Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia
This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…
Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.
Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…
Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...
Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.
Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore community interventions that promote positive recovery from substance use and sexual assault. One model that promotes successful substance use recovery is the Oxford House—a democratic, self-supported substance use recovery home. Research demonstrated that living in an Oxford House provides sober social support and that this increased social support may promote the use of positive coping strategies to strengthen recovery from substance use, however; the relationship between social support and sexual assault for women is unclear. Thus, the current study examines the Oxford House model for women in recovery from substance use who have experienced sexual assault. A cross-sectional sample of women living in Oxford Houses in the United States was obtained to examine the relationship among disclosure of sexual assault, social support, and self-esteem. Results suggested that many women used Oxford House as a setting in which to disclosure prior sexual assault. Results also indicated that women who disclosed their assault experience reported higher self-esteem and social support than women who had not disclosed. Possible implications include the value of substance abuse recovery homes as a safe, supportive environment for women to address issues related to sexual assault. PMID:22328648
Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Smith, Tanya
In circumstances in which child sexual abuse/assault is suspected, pediatric guidelines recommend referral to services such as multidisciplinary hospital-based violence treatment centers, for specialized medical treatment, forensic documentation, and counseling. As little is known about how such services are perceived, the objective of this case report was to measure the satisfaction of nonoffending guardians of child sexual abuse/assault victims who presented for care at Ontario's hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers. Of the 1,136 individuals who reported sexual abuse/assault and were enrolled in a province-wide service evaluation, 58 were 11 years old and younger. Thirty-three guardians completed a survey. Ratings of care were overwhelmingly positive, with 97% of respondents indicating that they would recommend these services. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate these pediatric sexual assault services frequently to ensure ongoing optimal, family-centered care. PMID:26910267
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148
Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault. PMID:17275198
Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.
Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…
Willoughby, Vickie; Heger, Astrid; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan
Since 2001, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner has collaborated with Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center Violence Intervention Program and their Sexual Assault Center. The partnership was established at the suggestion of the district attorney's office to enhance the clinical recognition of sexual assault in the medical examiner's office using the extensive experience of experts in the field of sexual assault. As of December 2008, over 5 dozen victims of sexual assault have been evaluated with this collaboration. The partnership relied on the expertise of 2 pediatricians who are established clinical experts in the field of sexual abuse and assault, in collaboration with the staff of the medical examiner's office. In cases of suspected sexual assault, a joint evaluation by the clinical experts and the medical examiner was made. The goal of the project was for the medical examiners to become more confident in their observations and documentation of crimes of sexual abuse. Even though they are still available upon request, consultations with the sexual assault experts have decreased as the skills of the medical examiner to evaluate sexual assault cases have increased. PMID:22442832
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark
This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims. PMID:24393091
Discusses definitions and reporting of sexual assault. Concludes that the epidemic of sexual assault suggested by the media reflects a radical feminist attitude which prevents objective analysis and trivializes cases of real abuse. (DM)
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…
Missouri Governor's Commission on Crime, Jefferson.
This publication is designed to educate men and women about sexual assault. The goals are to encourage people to become involved in their own protection and to make them better informed and able to deal with sexual assaults when they do occur. Facts about sexual assault are presented, including descriptions of rapists, rape victims, and rape…
Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam
Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965
... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...
... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...
... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...
... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...
Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.
The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…
A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.
Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…
Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...
King, Gary; Flisher, Alan, J.; Noubary, Farzad.; Reece, Robert; Marais, Adele; Lombard, Carl
Objective: The aim of this article is twofold: first, to examine the prevalence of being the victim of actual and attempted rape among a large representative sample of Cape Town high school students; and second, to identify the correlates of sexual assault for both boys and girls, including alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, behavioral problems,…
Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H
Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military. PMID:25980511
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...
When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…
Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Garrett, Linda H
Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. PMID:21175106
Pazzani, Lynn M
Research on the causes of sexual assault typically analyzes rape committed by acquaintances and strangers together, despite the fact that the characteristics of the assault in these two circumstances are very different. Thus, this work examines whether the causes of each type of sexual assault--stranger and acquaintance rape--differ. The results of the analyses reveal that variables that describe a culture of gender equality, prior child abuse, and prior sexual assaults are associated with acquaintance assaults. In contrast, a culture of "hypermasculinity" is associated with stranger rape. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:17600307
Stermac, Lana; And Others
Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…
Yuvarajan, Elil; Stanford, Matthew S
Although congregants often turn to clergy for help in dealing with personal difficulties, including marital problems, substance abuse issues, and mental illness, survivors of sexual assault do not commonly turn to clergy for support or guidance. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach, online survey, and semi-structured interviews to determine how clergy perceive sexual assault victimization. The results of this study showed that more blame was assigned to the victim as the relationship with the perpetrator became closer, with the exception of marital rape. This study also found that hostile sexism was a predictor of negative attitudes toward rape victims. PMID:26416842
Hanson, Kimberly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.
Evaluated sexual assault prevention program in which 181 female college students participated and 165 female students served as controls. Program was effective in decreasing incidence of sexual assault among women without sexual assault history but was not effective among women with sexual assault history. Program led to decrease in dating…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Sampsel, Kari; Godbout, Justin; Leach, Tara; Taljaard, Monica; Calder, Lisa
Introduction Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings. Methods We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults. Results We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5). Interpretation This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings. PMID:26315648
Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe
Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene
This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator. Of the 62% of male victims who gave information on sexual orientation, 36% reported themselves as heterosexuals. A total of 45.5% had an alcohol intake of more than 5 units in the hours before the assault. Forty two percent reported the assault to the police. The male victims differed from female victims in several ways; they were more often assaulted by a stranger; more likely to be assaulted by more than one perpetrator; more likely being victim of drug rape; less likely to have experienced previous sexual abuse and less willing to report their assault to the police. Being victim of a sexual assault by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make male victims feel safe in coming forward. Male victims should have equal access to both medical and psychological help as female victims. PMID:27391940
The purpose of this handbook, created as a component of a sexual assault awareness program at Millikin University, is to provide information needed to assist victims of sexual assault. Information is included on several aspects of sexual assault, as well as references and websites available for additional information. Topics covered include:…
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly popular on the campuses of American colleges and universities. In this paper, the characteristics of GHB and the effects of both voluntary and involuntary abuse are described. Further, implications for prevention efforts related to involuntary GHB ingestion and GHB-facilitated rape are…
Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie
Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…
Ullman, Sarah E
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and problem drinking are common and often co-occurring sequelae experienced by women survivors of adult sexual assault, yet revictimization may mediate risk of symptoms over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data from a 3-wave panel design with a large (N=1012), ethnically diverse sample of women assault survivors to examine whether repeated sexual victimization related to greater PTSD and problem drinking. Structural equation modeling revealed that child sexual abuse was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking and intervening sexual victimization was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking at both 1 and 2year follow-ups. We found no evidence, however, that PTSD directly influenced problem drinking over the long term or vice versa, although they were correlated at each timepoint. Revictimization during the study predicted survivors' prospective PTSD and problem drinking symptoms inconsistently. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26414205
Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J
This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date. PMID:9071669
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; And Others
Assault victims exhibit a variety of emotional responses including fear, depression, and sexual impairment. For most assault victims, these responses decline over time. This study examined the pattern of post-assault responses during the first 12 weeks and compared the pattern of responses following rape with non-sexual criminal assault reactions.…
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section in the NPRM (77 FR 75300) for further information on how to comment on...
Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J
The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions. PMID:21317696
Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine; Lobo, Tracy; Luthra, Rohini
This study prospectively evaluated perpetrator risk factors for sexual assault perpetration, including peer influences, beliefs and attitudes about sexuality, alcohol use, and token resistance. Perpetration of sexual assault was evaluated at three time periods: pretest, 3-month follow-up, and 7-month follow-up. Retrospective and prospective…
Montgomery, M A
Benzodiazepines are one of the classes of drugs most commonly associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault. As a widely prescribed class of medications and abused drugs, benzodiazepines are extensively available. Their sedating and amnesic effects make them effective candidates for use in drug-facilitated assaults. Detection methods for benzodiazepines and their metabolites in biological fluids are plentiful, but methods must be tailored to the low concentrations of drugs and metabolites expected to be encountered in these cases. PMID:26242454
Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.
Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…
Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L
The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302
Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422
Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.
Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the colleges…
Edwards, Katie M; Kearns, Megan C; Gidycz, Christine A; Calhoun, Karen S
The researchers assessed the predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault. Participants included 254 women sexually assaulted by a friend, casual dating partner, or steady dating partner. Results suggested that most victim-perpetrator relationships (75%) continued following the sexual assault. Greater trauma symptomatology, less perpetrator blame, and nondisclosure of the assault by victims predicted relationship continuation with the perpetrator. Additionally, the odds of continuing the relationship were greater following acts of sexual coercion than following acts of completed rape. Close relationships (steady dating partner) were more likely to continue following the sexual assault than less close relationships (friends and casual dating partners). Unexpectedly, the odds of relationship stability were greater for women without histories of childhood sexual abuse than women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22455182
Lea, Susan J; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve
This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted rape, and lesser sexual assault involving a single female victim aged 60 or older are selected (n = 53). These are matched with a sample of sexual assaults against women aged between 20 to 45 years ( n = 53). Research findings reveal significant differences in relation to a number of variables, including ethnicity of the offender, number of previous convictions of the offender, and characteristics associated with the assault itself. The results of this research reveal new information about violent sexual assaults on older women by strangers and have implications for practitioners dealing with such cases. PMID:20956439
Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...
Ullman, Sarah E.; Knight, Raymond A.
Analyzed relation of situational factors, offender aggression, and victim resistance to women's sexual abuse and physical injury during sexual assaults using police reports/court testimonies of 274 women who avoided rape or were raped. After situational variables were partialed out, women's screaming was related to less severe sexual abuse;…
Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan
Research that attempts to identify characteristic features of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) is limited. This study compared demographic and assault related characteristics of 135 cases of MPSA with 139 cases of single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) reported to the Haven sexual assault referral centre, Camberwell, London, over a…
Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline
This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures. PMID:26721902
Long, LaDonna; Ullman, Sarah E
Few studies have examined factors related to problem drinking and drug use in Black sexual assault victims. Given that sexual assault and histories of trauma are associated with substance abuse in victims, research is needed to determine what factors may be related to these outcomes for Black survivors. Furthermore, child sexual abuse (CSA) is a risk factor for substance abuse, but no studies have examined correlates of substance abuse outcomes separately according to CSA history. This study examines a large diverse sample of Black sexual assault victims (N = 495) to determine the associations of demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, and postassault psychosocial factors with problem drinking and drug use using multivariate regressions. Traumatic life events, using substances to cope and self-blame, were associated with greater problem drinking and drug use. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed. PMID:26646054
Eogan, Maeve; McHugh, Anne; Holohan, Mary
Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence. PMID:22975433
Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra
Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…
Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.
Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357
The author devised a classroom activity that facilitates discussion and increases awareness about sexual assault. Students read scenarios involving sexual situations that varied in ambiguity, then labeled whether the situations involved a sexual assault. Students also gave their definitions of sexual assault and completed an evaluation of the…
Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D Brian
In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants were 5th-12th graders at a school from a Midwest city. Completed measures were obtained from 202 students, and a quasiexperimental time series research design was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention program. The program was found to be effective at increasing participant's knowledge of sexual abuse, awareness of school and community sexual assault support resources, and identification of components of healthy and unhealthy relationships. PMID:22126112
Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R
Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623
This guide explains the role of educators in dealing with cases of child sexual abuse. It provides general information on the causes and consequences of the problem, suggests ways of assisting children more effectively, and explains educator's legal requirements under Washington State law for reporting child abuse. Child sexual abuse is a general…
Hequembourg, Amy L.; Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Hughes, Tonda L.
The goal of this study was to examine lifetime patterns of sexual assault and associated risks among a purposive sample of gay and bisexual men (N = 183; 18–35 years old, M = 24.3). Cross-sectional data were collected via written, self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face, event-based qualitative interviews. Alcohol severity scores indicated high rates of hazardous drinking (53.0%) and possible dependence (14.2%) among participants. One half of men (50.8%) reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and 67.2% reported adult sexual assault (ASA). Average age at most recent ASA was 21 years. Most perpetrators of recent ASA incidents (83.9%) were male; 67.0% of participants reported consuming alcohol and/or drugs prior to the most recent incident. Regression findings indicated more severe CSA experiences and past alcohol-related problems predicted recent severe ASA. Although we found similarities between gay and bisexual men in lifetime sexual assault history, we found some distinct differences in ASA risk factors. Bisexual men reported higher alcohol severity scores, more female ASA perpetrators, higher internalized homophobia scores, and fewer male sexual partners than gay men. Findings suggest the need for interventions that reduce ASA risk among sexual minority men—and the potential benefits of focusing on alcohol consumption in risk reduction efforts. PMID:24483778
.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8335 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... fight to reduce sexual violence, the prevalence of sexual assault remains an affront to our national... still more have endured other forms of sexual violence or abuse. Tragically, these crimes take...
... National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, Adults/Adolescents'' and refer to DD... Examinations, Adults/ Adolescents'' and refer to DD Form 2911 and accompanying instructions. (2) Sexual assault... Examinations, Adults/Adolescents.'' Sexual assault victims shall be treated uniformly, consistent with...
Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Lewis, Tonya C.
Examines the manner in which introductory psychology textbooks present issues about child sexual assault. Finds that four texts made no mention of any child sexual assault issues and of the remaining textbooks, the majority of the information concerning child sexual assault dealt with memory issues. Identifies five overgeneralizations in relation…
Hensley, Laura G.
The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…
Swinson, Karyn Crystal
Many studies in the sexual assault literature have found a significant relationship between sexual assault severity and psychological distress, specifically PTSD and suicidality. However, in the current literature, there is an inconsistent and incomplete definition of the construct of assault severity. The present study aims to create a…
King, H. Elizabeth; And Others
These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…
... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...
When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…
Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997
These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…
Many higher education institutions are scrutinized by their campus community and the media for the way that they respond, or fail to respond, to allegations of sexual assault. Tack on the fact that nearly 100 colleges and universities are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) for…
Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve
This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…
Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa
The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed. PMID:23581559
Geffner, Robert, Ed.
These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of psychopathology…
Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Tsong, Yuying; Tillman, Shaquita; Smith, Kimberly
A substantial body of research documents the mental health consequences of sexual assault including, but not limited to, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance use, and suicidality. Far less attention has been given to the mental health effects of sexual assault for ethnic minority women or women living in poverty. Given African American women's increased risk for sexual assault and increased risk for persistent poverty, the current study explores the relationship between income and mental health effects within a sample of 413 African American sexual assault survivors. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for childhood sexual abuse there were positive relationships between poverty and mental health outcomes of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and illicit drug use. There was no significant relationship between poverty and suicidal ideation. Counseling and research implications are discussed. PMID:20397989
Immediate needs after sexual assault include safety and privacy in the first instance, followed by treatment of injuries and prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. Management should include risk identification of self-harm and suicide, as well as safeguarding children and vulnerable adults. Pregnancy prevention can be achieved through oral or mechanical methods of emergency contraception. Availability of emergency contraception may vary between districts and countries, depending on local laws and cultural or religious beliefs. Sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus, represent an important part of management of victims of sexual assault. They can be prevented immediately by offering bacterial and viral prophylaxis followed by sexual health screening 2 weeks later unless symptomatic. In deciding what antibiotics to use as prophylaxis, local prevalence of infections and resistance to antibiotics should be considered. Prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be discussed and offered in high-risk cases for up to 72 h after exposure. This should be accompanied by baseline human immunodeficiency virus test and referral for follow up. In high prevalence areas, prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual exposure should be offered as a routine. Psychosocial support and risk assessment of vulnerabilities, including self-harm or domestic violence and practical support should be addressed and acted on depending on identified needs. PMID:23200638
Keane, F E; Young, S M; Boyle, H M; Curry, K M
One-hundred-and-fifty male patients who attended the department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) completed a questionnaire which enquired into a past history of sexual assault and asked certain details about the assault and various sequelae of such an experience. Twenty-one men gave a history of sexual assault, 11 of whom had been abused before the age of 16, 7 afterwards and 3 in both age groups. Victims of such an assault were more likely to be homosexual or bisexual than heterosexual. The substantial majority i.e. 104 (81%) of the 129 patients who had not been assaulted in the past had been brought up by both natural parents. However, of the 21 males who reported a history of previous sexual abuse only 11 (52%) had been raised by both natural parents alone and 9 of the remaining 10 who divulged such information had been brought up in other circumstances. The association between not being raised entirely by both natural parents and a history of previous sexual assault was significant (P < 0.01). Overall, physical contact of a sexual nature was the most commonly reported type of abuse, followed by anal and then by oral penetration. All of the perpetrators of assault were male except in one instance. Only 3 cases of assault were reported to the police or other agencies. Those who had been abused as minors were more likely to acknowledge subsequent psychological difficulties and to have obtained professional counselling. This problem is a significant one which goes largely undetected in GUM departments and elsewhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7779938
Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263
Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A
In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768
Scannell, Meredith; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Barash, Ashley
Patients who have been sexually assaulted disproportionately experience gaps in healthcare delivery. Ensuring that healthcare providers who care for this population are adequately prepared is one way of addressing this gap. At the Brigham and Women's Hospital, a 4-hour long interprofessional Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers (SASH) was developed and conducted at the hospital's Simulation, Training, Research, & Technology Utilization System Center. The SASH is offered using a variety of teaching methodologies including didactics, skill stations comprising how to collect forensic evidence, simulation experience with standardized patient, and debriefing. Using simulation as an educational method allows healthcare professionals to gain hands-on skills in a safe environment. Ultimately, the goal of the SASH is to enhance collaborative practice between healthcare professionals and to improve knowledge, with the purpose of improving care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. PMID:26457900
Starzynski, Laura L.; Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Long, LaDonna M.; Long, Susan M.
Although many sexual assault survivors seek support from mental health sources for adverse psychological symptoms due to sexual assault, many do not. A diverse sample of adult sexual assault survivors was surveyed about their sexual assault experiences, social reactions received when disclosing assault, attributions of blame, coping strategies,…
VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Although a major predictor of sexual victimization is previous victimization, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. Sexual assault historys impact on appraisal of and responses to sexual assault risk was examined in an experimental analog study. Intimacy with perpetrator was also examined as a potential contributor to…
Ullman, Sarah E; Filipas, Henrietta H; Townsend, Stephanie M; Starzynski, Laura L
This study's goal was to assess the effects of preassault, assault, and postassault psychosocial factors on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of sexual assault survivors. An ethnically diverse sample of over 600 female sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agency sources (response rate = 90%). Regression analyses tested the hypothesis that postassault psychosocial variables, including survivors' responses to rape and social reactions from support providers, would be stronger correlates of PTSD symptom severity than preassault or assault characteristics. As expected, few demographic or assault characteristics predicted symptoms, whereas trauma histories, perceived life threat during the assault, postassault characterological self-blame, avoidance coping, and negative social reactions from others were all related to greater PTSD symptom severity. The only protective factor was survivors' perception that they had greater control over their recovery process in the present, which predicted fewer symptoms. Recommendations for intervention and treatment with sexual assault survivors are discussed. PMID:17955534
From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…
Davies, Michelle; Austen, Kerry; Rogers, Paul
The study investigated the impact of victim sexual orientation, perpetrator gender, and participant gender on judgements toward a 15-year-old male victim of a depicted sexual assault. One hundred and eight-eight participants (97 male, 91 female) read a hypothetical scenario depicting the sexual assault of a 15-year-old male victim where the victim's sexual orientation and the perpetrator's gender were varied between subjects. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their attributions toward both the victim and the perpetrator. Results revealed that male participants blamed the victim more than female participants when the victim was both gay and attacked by a male perpetrator. All participants, regardless of gender, made more positive judgements toward the female as opposed to male perpetrator. Results are discussed in relation to gender role stereotypes and homophobia. PMID:22017075
Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace
Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264
Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M
Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not accurately estimate the true prevalence of male sexual assault victimization. In order to obtain a detailed assessment of sexual assault among males, criminological databases like the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) may provide an important and unique source of information. The objective of the current study was to use data from the 2001-2005 NIBRS to construct an epidemiological profile of sexual assault among males. Our results suggest that the incidence of sexual assault was higher among young males (less than 19 years of age), with approximately 90% of all cases being reported among members of this age group. Among males of all ages, forcible fondling and sodomy were the most prevalent forms of sexual assault. Results from additional analyses include age- and race-specific rates of male sexual assault, the prevalence and severity of injury, and time trends detailing incidence by time of the day and location of the incident. Our analyses show that sexual assault is experienced by males of all age groups. However, the rate of sexual assault is higher among younger males. Despite some limitations, results from this study suggest that NIBRS data may provide a important complement to survey data for understanding breadth and consequences of male sexual assault. PMID:21987510
Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam
Approximately half of all sexual assaults are associated with either the perpetrator’s alcohol consumption, the victim’s alcohol consumption, or both. Although the emphasis of this review is on alcohol-involved sexual assaults, their unique aspects can only be evaluated by comparing them to other types of sexual assault. Theoretical perspectives on sexual assault that focus on characteristics of the perpetrator, the victim, and the situation are described. A number of personality traits, attitudes, and past experiences have been systematically linked to sexual assault perpetration, including beliefs about alcohol and heavy drinking. In contrast, only a few experiences have been significantly related to sexual assault victimization, including childhood sexual abuse and heavy drinking. There is support for both psychological and pharmacological mechanisms linking alcohol and sexual assault. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects reinforce stereotypes about gender roles and can exacerbate their influence on perpetrators’ actions. Alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills also contribute to sexual assault through their effects on perpetrators’ and victims’ ability to process and react to each other’s verbal and nonverbal behavior. Limitations with existing research and methodological challenges associated with conducting research on this topic are described. Suggestions are made for future research which can inform prevention and treatment programs. PMID:26500424
Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L
We examined mock jurors' reactions to a sexual abuse case involving a male teacher and a 10-year-old child. Because gay men are sometimes stereotyped as child molesters, we portrayed defendant sexual orientation as either gay or straight and the victim as either a boy or girl. Jurors made more pro-prosecution decisions in cases involving a gay versus straight defendant, particularly when the victim was a boy. In boy-victim cases, jurors' emotional feelings of moral outrage toward the defendant mediated these effects. On average, women jurors were more pro-prosecution than were men. Results have implications for understanding social perceptions of cross- and same-gender child sexual abuse and juror decision making in child sexual assault cases perpetrated by homosexual and heterosexual men. PMID:18404363
DeKeseredy, Walter S; Schwartz, Martin D
Since the 1970s, many studies have enhanced a social scientific understanding of the lethal and non-lethal physical abuse of women during and after separation and divorce, but less than a handful have examined sexual assaults on rural women who want to leave, are trying to leave, or who have left spouses or live-in male partners. Further, none of the work done so far on this problem has examined the role of collective efficacy. The results presented here help fill these research gaps and call into question the common assumption that there is more collective control on criminal behavior in rural settings. Moreover, our exploratory qualitative data show that collective efficacy can take many shapes and forms, and often what is perceived as the "common good" may actually be behaviors and discourses that threaten the health and well-being of women seeking freedom from abusive male partners. PMID:19042466
Beebe, D K
Rape is a crime which occurs to over 12 million women. It has a substantial impact on the physical, psychological and social health of the victim. It is defined as the carnal knowledge of a person forcibly and against their will and includes successful and unsuccessful assaults. In this sense, the terms rape and sexual assault are used interchangeably. Physicians should responsibly counsel patients when appropriate concerning prevention of sexual assault and should be knowledgeable about the acute medical and psychological management of a sexual assault victim, including the collection of evidence. This article provides basic information regarding examination, evidence collection and treatment. PMID:9796180
Filipas, Henrietta H.; Ullman, Sarah E
The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and…
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
McFarlane, Judith; Malecha, Ann; Gist, Julia; Watson, Kathy; Batten, Elizabeth; Hall, Iva; Smith, Sheila
In order to establish the frequency of substance use, following and attributed to sexual assault, and describe the danger for femicide and suicidality for women physically and sexually abused compared to physically-abused only women, a personal interview of 148 African-American, Hispanic, and white English and Spanish-speaking abused women was completed. Women who reported more than one sexual assault were 3.5 (95% CI, 0.9, 13.4) times more likely to report beginning or increasing substance use compared to women who reported only one sexual assault. Sexually assaulted women reported significantly (p=.002) more risk factors for femicide compared to physically- abused only women. Specific to suicide, women reporting sexual assault were 5.3 (95% CI, 1.3, 21.5) times more likely to report threatening or attempted suicide within a 90-day period compared to physically-abused only women. The health assessment and intervention of intimate partner violence must extend beyond injury to include behavior risk sequelae of substance abuse and suicidality. PMID:16203648
Lott, Bernice; And Others
Discusses results of a survey conducted among students, faculty, and staff at the University of Rhode Island to explore experiences of and attitudes toward sexual assault and sexual harassment. (Author/MJL)
DeKeseredy, Walter S.; And Others
Studies sexual assault and stranger aggression experienced by 259 Canadian female undergraduates at an Ontario university. Results indicate that the rate of sexual assault is at least as high as in the United States and that stranger aggression has been experienced by the overwhelming majority (84.1%). (SLD)
Low, Georgiana; Organista, Kurt C.
Outlines the sparse empirical data on sexual assault among Latinas. Presents a working bicultural model of sexual assault that frames the problem within both traditional Latino and American gender role systems. Discusses implications for providing culturally competent services for Latina victims that draw on supportive aspects of familism and…
Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M.
Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not…
Ageton, Suzanne S.
This report on sexual assault was written for adolescents. It contains data on teenage sexual assault from the National Youth Survey (NYS), a survey of a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,700 youths who were between 11 and 17 years old at the time of the project's initial interview and who were interviewed annually for 5 years…
The most important lesson learned about interpersonal violence in the past 20 years is the astonishingly high prevalence of sexual assault in American society. The extensiveness of unreported sexual assault has been repeatedly documented through the use of self-report data from well-constructed surveys of victims and perpetrators. In contrast,…
Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.
Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.
We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
Kalmakis, Karen A
Approximately half of all sexual assault cases involve substance abuse or misuse, yet no studies have focused specifically on women who were under the influence of a substance when assaulted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who were sexually assault while under the influence of a substance. A phenomenological approach was used to gather data using individual, in-depth interviews with women following a sexual assault while intoxicated. Interviews were conducted using open-ended and probing questions to explore participants' life experiences from childhood to the present. The study uncovered a continuous struggle to survive among the participants. Five themes including previous victimization, substance misuse, struggling with feelings, finding support, and struggling to break the cycle were found. This research revealed lives complicated by substance misuse and histories of victimization. Intoxication raises vulnerability and risk for sexual assault. Effective nursing interventions designed to address the women's history of victimization and substance misuse may benefit women sexually assaulted while intoxicated. PMID:21635677
Terrell, Nathanial Eugene
Examines aggravated and sexual assaults among 240 runaway and homeless adolescents (RHAs) in Des Moines (Iowa). Results suggest RHAs are at risk of life-threatening situations on the streets due to aggressive and abusive parents. Additionally, street life situations have significant impacts on the probability that RHAs will be victims of…
Clements, Paul T; Speck, Patricia M; Crane, Patricia A; Faulkner, Martha J
Interpersonal violence such as sexual assault creates a variety of traumatic responses. Adolescents encounter a significantly high rate of exposure to sexual assault. In the aftermath of sexual assault, issues and dynamics related to traumatic responses include ongoing fear and threats to personal safety, stability, and structure of the family and environment. Each issue is of concern for community and health care practitioners. Sexual assault has a detrimental effect on adolescent intrapsychic development and interpersonal relationships. Symptoms are disturbing and disruptive to daily routines, negatively affect adolescent normal growth and development, and can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. Issues and dynamics regarding sexual assault are explored, with suggestions on how to help adolescents avoid developing a negative world view and long-term negative health consequences. PMID:15660596
Gilmore, Amanda K.; Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Granato, Hollie F.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Kaysen, Debra L.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) are strongly associated with women’s alcohol use and the rates of both alcohol use and sexual assault history are higher among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women. Although descriptive drinking norms are one of the highest predictors of alcohol use in emerging adults, this is the first study to examine the relationship between sexual assault history, drinking norms, and alcohol use in lesbian and bisexual women. We found that CSA severity was associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing more severe alcohol-involved ASA, more severe physically forced ASA, and was indirectly associated with more drinking behavior and higher drinking norms. Additionally, more severe alcohol-involved ASA was associated with higher drinking norms and more drinking behavior, but physically forced ASA was not. These findings help explain previous contradictory findings and provide information for interventions. PMID:24360780
Peter-Hagene, Liana C.; Ullman, Sarah E.
Using cluster analysis, we investigated the effects of assault characteristics (i.e., levels of violence, subjective distress, alcohol consumption, perpetrator identity) on PTSD symptoms, and whether these effects are mediated by post-assault social and psychological reactions. A large community sample of women sexual assault survivors completed two mail surveys at a one-year interval. In line with prior research, cluster analyses revealed the existence of three general categories of sexual assaults, which we described as “high violence”, “alcohol-related”, and “moderate sexual severity.” Alcohol-related assaults resulted in fewer PTSD symptoms than high violence assaults at Time 1, but not at Time 2. Alcohol-related and violent assaults resulted in more PTSD symptoms than moderate-severity assaults at both times. The effect of assault characteristics clusters on Time 2 PTSD was mediated by Time 1 self-blame and maladaptive coping. The importance of considering effects of violence and alcohol consumption during the assault to better understand post-assault PTSD, including implications for theory and practice, are discussed. PMID:25793692
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
DeKeseredy, Walter S; Joseph, Carolyn
A rapidly growing social scientific literature shows that many women are at great risk of being killed, beaten, or psychologically abused when they exit or try to leave their marital and/or cohabiting partners. However, less than a handful of studies have examined male-to-female sexual assaults during and after separation or divorce. Furthermore, the bulk of the limited empirical work on this problem was done in urban areas. Thus, the main objective of this article is to help fill two major research gaps by presenting the preliminary results of an ongoing exploratory study of separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio. PMID:16456154
Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn
Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…
ABBEY, ANTONIA; MCAUSLAN, PAM; ZAWACKI, TINA; CLINTON, A. MONIQUE; BUCK, PHILIP O.
Past research demonstrates that sexual assault perpetration is caused by multiple factors including attitudes, early experiences, and situational factors. In this study, 343 college men described either a sexual assault they had committed or their worst date. Discriminant function analysis indicated that attitudes about gender roles and alcohol, number of consensual sex partners, how well the man knew the woman, how isolated the setting was, alcohol consumption during the event, the man’s misperception of the woman’s cues during the event, and prior consensual sexual activity between the man and the woman discriminated between sexual assaults and worst dates. Additionally, tactics used to obtain sex, self attributions, the perceived seriousness of the assault, and the extent to which it disrupted relationships with others significantly discriminated between men who committed forced sexual contact, sexual coercion, and rape. These results demonstrate the importance of considering both individual characteristics and situational factors in theories and prevention activities. PMID:26435575
Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.
The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…
La Flair, Lareina N; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B
The link between sexual assault and disordered eating has yet to be clarified, especially for ethnic minority populations. Asian women, in particular, report low rates of both sexual assault and eating disorders compared to their Western counterparts, and studies suggest that these rates may be conservative. The literature indicates that there are cultural attitudes that contribute to non- and underreporting of sexual assault by Asian women and that these sociocultural factors may have an important role in the development of eating disorders as a response to sexual victimization. Research illustrates a relationship between sexual assault and eating disorders; eating disorders may serve as coping mechanisms for survivors of sexual assault by providing a mechanism for comfort, numbing, and distracting in an effort to rid the painful feelings in response to the assault. To stimulate future research, this article reviews the current literature on the development of eating disorders following a sexual assault and on the sociocultural factors linking both phenomena in Asian women, and offers avenues for investigation to increase our understanding of these relationships. PMID:18661367
The victim impact statement (VIS) is a written account of harms experienced as a result of crime. This study investigates VIS use by sexually assaulted women through interviews with Canadian victims, victim services workers, and feminist advocates (N = 35). Findings suggest that victims use the VIS to express relational caring. Relational caring is an ethic of care that prioritizes others through privileging the harms experienced by others because of witnessing the sexual assault or coping with the victim's postassault sequelae, protecting future or hypothetical victims, and promoting the interests of intimate partner offenders. Relational caring challenges traditional conceptions of victim agency and VIS use for instrumental purposes, as well as the targets and temporalities of sexual assault harms that are detailed in the statement. Relational caring has unique implications for victims who are mothers, especially those abused as minors, and for intimate partners. Legal, therapeutic, and social service consequences are discussed. PMID:25905129
Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer
The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…
Reid-Cunningham, Allison Ruby
Although there is clinical conjecture regarding the effects of maternal trauma on parent- child relationships, research is scarce and this area remains to be explored. In a domestic violence sample, there was significant reduction in quality of parent-child relationships when the mother had experienced sexual assault or rape during adulthood. There was no correlation between the mother's history of childhood sexual assault or rape and parent-child relationship. Survivors of sexual assault may be best served through interventions that utilize relational models. Family-based interventions may be particularly effective in addressing problems in parent-child relationships stemming from the mother's trauma history. PMID:19509321
Hagan, Kiara S; Reidy, Lisa
Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) can be defined as sexual activity occurring whereby the victim is incapacitated by drugs and/or alcohol and thereby unable to consent. A new wave of designer drugs is emerging in the community at large and one group, the synthetic cathinones, is described in this study. Analyzing urine samples from reported sexual assaults submitted to the University of Miami Toxicology Lab in 2013 determined that methylone has become a popular drug encountered in these cases. Derivatization of these synthetic cathinones enabled a validated a qualitative method to identify ten different designer drugs. Of the forty-five sexual assault samples submitted, 13% were positive for synthetic cathinones without any toxicological finding of ethanol, GHB or ketamine. This study illustrates the recent correlation of drug-facilitated sexual assaults and the use of synthetic cathinones. PMID:26301833
Raunick, Cara Berg; Lindell, Deborah F; Morris, Diana Lynn; Backman, Theresa
Vicarious trauma (VT), the phenomenon of changes in cognition and worldview that result from empathic response and repeated exposure to narratives of trauma, is a risk for helping professionals. This descriptive, correlational study sought to examine levels of VT among sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) as compared with other women's health nurses. It also explored whether levels of VT are different for nurses who have experienced primary trauma alone, VT alone, or both personal trauma and VT. VT was assessed through an anonymous online survey using the nurses' total scores on the Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale. Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale scores were significantly higher for SANEs (M = 178.5, SD = 42.6) than for women's health nurses (M = 168.1, SD = 41.4; p = 0.025), indicating higher levels of trauma-related cognitive disruption in the SANE group. Scores were also significantly higher for both groups with personal trauma histories at the p < 0.05 level compared with the women's health nurses with no personal history. SANEs who had no personal history of trauma did not differ significantly from either group of nurses who did, suggesting that VT from working as an SANE is associated with levels of cognitive disruption similar to oneself having experienced trauma. Nurses should be aware of this phenomenon and its sequelae when choosing to pursue the specialty of sexual assault nursing. Hospitals and other organizations employing SANEs should also be aware of VT and provide a support system with resources in place to mitigate these effects. Future research should further explore effects of primary trauma versus VT, clinical manifestations and significance of varying levels of VT, and interventions and strategies for dealing with VT. PMID:26226351
Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke
Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260
Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia
This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…
Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...
Snyder, Howard N.
Until recently, law enforcement and policymakers had few hard data on the child victims of sexual abuse, offenders, and other characteristics of these crimes on which to base a response. The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), capturing a wide range of information on each sexual assault incident reported to law enforcement, can…
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.
This book links research on two topics--sexual assault on North American college and university campuses and the role played by male peer support in such assaults. Disputing the notion that college campuses are safe havens from crime, the first chapter defines sexual assault, notes the incidence and prevalence of campus sexual assault, and…
Stringer, Gayle M.; Rants-Rodriguez, Deanna
This document is a participant booklet used in a sexual assault prevention program focusing on information for male teenagers. These topics are covered in the activities: (1) sex role expectations; (2) assertiveness skills; (3) responding to disrespectful language; (4) sexual harassment; (5) differences between sexual behavior and sexual…
Hatcher, Angela P.
Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included those…
Schwartz, Rachel; McMahon, Sarah; Broadnax, Jesica
This article presents a comprehensive review of information available on campus Web sites at all four-year colleges and universities in New Jersey. This study used a descriptive, content analysis methodology with a sample that consisted of 28 college and university Web pages. To evaluate the Web sites, ecological approaches were rated with a checklist created to document the presence and extent of information about sexual assault, including five key areas: (1) general information about sexual assault, (2) the availability of services for students, (3) information about how to report an incident of sexual assault, (4) whether there was a department exclusively dedicated to the school's response to sexual assault, and (5) information about the existence of a policy prohibiting sexual assault on campus. Almost all of the schools provided policies and information about services for students. However, the comprehensiveness of the information and the ease of finding it varied greatly by campus. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for social workers and those responding to survivors of sexual assault on a college campus. PMID:26638503
Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette
Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329
This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…
Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.
This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Relyea, Mark; Peter-Hagene, Liana; Vasquez, Amanda L.
Sexual assault history is associated with higher risk of problem drinking and drug use in women, yet little is known about mechanisms linking trauma histories in general to women’s drinking or drug use problems. This study examined how various types of trauma, substance use coping, and PTSD relate to past-year problem drinking and drug use in women who experienced sexual assault. Data from a large, diverse sample of women who had experienced adult sexual assault was analyzed with structural equation modeling to test a theoretical model of the relationship between trauma types, substance use coping, PTSD symptoms, and past-year drinking and drug use (N = 1863). Results show that PTSD symptoms fully mediated the association between non-interpersonal trauma and the use of substances to cope. However, the association between both interpersonal trauma and child sexual abuse severity on substance use to cope were only partially mediated by PTSD symptoms. In turn, use of substances to cope fully mediated the relationship between PTSD and problem drug use as well as partially mediated the effect of PTSD on problem drinking. These results suggest that different trauma types and substance use coping may be important risk factors distinguishing sexually assaulted women who develop PTSD and problematic substance use from those who do not. Identifying women’s histories of different traumas may help to identify those at greater risk for substance use problems. PMID:23501138
Recent studies and a review in the United States have identified that tens of thousands of used but untested sexual assault examination kits containing medical examination specimens are to be found in police station evidence rooms, forensic science laboratories, hospitals and rape crisis centres. A 2007 survey undertaken by the National Institute of Justice in the United States explored some of the reasons why forensic specimens are not tested by forensic science laboratories. Many of these relate to lack of knowledge on the part of investigators as to how scientific information can assist the investigation process, even if not used subsequently at trial. Cost factors and laboratory casework overload were also identified as significant. For the medical practitioner, the lack of testing poses issues that include quality management of the forensic medical examination and informed consent in a setting requiring the balancing of public and private benefits for the examinee. Limiting scientific testing, even with intelligence-led triaging of sample testing, could have an adverse effect on both prosecution and defence decision-making and ultimately could adversely affect trial outcomes. PMID:21988007
Roth, Susan; And Others
There is evidence that many women experience sexual assault, and that sexual assault can cause psychological and interpersonal problems. This study examined the psychological aftermath of sexual assault in a probability sample of female university students and employees (N=542), focusing on how various aspects of a victim's lifetime sexual assault…
Brown, Jackie; Burnette, Mandi L; Cerulli, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood are profound public health concerns, particularly for women. Exposure to trauma can contribute to long-standing health problems and escalated medical costs. Unfortunately, these experiences are often intertwined. Sexual assault often occurs in intimate relationships in which there is concurrent IPV; likewise, many victims of IPV have experienced childhood abuse. The prevalent intersections of these struggles can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This article examines the contributions of childhood abuse histories and sexual assault to PTSD symptoms among women experiencing IPV. Findings suggest childhood abuse experiences account for more variance in PTSD symptoms than adult sexual assault. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25324230
Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y
College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954
Yassen, Janet; Glass, Lois
Presents a model for a sexual assault survivors' group (SASG), which posits that the aftermath of the sexual assualt can be resolved. Describes issues for leaders, selection of members, setting, format and themes, and group development issues such as bonding, establishing closeness, and letting-go. (LLL)
Millar, Golden; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary
There is a growing body of literature which seeks to better understand the needs of sexual assault victims presenting for specialized treatment. This study explored aspects of immediate and delayed treatment seeking among 1118 women who presented for treatment to a specialized sexual assault care centre within a large urban hospital. Variables related to demographic and assault-specific characteristics were examined for association with immediate (within 12 hours) or delayed (after 12 hours) treatment seeking. Results indicate the severity of the attack prompted women to seek treatment earlier and that women who were assaulted by a known perpetrator were more likely to delay seeking assistance. Findings are conceptualized under the rubric of sociological and feminist frameworks with suggestions for additional research. PMID:11942469
Hochbaum, S R
There are several significant problems encountered in treating the assault victim in the Emergency Department setting. In a busy Emergency Department, the patient who has been assaulted may be prioritized behind other patients with more significant life-threatening illnesses or injuries. The delay in treatment that ensues may aggravate the emotional trauma already experienced. Additionally, the legal and technical aspects involved in the evaluation and subsequent testimony may erect a psychological barrier on the part of the physician or nurse. This article provides guidelines and handling all of the above problems with regard to the sexually assaulted patient. PMID:3308430
Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B
The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381
Masho, Saba W; Alvanzo, Anika
Men sexual assault is a serious public health issue that is mostly underreported and unrecognized. Despite serious deleterious effects of sexual assault, most men victims do not seek professional help. This study was conducted to examine predictors of help-seeking practices among 91 men sexual assault survivors from a population-based survey. The study showed only 17.6% of the victims sought professional help. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that physical injury (OR = 6.58, 95% CI = 1.08-40.19), perpetration by family or friend (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.47-28.04), history of rape before the age of 18 (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.11-1.69), and threat at the time of incident (OR = 7.08, 95% CI = 1.52-33.03) were significant predictors of help-seeking practices. This study confirms that the majority of men sexual assault victims do not seek professional help. Victims with physical injury or threat were more likely to seek help. Further study should investigate barriers for help-seeking practices. Efforts should be made to reach men with a history of sexual assault. PMID:19706673
Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Hannan, Peter J; Porta, Carolyn
Institutional characteristics may help mitigate trauma associated with sexual assault. This study examines associations between resources on college campuses for sexual violence prevention and the emotional well-being of female students who have experienced sexual assault. There were 495 female college students who have experienced sexual assault who provided survey data in 2010-2011. Sexual violence resource data from 28 college campuses were combined with student survey data in multilevel analysis. Dependent variables include diagnosis with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and PTSD, and models adjust for covariates and clustering of students within colleges. Participants attending colleges with more sexual violence resources had lower rates of mental health conditions than those attending colleges with fewer resources. Colleges are encouraged to expand their array of sexual violence resources to create a supportive environment for victims of sexual assault and to connect affected students with appropriate services. PMID:26822585
Moller, Anna Sofia; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti
Earlier studies have explored the differences between known-assailant sexual assaults and stranger assaults and reported the stranger assaults as being more violent. Only a few studies have discriminated between sexual assaults by intimate partners from assaults by other known assailants when comparing with assaults by strangers. In this study, we…
Wigderson, Sara; Katz, Jennifer
Previous research has not conclusively determined whether traditional femininity increases women's risk for sexual assault. Certain femininity beliefs, such as valuing deference, may increase risk for sexual assault by discouraging sexual refusal assertiveness (SRA). Other femininity beliefs, such as valuing purity, may promote self-protective behaviors. College women (N = 254) provided self-report data on these beliefs, risk and protective behaviors, and sexual assault experiences. Traditional femininity was not directly associated with experiencing sexual assault. However, specific traditional beliefs were related to behaviors directly associated with risk. High SRA and sexual abstinence simultaneously reduced the odds for sexual assault. PMID:25757718
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.
An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…
Greeson, Megan R; Campbell, Rebecca
Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) bring together sexual assault responders (e.g., police, prosecutors, medical/forensic examiners, rape victim advocates) to coordinate and improve the response to sexual assault. Ultimately, SARTs seek to improve sexual assault victims' experiences of seeking help and sexual assault case outcomes in the criminal justice system. To date, there are hundreds of SARTs across the United States and yet, there has been no nationally representative study of how SARTs are implemented. Therefore, the current study used a multistep process to create the first sampling frame of SARTs and then studied how SARTs are structured and function within a random sample of SARTs. Findings reveal commonalities as well as variation across SARTs. Most SARTs rated improving legal outcomes, improving victims' help-seeking experiences, and prevention/education as important goals, yet most prioritized their time and energy toward victims' experiences. SARTs' membership varied, with an average of 12 organizations involved in the SART, and 75% of SARTs having active membership from police, prosecutors, rape victim advocates, and medical/forensic examiners. SARTs were moderately formalized and most SARTs engaged in most collaborative processes (e.g., multidisciplinary cross-training, case review, policy/protocol development, and review) on an as needed basis. Finally, results revealed that some types of cross-system coordination in responding to victims/cases were quite frequent, whereas other types of coordination were quite infrequent. Implications for future research and supporting the development and sustainability of SARTs are discussed. PMID:25315485
Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin
Despite much research and policy development, it remains true that less than one half of all reported sexual assaults are cleared by arrest (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2011). Compounding this issue, many sexual assaults are not cleared by an arrest, but rather by being classified as "unfounded" by law enforcement (Soulliere, 1994, 2005; Tellis & Spohn, 2008). Grounded in the social disorganization perspective, this article examines the relationships between case-related and extralegal community-level characteristics and use of the designation of unfounded by the police. Contrary to initial expectations, findings show that communities with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential instability are less likely to have sexual assaults deemed unfounded by law enforcement. PMID:23520834
McCauley, Jenna L; Conoscenti, Lauren M; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Incapacitated/drug-alcohol facilitated sexual assault (IS/DAFS) is rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct form of assault with unique public health implications. This study reports the prevalence, case characteristics, and associated health risks of IS/DAFS using a large, nationally representative sample of 1,763 adolescent girls. Results indicate that 11.8% of girls experienced at least one form of sexual assault; 2.1% of the total sample experienced IS/DAFS. Thus IS/DAFS accounted for 18% of all reported sexual assaults, with a prevalence of 4.0% among girls 15 to 17 years of age and 0.7% among girls 12 to 14 years of age. Girls with a history of IS/DAFS were significantly more likely than girls with other sexual assault histories to report past-year substance abuse but not significantly more likely than girls with other sexual assault histories to report past-year depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:19283607
... partner. (iii) Adult military dependents may file unrestricted or restricted reports of sexual assault...) 6400.06,\\2\\ covers adult military dependent sexual assault victims who are assaulted by a spouse or... regardless of Service affiliation. (9) Service member and adult military dependent victims of sexual...
Henry, Wilma J.
Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…
Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil
Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its…
... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements. 105.16 Section 105.16 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES § 105.16 Sexual assault annual and...
... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements. 105.16 Section 105.16 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES § 105.16 Sexual assault annual and...
Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison
In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…
Rothman, Emily; Silverman, Jay
Objective: Although a variety of sexual assault prevention programs are currently available to college health professionals, there is a dearth of information about the effect of these programs on sexual assault victimization rates. Participants: The authors evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault prevention program for first-year students at a…
Linet, T; Nizard, J
Caring for victims of sexual assault is a difficult situation where the physician has to simultaneously evaluate the psychological impact and conduct a complete and precise physical examination. To make sure every step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order by all physicians, it is useful to have a written routine protocol. We describe step-by-step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the psychological aspect, the physical examination, the different samplings, and the different emergency treatments. Free download of the entire protocol, with the booklet containing examples of prescriptions, is available at http://www.agof.net/constatviol/. PMID:15052175
Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine A.
The majority of studies evaluating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and subsequent sexual assault perpetration by men have been conducted retrospectively and with incarcerated populations. The present study seeks to improve on previous research by prospectively investigating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and…
Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah
Most sexual assaults are never reported to law enforcement, and even among reported cases, most will never be successfully prosecuted. This reality has been a long-standing source of frustration for survivors, victim advocates, as well as members of the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary response interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase reporting and prosecution rates. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program, whereby specially trained nurses (rather than hospital emergency department [ED] physicians) provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault victims. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adult sexual assault cases were more likely to be investigated and prosecuted after the implementation of a SANE program within a large Midwestern county. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare criminal justice system case progression pre-SANE to post-SANE. Results from longitudinal multilevel ordinal regression modeling revealed that case progression through the criminal justice system significantly increased pre- to post-SANE: more cases reached the "final" stages of prosecution (i.e., conviction at trial and/or guilty plea bargains) post-SANE. These findings are robust after accounting for changes in operation at the focal county prosecutors' office and seasonal variation in rape reporting. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:22433229
Long, Susan M; Ullman, Sarah E; Long, LaDonna M; Mason, Gillian E; Starzynski, Laura L
This study examined differences in male-perpetrated adult sexual assault experiences among women of various sexual orientations using a large urban convenience sample (N = 1,022). Results showed many similarities in disclosure to others, perceived helpfulness, and attributions of blame, but there were also differences by sexual orientation. Heterosexual women were more likely to experience completed sexual assault than lesbian or bisexual women. Lesbians were more likely to be assaulted by relatives than bisexual or heterosexual women. Finally, bisexual women disclosed the assault to the greatest number of formal support sources, were most likely to tell a romantic partner about the assault, received the fewest positive social reactions overall, and had higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. PMID:18225383
Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric
Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land. PMID:24847872
Bicanic, Iva; Snetselaar, Hanneke; De Jongh, Ad; Van de Putte, Elise
Background Prior research endorsed the establishment of sexual assault centres in the Netherlands because of the potential benefit for victims’ mental recovery. In 2012, the first Dutch sexual assault centre was founded at the University Medical Center Utrecht. The aim of the centre is to provide 24/7 coordinated and integrated services (i.e., medical, forensic, and psychological) in one location. Objective The purpose of the present study was to describe demographic, background, and assault characteristics of victims seen at the centre within one week post-assault, and their use of post-assault services in order to improve current services. Method From January 2012 to September 2013, prospective data of 108 patients were collected. To describe the population included, frequency counts and proportions were generated for categorical variables. Results The mean age was 21.3 years (SD=9.8). Most victims were female (91.7%). A large proportion of victims reported background characteristics known to increase the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and revictimisation such as prior sexual abuse (32.4%), pre-existing use of mental health services (45.4%), and not living with both biological parents (61.7%). Most patients (88.9%) consulted the centre within 72 hours post-assault. The uptake of services was high: 82.4% received emergency medical care, 61.7% underwent a forensic–medical exam, 34% reported to the police, and 82.4% utilised psychological services. Conclusion To prevent revictimisation and PTSD, current psychological services could be improved with immediate trauma-focused treatments. Current forensic services may be improved with the use of standard top to toe forensic–medical examinations for both children and adults. PMID:24959327
Ranjbar, Vania; Speer, Susan A
Twenty-seven adult females' responses from an online qualitative questionnaire were analyzed to explore their views on being recovered from an experience of sexual assault, and identify aspects of their postassault health service encounters that facilitated or impeded their recovery process. Being recovered involved accepting the experience, being freed from negative states, regaining control and trust, and receiving help from and being believed by others. Participants predominantly reported negative experiences with health services. Factors perceived as impeding the recovery process include health professionals' inexperience in dealing with survivors of sexual assault, adhering to rape myths and stereotypes, and disrespectful or inconsiderate treatment of survivors. We argue that these postassault negative experiences revictimized survivors. Addressing these factors may reduce revictimization, facilitate recovery, and decrease assaulted women's long-term use of health services. PMID:23763112
Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan
In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665
Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M.
Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.
Relations between (a) serious suicidal ideation and attempts and (b) demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, post-assault outcomes, and psychosocial variables were examined among female adult sexual assault survivors. Younger, minority, and bisexual survivors reported greater ideation. More traumas, drug use, and assault disclosure…
Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109
Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109
Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura
Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…
Lonsway, Kimberly A.
Although police officers are routinely criticized for their negative attitudes and behavior toward sexual assault victims, few programs are described in the literature which educate and train officers to improve their actions in this area. This neglect is addressed in this study, in which three classes of police recruits are examined: (1) a…
... hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8028 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... suffer the pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and... hopelessness. No one should face this trauma alone, and as families, friends, and mentors, we can...
Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen
Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…
The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…
Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten
At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…
Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2004
Domestic violence and sexual assault know no boundaries. According to the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence and the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, in 2003, more than 39,300 rural residents sought assistance or 11.6 clients for every 1,000 rural residents. In urban areas, nearly 94,400 persons sought assistance, or 10.6 clients…
Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina
The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension. PMID:23300197
Exner, Deinera; Cummings, Nina
Prosocial bystander interventions are promising approaches to sexual assault prevention on college campuses. Objective: To assess bystander attitudes among undergraduate students at a northeastern university. Participants: A convenience sample of 188 students from 4 undergraduate classes was surveyed during regularly scheduled class sessions.…
Smith, Malia J.
Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…
Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.
Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their clarity and…
Geller, Sheldon H.
The Toronto Transit Commission employees were on strike for 23 days, producing a total shut-down of all public transportation and a resulting increase in the number of hitch-hiking females. The strike provided a novel and unique opportunity to empirically examine two theories of sexual assault and to evaluate the effects of hitch-hiking upon…
Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.
Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…
Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.
Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United...
ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S J
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs, often in conjunction with alcohol, to commit sexual assault. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are suspected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs which may be associated with sexual assault. Each sample was tested by immunoassay for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, methaqualone, opiates, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. The positive screen results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, each sample was tested for flunitrazepam metabolites and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) by GC-MS and for ethanol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The states sending the most samples were California (183), Texas (119), Florida (61), Pennsylvania (61), New York (61), Minnesota (50), Illinois (47), Indiana (44), Michigan (40), Maryland (37), Virginia (32), and Massachusetts (31). Four-hundred sixty eight of the samples were found negative for all the substances tested; 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for amphetamines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. There were no samples identified as positive for phencyclidine or methaqualone. In addition, 35% of the drug-positive samples contained multiple drugs. This study indicates that, with respect to alleged sexual assault cases, the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids
Comings, David E.; Comings, Brenda G.
Notes that sexual abuse of children is common and serious problem and that wide range of behavioral abnormalities have been linked to sexual and physical abuse. Notes that many symptoms also are seen in children with other disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Tourette syndrome. Presents case report of seven-year-old…
Tong, Liz; And Others
The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)
The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science of sexual assault research to direct future research in three key areas: responses, mediators, and current theory with a religious or spiritual focus addressing recovery. Three research questions guided the investigation of literature and the formation of this article: (a) What are common survivor responses to, and long-term effects of, sexual assault?; (b) What are mediators for recovery after sexual assault?; and (c) What theory with a religious or spiritual focus exists to address recovery from sexual assault? This research identifies significant gaps in the literature underscoring the importance of future research that examines responses to and long-term effects of sexual assault, need for mediators during recovery, and need to develop theory using religious and spiritual tenets aiding in recovery from sexual assault. Further research is necessary to develop this science, expand understanding, and support sexual assault survivors on their recovery journey. PMID:25144589
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Golding, Jonathan M; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Lippert, Anne; Magyarics, Casey L
The present study investigated the influence of a sexual assault nurse examiner's (SANE's) testimony on mock juror perceptions of a child or adolescent victim of child sexual assault. Community members (N = 252, 156 females) read a fictional criminal trial summary of a child sexual assault case in which the victim was 6 or 15 years old and the prosecution presented medical testimony from a SANE or a traditional registered nurse (RN), or did not present medical testimony. Mock jurors were more likely to render guilty verdicts when a SANE testified compared with the other two testimony conditions. In addition, pro-victim judgments (e.g., sympathy toward the victim) and negative defendant judgments (e.g., anger toward the defendant) mediated this relation. Finally, cognitive network representations of the case demonstrated that the RN and no-medical-testimony groups were similar and the SANE group was distinct from the other two conditions. We discuss these results in terms of the implications of SANE testimony in child sexual assault court cases. PMID:26294384
Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Megías, Jesús L; Krahé, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force or offered alcohol to the woman to overcome her resistance. Rape myth acceptance (RMA) was measured as an individual difference variable. Participants were more convinced that the incident was a sexual assault and blamed the woman less when the man had used force rather than offering her alcohol. In Study 2, 164 college students read a scenario in which the woman rejected a man's sexual advances after having either accepted or turned down his offer of alcohol. In addition, the woman was either portrayed as being sexually attracted to him or there was no mention of her sexual interest. Participants' RMA was again included. High RMA participants blamed the victim more than low RMA participants and were less certain that the incident was a sexual assault, especially when the victim had accepted alcohol and was described as being sexually attracted to the man. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and legal prosecution of sexual assault. PMID:22203631
Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.
The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,…
Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan
This paper describes the healthcare needs of victims of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) and single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) presenting to the Haven sexual assault referral centre in south-east London, and aims to identify any characteristics that might be related to attendance at follow-up appointments. We reviewed standardised casenotes of 136 MPSA victims and 139 SPSA victims attending for forensic medical examination (FME) between 1 July 2005 and 31 July 2009. MPSA victims reported a higher rate of stranger assaults, higher rates of vaginal, anal and oral rapes, more rapes at multiple anatomical sites or multiple rapes and were more likely to sustain injuries, all of which put MPSA victims at higher risk of subsequent health problems. Rates of attendance at follow-up appointments were low for all (53.5%) as were rates of completion of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV (33.3%). Attendance at follow-up was associated with presence of anogenital injury at the time of FME. Those over the age of 30 years were less likely to attend. PMID:24695016
Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Dutton, Courtney E.
Disgust and mental contamination (or feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in the absence of a physical contaminant) are increasingly being linked to traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomatology. Evidence suggests disgust and mental contamination are particularly relevant to sexual assault experiences; however, there has been relatively little direct examination of these relations. The primary aim of the current study was to assess disgust and mental contamination-based reactivity to an individualized interpersonal assault-related script-driven imagery procedure. Participants included 22 women with a history of traumatic sexual assault and 19 women with a history of traumatic non-sexual assault. Sexual assault and PTS symptom severity predicted greater increases in disgust, feelings of dirtiness, and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script. Finally, assault type affected the association between PTS symptom severity and increases in feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script such that these associations were only significant among sexually assaulted individuals. These findings highlight the need for future research focused on elucidating the nature of the relation between disgust and mental contamination and PTS reactions following various traumatic events. PMID:23376603
Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian
In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.
Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705
Reinhart, M A
Male victims of child sexual abuse have received inadequate attention in the literature. This article is a retrospective review of the reports of 189 boys evaluated during 1983-85. This population was younger than those previously reported. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of girl victims seen during the same period revealed many similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. The acts perpetrated against the boys included a wide array of invasive acts at all ages, but sodomy was more frequently reported in the older victims. Abnormal anogenital findings were seen more often in younger children, but the findings were often nonspecific. An examiner experienced with young children and infants is essential. PMID:3594283
Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915
LeBeau, M A
Over the past two decades, cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA) have increased in forensic laboratories in many parts of the world. Investigators of DFSA allegations know of the many challenges associated with these cases, but forensic toxicologists find that delays in the reporting of such crimes to law enforcement and subsequent lags in specimen collection are particularly important concerns. These delays are usually a result of the traumatic experience of sexual assaults, as well as the amnesic effect of the drugs typically used to commit DFSA. Unfortunately, such a delay in specimen collection may be the difference between detecting traces of a drug (or metabolite) and reporting a negative result. Therefore, it is imperative for toxicology laboratories to properly prepare for DFSA cases by developing forms, policies, and procedures to ensure that truly meaningful analyses are performed. This article provides guidance in the steps laboratories may take to best prepare themselves to analyze evidentiary specimens from DFSA investigations. PMID:26242459
Orchowski, Lindsay M; Gidycz, Christine A
A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims' subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims' post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138
Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.
A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138
LeBeau, M A; Montgomery, M A
While there is a general belief throughout parts of the world that drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases have dramatically increased in recent times, the true prevalence of DFSA will never be fully realized. This is due to the general underreporting of sexual assaults, the pharmacodynamics of the drugs used to commit these crimes, the challenges that delayed reporting can impose on the charges associated with these cases, and the lack of a uniform system of defining and statistically capturing data on sexual assaults that are facilitated by drugs. Over the years, a number of studies have attempted to quantitate the frequency of DFSA in various countries throughout the world. Unfortunately, no two studies have taken the same approach in their assessment of DFSA; therefore, it is difficult to combine their results to allow for a realistic evaluation of how prevalent DFSA really is. This manuscript reviews the studies that have attempted such an assessment of DFSA prevalence to compare and contrast their results. PMID:26242452
Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M
Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion. PMID:25183207
Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing
Physical and sexual assault are part of the prison experience. Approximately 21% of male inmates are physically assaulted during a 6-month period. Sexual assault is estimated at between 2% and 5%. Although prevalence evidence is growing, less is known about circumstances surrounding and resulting from these incidents. This article presents an analysis of approximately 2,200 physical and 200 sexual victimizations reported by a random sample of 6,964 male inmates. Physical injury occurred in 40% of physical assaults and 70% of sexual assaults between inmates and in 50% of assaults perpetrated by staff. Emotional reactions to assaults were experienced by virtually all victims. Context information is vital in the development and implementation of prevention and therapeutic interventions. PMID:19477812
Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.
This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…
Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan
Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…
McMillen, Curtis; And Others
Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…
Grant, Deborah Dillon
The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…
Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon
This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
Nonoffending mothers' (n=99) self-reported symptom distress was measured across 3 groups of sexual abuse types: incest, relative, and nonrelative. A multiple regression analysis of psychosocial characteristics indicated that a mother's perceived aloneness in facing the crisis and a personal history of adult sexual assault were positively related…
Fay, Jennifer; And Others
A compilation of material prepared for the prevention of sexual abuse of children and youth is presented in this resource manual. A brief introduction to the prevention of sexual assault leads into discussion of ten references useful for preschool, elementary, and secondary settings. Titles and descriptions of curricula and activities are…
Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger…
Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison
In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses barriers to help-seeking behaviors. Risk factors as well as relevant sociocultural, economic, structural, and psychological perceptions regarding childhood sexual assault among South African girls are also discussed. Finally, clinical implications, culturally relevant psychotherapeutic techniques, and suggestions for future research are provided in an effort to reduce the negative mental health consequences for the victims. PMID:20509076
Hunter, Sally V
Working with families in which there have been incidences of child sexual abuse is one of the most challenging assignments for a family counselor. Beyond ethical and legal mandates for reporting such assaults, less is understood about the long-term effects on victims. After reviewing the literature on child sexual abuse and gender differences,…
Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.
"Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ulman, Sarah E
Few studies examine the sexual violence victimization and recovery of nonheterosexuals. Limited available research suggests that lesbian and bisexual women are at increased risk for sexual violence and experience more recovery problems following assault than heterosexuals. We examine differences by sexual orientation in victimization, recovery, and social reactions as well as whether racial differences relate to recovery in female sexual assault survivors (N = 1,863) from the community. Bisexual women emerged as a distinct group from heterosexual women with greater recovery problems and experienced greater impact of social reactions. Black sexual minority women also had more negative outcomes than White sexual minority women. Results suggest that differences in sexual orientation and race relate to poorer recovery, especially for survivors with multiple marginalized identities. PMID:26159835
Monroe, Laura M.; Kinney, Linda M.; Weist, Mark D.; Dafeamekpor, Denise Spriggs; Dantzler, Joyce; Reynolds, Matthew W.
A statewide assessment was conducted of assaults, experiences, needs, and recommendations of 125 adult victims receiving care at 19 sexual assault centers (SACs) in the State of Maryland. More than one half of the victims (55.6%) waited years before disclosing, with delays in reporting especially likely if the assault was perpetrated by a family…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Starzynski, Laura L.
This study's goal is to identify differences in background, assault, and post assault factors according to the victim-offender relationship. A mail survey is conducted with more than 1,000 female sexual assault survivors (response rate 90%) recruited from college, community, and mental health agency sources. Stranger assailants are associated with…
Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean
Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…
Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David
This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)
Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A
An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is made, therefore, not only for the abused child but for other members of the family (including both parents). The method adopted is to offer group therapy to the child, mother, and father and regular family meetings with professionals in the community, concerned with care and protection of children. Clinical data on the first 56 children treated are discussed and our approach to treatment is evaluated. PMID:6486864
Gemberling, Tess M; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Rowland S; Stroud, Caroline H; Noland, Ramona M; Graham, James
Sexual assault is unfortunately common, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Yet, the associations of such victimization have not yet been extensively established in the areas of sexual identity and romantic relationship functioning. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between lifetime sexual assault, LGB identity, and romantic relationship functioning in a sample of 336 LGB individuals. A history of sexual assault was associated with attachment anxiety and several sexual identity components (i.e., higher levels of acceptance concerns, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and identity superiority). Furthermore, an association of sexual assault and attachment avoidance was moderated by internalized homonegativity. Finally, a more secure LGB identity was associated with healthier romantic relationship functioning. Collectively, these findings are applicable to services for LGB sexual assault victims, suggesting the incorporation of treatment that bolsters LGB identity and couple functioning. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:25516131
Starzynski, Laura L; Ullman, Sarah E
A diverse sample of more than 365 adult sexual assault survivors, recruited from college and community sources, was surveyed about sexual assault experiences, post-assault factors, and perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with perceived helpfulness of and satisfaction with mental health professionals. Older age, higher posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater control over recovery, and more emotional support reactions were associated with positive perceptions of mental health professionals. Stranger offenders, greater resistance during assault, high victim post-assault upset, and blaming social reactions from others were associated with negative perceptions of mental health professionals. PMID:24567537
Orchowski, Lindsay M; Gidycz, Christine A
A prospective methodology was used to explore predictors of sexual assault disclosure among college women, identify who women tell about sexual victimization, and examine the responses of informal support providers (N = 374). Women most often confided in a female peer. Increased coping via seeking emotional support, strong attachments, and high tendency to disclose stressful information predicted adolescent sexual assault disclosure and disclosure over the 7-month interim. Less acquaintance with the perpetrator predicted disclosure over the follow-up, including experiences of revictimization. Victim and perpetrator alcohol use at the time of the assault also predicted disclosure over the follow-up. Implications are presented. PMID:22531082
ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial. PMID:16221632
Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Dumestre-Toulet, Véronique; Ludes, Bertrand
The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals, such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc.), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some histamine H1-antagonists) or anaesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse, such as cannabis, ecstasy or lysergide, or more often ethanol. Drugs said to be used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). We present here a case involving a 23-year old girl that declared a sexual assault 6 days after the event was said to have occurred. To the Police, the victim claimed a total amnesia of the offense associated with intense sedation. Toxicological analyses for unknown sedative drugs achieved by LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of zolpidem (Stilnox), a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. Concentrations after 6 days were 16 and 32 pg/mL in blood and urine, respectively. The drug tested also positive in the corresponding hair segment at 0.75 pg/mg. The requested extraordinary sensitivity of LC-MS/MS appears as a pre-requisite to document any case involving drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:15763689
Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari
This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…
Amacker, Amanda M; Littleton, Heather L
Individuals view similar rape victims as less responsible for the rape than victims perceived as dissimilar. However, it is unclear if individuals hold victims they perceive as similar less responsible for the assault, or if individuals view themselves as more similar to victims they do not view as responsible for the assault. The current study, therefore, examined the temporal relationship between these constructs. A total of 167 college women listened to a date narrative that ended in sexual assault, consensual sex, or no sexual activity (these last two served as controls). Results supported that participants viewed themselves as less similar to the woman in the narrative when the date ended in sexual assault. Only similarity ratings made following learning that the woman was sexually assaulted predicted responsibility attributions suggesting that viewing a victim as responsible for the assault results in decreased perceptions of similarity toward her. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24334861
Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D
Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women
Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.
To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)
Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna
This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)
Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen
There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of this group were victims of a subsequent sexual assault in adulthood. The perpetrators were all male. The majority of intrafamilial cases resulted in victims being raised in environments outside the family home. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with later relationship, educational, and occupational difficulties. Significant associations were also seen with personality disorder, self-harm, and substance misuse. Treating services need to recognize the potential importance of childhood sexual abuse in their models of care given the complexity of the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosocial needs and its impact on successful rehabilitation. PMID:23428151
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit
The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually
Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette
Rape resistance trainings need to prepare women to recognize and resist sexual assault across a range of experiences and contexts. To help address this need, this research used an investigation of 415 college women who completed a survey about their situational responding to an experience of acquaintance sexual assault. A previously established…
Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.
Past theory and empirical research have consistently associated a number of risk factors with sexual assault perpetration. This study extends past research by considering if the tactics which perpetrators use to obtain sex are associated with these risk factors or with characteristics of the sexual assault. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews…
Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina
This study extends past research by examining predictors of different types of sexual assault perpetration in a community sample. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 163 men in one large urban community. As hypothesized, many variables that are significant predictors of sexual assault perpetration in…
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…
Dietz, Thomas; Kalof, Linda
Survey assesses willingness to pay for programs to prevent sexual assault and class size reduction in a predominantly White female sample of 349 undergraduates. Results suggest that the prevention of sexual assault is a community issue, with substantial willingness among students to pay for risk reduction programs without regard to the benefits…
Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.
Past research has shown that self-defense/assertiveness training may have positive implications for sexual assault survivors. However, little is known about the correlates of self-defense/assertiveness training participation for sexually victimized women. In this study we examined the assault characteristics and experiences that relate to women's…
... National Sexual Assault Awareness Month. Sexual assault is pervasive in the United States. Study after study has shown that this crime impacts people at all age levels and in every part of this Nation. One recent study found that 18 percent of women in this country have been raped in their lifetime....
... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...
... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defense Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID... Sexual Assault Incident Database (DSAID). (a) Purpose. (1) In accordance with section 563 of Public Law... activities. It shall serve as a centralized, case-level database for the collection and maintenance...
Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica
Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…
Munro, Michelle L.
Research indicates that only a small fraction of sexual assault survivors seek comprehensive care afterward, including physical and mental health care, forensic evidence collection, victim services, and legal support. This integrative review was conducted to identify barriers that may be keeping sexual assault survivors of childbearing age from receiving such comprehensive care. PMID:25664329
... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Case management for Unrestricted Reports of sexual assault. 105.13 Section 105.13 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES §...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military... terminating the Defense Task Force on Sexual Assault in the Military Services, effective June 1, 2010....
Masters, N. Tatiana; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.
Content and thematic analyses were used to examine women's written responses to a hypothetical attempted sexual assault. A community sample (N=371) participated in an experiment examining the effects of alcohol on sexual assault resistance. Women received a high-dose alcohol, low-dose alcohol, placebo, or control beverage and then projected…
Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.
The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults…
Hensley, Christopher; Koscheski, Mary; Tewksbury, Richard
Studies concerning inmate-on-inmate sexual assaults within male correctional facilities are sparse in the sociological and correctional literatures. Only a few studies have specifically examined the characteristics of male inmate sexual assault targets. The current research sought to address this gap by providing an examination of factors related…
Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others
The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…
Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana
The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…
Monahan-Kreishman, Mollie M.
This phenomenological study explores the lived experience of sexual assault survival for women in college. Through a grounding in the philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology (Gadamer, 1960/2000; Heidegger, 1927/1962, 1968, 1928/1998, 1971/2001, 1950/2002), this work uncovers the lives of six sexual assault survivors who lived through rape during…
Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda
Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…
Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J
The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522
Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. PMID:27169881
Campbell, Rebecca; Raja, Sheela
A sample of predominantly low-income, African American female veterans and reservists seeking health care in a Veterans' Administration medical clinic was screened for a history of sexual assault since age 18. Overall, 39% had been sexually assaulted in adulthood. Those who had been sexually victimized were asked to describe one assault incident…
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Floor, Washington, DC 20001. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United States Code (article 120 of...
... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel; Notice of Federal Advisory... Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (``the Panel'') will be held November 7-8, 2013. The Public Session...
This rule implements policy, assigns responsibilities, and provides guidance and procedures for the SAPR Program; establishes the processes and procedures for the Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) Kit; establishes the multidisciplinary Case Management Group (CMG) and provides guidance on how to handle sexual assault; establishes SAPR minimum program standards, SAPR training requirements, and SAPR requirements for the DoD Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. The Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) program continues to evolve, and the Department is committed to incorporating best practices and Congressional requirements to ensure that sexual assault victims receive the services they need. As part of this commitment and in addition to the Interim Final Rule, the Department is exploring the feasibility and advisability of extending the Restricted Reporting option to DoD civilians and contractors serving overseas. PMID:23577366
Pearce, Margo E; Blair, Alden H; Teegee, Mary; Pan, Stephen W; Thomas, Vicky; Zhang, Hongbin; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M
This study explored trends of sexual assault and associated risk factors within a cohort of young Aboriginal women who used drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, Canada, between 2003 and 2010. Results demonstrated no change in the trend of sexual assault over time; however, odds of sexual assault were significantly higher for women who had at least one parent who attended residential school, had experienced childhood sexual abuse, were involved in sex work, had been offered money to not use condoms, had used injection drugs, had injected cocaine and opiates daily, had binged with injection drugs, and had difficulty accessing clean syringes. Findings highlight the urgency of interventions addressing the complexity of risk and opportunities for healing. PMID:25648945
Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi
Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process. PMID:26291847
Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher
The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims. PMID:26075920
Rencken, Robert H.
This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…
Larson, Noel Ruth
This report describes various aspects of an inservice training program for human service professionals concerned with family sexual abuse. Covered in the report are the content, objectives and phases of the training program, demographic information on the trainees, and a description of the types of evaluation conducted. The overall purpose of the…
Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia
Although most sexual assaults are committed by men who know their victims, few researchers have considered how characteristics of perpetrators and incidents differ depending on the victim–perpetrator relationship. This study addresses this gap with a community sample of 204 men who reported committing a sexually aggressive act in an audio computer-assisted self-interview. 2 (Relationship Type: Committed vs. Casual) × 2 (Sexual Precedence: Yes vs. No) ANOVAs revealed significant main effects of relationship type and sexual precedence associated with individual difference and incident characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing theories and prevention programs tailored for different relationship contexts. PMID:25288595
Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard
Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…
Rosenthal, M Zachary; Follette, Victoria M
Individuals with a history of sexual victimization often experience enduring intrusive thoughts associated with their assault history. Research suggests that the characteristic ways in which sexually assaulted individuals respond to aversive internal experiences (i.e., thoughts, emotions, etc.) can influence the psychological distress associated with these intrusions. This study investigated the effects of suppressing sexual assault-related intrusions in a sample of 61 female college students with a history of adolescent or adult sexual assault and recent assault-related intrusions. Participants were randomly assigned to suppress or monitor intrusions during a laboratory task and for 48 h outside the laboratory. In contrast to study hypotheses, findings indicated that intrusion monitoring was associated with higher subjective distress than suppression both in the laboratory and in the natural environment. No differences were found for the frequency of intrusions between groups in the laboratory. However, modest evidence for a rebound effect in intrusion frequency was found outside the laboratory. PMID:16580627
... can do to legally protect yourself from abuse. Sexual assault: Sexual assault and rape can happen at college. You may have heard about date-rape drugs being used on college campuses. These are ...
Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy
The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. PMID:25732041
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Stevenson, Margaret C; Wiley, Tisha R A; Mitchell, Tracey Schneider; Goodman, Gail S
In three experiments, we investigated the influence of juror, victim, and case factors on mock jurors' decisions in several types of child sexual assault cases (incest, day care, stranger abduction, and teacher-perpetrated abuse). We also validated and tested the ability of several scales measuring empathy for child victims, children's believability, and opposition to adult/child sex, to mediate the effect of jurors' gender on case judgments. Supporting a theoretical model derived from research on the perceived credibility of adult rape victims, women compared to men were more empathic toward child victims, more opposed to adult/child sex, more pro-women, and more inclined to believe children generally. In turn, women (versus men) made more pro-victim judgments in hypothetical abuse cases; that is, attitudes and empathy generally mediated this juror gender effect that is pervasive in this literature. The experiments also revealed that strength of case evidence is a powerful factor in determining judgments, and that teen victims (14 years old) are blamed more for sexual abuse than are younger children (5 years old), but that perceptions of 5 and 10 year olds are largely similar. Our last experiment illustrated that our findings of mediation generalize to a community member sample. PMID:25430669
Thrane, Lisa E; Yoder, Kevin A; Chen, Xiaojin
This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault. PMID:22288098
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A.; Bolen, Rebecca M.
Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically-comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation towards sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23262829
Nicksa, Sarah C
This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario. PMID:24142441
Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J
Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. PMID:25524266
Krebs, Christopher P; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H; Crosby, Carmen M; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda
Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate women at HBCUs and make comparisons to data collected from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs. Data on sexual assault victimization were collected from 3,951 undergraduate women at HBCUs using a cross-sectional, web-based survey. These data are compared to data collected from 5,446 undergraduate women at non-HBCUs using the same research methods. Findings indicate that approximately 9.7% of undergraduate women at HBCUs report experiencing a completed sexual assault since entering college. This rate is considerably lower than the comparable rate obtained from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs (13.7%). This difference seems to be associated with differences in alcohol-use frequency. Perhaps undergraduate women at HBCUs drink alcohol much less frequently and are thus less likely to be sexually assaulted when they are incapacitated and unable to provide consent. Alcohol use frequency, while controlling for other factors, seems to have an independent association with the likelihood of an undergraduate woman being sexually assaulted. Implications for the creation and delivery of sexual assault risk reduction and prevention policies and programs are discussed. PMID:21602199
Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.
Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants’ response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants’ estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming will be discussed. PMID:25455965
Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M; Dvorak, Robert D; Elklit, Ask; Elhai, Jon D
The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N= 4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette-smoking, chewing tobacco, non-prescribed use of medicines, and drug-use, latent class analysis indicated a three class solution for substance-use, namely, Experimental use, Light polysubstance-use, and Polysubstance-use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that as compared to adolescents exposed to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant moderator. It was concluded that assessing for single type or co-occurring assault can facilitate identification of adolescents at elevated risk for polysubstance-use. PMID:26596366
Shulman, Lee P.; And Others
Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424
Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.
Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…
Franklin, Cortney A
The current research used survey data from 282 college women to investigate the relationship between female Greek membership and sexual assault victimization. Drawing from routine activity theory, low self-control, and social learning theory, this study tested a theoretical model that identified pertinent factors present among sorority environments to determine the relationships between Greek affiliation and sexual assault. Path analyses revealed that sorority women reported consuming more alcohol and with greater frequency, increased risk-taking behavior, delayed assessments of threat and responses to risk, and increased contact with fraternity men-all of which significantly predicted sexual assault. Future theory, research, and policy directions are proposed. PMID:26597086
Miranda, Robert; Meyerson, Lori A; Long, Patricia J; Marx, Brian P; Simpson, Sharon M
Though a link between sexual victimization and alcohol use has been well documented, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The current study used path analysis to examine the role of self-reported levels of psychological distress and the function of alcohol use as indirect pathways between adult sexual assault and alcohol use. Participants were 318 undergraduate female victims and nonvictims of adult sexual assault. Results showed that a history of sexual assault was associated with increased psychological distress, which in turn contributed to alcohol use via negative reinforcement. Taken together, these findings provided support for the hypothesis that women who have been sexually assaulted consume alcohol, in part, to self-medicate. The implications for future research are discussed. PMID:12033555
SOMMERS, MARILYN SAWYER
The forensic examination following rape has two primary purposes: to provide health care and to collect evidence. Physical injuries need treatment so that they heal without adverse consequences. The pattern of injuries also has a forensic significance in that injuries are linked to the outcome of legal proceedings. This literature review investigates the variables related to genital injury prevalence and location that are reported in a series of retrospective reviews of medical records. The author builds the case that the prevalence and location of genital injury provide only a partial description of the nature of genital trauma associated with sexual assault and suggests a multidimensional definition of genital injury pattern. Several of the cited studies indicate that new avenues of investigation, such as refined measurement strategies for injury severity and skin color, may lead to advancements in health care, forensic, and criminal justice science. PMID:17596344
Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick
Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed. PMID:22594220
Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P
Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim. PMID:22203383
Bletzer, Keith V; Koss, Mary P
Restorative justice alternatives to criminal justice are designed to balance the needs of victims, offenders, families, friends, and the community at large to achieve social justice, repair of victims, and deterrence of crime. In the model we evaluated from RESTORE (Responsibility and Equity for Sexual Transgressions Offering a Restorative Experience), each offender and victim received individual services and met in guided conferencing to mutually determine reparative actions for the offender. At the exit meeting, the offender, as the responsible person, read a written apology to the survivor/victim. In this article, we analyze the expression of empathy in the apology, in which the initial mitigation of responsibility in early documents was replaced by acknowledgment of harm to the survivor/victim and acceptance of responsibility for the assault. Those accused of felony rape and those targeting a visible person in cases of misdemeanor indecent exposure expressed greater regret and remorse than offenders of indecent exposure with an indeterminate victim. PMID:22307958
Schorn, Mavis N
A bill was introduced into the Tennessee legislature in the 2005 session that would require emergency departments to offer and dispense emergency contraception to sexual assault survivors who are at risk of pregnancy. Several advocacy groups collaborated to form the Women's Health Safety Network for the purpose of communicating as one voice. The advocacy coalition framework of policy development is applied to the political system and is used as a model to discuss issues impacting policy development for this particular bill. Key actors, proponents, and opponents to this bill are presented along with constraints to policy acceptance. The challenge for emergency contraception advocates on a state and national level is to keep the focus on public health science, the health and well-being of women, and out of the abortion debate. PMID:16443990
Leach, Chelsea; Stewart, Anna; Smallbone, Stephen
The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis posits that persons, especially males, who are sexually abused as children are at particular risk of sexually abusing others later in life. We tested this hypothesis by prospectively examining associations between maltreatment and offending in a birth cohort of 38,282 males with a maltreatment history and/or at least one finalized offense. We examined these associations within the context of the wider birth population. Proportionally few boys were the subject of official notifications for sexual abuse (14.8% of maltreated boys, and 1.4% of the birth population); proportionally very few of these sexually abused boys (3%) went on to become sexual offenders; and, contrary to findings typically reported in retrospective clinical studies, proportionally few sexual offenders (4%) had a confirmed history of sexual abuse. Poly-victimization (exposure to multiple types of maltreatment) was significantly associated with sexual offending, violent offending, and general (nonsexual, nonviolent) offending. We found no specific association between sexual abuse and sexual offending, and nor did we find any association between sexual abuse and sexual offending specifically within the poly-victimized group. The total number of sexual abuse notifications did make a small unique contribution to the variance in sexual offending compared to other offending. Implications concerning maltreated boys and male sexual offenders are discussed. PMID:26615777
Rubin, Linda J.
Presents an argument for the possibility of faulty memory in perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse as an additional component in a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sexual trauma and memory loss. Discusses motivations perpetrators may have for repressing memories, the most prominent being their own sexual abuse as children.…
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…
Alexander, Randell A.
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…
Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe
We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…
Ahrens, Courtney E.; Cabral, Giannina; Abeling, Samantha
Sexual assault survivors often receive both positive and negative reactions to the disclosure of their assault. Although positive reactions are typically more common from informal support providers and negative reactions are typically more common from formal support providers, not all formal and informal support providers react the same way. To…
Maurer, Trent W
This investigation explored college students' victim-blaming behaviors in perceptions of incapacitated rape. Participants received a vignette about a man who had sexual intercourse with a woman who had lost consciousness due to alcohol, with the conditions varied across the vignettes: the relationship between the parties, the alcohol use of the man, and the post-assault sleeping arrangements. Results revealed that when the man was a stranger, participants attributed less responsibility for the incident to him, but were more likely to label the incident as "rape." Neither the alcohol use of the man nor the post-assault sleeping arrangements significantly influenced participants' perceptions. PMID:26516179
Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko
Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…
Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine
Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803
Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie
Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered. PMID:26854588
Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil
Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its prevention. Few, however, have presented evidence for a decline in male prisoner sexual assaults and investigated the reasons for the decline. This article provides evidence from population-based surveys of a steady decrease in male prisoner sexual assaults in New South Wales (NSW) between 1996 and 2009. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with former and current inmates, and using a "systems" approach they discuss the complexity of sexual assaults in prison, incorporating a multiplicity of perspectives. In particular, they bring together different sources of data and discuss this in relation to changes in power structures and control in a modern prison, the attitudes of older and younger prisoners, the concept of "duty of care," introduction of prison drug programs, and prisoner attitudes toward gender and sexuality. In anthropology, the term "system" is used widely for describing sociocultural phenomena of a given society in a holistic manner without reducing the complexity of a given community. PMID:21282119
Negrusz, Adam; Gaensslen, R E
This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated with sexual assault is long and among others includes flunitrazepam with other benzodiazepines such as diazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, oxazepam, as well as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and scopolamine. We discuss the most recent analytical developments in the toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated rape designed to reveal drug presence and that may help successfully prosecute perpetrators. PMID:12682705
Bonanno, George A
Steenkamp, Dickstein, Salters-Pedneault, Hofmann, and Litz (2012) analyzed latent trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on data obtained in the early months following a single-incident sexual assault. In contrast to previous studies of potentially traumatic events, they did not observe a trajectory of minimal symptoms or resilience, which they argued occurred because sexual assault involves more severe and direct trauma exposure than examined in previous studies. Although sexual assault is an aversive and challenging event, it seems highly unlikely that at least some sexual assault survivors would not be resilient. Steenkamp et al.'s failure to observe resilience can easily be explained on purely methodological grounds. Most notably, their findings were probably heavily influenced by sampling bias. Additionally, their sample size was too small and had too much missing data for the kinds of latent trajectory modeling they attempted. PMID:23737298
..., improper release of medical information, and other violations of this part and 32 CFR part 103 are... option to sexual assault victims. (2) Victim's perception of the military justice system. The DoD...
..., improper release of medical information, and other violations of this part and 32 CFR part 103 are... option to sexual assault victims. (2) Victim's perception of the military justice system. The DoD...
I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social–ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614
... of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07924 Filed 4-3-13... sexual assault in a comprehensive way. The Act preserves critical services like rape crisis...
Potter, Sharyn J
I examined similarities and differences between the movement to prevent drunk driving of the 1980s, and current efforts to prevent and address campus sexual assault. As college and university administrators design policies and initiatives to reduce campus sexual assault in response to new federal legislation and regulation, they can apply lessons from successful public health initiatives to reduce drunk driving initiated more than 3 decades ago. I illustrate how interventions at the 5 levels of the social-ecological model, and messages that address entrenched cultural attitudes condoning sexual assault and blaming its victims can be used to combat campus sexual assault as a crime and a public health problem. I also show how efforts to promote community engagement can change behavioral norms and reduce offenses. PMID:26985614
Chang, Edward C; Lin, Jiachen; Fowler, Erin E; Yu, Elizabeth A; Yu, Tina; Jilani, Zunaira; Kahle, Emma R; Hirsch, Jameson K
In this study, authors examined basic psychological needs (namely, competence, autonomy, and relatedness) as potential mediators of the association between sexual assault and depressive symptoms in a sample of 342 college students. Results from conducting a multiple mediation test provided support for partial mediation involving the indirect effects of competence and autonomy. In contrast, no support for mediation was found involving relatedness. It is notable that sexual assault remained a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in students. Therefore, findings indicate how sexual assault may both directly and indirectly (through psychological needs) lead to greater depressive symptoms in students. Authors concluded the article with a discussion of the implications of their findings for expanding the study of basic psychological needs in college students and the need for greater efforts to prevent and treat sexual assault on campus. PMID:26173362
Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J
Digital photography is a valuable adjunct to document physical injuries after sexual assault. In order for a digital photograph to have high image quality, there must exist a high level of naturalness. Digital photo documentation has varying degrees of naturalness; however, for a photograph to be natural, specific technical elements for the viewer must be satisfied. No tool was available to rate the naturalness of digital photo documentation of female genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate technical elements for naturalness. Using this tool, experts evaluated randomly selected digital photographs of female genital injuries captured following sexual assault. Naturalness of female genital injuries following sexual assault was demonstrated when measured in all dimensions. PMID:22842968
... pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and rape... women will experience an attempted or completed rape at some point in her life. Too many men and...
Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul
This study investigated victim culpability, credibility, and assault severity in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. A 2 (respondent gender) x 3 (victim age) x 3 (perpetrator type) between-subjects design was employed. Members (391) of the U.K. general public read the depiction of a female child assaulted by an adult male perpetrator. Respondents…
Campbell, Rebecca; Ahrens, Courtney E; Sefl, Tracy; Clark, Marcia L
Previous research has established a link between childhood sexual abuse and engaging in prostitution as an adult. The purpose of this study was to extend this literature by exploring whether being raped as an adult is associated with exchanging sex for money. Interviews with 102 rape survivors in a major metropolitan area revealed that 23.5% had engaged in prostitution post-rape. Those who had exchanged sex for money were more likely to be women of color, to have a high school education or less, to be unemployed, and to have children to support, than those who had not engaged in prostitution post-assault. The prostitution subsample also had significantly higher levels of psychological distress, physical health symptomatology, and substance use. Survivors were asked whether and how the rape was associated with engaging in prostitution: most (75%) stated that they felt it was related to the assault. The most commonly cited reason for engaging in prostitution by these survivors was that they were trying to regain some control over their lives and their bodies; exchanging sex for money was seen as one way to control men's access to them. Implications for future research on victimization and prostitution are discussed. PMID:12968660
Sinal, S H
Increasingly, clinicians are being asked to help determine whether a child or adolescent has been a victim of sexual abuse. Since the late 1970s numerous articles about sexual abuse have appeared in the literature. This review article will acquaint the clinician with the definition and incidence of sexual abuse and the characteristics of the abused and the abuser. Practical guidelines are included for interviewing the victim, performing the physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing, treatment, reporting to appropriate authorities, and court testimony. PMID:7973924
Benbow, S. M.; Haddad, P. M.
Sexual abuse of the elderly may occur more commonly than is recognized. Reasons for the neglect of this area and possible risk factors are discussed. A definition of elder sexual abuse is proposed, and four case histories, each of which raises various issues about the nature, detection and management of sexual abuse, are described. In the absence of procedures for dealing with elder sexual abuse, professional staff need to be open to its occurrence and to be prepared to carry out thorough, sympathetic, collaborative assessments of both parties involved where it is suspected. PMID:8290413
Turchik, Jessica A.; Probst, Danielle R.; Irvin, Clinton R.; Chau, Minna; Gidycz, Christine A.
Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault…
Edwards, Katie M.; Kearns, Megan C.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.
This study assessed college women's reactions to participating in sexual assault research. Women with sexual victimization histories reported more negative emotional reactions than nonvictimized women, but also greater benefits. Benefits to research participation outweighed costs for both women with and without sexual victimization histories.…
Parkhill, Michele R; Pickett, Scott M
Although numerous studies document a link between child sexual abuse and later sexual assault perpetration in men, little research has examined why this relationship exists. One potential mechanism may be emotional regulation difficulties. The current study utilizes a college sample of 132 men to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between experiencing child sexual abuse and later sexual aggression. Although emotion regulation difficulties in general was not significantly related to sexual aggression, one facet, impulse control difficulties, emerged as a significant mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual aggression. Intervention programs should focus on the care that children receive following sexual abuse, with particular emphasis on how emotion regulation abilities may be impacted. PMID:27561122
Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.
Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others. Victims of more severe sexual victimization reported fewer positive, but more negative reactions from others. Greater extent of disclosure of the assault was related to more positive and fewer negative social reactions. Telling more persons about the assault was related to more negative and positive reactions. Implications of these results for developing contextual theoretical models of rape-related PTSD are discussed. PMID:11469163
Diouf, A; Gaye, A; Sangare, M; Ba Gueye, M; Diadhiou, F
Sexual assaults constitute a prominent fact of our societies to this end twentieth Century. Then its's very important for physicians to be informed about obstacles encoured to manage assaults victims. Our study presents 25 cases of sexual assaults listed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of University Center Hospital of Dakar. It works out that: there are adolescents in most cases (85%); delay of examination is too long (11 cases beyond 24 hours) and compromises cytologic exams; injuries evaluation is sometimes negative; no lesion of anal sodomy is found. The authors insist to provide more informations to physicians to overcome evaluation of assault victim which has an impact for legal proceeding against offender. They call gaps to fill up un senegalese jurisprudence about assault victim who gets an accidental pregnancy. PMID:7757135
PARKHILL, MICHELE R.; ABBEY, ANTONIA
The confluence model of sexual assault provides a useful theoretical integration of factors that influence men’s likelihood of committing sexual assault (Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels. Participants’ usual alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption in sexual situations were included as predictor variables. The number of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the number of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished. Participants were 356 men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. Results of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of sexual assault when drinking alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of developing universal and targeted prevention programs for young men. PMID:26405374
Németh, Zsófia; Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Over the past few years gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has generated widespread media interest as a possible 'date rape drug'. Our goal was to examine the extent to which GHB is associated with drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Literature was searched systematically and 11 studies, published between 1961 and June 30, 2009, were identified dealing specifically with the role of GHB in sexual assaults. GHB was detected in 0.2-4.4% of reported sexual assaults. The results demonstrate that a wide range of drugs may be present in cases of sexual assault, and many of them are much more frequent than GHB. Our results do not support the widespread labelling of GHB as a date rape drug as the prevalence of GHB is much lower than of other substances used in sexual assaults. On the other hand, however, the possible risk of GHB in this regard should not be neglected. Nevertheless, over-sensitive and sensation seeking media reports focusing on the association of sex crime and GHB might be counterproductive and misleading as they turn the attention away from other substances that are often used in sexual assaults. PMID:20488831
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Venema, Rachel M
While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. PMID:25395222
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Beirne, Patricia; Hall, Janet; Grills, Claire; Moore, Tara
In Northern Ireland 1 in every 454 women of 13 years and over during 2008/09 reported to police that they had suffered a sexual assault. This study considered the possibility that women may be more likely to be victims of sexual assault during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Evolutionary psychology suggests that women would have suffered more negative consequences if sexually assaulted when fertile and that specific psychological mechanisms may have evolved in women to combat male coercion. Female behaviours towards men vary across the reproductive cycle and men's behaviour towards women may vary also as a result of changes in female hormones. Hormones play a major role in producing the characteristic cyclical changes throughout a woman's reproductive life. This study is the first study of female hormone influences on sexual assaults. The data for the study was collated retrospectively from the records of 105 females with regular, spontaneous menstrual cycles. These females alleged recent sexual assault and were examined in Belfast during the period 2002-2009. The study concluded that young girls in the middle of their cycle, i.e. the fertile phase, were most at risk of sexual assault. It is possible that both sexes are sensitive to signs, albeit subtle behavioural signs, indicating high risk of conception. PMID:21907935
Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the aftermath of rape and other sexual assault, but the risk factors leading to PTSD following rape have been shown to differ from those related to PTSD following nonsexual assault. This prospective study examined risk factors for PTSD severity in 148 female help-seeking victims of sexual assault. Approximately 70% of the victims experienced significant levels of traumatization, with 45% reporting symptoms consistent with a probable PTSD diagnosis. Regression analyses showed that relationship with the assailant, number of assailants, the nature of the assault, perceived positive social support, support satisfaction, feeling let down by others, and prior exposure to sexual trauma did not significantly predict PTSD severity at the final level of analysis. In accordance with suggestions by Dancu, Riggs, Hearst-Ikeda, and Shoyer (1996), it is suggested that this is partly caused by a very high degree of traumatization in the sample. Instead, previous nonsexual traumatic experiences and negative affectivity accounted for 30% of the variance in PTSD severity. Although more research is needed on risk factors of assault-related PTSD, these findings suggest that although sexual assault is associated with a high degree of PTSD severity, prior nonsexual victimization and high levels of negative affectivity appear to further increase the vulnerability toward developing symptoms of assault-related PTSD. PMID:23862315
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Bird, Elizabeth R; Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Lewis, Melissa A
White House Council on Women and Girls (2014) highlighted sexual assault prevention as a high priority issue in need of immediate attention. A risk factor associated with sexual assault victimization and revictimization is drinking before sexual activity. The current study examined the relationship between incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) and drinking before sexual activity. Given the typical social context of both drinking before sexual activity and sexual assault in college settings, social-related drinking factors including drinking to conform motives, social drinking motives, and perceived drinking norms were examined. Six hundred and three undergraduate college women completed a survey online assessing history of ISA, social factors associated with drinking, and frequency of drinking before sexual activity. Path analysis indicated that both ISA before college and since entering college were associated with higher perceived drinking norms, more social drinking motive endorsement, and more drinking to conform. However, only higher perceived drinking norms and more social drinking motive endorsement were associated with both more severe ISA histories and more frequent drinking before sexual activity. Thus, a more severe ISA history was indeed associated with more frequent drinking before sexual activity and social factors related to drinking played a significant role in this relationship. Social factors can be easily targeted through brief interventions and these findings can inform future programming to promote more careful use of alcohol in social and sexual situations. PMID:26348279
Macy, Rebecca J; Nurius, Paula S; Norris, Jeanette
Rape resistance trainings need to prepare women to recognize and resist sexual assault across a range of experiences and contexts. To help address this need, this research used an investigation of 415 college women who completed a survey about their situational responding to an experience of acquaintance sexual assault. A previously established person-centered analysis model of four distinct risk and protective factor profiles was used to investigate the variability in women's responding. The profiling factors included women's prior victimization, alcohol consumption, relationship expectancies of the assailant, and assertive precautionary habits. Multivariate ANOVA was used to test for differences among the four profile groups on their cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responding. Results showed that the profile groups significantly differed in their assault responses. The findings highlight the utility of holistic, multivariate analyses for understanding women's sexual assault responses and help inform tailored resistance and empowerment trainings. PMID:17429022
Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary
The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076
Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.
Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…
Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…
Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.
This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…
Barham, Martha; Clark, Mary McGinn
This paper presents clinical observations, experiences, and interventions from group psychotherapy when the main theme was molestation/sexual abuse. The findings presented are a synthesis of experiences in three areas: (1) the difficulty patients encounter when trying to disconnect with the negative effects of sexual abuse; (2) assessment and…
Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.
Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…
Bolen, Rebecca M.
Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)
Friedrich, William N.
This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…
Berkowitz, Carol D.
Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Singh, Alpana; Vaid, Neelam Bala; Behera, Sanjeeta
Introduction: Rape and abuse of women are common occurrences, which, many a times go unspoken due to social stigma or fear of retribution. Rape is a crime not against a single human being but against the entire humanity. For granting justice to the rape survivor it becomes necessary that such matters are properly presented before the Courts of Law. Healthcare workers play an important role in this regard because they are the first person who examine the rape victims. They prepare a documented record of medical condition of rape victim and do relevant sample collection. Aim: The objective of this study is to analyse demographic and event characteristics of rape victims who presented to the Emergency Department in tertiary care, Delhi after sexual assault. Materials and Methods: Data was retrospectively collected from the medico legal register of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between June 2010 to December 2013. Result: We noted a marked increase in the number of cases. Mean age of victims was 17 and most belonged to the lower socio-economic strata of the society. Use of sedatives and physical trauma was not common. Victims often knew the perpetrator of the event. Most (58%) of them reported within one day of the incident. Major degrees of perineal tears were seen in young victims. Conclusion: By understanding the demography of the sexual assault victims, we need to train our doctors for proper evidence collection not just in a government set up but also in private clinics, to help rape victims get justice and proper medical treatment. PMID:25386486
Ben-Amitay, Galit; Kimchi, Nir; Wolmer, Leo; Toren, Paz
Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli. A minority of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Abused females displayed significant elevations in heart rate, electromyography, and electroencephalography while viewing allusive stimuli and elevated heart rate while viewing neutral stimuli. The dysfunctional regulation of the physiological stress system associated with child sexual abuse may endanger the victims with various stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26934544
Marinetti, L; Montgomery, M A
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its metabolic precursors, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), may be among the most favored drugs used to commit drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). In fact, federal legislation was enacted in the form of the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Drug Prohibition Act of 2000 to control and penalize use and distribution of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD. Unfortunately, solid proof of their use in many cases is difficult to obtain because GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD have strong sedative and memory-impairing effects and are rapidly eliminated after ingestion. To further complicate the matter, GHB is a metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a naturally occurring neurotransmitter in humans. This review focuses on the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs and their use in DFSA. An overview of analytical techniques used to identify their presence is provided, as well as guidance on the toxicological interpretation of findings of GHB in biological specimens. PMID:26242455
Choi, Dong Seok; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Lee, Kyoung Mi; Kong, Tae Wook
Objective To assess the effectiveness of emergency single-dose levonorgestrel contraception in preventing unintended pregnancies among woman who visited the emergency department (ED) due to sexual assault (SA). Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review in a university hospital in South Korea. Cases from November 10, 2006 to November 9, 2009 were enrolled. Information from the initial visit to the ED and subsequent follow-up visits to the gynecology outpatient clinic was collected. Results In total, 1,179 women visited the ED due to SA. Among them, 416 patients had a gynecological examination and 302 patients who received emergency contraception (EC) (1.5 mg single-dose levonorgestrel) at the ED due to SA were enrolled. Ten patients did not return for follow-up examinations. In follow-up visits at the outpatient clinic, two pregnancies were confirmed, which showed the failure rate of the EC to be 0.68%. Conclusion Single-dose levonorgestrel EC is extremely effective at preventing pregnancy among victims of SA. PMID:24179870
Fivush, Robyn; Edwards, Valerie J.
Twelve white middle-class women who had been severely sexually abused as children by a family member were asked to provide a narrative of their abuse and discuss their subsequent remembering and forgetting of these experiences. Most claimed they had undergone periods during which they had not recalled their abuse, but also claimed that they had…
Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca
Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19). PMID:27496646
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles. PMID:22124620
Du Mont, Janice; McGregor, Margaret J
This exploratory study contributes to the sparse literature on sexually assaulted sex workers. We examined 462 sexual assault cases seen at an emergency department-based sexual assault service and reported to the police between 1993 and 1997. More than one fifth of victims were sex workers. We compared them to other victims on victim characteristics, assault characteristics, and medical-legal findings. Relative to other victims, sex workers were younger, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be heroin and/or cocaine users. They suffered a greater number of injuries and forensic samples collected from their bodies were more likely to test positive for sperm and/or semen. These victims were also less likely to have been using alcohol and/or marijuana prior to the assault and to be emotionally expressed during the medical- legal examination. The substantial proportion of sex workers in the study population suggests that attention to their particular needs should be an important part of hospital-based sexual assault services. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:15256357
Nguyen, David; Parkhill, Michele R
This study sought to extend the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration by examining attachment insecurity and depression as additional predictors of sexual aggression. Male college students (N = 193) completed an online questionnaire assessing confluence model constructs in addition to attachment and history of depression. Overall, the model fit the data well, χ(2)(11, 193) = 19.43, p = ns; root mean square error of approximation = .063; comparative fit index = .94. Attachment and depression demonstrated both direct and indirect relationships with perpetration severity. The results contribute to elucidating the process by which certain men become susceptible to perpetrating sexual assault. Implications are discussed. PMID:25125490
Subramanian, Srikala; Green, Jennifer S
The effects a sexual assault on a survivor can be profound and multifaceted. Some of the aftermath may include bodily and/or anal/genital injury, sexually transmitted infection (STI) or disease (STD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and pregnancy. There is no typical experience or survivor response. So, if a survivor presents to the Emergency Departments for care, it is imperative for healing that the response is stabilizing, coordinated, and compassionate. Immediate needs of a survivor of sexual assault include: medical and/or psychiatric evaluation and stabilization, activation of community advocacy to the bedside, mandated reporting as directed by state statutes, offering and conducting (if desired by the survivor) the Sexual Assault Forensic Exam (SAFE), collaboration with law enforcement (if desired by the survivor), prophylactic medications for STI and STD, pregnancy risk evaluation and care and safe discharge planning. PMID:26168593
Troschütz, Stefan; Püschel, Klaus
The topic of sexual assault during sleep is discussed again on the basis of two case reports and several incidents published in the media. The authors support the assumption of Hohner and Püsche1 (2011). There is evidence that it is indeed possible not to wake up during a sexual assault--even without being under the influence of alcohol, illicit drugs or medication--and that a sexual assault during sleep can pass unnoticed. In such cases the outcome of the criminal trial often depends on the careful assessment of the expert, as the faculty of imagination of those passing judgment varies greatly. Based on new findings regarding sexsomnia, even sexual offenders may use the "sleepwalking defense" in specific cases. PMID:26427282
Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Bustin, Amy; Wheeler, Jenna; Gau, Jeff
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals encounter social conditions that create important considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines the relationship between community attitudes toward LGBTQ persons and associated community responses to LGBTQ sexual assault victims. An online and paper-and-pencil survey (n = 130) and four focus group interviews (n = 14) are analyzed using frequency distributions and grounded theory methods. The central theme that emerged in focus group interviews, titled "low community awareness and support for sexual violence in the LGBTQ community," was corroborated by survey participants. Participants' views of unique considerations for LGBTQ sexual assault victims are presented, including causal factors, consequences, and recommended strategies. PMID:19491287
Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris
Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…
Peters, J J
Psychiatrists and others have too often discounted reports of sexual attacks upon children and ascribed the incident to fantasy. The author's experience in private psychoanalytic practice and in Philadelphia's rape victim clinics indicates that these assaults occur frequently. If the sexual attack is dealt with improperly or repressed it may cause serious psychologic problems for the victim as an adult. PMID:970503
Milhausen, Robin R.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Jun, Mi Kyun
This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen
More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…
Lin, Lan-Ping; Yen, Chia-Feng; Kuo, Fang-Yu; Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
Sexual violence against people with disabilities is widespread and linked to negative public health and social outcomes. The objectives of the present study were to describe and analyze and thus provide an overview of the current state of affairs concerning sexual assault among people with disabilities, including reported prevalence and trends,…
Girardet, Rebecca G.; Lemme, Scott; Biason, Tiffany A.; Bolton, Kelly; Lahoti, Sheela
Background: The appropriate use of antiretroviral medications to protect against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear in cases of sexual assault of children, for whom the perpetrator's risk of HIV is often unknown, and physical proof of sexual contact is usually absent. Objective: In an effort to clarify prescribing…
Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.
A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…
Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M
Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799
Hillman, R J; O'Mara, N; Taylor-Robinson, D; Harris, J R
Sexual assault of males is an infrequently reported and a poorly understood phenomenon. Details of 100 victims who sought assistance from a nationwide agency set up specifically to provide help for such individuals are reported here. Twenty eight victims were aged 16 years or over at the time of assault. The assailants were known by 72 of the victims and were perceived by the victim to have a heterosexual orientation in 72% of these cases. Attacks were often multiple and in 33 cases involved disruption of skin or mucous membranes. Twenty victims received threats about the possibility of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus and 17 victims sought medical advice following the assault, most commonly from their general practitioner. It is suggested that greater opportunities for medical and psychological support should be given to male victims of sexual assault. PMID:2282228
Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.
Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…
Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth
Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States Survey. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) show that the vast majority of male sexual assault victims reported that they were not physically injured during the assault, that a weapon was not used, that there was no substance use at the time of the assault, and that penetration did not occur. Only 29% of male respondents in the NVAW sought medical or psychological help after the assault. Prior work may have overrepresented men who reported being physically injured and/or penetrated. An analysis is presented of how those who presented for help in the NVAW differ from the whole sample. Results show that men who presented for help were more likely to have reported being physically injured during the assault and that penetration occurred. Thus, findings from prior work make sense; however, they may not be representative of male assault victims as a whole. PMID:18981191
Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing factory. The results were compared to a previous sample of 502 respondents in the general population in Winnipeg, Canada. The identities of the perpetrators of physical and sexual abuse, and the types of sexual abuse reported were similar in the two countries; however, the rates of reported abuse were lower in China. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be far less common in the general population in Canada than in China. PMID:16354651
Micheni, Murugi; Rogers, Sam; Wahome, Elizabeth; Darwinkel, Marianne; van der Elst, Elise; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian D.
Background Violence toward MSM and female sex workers (FSW) is associated with HIV risk, and its prevention is prioritized in international HIV/AIDS policy. Methods Sociodemographic and behavioural data derived from HIV risk and follow-up cohorts including MSM and FSW in coastal Kenya between 2005 and 2014 was used to estimate the risk of rape, physical assault and verbal abuse, and to assess associations between first occurrence of assault with individual and recent behavioural factors. Results Incidence of first reported rape was similar for MSM [3.9, confidence interval (CI) 3.1–5.0 per 100 person-years (pyrs)] and FSW (4.8 CI 3.5–6.4 per 100 pyrs), P =0.22. Incidence of first reported physical and verbal assault was higher for FSW than MSM (21.1 versus 12.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.14 and 51.3 versus 30.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.03 respectively). Recent alcohol use was associated with reporting of all forms of assault by MSM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8, CI 0.9–3.5] and FSW (AOR 4.4, CI 1.41–14.0), as was recent sale of sex for MSM (AOR 2.0, CI 1.1–3.8). Exclusive sex with men, active sex work, and group sex were also specifically associated with reporting rape for MSM. Perpetrators of sexual and verbal assault were usually unknown, whilst perpetrators of physical violence toward FSW were usually regular sexual partners. Conclusion MSM and FSW experienced a similarly high incidence of sexual assault in coastal Kenya, in addition to physical and verbal assault. Current national policies focus heavily on gender-based violence against women and young girls, but need to be inclusive of MSM and FSW. PMID:26562812
Connery, Sheila A
Sexual assault occurs at alarming rates in America. The true incidence remains unknown as many victims fail to both report for immediate medical care and notify law enforcement of the crime committed. For those who do seek medical assistance, a Sexual Assault Kit is available in Emergency Departments with established protocols for the forwarding of collected specimens to law enforcement. A crime lab analyzes the evidence to identify the offender's DNA. A DNA profile is then created and archived into a database. This case involved a woman who not only endured a sexual assault, but also sustained multiple gun shot wounds, and witnessed the murder of her friend nearly three decades ago. At that time, she was treated for her injuries and evidence was collected and secured into a Sexual Assault Kit. A DNA profile was then created from a predetermined crime lab. In 2011, a Cold Case Investigator, who was reviewing all archived DNA profiles of currently incarcerated individuals in the city where the initial crime was committed, was able to match a current prisoner's DNA to that of the DNA profile created from specimens collected during the sexual assault exam nearly thirty years ago. The perpetrator subsequently was charged with murder by the criminal justice system and received a thirty year sentence without opportunity for parole. PMID:23622491
Dubosc, Auberi; Capitaine, Maud; Franko, Debra L; Bui, Eric; Brunet, Alain; Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel F
Although adult sexual assault has been suggested to be a risk factor for disordered eating, little is known about the pathways leading to this disorder. This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of depressive symptoms and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in the relationship between sexual assault and disordered eating among female students. A sample of 296 French female students completed a questionnaire assessing experiences of sexual assault from age 15, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating. Results revealed that PTSD symptoms fully mediated the effect of early adult sexual assault on disordered eating (B = 1.10, SE = 1.64), and depressive symptoms were a partial mediator of this relationship (B = 2.64, SE = 1.28). When examining both mediators simultaneously the relationship was fully mediated and neither variable emerged as a significantly stronger mediator. Our findings highlight the complex relationship between PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating following sexual assault. Further investigation into the temporal relationships between these variables would contribute to inform prevention interventions for disordered eating. PMID:22354508
Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.
Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817
Verdich, J U
Sexual abuse in children is reported increasingly frequently. The abuse frequently comes to the attention of the authorities when the children present symptoms which raise the suspicion of sexual abuse. One of these symptoms may be sexually transmitted disease in the child. Previously, there was a tendency to accept the possibility that sexually transmitted disease in children could be transmitted by other means than sexual contact, eg indirectly by infected bedclothes and toilet articles. Where gonorrhoea is concerned, no documentation exists in the literature for non-sexual infection in children. Condylomata acuminata are caused by infection with the human papilloma virus and may possibly infect children by non-sexual contact in rare instances but, in the majority of cases, meticulous investigation of the surroundings of the children will raise the suspicion of sexual abuse as the cause of the infection. The case history of gonococcal vulvo-vaginitis in a girl aged 23 months were the source of infection could not be successfully proved is mentioned. Two case histories are reported concerning anal condylomata acuminata in a girl aged nine years who had been sexually abused and a girl aged 25 months where there was a strong suspicion of sexual abuse but where the source of infection remained unknown. On the basis of literature from recent years and the case histories reported here, it is concluded that all gonococcal infections in children must be regarded as being sexually transmitted and these should, therefore, be reported to the social authorities. In addition, all children with ano-genital condylomata acuminata should be investigated meticulously for sexual abuse and be reported to the social authorities, if the suspicion is well founded. PMID:2922864
Ghetti, Simona; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne L.
A study investigated the consistence of 222 children's (ages 3-16) reports of sexual and physical abuse. Older children were more consistent, children were more consistent when reporting sexual abuse, and girls were more consistent in sexual abuse reports. Consistency in sexual abuse reports was predicted by measures of memory. (Contains…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
Alexander, Randell A
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area. PMID:21970641
Webster, Raymond E.; Hall, Cathy W.
Over 300,000 children are sexually abused annually in the United States, with 84,320 new cases of child sexual abuse occurring each year (National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, 1498). It is inevitable that educators and mental health professionals working in the schools will become involved with some of these children. Because of this it is…
Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A
Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%). PMID:26196269
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Lindquist, Christine H; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher; Crosby, Carmen M; Lockard, Allison J; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
To examine the context of sexual assault and postassault actions and consequences among women attending historically Black colleges or universities (HBCUs), web-based surveys were administered in November 2008 to 3,951 undergraduate women attending four HBCUs. Data on the context in which assaults occurred were generated for women who had been sexually assaulted since entering college (n = 358). Multivariate models were run on the full sample to examine the association between sexual assault and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that most survivors were assaulted by assailants well known to them and when the survivor and perpetrator were drinking alcohol. Very few survivors disclosed their experiences to formal sources of support. Survivors had significantly more symptoms of depression and were more likely to screen positive for PTSD than nonvictims. Further research on disclosure and its moderating role on the mental health consequences of sexual assault is needed. PMID:23515164
Peles, Einat; Potik, David; Schreiber, Shaul; Bloch, Miki; Adelson, Miriam
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of a history of sexual abuse and its relation to psychiatric comorbidity among former opiate addicts currently on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We evaluated the history of sexual abuse and current clinical obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), and complex posttraumatic distress disorder (cPTSD), and administered the Life Events Inventory Questionnaire among 125 MMT patients (76 females and 49 males). Eighty (64%) patients had experienced sexual abuse, 69 (55.2%) met the criteria for clinical OCD, 20 (16.0%) for cPTSD and 13 (10.4%) for DID. More females had clinical OCD than males (63.2% vs. 42.9%, respectively, p=0.03). Sexually abused patients had higher rates of clinical OCD than their non-abused counterparts (67.5% vs. 33.3%, respectively, p<0.0005) and a higher mean number of negative life events (8.0±2.0 vs. 7.1±1.8, p=0.01). Sexually abused patients showed a trend towards a higher Dissociative Experiences Scale score (17.6±10.1 vs. 14.6±8.1, p=0.08) and rate of DID (13.8% vs. 4.4%, p=0.1), but no significant difference in the rate of cPTSD (17.5% vs. 13.3%, p=0.6) compared to non-abused subjects. The 80 sexually abused patients were mostly female (85%), and 57.5% of them were abused by a family member. In summary, more sexually abused MMT patients were diagnosed with clinical OCD and fewer with cPTSD and DID. Those with cPTSD were characterized by more negative life events, higher dissociation scores, and assaults by a family member. We conclude that sexually abused MMT patients should be screened for clinical OCD. PMID:22564825
Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P
A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646
Masters, N Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R
This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M = 24.78, SD = 2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across 2 cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: contact or attempted assault (17% of the sample), incapacitated assault (52%), and forceful severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the forceful severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms; higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex; and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other 2 groups. Women in the forceful severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619
Masters, N. Tatiana; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Kaysen, Debra; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.
This study identified subgroups of female sexual assault survivors based on characteristics of their victimization experiences, validated the subgroup structure in a second cohort of women recruited identically to the first, and examined subgroups' differential associations with sexual risk/safety behavior, heavy episodic drinking (HED), psychological distress symptomatology, incarceration, transactional sex, and experiences with controlling and violent partners. The community sample consisted of 667 female survivors of adolescent or adult sexual assault who were 21 to 30 years old (M=24.78, SD=2.66). Eligibility criteria included having unprotected sex within the past year, other HIV/STI risk factors, and some experience with HED, but without alcohol problems or dependence. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify subgroups of women with similar victimization experiences. Three groups were identified and validated across two cohorts of women using multiple-group LCA: Contact or Attempted assault (17% of the sample), Incapacitated assault (52%), and Forceful Severe assault (31%). Groups did not differ in their sexual risk/safety behavior. Women in the Forceful Severe category had higher levels of anxiety, depression, and trauma symptoms, higher proportions of incarceration and transactional sex, and more experiences with controlling and violent partners than did women in the other two groups. Women in the Forceful Severe category also reported a higher frequency of HED than women in the Incapacitated category. Different types of assault experiences appear to be differentially associated with negative outcomes. Understanding heterogeneity and subgroups among sexual assault survivors has implications for improving clinical care and contributing to recovery. PMID:26052619
Savich, Nancy L.
Due to the increase in child sexual abuse allegations, it is essential to know possible predictors or risk factors to aid in prevention. This study examines the correlation between a mother who was sexually abused as a child and the increased risk of her children being sexually abused. The sample consisted of 60 child sexual abuse investigations…
Drezett, J; Caballero, M; Juliano, Y; Prieto, E T; Marques, J A; Fernandes, C E
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of sexual abuse in children and adolescents and its related factors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 617 cases of sexual abuse, assisted between July 1994 and August 1999 at the Womeńs Health Reference Center, divided into two groups: 71 children (age <10 years), and 546 adolescents (age > or =10 and <20 years). The analyzed variables were: sexual crime; embarrassment; presumption of violence; characteristics and number of abusers; the victimacute;s situation at the moment of the crime; and occurrence of physical traumas. Epi Info 6 software was utilized to gather data, and the results were analyzed by the chi-square test. RESULTS: Significant statistic results were found. 90.8% of the adolescents were victims of rape, and 46.5% of the children suffered sexual assault. The presupposed violence (PV) was more frequent in the group of children (63.4%) and a serious threat in the group of adolescents (63.2%). Innocentia consilli was exclusive PV among 100% of children and 59.5% of adolescents. 84.5% of children were molested by identifiable abusers, most frequently family members. Perpetrators were unknown in 72.3% of the cases of adolescent abuse. 42.3% of sexual abuse of children occurred in their homes, and 28.2% at the abusers. Adolescents were approached during daily activities (34.8%) and on their way to work or school (28.4%). Most patients did not have genital or extragenital trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Children suffered sexual assault, perpetrated by a known abuser through presupposed violence in private places. Adolescents were raped by unknown individuals, under serious threat, in nondomestic places. PMID:14647847
Almond, Louise; McManus, Michelle A; Ward, Lydia
While the concept of male victimization is not a new phenomenon, the sexual assault of a male is a relatively new notion, emerging over the last 30 years in social research literature. Studies of female rape, pedophilia, and juvenile sex offenders have suggested that different styles of offending are reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at the crime scene. These studies suggest that there are three distinct themes of behavior: Control, Hostility, and Involvement. Using the crime scene actions of 305 male-on-male sexual assault from a U.K. national police database, multidimensional analysis was carried out. The proposed framework was found to be a useful way of classifying male-on-male sexual assaulters with 74% displaying a dominant theme. These resulted in 42% classified as displaying hostility, 23% as control, and 9% as involvement. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24255070
Kaukinen, Catherine; Demaris, Alfred
We examine the extent to which seeking help from social service agencies, family and friends, reporting to the police, or responses by the police might buffer or exacerbate the impact of sexual assault on mental health outcomes among sexual assault victims.The trend in many cases was for help-seeking and police response to exacerbate the impact of sexual assault victimization. With respect to depression, we found that the association of rape penetration was greater among those seeking help from social services and those reporting their victimization to the police. Although arresting the offender appears to be associated with higher levels of depression, it actually results in a lower probability of heavy episodic drinking. PMID:19809097
Mont, Janice Du; White, Deborah
Despite the increasing implementation of standardized rape kits across jurisdictions, the medico-legal findings generated by these tools are often not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. Given that there has been no global investigation of the factors that might impede their successful use in cases of sexual assault, we conducted a review of relevant scholarly and "grey" literature from industrialized and less-developed regions. One key theme to emerge from the analysis concerned certain problematic practices and behaviors of professional groups involved in the various stages of the post-sexual assault process. We found that a lack of competence in handling sexual assault cases, contempt for women who have been victimized, and corruption among some forensic examiners, police, scientists, and legal personnel often have shaped the collection, processing, analysis, and use of medico-legal evidence. We discuss recent initiatives and future directions for research that might serve to address these issues. PMID:23935160
McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.
Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…
... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8794 of April 2, 2012. National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012 8794 Proclamation 8794 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8794 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8794 National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month,...
Council on Domestic Violence, Juneau, AK.
This document presents a report on domestic violence and sexual assault in Alaska. An introduction includes vignettes and a review of the problems of domestic violence and sexual assault. National and state statistics are provided and it is noted that Alaska has the highest incidence of rape in the country. The next section describes major…
... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8952 of March 29, 2013. National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 8952 Proclamation 8952 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8952 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8952 National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the United...
Sweeney, Brian N.
Although sexual assault has long been recognized as a problem among college students, little attention has been paid to why first-year women are the most likely to be assaulted. In this article the author drew on two studies of college students to analyze peer culture and the organization of gender and sexuality within a college party scene.…
Bryant, Gerald; Cirel, Paul
In Polk County, Iowa, criminal justice agencies and concerned citizens work together to lessen the burden on the rape victim and to increase the chance of ultimate conviction and sentencing in rape and sexual assault cases. The Rape/Sexual Assault Care Center offers medical and social supportive services to victims, aids law enforcement and…
Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene
The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…
Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca
Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a "sexual assault kit" [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities…
Campbell, Rebecca; Dworkin, Emily; Cabral, Giannina
This review examines the psychological impact of adult sexual assault through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology contribute to post-assault sequelae. Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986, 1995) ecological theory of human development, we examine how individual-level factors (e.g., sociodemographics, biological/genetic factors), assault characteristics (e.g., victim-offender relationship, injury, alcohol use), microsystem factors (e.g., informal support from family and friends), meso/ exosystem factors (e.g., contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems, and rape crisis centers), macrosystem factors (e.g., societal rape myth acceptance), and chronosystem factors (e.g., sexual revictimization and history of other victimizations) affect adult sexual assault survivors' mental health outcomes (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicidality, and substance use). Self-blame is conceptualized as meta-construct that stems from all levels of this ecological model. Implications for curbing and/or preventing the negative mental health effects of sexual assault are discussed. PMID:19433406
Garrity, Stacy E
An unacceptably large percent of women experience sexual assault during their collegiate years and efforts to eliminate sexual assault exist in various forms at numerous universities. The only way to effectively decrease the occurrence of rape on college campuses is to stop the perpetrators. This review examined established sexual assault prevention programs designed for college men to determine if an ideal educational program exists, or if one can be established, to effectively change male attitudes and behaviors about sexual assault. A library search of scientific databases yielded seven studies, published from 2000 to 2007, that met inclusion criteria. Through a variety of interventions, a measurable number of formerly held attitudes about rape myth and the role of the bystanders in an assaultive situation were effectively changed immediately postintervention in several studies. In addition, one study demonstrated sustained behavioral change. These results can effectively be used to provide education for forensic and school-based nurses to guide practice for development of educational programs to successfully change harmful attitudes and beliefs that contribute to rape. PMID:21348933
Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Rotbard, Nomi; Bainbridge, Deidre; Asllani, Eriola; Smith, Norman; Cohen, Marsha M
The purpose of this study was to determine which persons reporting sexual assault to a hospital-based treatment centre may have been covertly drugged and to provide information about whether a sexual assault may have occurred. Each consecutive adolescent and adult presenting at a sexual assault treatment centre was screened for drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Urine was collected and tested for central nervous system active drugs. Oral, vaginal, and/or rectal swabs were tested for male DNA. Unexpected drugs were defined as those not reported as having been voluntarily consumed within the previous 72 h. Positive swabs for unexpected DNA were determined by whether the person reported having had consensual intercourse in the previous week. A total of 184 of 882 eligible participants met suspected DFSA criteria. Mean age was 25.8 years (SD=8.5), 96.2% were female and 64.7% White. Urine samples were positive for drugs in 44.9% of cases, alcohol in 12.9%, and both drugs and alcohol in 18.0%. The drugs found on toxicological screening were unexpected in 87 of the 135 (64.4%) cases with a positive drug finding and included cannabinoids (40.2%), cocaine (32.2%), amphetamines (13.8%), MDMA (9.2%), ketamine (2.3%), and GHB (1.1%). Male DNA was unexpected in 30 (46.9%) of 64 cases where it was found. Among those persons presenting to a sexual assault treatment centre with a suspicion of DFSA, the presence of unexpected drugs and male DNA was common, lending support for their contention that they had been intentionally drugged and sexually assaulted. Most unexpected drugs found were not those typically described as 'date rape drugs'. PMID:20650424
Finkel, K C
An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988
Mason, Carole; Kennedy, Neil
Potential human immunodeficiency virus transmission makes prompt disclosure of child sexual abuse in Africa critical. The pattern of disclosure of 133 children presenting to the largest hospital in Malawi were analyzed. Eighty percent presented early enough for effective use of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Seventy-five percent of children made a disclosure of child sexual abuse; 29% spontaneously and 47% after prompting. Disclosures were most commonly made to a parent, and age did not affect the pattern of disclosure. The number of children reporting child sexual abuse is increasing, possibly because of increasing awareness, availability of services, and fear of HIV. Although prompt disclosure rates were relatively high, facilitating easier disclosure of child sexual abuse by a free telephone help-line and better training of teachers may be helpful. PMID:24641596
Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David
Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)
Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn
The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)
Jones, Jerry G.
Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)
Magid, David J.; Houry, Debra; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Ziller, Andrew; Soules, Michael R.; Jenny, Carole
Women who seek medical care following sexual assault are usually evaluated and treated in an emergency department (ED). Therefore, EDs can be an important source of sexual assault surveillance data. The authors compared the incidence of sexual assault presenting for emergency care in a single county during July to November of 1974 and 1991.…
Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.
Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…
Wilcox, Pamela; Jordan, Carol E; Pritchard, Adam J
Using a sample of 1010 women from a southeastern state university, we explore whether associations between fear of sexual assault and other crime-specific fears vary based on presumed victim-offender relationship. More specifically, we assess the extent to which fear of stranger- and acquaintance-perpetrated sexual assaults differ in the extent to which they are correlated with fear of other crime victimizations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both fear of stranger-perpetrated sexual assault and fear of acquaintance-perpetrated sexual assault were positively associated with nearly all other crime-specific fears under examination. However, associations were particularly strong between fear of sexual assault by a stranger and fear of other stranger-perpetrated crimes. Findings have significant implications for how academic institutions should comprehensively address direct and indirect negative influences of violence against college women. PMID:16761859
The forensic significance of genital injury following rape and sexual assault has been the subject of considerable academic and research interest, in terms of the contribution it may provide to the body of evidence in criminal proceedings. This essay takes a critical look at such research, in the context of modern understandings of what actually constitutes rape and sexual assault. Written from the author's perspective as a forensic physician practising in Scotland, it illustrates the fascinating interface between medical evidence and the legal system. PMID:26165680
Moylan, Carrie A; Lindhorst, Taryn; Tajima, Emiko A
Multidisciplinary coordinated Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are a growing model of providing health, legal, and emotional support services to victims of sexual assault. This article conceptualizes SARTs from an organizational perspective and explores three approaches to researching SARTs that have the potential of increasing our understanding of the benefits and challenges of multidisciplinary service delivery. These approaches attend to several levels of organizational behavior, including the organizational response to external legitimacy pressures, the inter-organizational networks of victim services, and the negotiation of power and disciplinary boundaries. Possible applications to organizational research on SARTs are explored. PMID:25670802
Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153
Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Ludes, Bertrand
The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some histamine H, antagonists), or anesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse such as cannabis, ecstasy, or lysergide, or more often ethanol. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties, and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood or even urine can be of little interest. This is the reason why this laboratory developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations where, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biologic specimens. Although there are many papers focused on the identification of drugs in hair following chronic drug use, those dealing with a single dose are very scarce. The experience of the authors is documented in cases involving zolpidem, GHB, lorazepam, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and flunitrazepam. The expected concentrations in hair are in the low picogram per milligram range for the hypnotics. Drug exposure is demonstrated by hair segmentation. Hair analysis may be a useful adjunct to conventional drug testing in sexual assault. It should not be considered as an alternative to blood and urine analyses but as a complement. MS/MS technologies appear to be a prerequisite. PMID:15228167
Shamroy, Jerilyn A.
The Cincinnati Children's Hospital treated preadolescent children for symptoms, signs, or complaints of sexual abuse. The alleged abuser was known to the children in 72 percent of the cases. Describes the hospital's procedure for identifying these children and the follow-up services necessary for their protection and emotional adjustment. (Author)
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Mapes, Bruce E.
Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…
Byram, Victoria; And Others
Female undergraduates (n=100) were surveyed concerning body percept and past experience with sexual abuse. Body size overestimation was greater in noneating-disordered women who had relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. Overall findings suggested that age at time of abuse and body image are only associated where there is a degree of eating…
Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…
Whisnant, Roberta Ann
Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…
Dutton, M A; Goodman, L A; Bennett, L
Failure to understand the importance of psychological abuse as a component of domestic violence can result in little appreciation for the complexity of victims' experience and thus a failure to provide the most effective intervention. This study examined the role of psychological abuse, physical violence, injury, and sexual abuse in predicting court-involved women's (1) prior attempts to seek help from the justice system and to leave the battering relationship, (2) use of criminal prosecution and civil protection orders, and (3) traumatic stress reactions. At the univariate level, each abuse variable was significantly associated with at least one strategic response and all traumatic responses to violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that strategic responses were largely predicted by injury and physical assault, whereas traumatic responses were mainly predicted by psychological abuse. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the important role of both physical and psychological abuse in shaping women's responses to domestic violence. PMID:10397628
Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F
The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745
Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Abbey, Antonia; Martell, Joel; Stoner, Susan A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Buck, Philip O; Masters, N Tatiana; McAuslan, Pamela; Beshears, Renee; Parkhill, Michele R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2004 meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. There were four presentations and a discussant. The symposium was co-chaired by Tina Zawacki and Jeanette Norris. The first presentation was made by Jeanette Norris, who found that alcohol consumption and preexisting alcohol expectancies affected women's hypothetical responses to a vignette depicting acquaintance sexual aggression. The second presentation was made by Joel Martell, who reported that alcohol-induced impairment of executive cognitive functioning mediated the effect of intoxication on men's perceptions of a sexual assault vignette. In the third presentation, Antonia Abbey found that the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved intoxication or force were more negative than were the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved verbal coercion. The fourth presentation was made by Tina Zawacki, who reported that men who perpetrated sexual assault only in adolescence differed from men who continued perpetration into adulthood in terms of their drinking patterns and attitudes toward women. William H. George discussed these findings in terms of their implications for theory development and prevention programming. PMID:15714049
Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Testa, Maria; Parks, Kathleen; Norris, Jeanette; Martin, Susan E; Livingston, Jennifer A; McAuslan, Pam; Clinton, A Monique; Kennedy, Cheryl L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Martell, Joel
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium of the 2001 RSA Meeting in Montreal, Canada. The chair was Antonia Abbey and the organizers were Tina Zawacki and Philip O. Buck. There were four presentations and a discussant. The first presentation was made by Maria Testa whose interviews with sexual assault victims suggest that there may be differences in the characteristics of sexual assaults in which both the victim and perpetrator were using substances as compared to when only the perpetrator was using substances. The second presentation was made by Tina Zawacki whose research found that perpetrators of sexual assaults that involved alcohol were in most ways similar to perpetrators of sexual assaults that did not involve alcohol, although they differed on impulsivity and several alcohol measures. The third presentation was made by Kathleen Parks who described how alcohol consumption affected women's responses to a male confederate's behavior in a simulated bar setting. The fourth presentation was made by Jeanette Norris who found that alcohol and expectancies affected men's self-reported likelihood of acting like a hypothetical sexually aggressive man. Susan E. Martin discussed the implications of these studies and made suggestions for future research. PMID:11981135
Rellini, Alessandra H.
Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…
Boisso, Cynthia V.; And Others
While female victims of sexual abuse have received increased attention, male victims continue to be overlooked. Recognition of effects of sexual abuse has been an important step in increasing identification of and treatment for victims of abuse. To assess the characteristics of male victims, sexually abused male (N=13) and female (N=16)…
Samson, Alana; And Others
This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…
Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.
Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa
The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different
Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse
The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention. PMID:20345776
Draucker, C B
Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8407289
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the United States and internationally. Guidelines for culturally sensitive child abuse interviewing are provided to facilitate disclosures of abuse from culturally diverse children in formal settings. PMID:20924908
Csorba, Roland; Lampé, Rudolf; Póka, Róbert
The evaluation of a child presenting with an anogenital complaint or lesion can be challenging for both the clinician and the patient. The doctor met the real possibility that a diagnosis of a condition caused by sexual abuse will affect significantly the child and the family. A misdiagnosis of abuse or failure to recognize a treatable condition can also have detrimental consequences. Most primary care physicians are not trained to recognize the variety of systemic and dermatologic problems that affect the anogenital area. Dermatologists and other specialists often do not appreciate the possibility of sexual abuse. In this article we present a systematic approach to the child with anogenital complaints which may mimic sexual abuse. PMID:19939783
Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie
The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578029
Rape is a significant trauma that causes the victim immediate as well as long-term difficulties. A cross-section of rape survivors and matched controls completed questionnaires about current somatic, psychological, and social difficulties. The time since assault for the rape group varied from 6 months to 8 years. Factor analysis yielded eight…
Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie
How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.
This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul; Bates, Jo-Anne
This study investigates the impact of victim sexual orientation, the degree of victim physical resistance, and respondent gender on attributions of blame and assault severity in a hypothetical case of stranger-perpetrated male rape. One hundred eighty-three participants read a scenario depicting a rape in which the victim's sexuality and degree of resistance were both varied between-subjects before completing 12 blame attribution items. Overall, findings suggest that male respondents were less pro-victim than were females. While women generally attributed little victim blame and considered the assault very severe regardless of condition, men were influenced by both factors. Specifically, although men considered the assault severe, they blamed a gay victim more when he fought back against his attacker but, conversely, blamed a heterosexual victim when he did not fight back. Results are discussed in relation to homophobia and judgments about victim resistance during rape. Implications for treatment services are also considered. PMID:19042285
Connors, M E; Morse, W
Studies investigating a possible relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders have reported highly discrepant results. Some variability can be accounted for by methodological issues including diagnostic criteria, study design, and assessment techniques. The heterogeneity of an eating disordered population, especially regarding the comorbidity of eating pathology and personality disorder, is also a factor. Overall results suggest that around 30% of eating disordered patients have been sexually abused in childhood, a figure that is relatively comparable to rates found in normal populations. For some patients there may be a direct link between sexual trauma and eating pathology, but in general sexual abuse is best considered a risk factor in a biopsychosocial etiological model of eating disorders. Complex associations between trauma, self-regulatory deficits, and psychopathology require further research. PMID:8477269
... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures...
... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures...
... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures...
In this commentary, the author reflects on her article entitled, "Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual Assault Among College Women" (Abbey, Ross, McDuffie, & McAuslan, 1996) and her work in personal, intellectual, and disciplinary context. The original article can be found at http://pwq.sagepub.com/content/20/1/147. This personal reflection…
Hindmarch, I; ElSohly, M; Gambles, J; Salamone, S
The results of 3303 analyses of urine samples, collected in an independent testing programme from individuals who claimed to have been sexually assaulted and believed that drugs were involved, were examined in detail. Of the samples provided, 2026 (61.3%) proved positive for one or more substances. Alcohol, either alone or in combination with other drugs, was by far the commonest substance found, being present in 1358 samples (67.0% of positives). Cannabis was the second most prevalent drug, present in 613 samples, (30.3% of positives). Detailed examination of the testing results does not support the contention that any single drug, apart from alcohol, can be particularly identified as a 'date rape' drug. Rather, the alleged sexual assaults may often take place against a background of licit or recreational alcohol or drug use, where alcohol and other drugs are frequently taken together. The extensive forensic database examined here does not support the concept of a commonly occurring 'date rape' scenario, in which the victim's drink is covertly 'spiked' with a tablet, capsule or powder containing a sedative-hypnotic. This research highlights the need for the early collection of forensic samples in cases of alleged sexual assault. Law enforcement agencies and health professionals should establish guidelines and procedures to ensure that appropriate forensic samples (blood and urine) are collected in a timely manner following allegations of possible drug mediated sexual assault. PMID:16083685
Ferguson, Claire E; Malouff, John M
The objective of the study was to determine, through meta-analysis, the rate of confirmed false reports of sexual assault to police. The meta-analysis initially involved a search for relevant articles. The search identified seven studies where researchers or their trained helpers evaluated reported sexual assault cases to determine the rate of confirmed false reports. The meta-analysis calculated an overall rate and tested for possible moderators of effect size. The meta-analytic rate of false reports of sexual assault was .052 (95 % CI .030, .089). The rates for the individual studies were heterogeneous, suggesting the possibility of moderators of rate. However, the four possible moderators examined-year of publication, whether the data set used had information in addition to police reports, whether the study was completed in the U.S. or elsewhere, and whether inter-rater reliabilities were reported-were all not significant. The meta-analysis of seven relevant studies shows that confirmed false allegations of sexual assault made to police occur at a significant rate. The total false reporting rate, including both confirmed and equivocal cases, would be greater than the 5 % rate found here. PMID:26679304
Stringer, Gayle M.; Rants-Rodriguez, Deanna
This document is a group leader activity guide to accompany a sexual assault prevention program focusing on information for male teenagers. Background information, large group activities, comments for small group leaders, extension activities, activity sheets, and transparency masters are included for 15 group activities. These topics are covered…
Anderson, Timothy; Fende Guajardo, Jennifer; Luthra, Rohini; Edwards, Katie M.
This study assessed the effects of clinician-assisted emotional disclosure (CAED), an integration of emotion focused therapy (Greenberg, Rice, & Elliott, 1993) and emotional disclosure, in ameliorating distress experienced by survivors of sexual assault. A total of 670 female university students were screened for both histories of sexual…
Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Milner, Joel S.
Female (n = 5,226) and male (n = 5,969) U.S. Navy recruits completed a survey assessing their premilitary histories of adult sexual assault (SA), defined as attempted or completed rape since the age of 14. The survey was completed under anonymous or identified conditions. Overall, 39% of women reported premilitary SA victimization and 13% of men…
Alderden, Megan A.; Ullman, Sarah E.
Prior research examining sexual assault case decision making has failed to account for the demographic characteristics of the criminal justice practitioners charged with making case decisions. Inclusion of such information is important because it provides researchers with a greater understanding of how criminal justice practitioners' own gender,…
Maier, Shana L.
While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…
Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie
The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…
Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; Koss, Mary P.
Self-reports of sexual assault are affected by a variety of factors including the number of questions, question phrasing, and context. Participants (307 women, 166 men) were randomly assigned to one of two forms of a questionnaire. One form had the tactics used to obtain forced sex as the initial frame of reference, whereas the other form had the…
Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly; Sharma, Yasoda
This study examined how group composition influences students' level of satisfaction with a dating violence and sexual assault prevention program. A 10- to 12-session program was presented to 396 urban African American middle school students in mixed- and same-gender groups. Both males and females were significantly more satisfied with the…
Sable, Marjorie R.; Danis, Fran; Mauzy, Denise L.; Gallagher, Sarah K.
The authors asked college students to rate the importance of a list of barriers to reporting rape and sexual assault among male and female victims. The authors' findings indicate that barriers prevalent 30 years ago, prior to efforts by the rape reform movement, continue to be considered important among college men and women. The barriers rated as…
Konradi, Amanda; DeBruin, Patty L.
The authors report on an advertising campaign to communicate the availability and desirability of using Sexual Assault Nurse Examination (SANE) services. They used social marketing precepts to develop posters to educate college students about using SANE as a health service and as an arm of prosecution. After 2 advertising campaigns, they conducted…
...; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to develop requirements in all DoD contracts supporting contingency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...
Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa
Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…
Paul, Lisa A.
A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant…
Germain, Lauren J.
Noting the prevalence of sexual violence at American Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs), this study aims to inform discourse on college women's post-assault experiences and perceptions of the institution. Using a feminist, post-structuralist framework, this study examines the narratives of 26 traditionally-aged college women who…
Frazier, Patricia A.; Mortensen, Heather; Steward, Jason
Two studies assessed whether coping strategies mediate the relations among 2 forms of perceived control (past and present control) and postassault distress among female sexual assault survivors. In Study 1, longitudinal data were gathered from 2 weeks to 1 year postassault (N=171). Past control (behavioral self-blame) was associated with more…
Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary
Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…
Schweer, Jen Luettel; Heather, Katie; Kay, Kathryn; Stewart, K. Leigh; Kovach, Laura
R.U. Ready? at Georgetown University is an annual sexual assault awareness event that incorporates peer education and resources with opportunities for students, staff, and faculty to dialogue about providing bystander intervention throughout the campus community. Beyond dialogue, participants learn about student activism and the resources and…
Katz, Jennifer; DuBois, Melinda
To begin to address the problem of campus sexual assault, we conducted a Teach In, an educational forum used to explore complex social problems. All students, faculty, and staff at our small liberal arts college were invited to participate. This paper summarizes our Teach In program, goals, and methods. By engaging in constructive, informed…
DiNitto, Diana M.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel Bridget; Bender, Kimberly; Woo, Hyeyoung; Tackett-Gibson, Melissa; Dyer, James
Three pilot studies were conducted to obtain information about sexual assault perpetration from adult men in the United States. Each used the same random digit-dial sampling and recruitment strategy. One pilot was administered by telephone and two via the Web. Response rates in all pilots were low. Although results cannot be generalized beyond the…
How does a religious group create a safe and welcoming environment for people affected by sexual assault? This article seeks to establish a set of guidelines for religious organizations, especially those following in the Roman Catholic tradition, as they design worship services. Ten distinct areas of liturgical planning are considered with…
Abbey, Antonia; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam
Only a few studies have examined the characteristics of sexual assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. In this study we compared the experiences of women who were forced to engage in vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse due to verbal coercion, physical force, or intoxication. Random-digit dialing was used to obtain a sample of 272…
Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.
The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…
Sham, Minakshi; Singh, Dasmit; Wankhede, Uma; Wadate, Abhijeet
Aim: To evaluate the outcome of definitive repair of anogenital injuries (AGI) in child victims of acute sexual assault. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study of emergency care provided to child victims of acute sexual assault at a tertiary care Pediatric Surgical Unit in Maharashtra, India. Material and Methods: Out of 25 children, who presented during January 2009-December 2010 with suspected sexual assault, five children (one male and four female, between 4-9 years of age), had incurred major AGI. These children underwent definitive repair and a diverting colostomy. Perineal pull-through was performed in the male child with major avulsion of rectum. One 4-year-old girl with intraperitoneal vaginal injury required exploratory laparotomy in addition. Results: The postoperative period and follow-up was uneventful in all our patients. Four out of five patients have excellent cosmetic and functional outcome with a follow-up of 2-4 years. Our continence results are 100%. Conclusion: Children with acute sexual assault need emergency care. To optimally restore the distorted anatomy, all major AGI in such children should be primarily repaired by an expert, conversant with a child’s local genital and perineal anatomy. Along with provision of comprehensive and compassionate medical care, prevention of secondary injuries should be the ultimate goal. PMID:24019641
Boehm, Amnon; Itzhaky, Haya
Objective: Too often communities remain silent in response to cases of sexual assault of children. Members of the community are afraid to report such incidents and victims are reluctant to seek and accept treatment. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether application of a social marketing approach may serve as an effective means for…
Thatcher, W. Gregory
Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…
Anderson, Linda A.; Whiston, Susan C.
Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of college sexual assault education programs on seven outcome measure categories were conducted using 69 studies that involved 102 treatment interventions and 18,172 participants. Five of the outcome categories had significant average effect sizes (i.e., rape attitudes, rape-related attitudes, rape knowledge,…
Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.
During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Townsend, Stephanie M.
This exploratory study sought to better understand what constitutes the empowerment approach used by rape crisis advocates working with sexual assault survivors. A grounded theory, qualitative, semistructured interview study was conducted of rape victim advocates (N=25) working in rape crisis centers in a large metropolitan area. Several…
Bradley, April R.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; O'Donohue, William
This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program developed for college students. Program participants (n = 177) were compared to non-program participants (n = 132) prior to the program and during a 2-week follow-up period on measures of rape myths, victim empathy, perceived negative consequences…
Maier, Shana L.
In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…
Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn
Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…
Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali
Background: Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. Objectives: To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results: The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: “performing routines”, “victims’ expectations”, “conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services”, and the core category of “neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims”. Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. Conclusions: The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims. PMID:27231579
McWilliams, Kelly; Goodman, Gail S; Lyons, Kristen E; Newton, Jeremy; Avila-Mora, Elizabeth
Building on the simulated-amnesia work of Christianson and Bylin (Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 495-511, 1999), the present research introduces a new paradigm for the scientific study of memory of childhood sexual abuse information. In Session 1, participants mentally took the part of an abuse victim as they read an account of the sexual assault of a 7-year-old. After reading the narrative, participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: They (1) rehearsed the story truthfully (truth group), (2) left out the abuse details of the story (omission group), (3) lied about the abuse details to indicate that no abuse had occurred (commission group), or (4) did not recall the story during Session 1 (no-rehearsal group). One week later, participants returned for Session 2 and were asked to truthfully recall the narrative. The results indicated that, relative to truthful recall, untruthful recall or no rehearsal at Session 1 adversely affected memory performance at Session 2. However, untruthful recall resulted in better memory than did no rehearsal. Moreover, gender, PTSD symptoms, depression, adult attachment, and sexual abuse history significantly predicted memory for the childhood sexual abuse scenario. Implications for theory and application are discussed. PMID:23835600
Warrington, S A; de San Lazaro, C
AIMS: The aetiology of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is unknown. A series of 42 cases of this uncommon condition is reported. The aim of this study was to identify associations of LSA and document the association with sexual abuse. METHODS: Information about the patients was obtained by retrospective case note review and some patients were contacted by telephone for further information. RESULTS: In 12 cases there was evidence of sexual abuse. The abused group were slightly older than the non-abused group but were similar in all other respects. All three patients who presented over the age of 12 years had evidence of sexual abuse. Genital trauma was recalled by the patient or found at examination in 17 cases. Evidence of autoimmunity was present in five cases. Positive microbiological isolates were obtained in 18 cases. In only 11 cases were there no associated factors. The symptoms of LSA started between the ages of 3 and 7 years in most patients. The usual symptoms were related to genital skin involvement, and symptoms related to bladder and bowel function were common (50%). CONCLUSION: In this large series of paediatric LSA, associations with trauma, autoimmunity, and infection were noted. There was a high rate of coexisting sexual abuse with LSA, possibly due to genital trauma. Images Figure 2 PMID:9014605
Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; Newcomb, Michael
Examined 111 women's retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse. Explored domains of circumstances of abuse, mediators, and outcomes (negative effects of abuse). Found long-term negative outcomes of abuse directly affected by close relationship to perpetrator and severity of abuse from circumstance of abuse domain, and immediate negative…
Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M
Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. PMID:23020668
Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca
Adolescent sexual assault survivors are more likely to seek support from peers and families than to formal help systems, such as the medical and legal systems. In this study, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with N = 20 adolescent sexual assault survivors aged 14-17 who obtained services from Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs to understand the pathways that led them to seek formal help. Our goal was to examine how survivors' initial disclosures to peers, families, and schools facilitated adolescents' access to formal help systems. Additionally, we explored how peer, family and school systems interact as mesosystems to effect subsequent disclosures. Results show that the peer and family microsystems were decisive in survivors' willingness to enter formal systems. Disclosure became more complex when peer, family, and school personnel all became aware of the assault. When these mesosystem interactions occurred with survivors' consent and produced a helpful response, they were perceived as positive. Alternatively, mesosystem interactions in which survivors had minimal control resulted in greater reluctance to enter formal systems. These conclusions highlight the need educating informal support providers about community services in order to make the disclosure process easier and beneficial for survivors' recovery and well-being. PMID:23702789
Regotti, Terri L.
Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)
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Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Bramsen, Rikke Holm
For fear of causing unnecessary distress, ethical concerns have been raised in regard to asking vulnerable persons e.g. sexually traumatized victims to participate in scientific research studies. The current study investigates how victims of sexual assault perceived participating in scientific research in regard to victims' psychological and/or physiological distress and potential beneficial outcomes from participation (N=51). Results from interviews with victims indicated that the majority of victims of sexual assault who had taken part in the study considered their participation in research a positive experience causing little short- or long-term psychological or physiological distress. In addition, over half of the respondents reported some benefits from participation. PMID:27256950
Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Silva, Benedita; Corte-Real, Francisco; Nuno Vieira, Duarte
Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody). Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis. PMID:26587562
Leavitt, F; Labott, S M
Distinguishing authentic abuse from false memory among adults who recover memories of childhood sexual trauma has far-reaching significance. This study initially examined 13 previously reported Rorschach signs of sexual abuse in women not abused, and women sexually abused (and not amnestic). The abuse signs were more prevalent in the abused group. A sexual abuse index composed of 8 signs correctly classified 93% of the abused, and 98% of the nonabused group. The index was then applied to women who recovered memories of abuse; some had analogues of dissociation in their protocols and others did not. Those exhibiting dissociative signs produced more signs of sexual abuse. The index classified 88% of the dissociative group as abused, but only 24% of the nondissociative group. The relevance of these findings for assessing authenticity of recovered memories is explored. PMID:8827651
Sturza, Marisa L.; Campbell, Rebecca
In this study we examined rape survivors' post assault use of prescription drugs, including sedatives, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. In a community-based sample of 102 sexual assault survivors, 44% had used prescription drugs post rape. Consistent with prior research on alcohol as a postassault coping mechanism, the current study found…