual Abuse Prevention Treatment Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    The paper describes a federally funded project of the University of Alberta (Canada) addressing sexual assault and sexual abuse of people with disabilities. Written in outline style, the paper briefly describes project activities and general conclusions. Phase I of the project documented the nature and extent of the problem. It was concluded that…

  15. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  16. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  17. Compliance, medical records, and the FBI: preventing fraud and abuse.

    PubMed

    Vincze, L S

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of an investigation related to fraud and abuse is the last thing most people want to think about, but it's important to be prepared, just in case. The author gives some advice on how to react if your facility is the target of an investigation and points out some important steps to take to ensure compliance.

  18. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... protect the well-being of our children by recognizing the signs of violence and creating safe, stable, and... mistreatment like substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also supporting programs that expand coordination of early childhood services in order to improve outcomes for young children. As...

  19. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  20. Prediction and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jane D.; And Others

    Examined was the feasibility of predicting the potential for abnormal child rearing practices, including child abuse and neglect among 350 mothers. Through interviews, questionnaires, and observations during labor, delivery and the postpartum period, 100 mothers were identified as at high risk for abnormal parenting procedures. Ss were then…

  1. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  2. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  3. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ronald G

    2012-10-16

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant's caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant-caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally.

  4. Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life as a trigger for the abuse. In part, this is because infant crying, especially prolonged unsoothable crying, has been interpreted clinically as something wrong with the infant, the infant’s caregiver, or the interactions between them. Here, we review an alternative developmental interpretation, namely, that the early increase in crying is a typical behavioral development in normal infants and usually does not reflect anything wrong or abnormal. We also review evidence indicating that this normal crying pattern is the most common trigger for abusive head trauma (AHT). Together, these findings point to a conceptualization of AHT as the consequence of a failure in an otherwise common, iterative, and developmentally normal infant–caregiver interaction. They also imply that there is a window of opportunity for prevention of AHT, and potentially other forms of infant abuse, through a public health primary universal prevention strategy aimed at changing knowledge and behaviors of caregivers and society in general concerning normal development of infants and the significance of early increased infant crying. If effective, there may be important implications for prevention of infant abuse nationally and internationally. PMID:23045677

  5. Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? Issues in policy, programming and research.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, J

    1986-01-01

    Can we measure success in preventing child abuse? As the field of child abuse and neglect prevention matures intellectually and as more and more agencies require evaluative research to substantiate claims of programmatic success, this issue is emerging with ever growing vigor. This paper reviews efforts to set prevention goals in the United States, e.g., by the federal government's Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and by the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. For such goal setting to be defensible and socially productive, it must be linked to a research base. This research base is growing and maturing. The home health visitor concept, in particular, has received clear and powerful support as a preventive strategy. However, many issues remain concerning other strategies. Of equal or greater importance are the many difficulties we face in documenting base rates of maltreatment with which to assess the impact of preventive interventions. Questions remain about the adequacy of infant mortality data, child injury rates, and the validity of officially reported cases of child maltreatment. The paper reviews the data available to clarify and resolve these issues, and outlines a strategy for assessing success of efforts to reduce severity and incidence of child abuse in the United States. These efforts are presented in the context of a series of principles regarding child abuse prevention, e.g., the difference between prevention linked to broad social and economic reforms versus preventive programming targeted at ameliorating the lives of high-risk families in the absence of broad socioeconomic change.

  6. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  7. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  8. Sex differences in drug abuse: Etiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady

    2015-08-01

    This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. PMID:26237316

  9. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  10. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  11. Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, 1982. Prepared for the President Pursuant to the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.

    This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…

  12. An Evaluation of the Fidelity of Implementation of a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skara, Silvana; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an implementation fidelity evaluation of the fourth experimental trial of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND). Two theoretical content components of the curriculum were examined to increase our understanding of the active ingredients of successful drug abuse prevention programs. A total of 18 senior high schools were randomly…

  13. The prevention of adolescent drug abuse: Implications from etiological, developmental, behavioral, and environmental models.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Murray, D M

    1985-09-01

    This article reviews the contributions of varying theoretical models for the development of more effective drug abuse prevention programs. Etiological research is emphasized because of its direct application to prevention interventions. This research includes etiological work on stages of development, socialization and selection, self-esteem, antisocial behavior, distribution of consumption, problem behavior, domain theory, and learning theory. Developmental, behavioral, and environmental models refine the actual intervention development. Implications from this research for further, necessary etiological work for improving prevention programs are proposed.

  14. Drug Abuse Prevention for At-Risk Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Leona; Kumpfer, Karol L.

    The purpose of this resource manual is to provide the reader with an increased understanding of the concept of indicated prevention. The manual describes key features of indicated prevention strategies, briefly describes some examples of successful indicated prevention programs implemented in different settings, and presents a detailed description…

  15. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  16. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  17. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  18. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  19. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  20. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  1. Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescents. NIDA Research Monograph 63. A RAUS Review Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Catherine S., Ed.; Battjes, Robert, Ed.

    Papers from the meeting "Prevention Research: Deterring Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents" which focused on social skills and social inoculation approaches and also included a contrasting cognitive-developmental approach are presented in this document. These papers are included: (1) "Overview of Drug Abuse Prevention Research," (Catherine…

  2. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  3. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  4. Athletes Coaching Teens (ACT) for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Steven J.

    Athletes Coaching Teens (ACT) is a school-based prevention program for seventh grade students in Richmond, Virginia. The project is a collaborative effort between the Department of Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University and the Richmond City Public Schools. The ACT program is directed at preventing and changing health-compromising…

  5. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  6. GHB Abuse Trends and Use in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: Implications for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…

  7. Federal Standards for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment Programs and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, A. Catherine

    Presented are federal standards designed to synthesize and describe the knowledge available on the prevention and treatment of child abuse and negect. A summary chapter (Chapter I) covers background information, organization and content of the standards, and utilization of the standards. Chapter II discusses the relationships among children,…

  8. 3 CFR 8490 - Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... healthy families, and building a brighter future for all Americans. Every child deserves a nurturing... plays a critical role as well. My Administration is committed to helping future generations succeed. We... activities that help prevent child abuse and provide for children's physical, emotional, and...

  9. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  10. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  11. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  12. Improving Preschoolers' Comprehension of Sex Abuse Prevention Concepts through Video Repetition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinon, Marites F.; Hulsey, Timothy L.; Woodland, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Determined whether having preschoolers review video segments they did not initially comprehend would increase their comprehension of sex abuse prevention concepts. States that children who viewed repetition of program segment learned more than children who viewed the segment once. Concludes that this method of enhancing children's comprehension of…

  13. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  14. School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Review of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.; Barron, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    In this systematic and critical review of purely school based child sexual abuse prevention program efficacy studies, 22 studies meeting the inclusion criteria differed by target population, program implementation, and evaluation methodology. Measured outcomes for children included knowledge, skills, emotion, risk perception, touch discrimination,…

  15. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  16. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  17. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  18. Community Notification: Perceptions of Its Effectiveness in Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlich, Allison D.

    2001-01-01

    Megan's law enables law enforcement to notify communities when convicted sex offenders reside in their neighborhoods. Investigates community members', law enforcement officials', and law students' attitudes toward community notification and other child abuse prevention measures. The groups significantly differed in support of Megan's Law and…

  19. Evaluating the Acceptability of Four Versions of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine college students used a modified version of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form to evaluate the acceptability of four versions of a sexual abuse prevention program for 10-year-old children. The four versions include an information-based training approach or a behavioral skills training (BST) approach with a focus on strangers…

  20. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  1. Domestic Abuse Prevention Education: Listening to the Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claire L.; Hale, Rebecca; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings derived as part of a two-year project funded by the European Union's Daphne III scheme, involving collaboration between seven partner organisations across six European countries. The project involved an evaluation, using questionnaires and focus groups, of domestic abuse prevention education programmes delivered…

  2. The Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program: A Mental Health-Law Enforcement Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Schlessinger, Kari M.; DiCicco, Tina M.; Anzalone, William F.; Leslie, Tricia L.; George, John A.; Werder, Edward J.; Massey, Larry L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study provides preliminary data concerning the efficacy of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program, a collaborative effort involving mental health and law enforcement. ADAPT is a multi-component, cognitive-behavioral outpatient intervention serving children and youth referred directly from local police…

  3. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  4. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  5. Parent-Centered Intervention: A Practical Approach for Preventing Drug Abuse in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present article is to review and discuss Familias Unidas, an empirically supported, family-based, culturally specific drug abuse and HIV prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their families. Method: The authors focus on engagement and retention as well as on intervention delivery.…

  6. Preventive Interventions under Managed Care: Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Sharon L.

    Programs and services that prevent substance abuse and mental health disorders have the potential to lessen an enormous burden of suffering and to reduce both the cost of future treatment and lost productivity at work and home. The availability and accessibility of these interventions to Americans whose health care is provided by managed care…

  7. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  8. Family Effectiveness Training: An Intervention to Prevent Drug Abuse and Problem Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studies efficacy of Family Effectiveness Training (FET), a prevention and intervention model used with Hispanic families of preadolescents at risk of drug abuse. Studies 79 Hispanic families assigned to FET or control group. FET families showed greater improvement in structural family functioning, reported problem behaviors, and child…

  9. Methodology for Evaluating an Adaptation of Evidence-Based Drug Abuse Prevention in Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Laura M.; Steiker, Lori K. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth an innovative methodological protocol for culturally grounding interventions with high-risk youths in alternative schools. This study used mixed methods to evaluate original and adapted versions of a culturally grounded substance abuse prevention program. The qualitative and quantitative methods…

  10. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  11. Teaching Personal Safety Skills for Potential Prevention of Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of various educational approaches for teaching personal safety skills to children in an effort to possibly prevent sexual abuse: (a) a filmed program ("Touch"), (b) a behavioral skills training program in which modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and social reinforcement were used to teach safety skills, (c) a combination of…

  12. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  13. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  14. The Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: Successfully Out of the Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, John M.

    2001-01-01

    This commentary reviews progress towards the development and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect and promoting the health and development of the infant and mother. The effectiveness of the Healthy Families model and the Olds' model are highlighted, and challenges facing home visitation programs are…

  15. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  16. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Workshop in a Multicultural, Impoverished Urban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Frappier, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Participants in the ESPACE sexual abuse prevention workshop were in grades 1 through 4 and attended three Montreal, Canada, public schools in low socioeconomic areas. The sample was culturally diverse, with half born outside of Canada. An evaluation was conducted to explore the effects associated with participating in the workshop and the effects…

  17. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  18. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  19. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  20. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  1. The Relationship Between Friends' Marijuana Use, Family Cohesion, School Interest and Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babst, Dean V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of students respond to various drug abuse prevention areas. This study is based on a school survey completed by 4,000 rural students and 2,700 suburban students. Students most involved with drugs were those least receptive to traditional educational programs. (Author)

  2. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest children…

  3. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  4. Child abuse and dental neglect: the dental team's role in identification and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, Mm; Montagna, F; Marcario, V; De Rosa, S; Solarino, B; Di Vella, G

    2009-05-01

    Health, education and social services are placing increasing emphasis on preventing abuse and neglect by early intervention to support families where children and young people may be at risk. Dental hygienist and dental assistants, like all other health professionals, can have a part in recognizing and preventing children from those who would cause them harm. They should be aware of the warning signs, recognizing what to consider as abuse or dental neglect and know how to deal with these young patients, and to fulfil their legal and ethical obligation to report suspected cases. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and dental neglect thus helping the dental team in detecting such conditions. In particular, this report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, early childhood caries and diseases that may be indicative of child abuse or neglect. Emphasis is placed on an appropriate protocol to follow in the dental practice to best treat and protect children who may have suffered abuse, helping the team in the diagnosis and documentation. PMID:19413546

  5. Preventing alcohol abuse in the gay community: toward a theory and model.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, J E; Ziebold, T O

    1982-01-01

    Urban gay communities present unique populations for a comprehensive prevention program. They are well defined, bounded communities with rapid internal communication, can be considered "at risk" for alcoholism, and are traditionally "underserved" for prevention and treatment. Models of alcoholism epidemiology elucidate critical factors relevant to the urban gay population, and indigenous gay organizations afford effective means of implementing a program. The model presented in this paper is based upon current research about successful prevention programs and uses accepted strategies tailored to the specific characteristics of the urban gay community. The basic premise of the model is that community self help is the most effective approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention. PMID:7130692

  6. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. PMID:27509010

  7. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention.

  8. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and

  9. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden. PMID:17890200

  10. Potential lessons from public health and health promotion for the prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Joanne B; Green, Lawrence W; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2007-01-01

    Two successful public health efforts of the last third of the twentieth century-tobacco control and automobile injury control-are reviewed for relevance to the problem of child abuse. Potential lessons for child abuse prevention are identified and the following approaches are suggested: Investigate varied logic models or conceptual frameworks to identify new opportunities for effective intervention. Use a multidisciplinary, multi-sector approach. Normalize desired behaviors and denormalize undesirable behaviors. Balance efficacy, feasibility, and cultural appropriateness. Develop strategies for effective policy advocacy based upon who benefits and who shoulders most of the burden.

  11. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  12. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  13. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes.

  14. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Guide for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    The focus of this book is on the identification of practical knowledge and skill needed and an action plan to implement prevention programming in schools. The text is written as a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling. It is designed to facilitate development of knowledge necessary to implement comprehensive…

  15. Finding Ways to Effectively Prevent Sexual Abuse by Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alisa; Tabachnick, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Youth with sexual behavior problems pose a complicated challenge to the society. Yet the society has succeeded in developing only a limited range of actions and attitudes to grapple with and prevent this problem. Very few of the social service and criminal justice systems have rallied to create compassionate models that not only address and…

  16. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  17. The prevention of analgesic opioids abuse: expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, I; Gerra, G; Ripamonti, I C; Mugelli, A; Allegri, M; Viganò, R; Romualdi, P; Pinto, C; Raffaeli, W; Coluzzi, F; Gatti, R C; Mammucari, M; Fanelli, G

    2015-11-01

    Opioids are drugs of reference for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Their proper use and a periodic assessment of the patient are crucial to prevent misuse. A multidisciplinary group suggests strategies for all stakeholders involved in the management of pain and suggests the importance of the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:26592848

  18. Culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban Native youth.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Solis; Plasencia, Ana Vanesa

    2005-09-01

    This article will examine HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention for urban Native youth in Oakland, California. It will highlight the Native American Health Center's Youth Services programs. These programs incorporate solutions based on a traditional value system rooted in Native culture and consisting of youth empowerment, leadership training, prevention activities, traditional cultural activities and wellness and life skills education. They aim to reduce HIV/AIDS and substance abuse risk for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth through structured, community-based interventions. The Youth Services Program's events, such as the Seventh Native American Generation and the Gathering of Native Americans, offer effective and culturally relevant ways of teaching youth about American Indian/Alaska Native history, intergenerational trauma, and traditional Native culture. Satisfaction surveys gathered from these youth provide invaluable data on the positive effects of these prevention efforts. The need for culturally relevant and culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is apparent. These prevention efforts must be creatively integrated into the multidimensional and complex social structures of Native American youth.

  19. Roundtable on prevention of fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs, March 23--24, 1987, Highland Hotel, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Identification of Issues and Preventive Measures Associated with Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Conservation Programs; Working Papers Prepared by Roundtable Discussants; Annotated Bibliography of Publications Related to Prevention/Detection of Fraud and Abuse in DOE and LIHEAP Conservation Programs; and List of Members on Task Force for Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs.

  20. The ability of elementary school children to learn child sexual abuse prevention concepts.

    PubMed

    Tutty, L M

    1992-01-01

    This research was designed to address several of the methodological problems in the current body of knowledge on the efficacy of child abuse prevention programs for elementary school-aged children. A new measure, the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire (C.K.A.Q.) was developed, and its psychometric properties assessed. In total, 400 children were tested in four groups. Half of the sample participated in a child abuse prevention program Touching, and the other half were in a waiting list control group. Half of each group were pretested, and the other half were not, in order to determine whether the pretesting sensitized the students. All children were tested again 5 months afterward to investigate the long-term retention of prevention concepts. Results showed that children who participated in the prevention program scored significantly higher on the C.K.A.Q. than children in the control condition. Age was a critical factor, with significant improvements as age increased between the kindergarten, Grade 1, Grade 3 and Grade 6 students. All participants maintained their level of knowledge after 5 months had passed. The relevance and practical implications which stem from this research are discussed. PMID:1617471

  1. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  2. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  3. Awareness of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education among Parents of Grade 3 Elementary School Pupils in Fuxin City, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few…

  4. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  5. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  6. "SPECDA"-A Comprehensive Approach to the Delivery of Substance Abuse Prevention Services in the New York City School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotner, Roberta; Lilly, Levander

    1986-01-01

    Evaluates SPECDA (School Program to Educate and Control Drug Abuse) a comprehensive substance abuse prevention program which links drug counselors and police officers in teams to provide drug education. Results indicated significant positive changes in children's knowledge about drugs, attitudes toward drugs, and attitudes toward polic officers…

  7. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  8. Prefrontal Cortex and Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Translation to Prevention and Treatment Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Jane E.; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and primates. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences factors (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. PMID:20837060

  9. Let’s talk about sex: helping substance abuse counsellors address HIV prevention with men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577

  10. HIV/Hepatitis Prevention in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs: Guidance From Research

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James L.; Masson, Carmen L.; Perlman, David C.

    2002-01-01

    A large body of research examines the relationship between HIV and drug dependence, but considerably less information is available on viral hepatitis and drug dependence. This article summarizes research indicating what drug abuse treatment programs can do to prevent their patients from acquiring HIV or hepatitis infection and to limit the consequences for patients who are already infected. Drug treatment programs can play a pivotal role in preventing, detecting, and treating HIV and hepatitis. Some activities can be accomplished by providers’ simply becoming aware of the issues; others will require significant infusion of leadership, education, and fiscal support. PMID:18567957

  11. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  12. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  13. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse through a Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Results of a 3-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students (N=4,466) in 56 schools participated in 3-year study on effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Students who received at least 60 percent of prevention program (N=3,684) were included in analyses of program effectiveness. Significant prevention effects were found for cigarette smoking, marijuana use,…

  14. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  15. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  16. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  17. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  18. Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: the roles of victim empathy and rape myths.

    PubMed

    Schewe, P A; O'Donohue, W

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of two sexual abuse prevention programs, one emphasizing victim empathy and the other stressing modifying rape myths, was evaluated with high-risk males. Sixty-eight high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and post-treatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scale, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced versus consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk subjects differed from low-risk subjects on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased subjects' empathy, and that subjects found both treatments to be credible and helpful. Comparisons between the empathy-, facts-, and no-treatment group contraindicated the practice of dispelling rape myths as a method of preventing rape among high-risk males. PMID:8060907

  19. Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: the roles of victim empathy and rape myths.

    PubMed

    Schewe, P A; O'Donohue, W

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of two sexual abuse prevention programs, one emphasizing victim empathy and the other stressing modifying rape myths, was evaluated with high-risk males. Sixty-eight high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and post-treatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scale, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced versus consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk subjects differed from low-risk subjects on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased subjects' empathy, and that subjects found both treatments to be credible and helpful. Comparisons between the empathy-, facts-, and no-treatment group contraindicated the practice of dispelling rape myths as a method of preventing rape among high-risk males.

  20. Substance abuse prevention and treatment within the criminal justice system: an overview of the issues.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Baird, Carolyn

    2012-02-01

    Many nurses, especially those in addictions, work directly in the prison system and or relate to inmates before or after institutionalization for criminal activity. This connection led to the theme of the 2009 Annual Education Conference held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, entitled "Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment: Working with the Criminal Justice Systems." The conference was partially funded through an award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (grant # SP015963) and focused on identifying the special risk factors for and barriers to the treatment of addictions for those who enter the criminal justice system. The conference, presented in collaboration with the American Association of Nurse Attorneys (AANA) highlighted the tremendous need for more access to addictions and mental health providers in the criminal justice system. Papers presented at that conference confirmed that nurses can make a real difference in the health of inmates, especially those of us engaged in addictions and mental health practices, and inspired this specially focused edition of the Journal of Addictions Nursing. The purpose of this editorial is to provide an overview of the addictions problems affecting individuals under supervision in the criminal justice system, barriers to treatment within this system, and the cost-benefits of evidence based treatment.

  1. Drug Abuse Office, Prevention, and Treatment Amendments of 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2916.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    The purpose of the testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in April, 1978 was to amend the drug abuse office and treatment act of 1972, thereby extending assistance programs for drug abuse prevention, education, treatment, rehabilitation and other purposes. Speakers represented such organizations as National…

  2. An integrated model for prevention and treatment of drug abuse among American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, F

    1992-01-01

    American Indian youth have been shown to be at high risk for drug abuse. Epidemiological studies of Indian school students over the past two decades have revealed rates of use consistently higher than those found for other youth. Socioeconomic and historical factors have led to conditions that put a great deal of stress on the family and other support systems which in part account for the seriousness of the problem. A model is presented which can guide both prevention and treatment efforts addressing drug abuse in Indian communities. Five variable domains, social structure, socialization factors, psychological variables, peer associations and drug use, are related in an integrated structure. By following the progression of the etiological variables, a stepwise plan can be developed to organize interventions. Although the model has immediate utility, a number of further research questions are outlined that will enhance its application.

  3. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  4. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  5. Preventing and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Guidance for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Cindy

    This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…

  6. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  7. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483

  8. A Lifespan Developmental-Stage Approach to Tobacco and Other Drug Abuse Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At least by informal design, tobacco and other drug abuse prevention programs are tailored to human developmental stage. However, few papers have been written to examine how programming has been formulated as a function of developmental stage throughout the lifespan. In this paper, I briefly define lifespan development, how it pertains to etiology of tobacco and other drug use, and how prevention programming might be constructed by five developmental stages: (a) young child, (b) older child, (c) young teen, (d) older teen, and (e) adult (emerging, young-to-middle and older adult substages). A search of the literature on tobacco and other drug abuse prevention by developmental stage was conducted, and multiple examples of programs are provided for each stage. A total of 34 programs are described as examples of each stage (five-young children, 12-older children, eight-young teens, four-older teens, and five-adults). Implications for future program development research are stated. In particular, I suggest that programming continue to be developed for all stages in the lifespan, as opposed to focusing on a single stage and that developmentally appropriate features continues to be pursued to maximize program impact. PMID:25298961

  9. 78 FR 8987 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section in the NPRM (77 FR 75300) for further information on how to comment on...

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  11. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  12. Preventive involvement in child abuse and neglect by general pediatrician in a military community.

    PubMed

    Brown, G W

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three cases among nineteen troubled families of U.S. Coast Guard personnel with problems of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii were managed by joint U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Army, State and County child protection, social and health staff, and local and area-wide lay volunteers. These cases ranged from inaccurate accusations in an emergency room to abdominal gunshot wounds. The preventive role of primary pediatric involvement in community health areas such as pre-school, day care, prenatal infant care education, parent discussion groups, and lay therapists is stressed. The early intervention therapy of pediatric advocacy for social and psychological services to families in stress is emphasized. Continued pediatric leadership for prevention and early intervention is essential in our times of pervasive family breakdown.

  13. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes.

  14. Efficacy of child abuse and neglect prevention messages in the Florida Winds of Change campaign.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie

    2012-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes. PMID:22206348

  15. Iran’s Activities on Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher; Jadidi, Mohsen; Khalili, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Context: In the present review study, authors investigated Iran’s activities regarding prevention, abuse and harm reduction of drugs nationwide. The issue appears to be important in order to show the trend of activities in the country. Evidence Acquisition: In this report, authors gathered data from different Farsi/English peer review journals issued both in printed and online versions. These journals have been indexed in PubMed, ISI, ISC, SID, Magiran, UN, etc. These are among the most referred and cited databases. Results: Summarizing the data led to three distinguished sections: 1) drug supply reduction activities; 2) drug demand reduction activities; 3) harm reduction activities. Conclusions: As the results showed, the trend of activities was encouraging and some additional activities could be included to future programs relying on early-onset preventions. PMID:26870709

  16. Treatment and prevention of elder abuse and neglect: where knowledge and practice meet-a model for intervention to prevent and treat elder abuse in Israel.

    PubMed

    Alon, Sara; Berg-Warman, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    Successful handling of elder abuse and neglect requires various interventions. This article presents findings from an evaluation study of a model for intervention implemented in three municipalities in Israel. Data from 558 older adults, exposed to abuse and treated through the program, and interviews with victims, abusers, and professionals revealed that improvement was achieved in 66% of the cases. In 20% of the cases, the abuse was stopped. The most widespread type of intervention consisted of individual counseling. Legal intervention yielded the highest rate of improvement (82%). Provision of supportive services for victims of neglect was found to be most effective (82% of improvement in the situation).

  17. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  18. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  19. Elder abuse and neglect--"old phenomenon": new directions for research, legislation, and service developments. (2008 Rosalie S. Wolf Memorial Elder Abuse Prevention Award--International Category Lecture).

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Ariela

    2009-01-01

    This article poses the question: Is elder abuse and neglect a social problem, showing that it is. Elder abuse, though, is still the most hidden form of mistreatment and a key to governmental responses to an ageing population. It is an important facet as a family violence problem, an intergenerational concern, as well as a health, justice and human rights issue. Because the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect is so complex and multi-dimensional, it has to be addressed by multi-professional and inter-disciplinary approaches. Raising awareness is a fundamental prevention strategy and an important step in causing changes in attitudes and behaviors. This has been accomplished by INPEA and the article was developed from the lecture given by the author on receiving the International Rosalie Wolf Award from INPEA. The discussion focuses on elder abuse as a product of global ageing, stemming from population ageing, which is consistent with an increased prevalence of abuse of all vulnerable groups, older people among them. It is pointed out that baseline and trend data on the nature and prevalence of senior abuse are crucial to policy responses and the development of appropriate programs and services. Difficulties in assessing the scope of the phenomenon, though, are due to: problems in definitions and methodology, which create difficulties in comparing data from various countries; lack of social and familial awareness; isolation of some elders, especially migrants; elder abuse as a 'hidden issue' that usually occurs in the privacy of the home and is viewed as a family affair; limited access to institutional settings. Difficulties also exist in constructing a unifying research framework in order to study the phenomenon due to a lack of comparison groups, a lack of representative national surveys and difficulties in measurement. There is currently, however, an increase in prevalence and incidence studies from both sides of the Atlantic and especially from Europe. But while

  20. Disentangling life events, stress and social support: implications for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Howze, D C; Kotch, J B

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature linking stress and child abuse and neglect, but the relationship is not unambiguously supported by empirical data. Two considerations regarding Garbarino's ecological model of child abuse and neglect may explain this research problem. First, any of the predisposing factors, which are grouped into four levels called individual, familial, social, and cultural, may either positively or negatively affect the potential for child abuse and neglect depending upon the quality of social networks and social supports available to families. Second, these factors operate most importantly, not between the perception of stress and the act of abuse or neglect, but through the interpretation of whether a given life event is stressful or not. This clarification of the ecological model points the way to redefining interventions for the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect. Existing support systems can be strengthened in order to increase a family's ability to cope with untoward events before these become stressful. In addition, advocacy activities which support children and families in general can be major components in the primary prevention of child abuse and neglect.

  1. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  2. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  3. Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural versus Urban Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Pullen, Erin; Harp, Kathi LH

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors are vulnerable to burnout, which has negative repercussions for the counselor, employing organization, and clients. However, little is known about differences in counselor burnout from the counselors’ perspective in rural versus urban treatment centers. In 2008, focus group data from 28 rural and urban counselors in a southern state was analyzed, revealing three burnout themes across all counselors: causes, consequences, and prevention. However, there were various differences between rural and urban counselors in sub-themes with only rural counselors citing office politics and low occupational prestige as causes of burnout. Only urban counselors reported responses endorsing the sub-themes of role reversal, clients trying to choose their counselors, and changing jobs as consequences of burnout. All counselors cited co-worker support, clinical supervision, and self-care as important strategies for managing burnout. In sum, context clearly matters as rural counselors cited more causes of burnout; yet, the implications of burnout are universal in that they often lead to poor quality clinical care. There is a continued need for greater understanding of addiction as a disease, which would reduce stigma, especially in rural areas, as well as increase the prestige and earning potential of the substance abuse counseling occupation. PMID:23662328

  4. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects. PMID:25776110

  5. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  6. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  7. Child Abuse: What We Know about Prevention Strategies. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document contains testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine strategies for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Witnesses include the director of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, several representatives from Parents Anonymous, a psychiatric social worker who is also a…

  8. Cultural Competence for Evaluators: A Guide for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Practitioners Working with Ethnic/Racial Communities. OSAP Cultural Competence Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlandi, Mario A., Ed.; And Others

    As an introduction to a series on the array of issues in the implementation and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs, this volume attempts to integrate two types of competence for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention program practitioners: program evaluation competence and cultural competence. The chapters in this document provide…

  9. Hearing on Drug Abuse Prevention and Education. Hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The text of a hearing on drug abuse prevention and education is provided in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Augustus Hawkins which briefly describes progress that has been made towards drug abuse prevention legislation, statements are given by these witnesses: (1) Carolyn Burns of the National Federation of Parents for…

  10. Measuring fidelity to a culturally adapted HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Burlew, A. Kathleen; Turnbull, Sharriann; Robinson, Michael; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    A fidelity measure was developed for use with Real Men Are Safe-Culturally Adapted (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment. The aims of this analysis were to: 1) assess the reliability of the Fidelity Rating and Skill Evaluation (FRASE); 2) measure improvement in therapist competence and adherence over time while delivering REMAS-CA; and 3) identify which modules of REMAS-CA were most difficult to deliver. Results showed that, 1) the FRASE was a reliable instrument; 2) therapists achieved adequate adherence and competence after training and demonstrated significant improvement over time in Global Empathy; and 3) Sessions 4 and 5 of REMAS-CA contained the most challenging modules for therapists to deliver. Recommendations for future REMAS-CA therapist trainings and fidelity monitoring are made. PMID:23810229

  11. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  12. Examining key design decisions involved in developing a serious game for child sexual abuse prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Jones, Christian M.; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the key decisions made in the design of Orbit, a child sexual abuse prevention computer game targeted at school students between 8 and 10 years of age. Key decisions include providing supported delivery for the target age group, featuring adults in the program, not over-sanitizing game content, having a focus on building healthy self-concept of players, making the game engaging and relatable for all players and evaluating the program. This case study has implications for the design of Serious Games more generally, including that research should underpin game design decisions, game designers should consider ways of bridging the game to real life, the learning that arises from the game should go beyond rote-learning, designers should consider how the player can make the game-world their own and comprehensive evaluations of Serious Games should be undertaken. PMID:24550880

  13. School-based child sexual abuse prevention programs: moving toward resiliency-informed evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barron, Ian G; Miller, David J; Kelly, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Although recent years have seen an increase in the range of child sexual abuse prevention programs delivered in schools, there have been relatively few efficacy studies. Those conducted have focused primarily on intrinsic child factors and have often lacked an explicit theoretical framework. We offer resiliency theory as a useful and apposite theoretical framework for program evaluation. Resiliency theory suggests that a wider range of factors should be considered, including intrinsic (personal characteristics) and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such factors may increase risk or, alternatively, protect children from the negative effects of adversity. We argue that a resiliency perspective to efficacy studies should recognize a long-term view on children's capacity to cope and can employ both standardized and contextual resiliency-informed measures. PMID:25635899

  14. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: evidence and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barth, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors-substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems-that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly focus on improving parenting skills, says Richard Barth, remains uncertain. Barth begins by describing how each of the four parental issues is related to child maltreatment. He then examines a variety of parent education interventions aimed at preventing child abuse. He cautions that many of the interventions have not been carefully evaluated and those that have been have shown little effect on child maltreatment or its risk factors. Although some argue that parent education cannot succeed unless family problems are also addressed, much evidence suggests that first helping parents to be more effective with their children can address mental health needs and improve the chances of substance abuse recovery. Barth recommends increased public support for research trials to compare the effectiveness of programs focused on parenting education and those aiming to reduce related risk factors. Child welfare services and evidence-based parent training, says Barth, are in a period of transformation. Evidence-based methods are rapidly emerging from a development phase that has primarily involved local and highly controlled studies into more national implementation and greater engagement with the child welfare system. The next step is effectiveness trials. Citing the importance and success of multifaceted campaigns in public health policy, Barth discusses a multifaceted parenting campaign that has demonstrated substantial promise in several large trials. The goal of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is to help parents deal with the full gamut of children's health and behavioral issues. The campaign includes five levels of intervention

  15. Let's Prevent Abuse: A Prevention Handbook for Early Childhood Professionals and Families with Young Children, with Special Emphasis on the Needs of Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deb; Martinson, Sue Ann, Ed.

    This handbook on preventing child abuse is intended to help families with young children, especially young children who have or are at risk for disabilities, and to help people working with such families. After an introductory section which presents basic definitions, the first chapter presents highlights of the Education of the Handicapped Act…

  16. Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs--from psychoeducational and support groups to…

  17. Sexual Abuse: Facts for Discussion, Prevention, and Management. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This teaching guide is part of a series of materials developed, with input from adult learners, to aid adult literacy teachers in incorporating health education into the curriculum. This guide aims to help teachers to provide adult students with information about sexual abuse, its effects, and prevention. The guide provides the goals and…

  18. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  19. Knowledge and Skills of Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Study on School-Aged Children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yichen; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the level of child sexual abuse prevention knowledge and skills in a sample of school-aged children, a total of 559 children from first to fifth grade were recruited from one primary school in Beijing, China. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire surveying their knowledge and skills of child sexual abuse prevention. Results showed that accurate rate of knowledge on child sexual abuse prevention were between 44.0% and 80.0%. Percentage of participants having applied the self-protection skills of "saying 'no,'" "going away," and "telling adults" properly in hypothetical situations was 57.4%, 28.3%, and 48.3%, respectively. Third-to-fifth graders had a better performance than first-to-second graders, and girls performed better than boys. Findings suggest that Chinese school-aged children are in need of knowledge and skills related to child sexual abuse prevention, and education programs should be developed as soon as possible. PMID:27561123

  20. 20 CFR 668.630 - What are the requirements for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... financial management procedures to prevent fraud and abuse. Such procedures must include a process which... benefit to that member, or to a member of his or her immediate family, in accordance with 20 CFR 667.200(a)(4) and 29 CFR 97.36(b) or 29 CFR 95.42. (c) Officers or agents of the INA grantee must not...

  1. 20 CFR 668.630 - What are the requirements for preventing fraud and abuse under section 166?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... financial management procedures to prevent fraud and abuse. Such procedures must include a process which... benefit to that member, or to a member of his or her immediate family, in accordance with 20 CFR 667.200(a)(4) and 29 CFR 97.36(b) or 29 CFR 95.42. (c) Officers or agents of the INA grantee must not...

  2. A Prevention Education Project on the Abuse and Mistreatment of Older Adults in Northern Saskatchewan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    A project was designed to begin an Elder Abuse Prevention Education initiative specific to northern and Aboriginal needs in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key principle in every dimension of the project was getting to know one another and talking with Aboriginal older adults and those who work with them. In early 1993, LaRonge, Saskatchewan,…

  3. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  4. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  5. Prevention of Substance Abuse and AIDS Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: Is any Real Progress Being Made? Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.

    Although a great deal of effort has been devoted to the prevention of substance abuse and AIDS risk behaviors in adolescents, the success of such programs can be difficult to measure. This study, in Northeast Houston-Harris County, Texas, examines adolescent attitudes and behaviors toward sexual activity and AIDS and discusses barriers facing…

  6. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

  7. Project Application Guidelines for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Funding. Student Services, Prevention, and Wellness Team. Bulletin No. 95202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Pupil Services.

    This publication provides information and application forms for alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) funding. The contents include the following: Framework for Student Services, Prevention and Wellness; Abstracts of AODA Grants; Timetable for Grants; Criteria Applicable to all State AODA Grants; Criteria Specific to Aoda Program Grant; AODA…

  8. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  9. Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…

  10. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  11. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  12. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  13. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  14. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  15. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  16. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  17. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  18. Improving Empathy in the Prevention of Sexual Abuse Against Children and Youngsters.

    PubMed

    Man-Ging, Carlos Ignacio; Böhm, Bettina; Fuchs, Katharina Anna; Witte, Susanne; Frick, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the improvement of empathy in child-care professionals (i.e., teachers, psychologists, social workers) involved in the prevention of sexual abuse against children and youngsters. An E-Learning training pilot program was conducted with pre- and post-measures (T(1) = at the beginning and T(2) = after 6 months) using the program's standardized questionnaires of Situational Empathy and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) as a Dispositional Empathy measure. A sample of 42 experienced professionals involved in activities with children and youngsters was obtained from the International Movement of Popular Education in Latin America called "Fe y Alegría." Significant progress was found in the scales of Situational Empathy and in some Coping subscales. The final outcomes seem to indicate that the prevention program elicits important changes in the cognitive sphere and that these changes are more intense when the implication level for the situation is greater. This research shows that empathy can be improved through professional experience and careful situational involvement. PMID:26523447

  19. Improving Empathy in the Prevention of Sexual Abuse Against Children and Youngsters.

    PubMed

    Man-Ging, Carlos Ignacio; Böhm, Bettina; Fuchs, Katharina Anna; Witte, Susanne; Frick, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the improvement of empathy in child-care professionals (i.e., teachers, psychologists, social workers) involved in the prevention of sexual abuse against children and youngsters. An E-Learning training pilot program was conducted with pre- and post-measures (T(1) = at the beginning and T(2) = after 6 months) using the program's standardized questionnaires of Situational Empathy and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) as a Dispositional Empathy measure. A sample of 42 experienced professionals involved in activities with children and youngsters was obtained from the International Movement of Popular Education in Latin America called "Fe y Alegría." Significant progress was found in the scales of Situational Empathy and in some Coping subscales. The final outcomes seem to indicate that the prevention program elicits important changes in the cognitive sphere and that these changes are more intense when the implication level for the situation is greater. This research shows that empathy can be improved through professional experience and careful situational involvement.

  20. Implementing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) in the State of Oklahoma for Substance Abuse Prevention: An ODMHSAS Project.

    PubMed

    Gurganus, Kelsey M; Butt, Amir L; Kirchenbauer, Christin M; Melkvik, Chelsie; Piatt, Jamie; Hawkins, Jessica; U'Ren, Stephanie; Onuorah, Young

    2015-07-01

    With substance abuse being a significant problem in Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services aimed to address these problems using the Strategic Prevention Framework to empower local communities and to assist in implementing prevention strategies based on epidemiological data by establishing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) network. Seventeen REOWs across the state helped identify and use community resources to collect, analyze, and interpret epidemiological data to measure the burden of substance abuse problems and the associated intermediate variables. The REOWs prioritized the needs of each community based on the data, identified the gaps and limitations in available community-level data, and helped find solutions. The REOWs serve as a permanent resource for the communities to establish a sustainable and ongoing monitoring system. With this comprehensive network, prevention providers and coalitions have a partner to assist in strategically allocating resources to address substance abuse and other emerging public health issues. The issues identified among different public health areas can help different community sectors formulate their strategy and address key problems in their areas. The REOW network brings awareness more effectively and efficiently to communities about eminent dangers posed by different health-related problems and behaviors. PMID:25536944

  1. Implementing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) in the State of Oklahoma for Substance Abuse Prevention: An ODMHSAS Project.

    PubMed

    Gurganus, Kelsey M; Butt, Amir L; Kirchenbauer, Christin M; Melkvik, Chelsie; Piatt, Jamie; Hawkins, Jessica; U'Ren, Stephanie; Onuorah, Young

    2015-07-01

    With substance abuse being a significant problem in Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services aimed to address these problems using the Strategic Prevention Framework to empower local communities and to assist in implementing prevention strategies based on epidemiological data by establishing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) network. Seventeen REOWs across the state helped identify and use community resources to collect, analyze, and interpret epidemiological data to measure the burden of substance abuse problems and the associated intermediate variables. The REOWs prioritized the needs of each community based on the data, identified the gaps and limitations in available community-level data, and helped find solutions. The REOWs serve as a permanent resource for the communities to establish a sustainable and ongoing monitoring system. With this comprehensive network, prevention providers and coalitions have a partner to assist in strategically allocating resources to address substance abuse and other emerging public health issues. The issues identified among different public health areas can help different community sectors formulate their strategy and address key problems in their areas. The REOW network brings awareness more effectively and efficiently to communities about eminent dangers posed by different health-related problems and behaviors.

  2. Preventing fraud and abuse in low income weatherization programs: The proceedings of the EORI (Economic Opportunity Research Institute) Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Economic Opportunity Research Institute (EORI) sponsored a national Roundtable on ''Prevention of Fraud and Abuse in Low Income Weatherization Programs'' in Washington, DC on March 23-24, 1987. Funding for the Roundtable and these Proceedings was provided jointly by the US Departments of Health and Human Services/Office of Family Assistance and Energy through Grant FG01-85CE63438. The purpose of the Roundtable was two-fold: (1) to share successful and possible replicable state and local measures to prevent fraud and abuse in low income conservation programs; and (2) to identify any areas in these programs where the potential for fraud and abuse may exist and examine methods to curb such potential. A Task Force representing eight states and including both state and local low income conservation program operators was chosen by EORI and the HHS Office of Family Assistance. The Agencies represented had developed successful preventive approaches to curbing fraud and abuse. Additional participants in the Roundtable included representatives from the US Department of Energy, Weatherization Assistance Program Office and the HHS Office of Energy Assistance, along with other state and local program operators.

  3. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Preventing Substance Abuse: Major Findings from the National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Herman, Jack

    This multiple-site study assessed 48 prevention programs for high-risk youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, identifying program characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes. Data analysis indicated that substance abuse programs reduced rates of substance use, and the positive effects of program…

  4. Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse prevention programs for adolescents: possible relevance and limitations for problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.

  5. Drug Abuse, Relapse, and Prevention Education in Malaysia: Perspective of University Students Through a Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students’ perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed. PMID:25999867

  6. Drug abuse, relapse, and prevention education in malaysia: perspective of university students through a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Wong, Chee Piau; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students' perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centers, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 and 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed.

  7. Awareness of child sexual abuse prevention education among parents of Grade 3 elementary school pupils in Fuxin City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-10-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few published reports on the problem of parents' awareness. To fill this gap, knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSA prevention education were explored in 385 parents of Grade 3 pupils from four schools in Fuxin City of Liaoning Province in the northeast part of China by self-administered anonymous questionnaires. Among this sample, more than 80% of parents approved of school CSA prevention education. However, at the same time, 47.3% of parents expressed some concern that this education may induce the children to learn too much about 'sex'. Overall, about 60% of parents had told their children that their 'private parts' should not be touched by others and discussed strategies of 'Say "No!", Leave and Tell' in dealing with CSA situations or the situations that may lead to CSA. Only 4.2% of parents had provided books or other material about CSA prevention for their children. The parents' CSA prevention knowledge was inadequate. The findings from this research will be useful in developing CSA prevention education programs in schools and communities, designed to improve parents' knowledge and practice of CSA prevention.

  8. The International Catholic Child Bureau and drug abuse: contributions to drug abuse prevention by a non-governmental organization concerned with children.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, F

    1991-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to demonstrate that a broad-based approach to matters directly affecting children, with special emphasis on meeting their non-material and spiritual needs, can effectively contribute to drug abuse prevention, in particular, by promoting personal values that encourage constructive use of goods and time. The International Catholic Child Bureau (ICCB) has adopted its approach to drug abuse prevention, particularly in respect of "street children", and, through its vast network of experts and practitioners familiar with intercultural and interdenominational education, has implemented a number of projects in Africa, Europe and Latin America, primarily involving the use of therapeutic communities, workshops and "street educators". The religious dimension of the work of ICCB is particularly important because it highlights a fundamental aspect for youth of all cultures, i.e. integrated preparation for life as responsible members of the community. ICCB is of the view that it is imperative to provide children with possibilities for a life that is free of substance dependence, once they are able to make the right decisions. PMID:1817712

  9. Community-based parenting and family support interventions and the prevention of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the development of a comprehensive, multilevel, preventively-oriented parenting and family support strategy to reduce family risk factors associated with drug abuse in young people. If parenting interventions are to make a significant impact at a population level on the prevalence of dysfunctional parenting practices, there is a need for an ecological approach to parenting support. Such an approach needs to target a variety of social contexts that are in a position to provide parents with access to evidence-based parenting interventions. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is discussed as an example of such an approach to illustrate the distinguishing features of a population level strategy. The core constructs underpinning the Triple P system include the promotion of parental self-regulation (self-sufficiency, self-efficacy, self-management, personal agency, and problem solving), through making parenting programs of adequate intensity widely available in the community through flexible delivery modalities (individual, group, telephone assisted and self-directed). The system comprises a tiered continuum of increasingly intensive parenting interventions ranging from media interventions with wide reach, to intensive behavioural family interventions with narrow reach for high-risk families where parenting problems are complicated by other factors including marital conflict, parental mood disturbance, and lack of social support. The scientific basis of the system of intervention and possible directions for future research is discussed.

  10. Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Issues in Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence Series 9. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E., Ed.; Beauvais, Fred, Ed.

    Substance abuse continues to be one of the most damaging and chronic health problems faced by Indian people. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) substance abuse prevention and treatment programs must be framed within the broader context of the widening health disparities between AI/AN communities and the general population. Successful…

  11. Preventing domestic abuse for children and young people: A review of school-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is

  12. Preventing Child Abuse in the Harvest: A Handbook for Migrant Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Rebekah, Ed.; Rollo, Karen, Ed.

    Intended for educators who work with migrant children, this handbook and resource directory will also be useful for other groups concerned with child abuse and neglect. The handbook aims to promote understanding of reasons migrant children are maltreated by parents and caretakers, to increase sensitivity to factors contributing to child abuse, to…

  13. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1987-01-01

    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  14. Screening American Indian Youth for Referral to Drug Abuse Prevention and Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Dewolfe, Jerome; Graham, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The development and psychometric properties of a brief screening tool for use with American Indian youth suspected of abusing substances is described. The Indian Health Service-Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (IHS-PESQ) is a brief questionnaire that screens for drug abuse problem severity, response distortion tendencies, and…

  15. A Case of Sexual Abuse by a Traditional Faith Healer: Are There Potential Preventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lai Fong; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Ang, Jin Kiat; Kamal Nor, Norazlin; Sharip, Shalisah

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of…

  16. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: An Examination of the "Downward Spiral" Game and Educational Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Michael; Sia, Tiffiny L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, college students (N=178) either played Downward Spiral, a board game that illustrates the dangers of continued substance abuse, or watched educational videos on substance abuse. Results show that students who played Downward Spiral had somewhat higher levels of consumer satisfaction. However, results also show that both videos and…

  17. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  18. Impulsive delayed reward discounting as a genetically-influenced target for drug abuse prevention: a critical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua C.; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD), an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrenergic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. Progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD profiles could further clarify the underlying biological systems for pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions, and, as a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs, impulsive DRD is worthy of investigation at a more general level as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target. PMID:26388788

  19. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    PubMed

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences.

  20. Identifying and preventing family-mediated abuse and neglect of elderly persons.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, T A; Everitt, D E; O'Malley, H C; Campion, E W

    1983-06-01

    Unexplained trauma, neglected medical problems, failure to thrive, malnutrition, and misuse of medications may be manifestations of family-mediated abuse and neglect of the non-institutionalized elderly person. Physicians frequently overlook or misdiagnose this form of family violence. Access to these persons, assessment, and intervention are facilitated by focusing on the unmet care needs of the elderly person and by moving to meet those needs. Issues of intervention can be clarified by categorizing abuse or neglect as occurring in situations in which the dependency and care needs of the elderly person are paramount or in which the pathologic behavior of the abuser is most evident. The provision of specific support services or legally mandated separation of the elderly person and the abuser can be attempted but the elderly person's right to refuse any intervention must be recognized.

  1. The influence of famous athletes on health beliefs and practices: Mark McGwire, child abuse prevention, and Androstenedione.

    PubMed

    Brown, William J; Basil, Michael D; Bocarnea, Mihai C

    2003-01-01

    When Mark McGwire broke Roger Maris's home run record in September of 1998, he was instantly declared an American hero and held up as a positive role model for teenagers and young adults. The extensive media attention focused on McGwire made the general public aware of his use of a muscle-building dietary supplement, Androstenedione. It also increased the public's awareness of McGwire's public service to prevent child abuse. The present research assesses audience involvement with McGwire through parasocial interaction and identification, and the effects of that involvement on audience knowledge of and attitudes toward Androstenedione and child abuse prevention. Results indicate parasocial interaction with an athlete regarded as a public role model likely leads to audience identification with that person, which in turn promotes certain attitudes and beliefs. In this case, parasocial interaction and identification with Mark McGwire was strongly associated with knowledge of Androstenedione, intended use of the supplement, and concern for child abuse. Implications of this research for featuring celebrities in health communication campaigns are discussed.

  2. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies).

  3. Child sexual abuse prevention training for childcare professionals: an independent multi-site randomized controlled trial of Stewards of Children.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Chapman, Jason E; Patton, Meghan; de Arellano, Michael; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-04-01

    Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There isa growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g.,teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was toc on duct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats. This study included 352 childcare professionals recruited from children’s advocacy centers across three states. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) inperson training, (2) web-based training, or (3) waitlist control. Dependent variables included CSA knowledge, CSA attitudes,and self-reported CSA preventive behaviors. Results indicated that Stewards impacted knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors. No differences were found between training modalities (i.e., in-person versus web-based) on knowledge and preventive behaviors. Results indicate that brief trainings for childcare professionals may impact CSA prevention efforts.

  4. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    PubMed

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  5. [Family health and family physician's influence on prevention psychoactive substances abuse].

    PubMed

    Lapčević, Mirjana; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for help to the chosen

  6. Developing child abuse prevention, identification, and treatment systems in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sicher, P; Lewis, O; Sargent, J; Chaffin, M; Friedrich, W N; Cunningham, N; Thomas, R; Thomas, P; Villani, V S

    2000-05-01

    Although the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1989 brought a welcome end to the Cold War, the subsequent reestablishment of independent Eastern European countries revealed a host of problems. Among these was frequent child abuse and neglect, although lack of epidemiological data precluded any accurate estimate of prevalence. In an effort to address the problem of child abuse within this rapidly changing sociopolitical environment, the Children's Mental Health Alliance and the Soros Foundation organized the Eastern European Child Abuse and Child Mental Health Project in 1995. The authors describe the development of this multidisciplinary initiative involving collaboration with professionals from 17 countries in Eastern Europe. They highlight the goals, principles, and major phases of the project, as well as some of the challenges involved in its implementation.

  7. Knowledge Gains Following a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program Among Urban Students: A Cluster-Randomized Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Sarah; Tully, Brenda A.; Hamilton, Paige; Smith, Michael J.; Freeman, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a school-based child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention program, Safe Touches, in a low–socioeconomic status, racially diverse sample. Methods. Participants were 492 second- and third-grade students at 6 public elementary schools in New York City. The study period spanned fall 2012 through summer 2014. We cluster-randomized classrooms to the Safe Touches intervention or control groups and assessed outcomes with the Children’s Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire. Hierarchical models tested change in children’s knowledge of inappropriate and appropriate touch. Results. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group on knowledge of inappropriate touch. Children in second grade and children in schools with a greater proportion of students in general (vs special) education showed greater gains than other participants in knowledge of inappropriate touch. We observed no significant change in knowledge of appropriate touch among control or intervention groups. Conclusions. Young children benefited from a school-based, 1-time CSA prevention program. Future research should explore the efficacy of CSA prevention programs with children before the second grade to determine optimal age for participation. PMID:25973809

  8. Harm reduction for drug abusing ex-offenders: outcome of the California prevention and education project MORE project.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Benjamin P; Jenkins-Barnes, Tazima; Dillard-Smith, Carla; Lockett, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    MORE was a mobile outreach drug abuse prevention and HIV harm reduction program primarily for ex-offenders who are active drug users. Through case management, clients were provided substance abuse education, counseling, and referral. Long term goals of these services were to reduce their drug use and re-incarceration for drug related crimes. From January 2002 to May 2006, 487 unduplicated clients were recruited in year long cohorts and offered services. The program evaluation tool was the Federal Office of Budget and Management Government Performance and Results Act questionnaire. Government Performance and Results Act interviews were conducted at in-take into the program, approximately six months later and again approximately 12 months after their initial in-take. By the six and 12 month follow-up interviews, active drug using clients reported significant reductions in their use of alcohol, cocaine/crack, heroin, and fewer sex partners and crimes. Program completers reported significantly reduced cocaine/crack and heroin use as well as fewer days in jail and crimes than non-completers (p < .01 to .001). Six program components account for these reductions: case management, day-treatment, outpatient services, outreach, HIV/AIDS, and substance abuse education. The differences in program service intensity, income, and employment for program completers and non-completers were analyzed using logistic regression. The intensity of case management and all services received along with having higher income by month six were the most significant predictors of program completion.

  9. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  10. Standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children. Interim final rule (IFR).

    PubMed

    2014-12-24

    This IFR proposes standards and procedures to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children (UCs) in ORR's care provider facilities. DATES: This IFR is effective on December 24, 2014. ORR care provider facilities must be in compliance with this IFR by June 24, 2015 but encourages care provider facilities to be in compliance sooner, if possible. HHS will work with facilities to implement and enforce the standards contained in this rule. Comments on this IFR must be received on or before February 23, 2015. PMID:25546883

  11. Narcotics Abuse among Young People in the Northern Territories: Characteristics and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anisimova, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a persistent opinion that the spread of narcotics abuse is taking in more and more young people and having an impact on the economic, political, and cultural development of society. Data obtained by sociologists and criminologists make it possible to single out the factors, conditions, and channels of the spread of psychoactive substances…

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  13. Understanding the Etiology of Prescription Opioid Abuse: Implications for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Murphy, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the initiation of substance abuse abound, the body of literature on prescription opioid abuse (POA) etiology is small. Little is known about why and how the onset of POA occurs, especially among high-risk populations. In this study we aimed to fill this important knowledge gap by exploring the POA initiation experiences of 90 prescription opioid abusers currently in treatment and their narrative accounts of the circumstances surrounding their POA onset. This research was conducted within a storyline framework, which operates on the premise that the path to drug abuse represents a biography or a process rather than a static condition. Audiotapes of in-depth interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Analyses revealed the presence of four trajectories leading to POA. This study adds to the limited research on POA etiology by not only illuminating the psychosocial factors that contribute to POA onset, but also by situating initiation experiences within broader life processes. The study findings provide crucial insights to policymakers and interventionists in identifying who is at risk for POA, and more important, when and how to intervene most efficaciously. PMID:23656723

  14. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Cyber Abuse of Youth: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Saini, Michael; Wu, Meng-Jia; MacFadden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Internet has created a new communication tool, particularly for young people whose use of electronic communication is exploding worldwide. While there are many benefits that result from electronic-based communication, the Internet is concurrently a potential site for abuse and victimization. Methods: This paper systematically…

  15. 3 CFR 8645 - Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... our children by recognizing the signs of violence and creating safe, stable, and nurturing... substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. We are also supporting programs that expand coordination of early childhood services in order to improve outcomes for young children. As a Nation, we...

  16. 3 CFR 8728 - Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and by talking with our children about the dangers of alcohol and other drugs, we can increase their... shattered. Substance abuse touches every sector of our society, straining our health care and criminal... deterrent to alcohol and other drug use and the strongest influence for making health choices....

  17. Research in Substance Abuse and Disabilities: The Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dennis

    This paper reviews literature related to substance abuse and persons with disabilities. The paper distinguishes between congenital disability and trauma-generated conditions and the impact on drug use. Drug use patterns are also differentiated by type and severity of disability categories including mental illness, orthopedic and physical…

  18. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  19. Strategies for Prevention and Intervention of Drug Abuse among Students in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…

  20. Programming for Preventing Sexual Abuse and Abduction: What Does It Mean When It Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraizer, Sherryll Kerns; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an effective program for teaching children about the dangers of sexual abuse and abduction. The program does not introduce negative stories, examples, and other warnings that tend to create anxieties in children. Reports a study evaluating the program's effectiveness. (SKC)

  1. Alabama Substance Abuse Prevention Training Program for Educational Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. School of Education.

    Quality substance abuse training for 279 educational personnel (school counselors, school nurses, and school psychologists) across the state of Alabama was provided in a series of two-day training sessions through a federal grant. Although the original grant proposed 7 training sessions, 9 training sessions were ultimately offered over the course…

  2. Teachers May Never Know: Using Emotional Intelligence to Prevent and Counter Child Neglect and Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2007-01-01

    Caring adults may be unaware of how deeply healing their love for a child can be. A gentle smile, warming cuddle, or soothing lullaby can uplift a baby or toddler. Infants, who appear healthy on the outside, can suffer deeply within from "invisible wounds." "Young children are the most vulnerable to being abused or neglected. Statistically, the…

  3. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  4. Child Abuse Prevention Act, 1973. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Children and Youth of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on S.1191.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A record of the Senate hearings on The Child Abuse Prevention Act of 1973 is presented. A copy of Senator Mondale's bill to establish a national center on child abuse is included. The objectives of the hearings were to investigate the magnitude of the child abuse problem in the United States and to clarify a definition of the problem. Different…

  5. [Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents].

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2007-01-01

    The scientific literature consistently reports that while children of substance abusers may be at biological, psychological, or environmental risk, the effects of these risks can be abbreviated through the use of effective interventions and treatments. Research has consistently demonstrated reductions in family and child dysfunction when effective family intervention programs are consistently utilized. While a number of effective family-based approaches have been developed and evaluated, only a few have been designed specifically for children of substance abusing parents. Just two have been tested in randomized control trials -The Streghtening Families Program and Focus on the Family. The Streghtening Families Program has demonstrated statistically significant reductions in family and child dysfunctions across several ethnocultural groups when consistently utilized. Clinical and advanced graduate programs should stress training in these evidence-based practices as well as how to adapt these models to be more culturally sensitive and age or gender appropriate in order to serve a growing and needy population of families.

  6. HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore: in their own words.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeannette L; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A

    2007-12-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service needs. Community stakeholders and key informants embedded in the local Native American population were consulted at each stage of the research planning process. Two complementary methodologies (focus groups and surveys) produced a holistic assessment of the population's needs, risks, and strengths and uncovered the social and cultural contexts in which health risk behaviors unfold. The use of these methods within a participatory framework produced a more complete portrait of the service needs of the Native American population in Baltimore. Findings from this study support the necessity for future HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention programming for urban Native Americans. PMID:18190277

  7. Strengthening Families and Communities to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect: Lessons from the Los Angeles Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Pecora, Peter J.; Franke, Todd; Christie, Christina A.; Lothridge, Jaymie

    2012-01-01

    The Prevention Initiative Demonstration Project, funded by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS), is a community-specific strategy delivered through eight regional networks designed to address the full spectrum of community-based prevention. This article summarizes a strong and meaningful pattern of improvements…

  8. Implementing Research-Based Substance Abuse Prevention in Communities: Effects of a Coalition-Based Prevention Initiative in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewelling, Robert L.; Austin, David; Hale, Kelly; LaPlante, Marcia; Liebig, Melissa; Piasecki, Linda; Uerz, Lori

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity and perceived potential effectiveness of community-based coalitions in helping to prevent and reduce adolescent substance use, empirical evidence supporting this approach is sparse. Many reasons have been suggested for why coalition-based prevention initiatives, and community-level interventions in general, have not…

  9. The School's Role in the Prevention/Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect. A Manual for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…

  10. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  11. Developing Theory-based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Blake, Susan M.; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Integrates evidence on gender relevance for substance use prevention research and reviews trends in tobacco, alcohol and drug use, gender differences in risk factors, and relevant theoretical models of substance use prevention among adolescent girls. Recommends further research and prevention strategies focusing on gender, race, and ethnicity.…

  12. Preventive and treatment measures to reduce drug abuse: summary of responses to a survey of national programmes. United Nations Secretariat.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes the salient points extracted from the responses of 67 Governments to a survey of national drug-abuse prevention and treatment programmes. The results of the survey were presented in more detail in E/CN.7/673, which was considered by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its seventh special session in February 1982. Most responses indicated that heavy reliance was placed on control and drug law enforcement to reduce the availability of illicit drugs. Some concern was expressed over the possibility that drug information or drug education that was ill-conceived or inaccurately targeted might arouse curiosity and experimentation. There had been relatively little in-depth evaluation of the effectiveness of either preventive or treatment measures that had been undertaken. The involvement of voluntary organizations, families, communities and groups of "high-risk" youth was generally regarded, however, as an essential feature of successful preventive and treatment work. A few responses indicated that the maintenance of heroin or other opiate addicts had been successful in reducing drug-related crime and other undesirable behaviour. Preventive education was most effective when presented within the broader context of health education, as well as civics or similar studies within the curriculum of schools and universities. School programmes were more effective when they involved communities. A considerable effort had been made to train medical personnel and those likely to come into professional contact with persons at risk. Shortages of trained staff and other resources were frequently mentioned as inhibiting factors.

  13. Reaching Hispanics with messages to prevent alcohol and other drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E M; Delgado, J L

    1989-01-01

    Hispanics are often labeled a "hard-to-reach" population in the context of health communications, yet there are indicators that corporate interests increasingly are reporting successes in designing advertising and promotional campaigns targeting Hispanic markets. The authors suggest research priorities designed to promote more effective communications programming in the substance abuse field, and they identify three key target audiences: children and adolescents, women of childbearing age, and heavy-drinking men. The significance of the diversity within the Hispanic community; the opportunities to reinforce attitudes, norms, and behaviors that counter substance use; and the centrality of family are discussed as approaches to communications planning and message development. PMID:2479957

  14. Batter up! Relapse prevention for homeless veteran substance abusers via softball team participation.

    PubMed

    Burling, T A; Seidner, A L; Robbins-Sisco, D; Krinsky, A; Hanser, S B

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-four veterans of a residential rehabilitation program for homelessness and substance abuse participated on a community-based softball team. Compared to nonparticipants, participants stayed in treatment longer and were more likely to complete all aspects of the program (inpatient and outpatient). They also were more likely to be abstinent from drugs/alcohol, employed, and housed 3 months postdischarge. Participation appeared to enhance outcomes by providing in vivo opportunities for practicing coping skills and developing supportive relationships. A softball program may be a viable adjunct treatment in which formally taught cognitive-behavioral skills can be applied in a natural, but semistructured setting.

  15. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  16. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  17. Indian Juvenile Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Prevention. Hearings before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1156 to Coordinate and Expand Services for the Prevention, Identification, Treatment, and Follow-Up Care of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Indian Youth, and for Other Purposes and H.R. 2624 to Authorize Programs for the Treatment and Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among Indian Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Three hearings held in Arizona, New Mexico, and South Dakota provide individual statements and panel presentations on problems, programs, and proposals for prevention, identification, treatment, and follow-up care of alcohol and drug abuse among American Indian juveniles. The majority of witnesses are members of Indian tribes in the three…

  18. CAPTA: Successes and Failures at Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (August 2, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    These transcripts present testimony from the first hearing on the reauthorization of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), focusing on CAPTA's implementation and administration since its last reauthorization, and effective and ineffective practice in child abuse and neglect prevention. Opening statements were made by…

  19. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Manpower and Personnel and the Subcommittee on Preparedness of the Committee on Armed Services. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Armed Services.

    This document presents prepared statements and witness testimony from the Congressional hearing on drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs in the armed services. An opening statement by Senator Gordon J. Humphrey (chairman) highlights the importance of drug abuse prevention in the military. Witness testimony is given by the Assistant Secretary…

  20. Hearing on the Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents testimony from a congressional hearing examining the Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act. In response to the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) concerns about the ability of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) to perform its leadership role in identifying, preventing, and treating…

  1. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Geeraert, Liesl; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by providing early family support. For the meta-analysis, a multilevel approach was used. A significant overall positive effect was found, pointing to the potential usefulness of these programs. The study demonstrated a significant decrease in the manifestation of abusive and neglectful acts and a significant risk reduction in factors such as child functioning, parent-child interaction, parent functioning, family functioning, and context characteristics. PMID:15245680

  2. [Early detection and prevention of elder abuse and neglect in family care giving: development of the PURFAM assessment].

    PubMed

    Heidenblut, S; Schacke, C; Zank, S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the PURFAM ("potentials and risk factors of family caregiving for older people") project is to support staff members of home care services in preventing elder abuse by facilitating an assessment instrument for early recognition and a standard for action. During a pilot phase of the project nursing staff of home services were presented with training sessions in which the use of the PURFAM assessment was introduced using concrete examples from routine daily work. The article describes the development of the PURFAM assessment and its first evaluation by staff members of nursing home services. The preliminary results indicate a high practicability und acceptance of the instrument by staff members. The sustainability of PURFAM is yet to be tested using the data of the still ongoing main part of the evaluation.

  3. The relative autonomy of schools and educational interventions for substance abuse prevention, sex education, and gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Shamai, S; Coambs, R B

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates intervention programs in schools using the theoretical framework of the critical sociology of education, and most specifically, the extent to which schools are autonomous from the larger society. Three different types of intervention programs are reviewed: drug abuse prevention, sex education, and programs to change gender stereotypes, all of which were found to have limited effectiveness. Schools appear unable to change behaviors which are prevalent in a culture because they themselves are strongly influenced by that culture, and because adolescents are influenced by forces outside school. To be effective, such interventions would seem to require governmental agencies, community groups, and the media to work with the schools in order to influence the culture and thus produce behavioral changes in individuals.

  4. A Review of Substance Abuse Prevention Interventions for Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Susan M.; Amaro, Hortensia; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the effectiveness of traditional alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention approaches with girls and with boys, as well as available evidence from gender-specific or gender-informed interventions focused specifically on girls. Recommends needed research and prevention strategies that take gender into account. (Author/DLH)

  5. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.

  6. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  7. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  8. Effectiveness of Culturally Specific Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention: Findings from CSAP's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High Risk Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Winter, William; Sambrano, Soledad; Chipungu, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the degree to which culturally specific interventions enhance substance abuse prevention effectiveness for targeted cultural groups. A large and diverse (African American, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian) sample of 10,500 youth across 48 programs was obtained. Youth participating in culturally specific programming showed…

  9. Long-Term Impact of a District-Wide School/Community-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative on Gateway Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.; Alter, Randi J.; Greene, Robert; Younoszai, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined long-term effects of a school/family/community substance abuse prevention partnership intervention lead by a Midwestern school district. Previous findings suggested that the program contributed to decreased tobacco and marijuana, but not alcohol, use prior to and after implementation between 1987 and 1991. The current study…

  10. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  11. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  12. School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention: A Review of Program Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Classifies school-based prevention activities into the following five educational domains: (1) cognitive; (2) affective/interpersonal; (3) behavioral; (4) environmental; and (5) therapeutic. Discusses research findings for each domain. (Author/LHW)

  13. The School's Role in the Prevention and Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for School Personnel. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…

  14. The Spectrum of Child Abuse: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, R. Kim

    This book is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge about child abuse rather than a focus on one particular professional viewpoint or facet of the problem. Introductory and concluding chapters address the definition of child abuse and neglect, why it occurs, and what happens to abused children. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 explore physical…

  15. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at Me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; Chalela, P

    1999-01-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican-American youth aged 9-13 years. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-min videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers.

  16. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; McAlister, A; Chalela, P

    1997-10-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican American youth 9 to 13 years of age. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-minute videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers.

  17. The use of the Transcendental Meditation programme in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons.

    PubMed

    Clements, G; Krenner, L; Mölk, W

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation (TM) in the prevention and reduction of drug abuse has been documented in many studies in the last 18 years. The programme is not a rehabilitation programme per se but is a means for self-development. Thus, the resulting decrease in psychological problems and drug abuse is an automatic or secondary consequence of the practice of the meditation technique. Since TM strengthens the individual and produces an overall and stable state of well-being, it naturally removes the need and craving for drugs.

  18. Use of computer-assisted instruction in the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Meier, S T; Sampson, J P

    1989-01-01

    Recent critiques of and research with traditional alcohol prevention programs have revealed serious problems. Prevention programs typically increase knowledge and appropriate attitudes about alcohol while having little effect on drinking behavior. In this article several concepts are introduced in support of a technology which has the potential to revitalize alcohol education efforts. First, Bandura's self-efficacy theory offers a direction for re-conceptualizing the design of prevention programs as well as the measurement of their effects. Second, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs may provide a means for capturing attention, effectively educating about alcohol, and supplementing traditional approaches. One current CAI program is described in detail. Implications for research and practice and obstacles to effective CAI use are also discussed. PMID:2677296

  19. Knowledge Mapping: A Psychoeducational Tool in Drug Abuse Relapse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kevin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of relapse prevention training (RPT), part of outpatient-drug education program for 83 drug addicted probationers, with special attention to knowledge maps as supplemental instructional materials. Found that program participation improved during use of RPT. Participants who successfully completed RPT sessions had lower rates…

  20. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Elementary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This elementary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The lessons are divided into two groups, one for grades K-3 and the other grades 4-6. The primary…

  1. Impact of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; Caldera, Debra; Rodriguez, Kira; Burrell, Lori; Rohde, Charles; Crowne, Sarah Shea

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a voluntary, paraprofessional home visiting program in preventing child maltreatment and reducing the multiple, malleable psychosocial risks for maltreatment for which families had been targeted. Methods: This collaborative, experimental study focused on 6 Healthy Families Alaska (HFAK) programs; 325 families…

  2. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infection in Oral Surgery: use or abuse?

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Herráez-Vilas, José María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics have a well-documented efficacy in the treatment of established infections and as prophylactic agents in medically compromised patients. However, the systematic administration of antibiotics to prevent local infections in fit patients is much more controversial. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the justification for prophylactic usage of antibiotics to prevent wound infection and to reason out the most appropriate antibiotic guidelines taking into account available scientific data and studies by other authors. Numerous clinical trials question the efficacy of antibiotics in preventing wound infection. While some studies establish that antibiotics reduce the incidence of postoperative infections, others compare their efficacy to that of placebo. Thus, scientific literature suggests that every oral surgical intervention is not tributary of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infections. Intrinsic surgical risk factors and the patient's individual circumstances must be taken into account. Even though the efficacy of other antibiotics cannot be ruled out due to our limited comprehension of the bacteriologic interrelations intervening in the pathogenesis of postextraction local infection, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination theoretically covers the complete odontogenic bacterial spectrum in Spain. When the prophylactic use of antibiotics is indicated, this should be performed preoperatively, at high doses, and its extent should not exceed 24 hours. Special attention should be paid to antiinfectious local measures that can minimize infection risk during the wound's healing period. PMID:19114952

  4. Being Real and Being Realistic: Chemical Abuse Prevention, Teen Counselors, and an Ethic of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsch, Nina G.

    Conducted to evaluate the efficacy of teen counselors in school drug prevention programs, this study utilizes the following as evaluation criterion: (1) interviews with school faculty and teen counselors; (2) observations of teen counselor meetings and sessions with middle school students; and (3) documentation such as teen counselor training and…

  5. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  6. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Secondary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This secondary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The guide covers the facts about crack, the reasons given for using crack, strategies for saying no to…

  7. Working with Evaluators: A Guide for Drug Abuse Prevention Program Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John F., Ed.; And Others

    Following an introduction to the monograph in chapter 1, chapter 2 introduces the conceptual framework for an evaluation model as part of a 9-step continual process of program planning, feedback, and change. Chapter 3 delineates program issues in prevention evaluation discussed from the manager's perspective, including major evaluation questions…

  8. A Re-Evaluation of Project PRIDE, a Redesigned School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoSciuto, Leonard; Steinman, Ross B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of Project PRIDE, a school-based, counselor-administered, drug and alcohol prevention program. The study is presented in the context of Project PRIDE's efforts to keep itself current and effective via continual evaluation-based development. In this outcome evaluation, Project PRIDE participants…

  9. Preventing Drug Abuse among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…

  10. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  11. Evaluation of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program Correcting for Self Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Duncan, Gregory M.

    Self-selection bias poses a major threat to the validity of research findings in naturalistic, quasi-experimental, or single-group designs. A new method of addressing self-selection bias in naturalistic evaluations of prevention programs was implemented. The study, involving voluntary exposure to multicomponent interventions, was developed and…

  12. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries.

  13. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  14. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  15. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students' later (high school)…

  16. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive–behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:26500421

  17. EVALUATION OF ALL BABIES CRY, A SECOND GENERATION UNIVERSAL ABUSIVE HEAD TRAUMA PREVENTION PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Allison C.; McElaney, Lisa; Peixotto, Betsy; VanVleet, Marcia; Sege, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment results in significant individual, family, and societal costs. This study assessed the efficacy of All Babies Cry (ABC), a media-based infant maltreatment prevention program, using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental staged evaluation design. ABC’s messaging, designed and tested through a series of focus groups, provides strategies for reducing parental stress and soothing infants. Participants (n = 423) were first-time parents, 70% fathers, recruited at two hospitals. The first 211 were controls; the next 212 received ABC. Participants were interviewed 3 times: at baseline in hospital, and by telephone 5 weeks (n = 359; 85%) and 17 weeks (n = 326; 77%) later. Researchers measured parents’ perceptions, intentions, and use of strategies to calm crying and manage caregiver stress. Outcomes were based on the Strengthening Families Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was well received, appears effective in improving mediators of behavior, and may change parental behavior. PMID:26456987

  18. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  19. Standards Set for Dealing with Campus Drug Abuse; 57 Pct. of Colleges Said to Lack Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The Network of Colleges and Universities Committed to the Elimination of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, a national higher-education group for exchanging information about substance abuse programs has issued a set of 22 standards for college policy formation and enforcement. Institutions will be invited to join the network. (MSE)

  20. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…

  1. Hospital-Based Multidisciplinary Teams Can Prevent Unnecessary Child Abuse Reports and Out-of-Home Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gregory H.; Makoroff, Kathi L.; Malott, Heidi A.; Shapiro, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine how often and for what reasons a hospital-based multidisciplinary child abuse team concluded that a report of alleged or suspected child abuse was unnecessary in young children with fractures. Methods: A retrospective review was completed of all children less than 12 months of age who, because of fractures, were referred to…

  2. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  3. Sexual Abuse: Facts for Discussion, Prevention, and Management. Student Workbook. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about sexual abuse in order to protect themselves and their children or to help someone who has been sexually abused. It contains information sheets, student worksheets, and answers to the worksheets. The information sheets are coordinated with an available audiotape. Some of the…

  4. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Females’ Condom Use Behavior Following Participation in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rose, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious HIV intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with “failure to change” high risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents’ failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. 44.1% did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the STI/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  5. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  6. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial: a dual design to test reduction of risk for conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure in childhood.

    PubMed

    Prinz, R J; Dumas, J E; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J E

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes a preventive intervention trial called EARLY ALLIANCE which is aimed at reducing risk for three adverse outcomes in childhood and adolescence: conduct problems, substance abuse, and school failure. The structure of the prevention trial is unique because two linked designs are being implemented concurrently. The primary design focuses on children at elevated risk for adverse outcomes, and compares a targeted, multicontextual preventive intervention with family, classroom, peer relational, and academic components to a universal, schoolwide preventive intervention that emphasizes peaceful conflict management and serves as a "usual care" control condition. The secondary design focuses on children at lower risk for adverse outcomes and compares a universally administered classroom program to the control condition. The paper describes the theoretical foundation for EARLY ALLIANCE, the goals of the prevention trial, the rationale for design choices, and the methods employed. PMID:10822124

  7. Extension of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 1977. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on Examination of the Program for the Prevention, Identification, and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. April 6 and 7, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.

    Presented is the transcript of testimony provided at hearings (April 6 and 7, 1977) before the subcommittee on child and human development of the Committee on Human Relations of the United States Senate on Extension of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247). Statements are included of individuals representing such…

  8. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    PubMed

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases.

  9. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    PubMed

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases. PMID:25831946

  10. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  11. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  12. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  13. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  14. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  15. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  16. Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

  17. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley; Haller, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group. PMID:24474853

  18. Making the Everyday Extraordinary: A Theatre in Education Project to Prevent Child Abuse, Neglect and Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Peter; O'Connor, Briar; Welsh-Morris, Marlane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines a national applied theatre programme coordinated through the Department of Child, Youth and Family in New Zealand. The programme uses dramatic processes to create opportunities for communities to discuss and find their own answers to the issues of child abuse and family violence. The programme utilises a sophisticated in-role…

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate an Abuse Prevention Curriculum for Women and Men with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed (a) to assess the impact of the "ESCAPE-DD" curriculum on the decision-making skills of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in hypothetical situations of abuse, (b) to examine the role of problem awareness, and (c) to identify factors associated with posttest decision-making performance.…

  20. The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Marilyn Strachan; Urquiza, Anthony J.

    This manual is intended to provide mental health professionals with the information needed in the evaluation and treatment of maltreated children and their families. An introductory chapter briefly considers the roles of the various mental health disciplines in child abuse intervention, including psychiatry, psychology, clinical social work,…

  1. Barriers Preventing the Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Comparison of School Social Workers in Public and Private Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgus, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Timely and accurate reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect is essential to protect victimized children; however, there are barriers to such reporting. The importance of barriers may be based on organizational theories that suggest structure has an impact on behavior independent of individual factors and on identity theory which suggests…

  2. Strategies for Success: New Pathways to Drug Abuse Prevention. Volume 1, Issue 1, Fall/Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Published twice a year and distributed nationwide, "Strategies for Success" keeps readers informed about events and developments in the field of drug testing. It reports the latest research findings on the effectiveness of drug testing as a tool for reducing substance abuse. Each issue also provides a wealth of guidance and resources on student…

  3. Appalachian Citizens for Children's Rights: A Rural Community Self-Help Approach to the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Ron, Ed.; And Others

    The report describes the design of a community development model for child abuse and neglect which used resources already existing in a rural area. The first section presents basic generalizations about rural areas, services, and rural human services professionals. Section II presents working papers, definitions, and concepts used in the project.…

  4. What Adolescents Need to Prevent Relapse after Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Comparison of Youth, Parent, and Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acri, Mary C.; Gogel, Leah P.; Pollock, Michele; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after…

  5. Contribution of Family-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Program to Attitude and Self-efficacy of Mothers Trained by Mental Health Facilitators.

    PubMed

    Khoshzaban, Eilnaz; Matlabi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Family plays a key role in the prevention and intervention of drug abuse among children and teenagers. Information about drugs provides parents with the exact knowledge on how to demonstrate attitudes and healthy behaviours. Therefore, the present study tried to investigate the effect of preventive and interventional trainings on self-efficacy and attitudes of mothers covered by mental health facilitators (MHFs) in this regard. This interventional study used case and control groups/pretest-posttest design. Based on the inclusion criteria, randomized sampling, and sample size formulation, 150 qualified mothers were recruited. Eligible participants were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. A researcher-designed and self-administered questionnaire was used to gather the required data. Six instructive, communicative oral sessions and individual interviews were held by the facilitators for case group members. After two months, attitudes and self-efficacy of the mothers toward drug abuse issues were measured again by the same questionnaire. The results showed that the difference in intervention and control group was significant in terms of increasing self-efficacy and modifying attitudes (p<0.001). Furthermore, the case group members reported less misconceptions, stigma, and ignorance toward those suffering from addiction. PMID:27241418

  6. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people. PMID:22400468

  7. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  8. Substance abuse prevention infrastructure: a survey-based study of the organizational structure and function of the D.A.R.E. program

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jeffrey C; Pinsky, Ilana; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Sloboda, Zili; Dilascio, Tracey

    2006-01-01

    Background The only national drug abuse prevention delivery system that supports the rapid diffusion of new prevention strategies and includes uniform training and credentialing of instructors who are monitored for quality implementation of prevention programming is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education network (D.A.R.E.) linking community law enforcement to schools. Analysis of the organizational structure and function of D.A.R.E. provides an understanding of the essential parameters of this successful delivery system that can be used in the development of other types of national infrastructures for community-based prevention services. Information regarding organizational structure and function around funding issues, training, quality control and community relationships was gathered through telephone surveys with 50 state D.A.R.E. coordinators (including two major cities), focus groups with local D.A.R.E. officers and mentors, and interviews with national D.A.R.E. office staff. Results The surveys helped identify several strengths inherent in the D.A.R.E. program necessary for building a prevention infrastructure, including a well-defined organizational focus (D.A.R.E. America), uniform training and means for rapid dissemination (through its organized training structure), continuing education mechanisms (through the state and national conference and website), mechanisms for program monitoring and fidelity of implementation (formal and informal), branding and, for several states, predictable and consistent financing. Weaknesses of the program as currently structured include unstable funding and the failure to incorporate components for the continual upgrading of curricula reflecting research evidence and "principles of prevention". Conclusion The D.A.R.E. organization and service delivery network provides a framework for the rapid dissemination of evidence-based prevention strategies. The major strength of D.A.R.E. is its natural affiliation to local law enforcement

  9. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  10. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  11. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian Dream?"…

  12. Curriculum Development for Learning To Live Together: The Caribbean Sub-Region. The Final Report of the Sub-Regional Seminar (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Isabel, Ed.; Rozemeijer, Saskia, Ed.

    A sub-regional seminar based on the theme, "Curriculum Development for Learning to Live Together" (Havana, Cuba, May 15-18, 2001), brought together 20 member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for Development: Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Aruba, Bahamas,…

  13. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  14. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  15. Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

  16. Keeping Kids Safe: Exploring Public/Private Partnerships To Prevent Abuse and Strengthen Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    The text of a hearing on successful efforts to prevent child abuse and strengthen families is presented in this document. After an opening statement by chairwoman Representative Patricia Schroeder, statements are presented by Representatives Robert E. "Bud" Cramer, Jr., Neil Abercrombie, Blackwell, Gerry Sikorski, Matthew Martinez, Frank Wolf,…

  17. Public Law 93-247, 93rd Congress, S. 1191, January 31, 1974: An Act to Provide Financial Assistance for a Demonstration Program for the Prevention, Identification, and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect, to Establish a National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect and for Other Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Presented is the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247) which was enacted on January 31, 1974 and amended on January 3, 1975. Described are the activities of the national center which would include an annual research summary; an information clearinghouse; provision of training materials and technical assistance; research into…

  18. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  19. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided.

  20. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.