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Sample records for abuse sexual harassment

  1. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  2. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Abuse: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohan, Audrey; And Others

    This handbook offers strategies for ending sexual abuse and sexual harassment of students by other students or staff members. Chapter 1 discusses how to define sexual harassment and abuse, provides a review of literature, and reviews pertinent laws and litigation. The second chapter presents step-by-step procedures for handling a complaint of…

  3. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  4. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  5. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  6. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  7. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  8. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  9. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  10. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  11. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  12. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  13. Homeless in Dhaka: Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Drug-abuse

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  14. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  15. Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Nawyn, S J; Flaherty, J A; Fendrich, M; Drum, M L; Johnson, T P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. METHODS: Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. RESULTS: The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies. PMID:10076485

  16. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  18. Standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children. Interim final rule (IFR).

    PubMed

    2014-12-24

    This IFR proposes standards and procedures to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment involving unaccompanied children (UCs) in ORR's care provider facilities. DATES: This IFR is effective on December 24, 2014. ORR care provider facilities must be in compliance with this IFR by June 24, 2015 but encourages care provider facilities to be in compliance sooner, if possible. HHS will work with facilities to implement and enforce the standards contained in this rule. Comments on this IFR must be received on or before February 23, 2015. PMID:25546883

  19. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student in…

  20. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann

    1986-01-01

    In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…

  1. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2010-06-01

    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA. PMID:20228248

  2. Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. RESULTS: Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p < 0.01). Ten respondents, all female, reported having experienced discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p < 0.01), reported experiencing offensive body language and receiving sexist teaching material and unwanted compliments on their dress. Significantly more female respondents than male respondents stated that they had reported events of sexual harassment to someone (p < 0.001). The most frequent emotional reactions to sexual harassment were

  3. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truax, Anne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An article and three responses on sexual harassment in higher education are presented: "Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: What We've Learned" (Anne Truax); "Who Is Responsible for Sexual Harassment?" (Barbara G. Taylor); "The Feminist-Unionist Dilemma" (Sherna Berger Gluck); and "Sexual Harassment and Academic Power" (Loralee MacPike). (MLW)

  4. Organizational Costs of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1986-01-01

    Working women were surveyed regarding their probable initial reactions to different forms of sexual harassment. Many indicated they would either quit their jobs or report sexual harassment to external authorities. Discusses organizational costs of sexual harassment, ways of preventing such costs, and implications for employment counselors.…

  5. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  6. Sexual Harassment. A Report on the Sexual Harassment of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Frank J.

    To convince federal policy-makers that the sexual harassment of students is both illegal and serious, the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs issued and circulated a "Call for Information on the Sexual Harassment of Students," a request for descriptive anecdotes from victims and others who knew of harassment incidents.…

  7. Sexual Harassment Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Hartford.

    This document spells out policy regarding sexual harassment in the Connecticut vocational-technical school system that was developed by the Connecticut State Department of Education, the Connecticut Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, and the Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Inc. The introduction calls sexual…

  8. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  9. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sexual harassment. An employer should take all steps necessary to prevent sexual harassment from... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604.11 Labor... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of...

  10. Coaches, Sexual Harassment and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past decade yet we know relatively little about the characteristics of the harassing coach. How are harassing coaches characterised by their victims, that is, the athletes themselves? Do they demonstrate specific kinds of behaviours? One purpose of this article is to address…

  11. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 700.561 Section 700.561 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.561 Sexual harassment. (a) Sexual harassment is a form of employee misconduct... an environment free from unsolicited and unwelcome sexual overtures. Sexual harassment is defined...

  12. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 700.561 Section 700.561 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.561 Sexual harassment. (a) Sexual harassment is a form of employee misconduct... an environment free from unsolicited and unwelcome sexual overtures. Sexual harassment is defined...

  13. Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosell, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

  14. Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Sexual harassment of students is illegal. A federal law, "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972" ("Title IX"), prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, including sexual harassment, in education programs and activities. All public and private education institutions that receive any federal funds must comply with "Title IX." "Title IX"…

  15. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure. PMID:8641947

  16. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  17. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604.11 Labor... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of section... physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1) submission to such conduct...

  18. Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a look at the "big picture." Is sexual harassment common? What kinds of behaviors are taking place? Who is being harassed, and who is doing the harassing? For students who admit to harassing others, why do they do it? How does sexual harassment affect students' educational experience? What do students think should be done about…

  19. 49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees shall not engage in harassment on the basis of sex. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal...

  20. 49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees shall not engage in harassment on the basis of sex. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal...

  1. Challenging Sexual Harassment on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nancy V.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…

  2. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of section... requests for sexual favors, the employer may be held liable for unlawful sex discrimination against...

  3. Sensemaking, Organizational Culture, and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…

  4. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  5. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Contrapower Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…

  6. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: Concepts & Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    This booklet on sexual harassment in higher education offers a history of the problem, defines sexual harassment, reviews the relevant legal history and recent court cases, and looks at campus policies and procedures. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 looks at legal versus institutional definitions of sexual harassment and factors…

  7. Breaking the Silence: Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Karen; Stein, Nan

    1987-01-01

    This article examines a range of behaviors which females in secondary schools and higher education institutions have experienced and described as sexual harassment, explores the underlying dynamics of harassment, and evaluates legal and other strategies for preventing and addressing sexual harassment. (IAH)

  8. Sexual Harassment: A Female Counseling Student's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…

  9. Sexual harassment of nurses in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M; Bullough, Vern

    2004-01-01

    Nurses who are sexually harassed at work face frustration and emotional and economic consequences. Historically before the 1970s, nurses had little legal recourse and tolerated sexual harassment as a necessary "evil" associated with working. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the option for legal remedies for sexual harassment/discrimination cases. Successful court cases established the legal criteria for sexual harassment. This article discusses the history, definition, high profile cases, research, consequences, and prevention of sexual harassment. Although research is scant and little is known of how nurses respond to harassing behavior, prevention requires coordinated activities of employers, individual employees, and the healthcare profession. Sexual harassment at work increases anxiety and undermines the nurse's ability to focus on the delivery of safe and competent care. PMID:15326993

  10. Sexual harassment of nurses in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M; Bullough, Vern

    2004-01-01

    Nurses who are sexually harassed at work face frustration and emotional and economic consequences. Historically before the 1970s, nurses had little legal recourse and tolerated sexual harassment as a necessary "evil" associated with working. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the option for legal remedies for sexual harassment/discrimination cases. Successful court cases established the legal criteria for sexual harassment. This article discusses the history, definition, high profile cases, research, consequences, and prevention of sexual harassment. Although research is scant and little is known of how nurses respond to harassing behavior, prevention requires coordinated activities of employers, individual employees, and the healthcare profession. Sexual harassment at work increases anxiety and undermines the nurse's ability to focus on the delivery of safe and competent care.

  11. The Naive Misuse of Power: Nonconscious Sources of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargh, John A.; Raymond, Paula

    1995-01-01

    Considers sexual harassment from the perspective of abuse of power, and discusses the possibility of having power within a situation that automatically and nonconsciously triggers a sexuality schema, just as racial or gender features automatically trigger stereotypes of that group. The possible origins of the automatic power/sex linkage and its…

  12. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  13. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants. PMID:19030980

  14. Powerplays: How Teens Can Pull the Plug on Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Harriet

    Noting that sexual harassment has more to do with making victims feel powerless than with sex, this book advises adolescents and their parents on how to identify, stop, and prevent sexual harassment. Chapter 1, "What is Sexual Harassment, Anyway?" defines sexual harassment and details how harassment becomes assault. Chapter 2, "Why is Reporting…

  15. Training Materials for Handling Claims of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Reviews resource materials for handling claims of sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for administrators in handling complaints of sexual harassment and discusses the responsibilities of management. Explores the definition of sexual harassment. (RC)

  16. New Lessons in Dealing with Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Ann H.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent incidents have brought national attention to issues involving male professors and sexual-harassment policies on campuses. Allegations of harassment can involve high stakes for the accused, with dismissal as a possible penalty. Criminal charges for harassment, in contrast to assault, are rare. Within an institution, people accused of…

  17. 18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from sexual...

  18. 18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from sexual...

  19. Peer Sexual Harassment: Finding Voice, Changing Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    This intervention study examines the problem of sexual harassment in an alternative high school for at-risk students. It was hypothesized that creating a forum where girls felt safe to share their experiences would increase their awareness of sexual harassment and its effects, eventually contributing to a decrease in incidents of sexual harassment…

  20. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306... Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306... Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment...

  2. Reducing Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…

  3. How To Conduct a Sexual Harassment Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elsa Kircher; Hustoles, Thomas P.

    This pamphlet abstracts from the National Association of College and University Attorneys'"Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium," Third Edition, suggestions for administrators and others on conducting an appropriate and timely sexual harassment investigation. Specific topics covered are: (1) "Conducting an Appropriate and Timely…

  4. Sexual Harassment, Parts I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate newsletter issues examine the issue of sexual harassment on college campuses. Part I contains a general introduction to the topic and two articles. The first of these discusses the definition of sexual harassment by the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the courts, the EEOC guidelines on conduct of a…

  5. Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tol, Joan E., Ed.

    Law review and journal articles on sexual harassment in higher education are presented along with policies and procedures from selected universities and organizations, guidance on drafting policies, and a selected bibliography. The following law review and journal articles are presented: "Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment" (Elsa…

  6. Organizational Resources for Addressing Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Discusses difficulties in arriving at definition of sexual harassment. Uses a commonplace definition to distinguish quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. Outlines obligations of organizations, giving attention to the development of appropriate policies and procedures. Discusses effect of organization's climate on institutional…

  7. Preventing Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Rebecca A.

    1992-01-01

    Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)

  8. Raising Expectations: Institutional Responsibility and the Issue of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Lesley A.

    1996-01-01

    Sexual harassment defined as a gender neutral action aided by a power differential cannot explain the complex nature of sexual harassment, occurrence of peer harassment, or campus policies that address the issue when it occurs. Sexual harassment needs to be understood as a complex phenomenon determined by the interaction of power, gender, and…

  9. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  10. Preventing Sexual Harassment of School Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Joyce; Ross, Marlene

    1983-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. School officials need to recognize it, understand their liability, and take steps to protect themselves and their employees. (MD)

  11. Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Proactive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Betty Jo; Popovich, Paula M.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a prototype training program using role theory as a framework for understanding sexual harassment in the workplace. Describes four phases of the program for employees, supervisors, and managers. (CH)

  12. Preventing Student Sexual Harassment. ERIC Digest Number 160.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews effective strategies currently used by schools to combat sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is considered any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with the life of the target individual. Experts agree that sexual harassment is about power, not sex. A serious effort to keep a school free of sexual harassment…

  13. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  14. The Role of School Counselor in Confronting Peer Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Lonnie L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the issue of preventing and countering harassment in schools and the role of school counselors. Defines sexual harassment and gives an overview of evolving legal interpretations concerning peer harassment. Discusses effects of peer sexual harassment and specific implications for the school counselor. Outlines resources and ideas for…

  15. Sexual Harassment in Employment: Legal Perspectives for University Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillar, Darrel Long

    Legal issues concerning sexual harassment on the job are considered to aid administrators of colleges and universities. The concept of sexual harassment is examined from a historical perspective, and the development of legal thought and solutions for harassment in employment settings is delineated. The nature and extent of harassment have been…

  16. The Lecherous Professor. Sexual Harassment on Campus. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziech, Billie Wright; Weiner, Linda

    The issue of sexual harassment of students by academicians is addressed, including the dilemma of teacher-student dating, newly devised policy statements on sexual harassment from several institutions, and faculty uneasiness about administrative directives on sexual harassment. Chapters are as follows: "Sexual Harrassment on Campus: The State of…

  17. Preventing Sexual Harassment On-Campus: Policies and Practices for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ben T.

    This booklet on sexual harassment on college campuses covers sexual harassment law, harassment prevention, protection from liability, and handling allegations. Chapter 1, "What Is Sexual Harassment?" defines the term and gives an overview of sexual harassment law. Chapter 2, "How Does Sexual Harassment Law Apply in Actual Situations?" illustrates…

  18. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  19. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  20. Influences on Women's Perceptions of Climate for Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytell, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…

  1. Ideology or Experience: A Study of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Aron; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determines whether the reporting of sexual harassment is a function of hypersensitivity through ideology or previous experience. Findings from 192 undergraduate students indicate that neither condition affected sexual harassment reporting. A gender-by-experience interaction was found with regard to tolerance of sexual harassment that suggested…

  2. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  3. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  4. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  5. Sexual Harassment as Discrimination: Guidelines for Effective Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lea P.

    Sexual harassment is not an isolated phenomenon and should, therefore, not be studied in isolation. Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination and can be studied from a theoretical framework that addresses discrimination. In analyzing sexual harassment as a form of discrimination, it is important to distinguish between prejudice (an attitude)…

  6. Sexual Harassment Victims: Psycholegal and Family Therapy Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley; Perry, Nancy Walker

    1993-01-01

    Examines legal proscriptions and practical definitions of sexual harassment, describes psychological effects of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Trauma Syndrome) for victim-client and impact on family system, and offers guidance for family therapy. Focuses on vulnerability of victim-client, reconstruction of self-concept as primary goal of…

  7. Sexual harassment: an ominous liability for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    West, J C

    1999-01-01

    Sexual harassment can arise in virtually any employment setting. Healthcare facilities must be careful to avoid sexual harassment of their employees both by other employees and by the myriad other persons who may come into contact with their employees in the workplace. Much of what makes sexual harassment an actionable offense are the perceptions of the victim. Employers should take a proactive approach to preventing, detecting and correcting instances of harassment.

  8. Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…

  9. [Copyright, Jury Selection, and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowiec, Jack, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    "Update on the Courts," a resource for civic education, helps teach secondary school students about today's important Supreme Court and other judicial decisions, the legal issues involved, and the impact of the decisions on the students' lives. This issue features a lesson on copyright laws, a case overview and lesson on sexual harassment, and an…

  10. Managing Same-Sex Sexual Harassment Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Roy, Jr.; Gillis, Graham

    1997-01-01

    Examines three cases of same-sex sexual harassment claims recognized by the courts under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, including both heterosexual and homosexual incidents involving men and women. Focus is on common threads in the three cases, arguments of the traditional courts, and college and university management of same-sex…

  11. Sexual Harassment in Employment Costs When...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston.

    This brochure was developed by the West Virginia Project for the Elimination of Sex Discrimination to inform boards of education, school administrators, and other supervisory staff that sexual harassment in educational institutions is not simply inappropriate behavior. It is against the law. This document provides information to assist the state…

  12. From Textual to Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lynn

    A case involving the harassment of a female college writing instructor by an older, male student serves as a model to provide a framework for dealing with similar problems in the future. This case moved from initial acts of challenging authority in the classroom and monopolizing office hours to the bizarre: obscene phone calls, mysterious mail,…

  13. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  14. Sexual Harassment and Bullying Behaviors in Sixth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaughm, Lauren P.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual harassment is widely viewed as a form of bullying, but has received little attention in studies of middle school students. A survey of 109 6th grade students found that 29% of students reported at least one sexual harassment experience in the past 30 days, with 11% reporting harassment once per week or more. Although boys and girls reported…

  15. Youth at Work: Adolescent Employment and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares…

  16. A Study Concerning Sexual Harassment among School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a study conducted in 22 counties in Middle Tennessee to determine the extent to which teachers have experienced sexual harassment. Of the 318 teachers responding, 172 report having been subjected to unwanted harassment. Of those responding positively, 150 are female. The forms of harassment indicated were sexual remarks,…

  17. Sexual Harassment: A Legal Perspective for Public Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Ruth Ann

    1995-01-01

    Reviews statutory and case law on sexual harassment and offers guidelines for policy development in public administration, including defining and identifying harassment and establishing preventive and remedial measures. The bibliography contains 77 references. (SK)

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  19. SEXUAL HARASSMENT, WORKPLACE AUTHORITY, AND THE PARADOX OF POWER

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can serve as an “equalizer” against women in power, motivated more by control and domination than by sexual desire. The interviews point to social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender non-conformity and women’s authority, particularly in male-dominated work settings. PMID:23329855

  20. Don't Try This at Home: Using a Multilayered Approach to Teach the Law of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgas, Jordan T. L.

    2006-01-01

    In a litigious society, it is of particular importance that students understand the law of sexual harassment and sexual harassment investigations. Sexual harassment litigation can create a heavy financial burden on employers. Sexual harassment investigations and litigation also cause a social impact on employers. In order to provide students with…

  1. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual...

  2. Rethinking Adolescent Peer Sexual Harassment: Contributions of Feminist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…

  3. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual...

  4. The Sexual Harassment of Faculty Members by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchen, Jim; DeSouza, Eros

    2000-01-01

    College students and faculty completed a questionnaire exploring student sexual harassment of faculty members. Female faculty reported significantly more unwanted sexual attention from students and were more bothered by it than male faculty. Both sexes experienced equal amounts of sexual harassment, but females were more bothered by it. There were…

  5. Legal Consciousness and Responses to Sexual Harassment*

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Studies of legal mobilization often focus on people who have perceived some wrong, but rarely consider the process that selects them into the pool of potential “mobilizers.” Similarly, studies of victimization or targeting rarely go on to consider what people do about the wrong, or why some targets come forward and others remain silent. We here integrate sociolegal, feminist, and criminological theories in a conceptual model that treats experiencing sexual harassment and mobilizing in response to it as interrelated processes. We then link these two processes by modeling them as jointly determined outcomes and examine their connections using interviews with a subset of our survey respondents. Our results suggest that targets of harassment are selected, in part, because they are least likely to tell others about the experience. Strategies that workers employ to cope with and confront harassment are also discussed. We find that traditional formal/informal dichotomies of mobilization responses may not fully account for the range of ways individuals respond to harassment, and we propose a preliminary typology of responses. PMID:20300446

  6. Notoriety Yields Tragedy in Iowa Sexual-Harassment Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment broke into the national consciousness in 1991, when Anita Hill accused Clarence Thomas--then a nominee to the U.S. Supreme Court--of having made sexually inappropriate comments to her. The controversy spawned a flood of charges nationwide, including on college campuses. Since then colleges have tried to stem harassment with…

  7. Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes findings from a national survey of 2,064 public school students in grades 8-11 regarding their perceptions of and experiences with bullying and sexual harassment at school. Students reported that sexual harassment (both words and actions) happened frequently in school, occurred under the noses of teachers, began in elementary school,…

  8. Routine Activities and Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…

  9. Help Yourself: A Manual for Dealing with Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrato, Mary T., Ed.

    This manual provides an overview of sexual harassment and what can be done about it. Although it deals with laws in California, its general sections and sections of federal laws could be used by persons in any state. The guide contains 12 chapters. Chapter 1 includes a discussion of what sexual harassment is and how it affects society and the…

  10. Sexual Harassment: Development of a University's Policy and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreth, Catherine; And Others

    In late 1988 the University of Florida began the process of revising and updating its policy and educational programs on sexual harassment. At that time a task force was formed which reviewed the current policy and procedures and drafted a revised brochure on sexual harassment. This brochure was reviewed and redrafted and distributed to every…

  11. Sexual Harassment in the Schools: Preventing and Defending against Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittins, Naomi E.; Walsh, Jim

    The need to understand the basic law and to adopt clear policies applicable to sexual harassment is particularly important given the problem's sensitive nature and potential liability to school districts. This monograph is designed to assist school attorneys and administrators in understanding the law regarding sexual harassment of employees and…

  12. A Laboratory Analogue for the Study of Peer Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Hirschman, Richard; Angelone, D. J.; Lilly, Roy S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of peer sexual harassment, and to examine person and situational factors associated with male on female peer sexual harassment. One hundred twenty-two male participants were given the opportunity to tell jokes to a female confederate from a joke list that included…

  13. Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

  14. FreshMen: Confronting Sexual Harassment in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Discusses numerous issues centered on the general topic of sexual harassment in academia. Considers how sexual desire is initiated, how the problem has grown recently, and how academic departments have dealt with it. (HB)

  15. The effects of harassment severity and organizational behavior on damage awards in a hostile work environment sexual harassment case.

    PubMed

    Cass, Stacie A; Levett, Lora M; Kovera, Margaret Bull

    2010-01-01

    Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 128) read a sexual harassment trial summary in which harassment severity and the organization's sexual harassment policy and response were manipulated. Jurors who read the severe harassment scenario were more likely to agree that the plaintiff had suffered and should be compensated for her suffering and that the organization should be punished than were jurors who read the mild harassment scenario. When the organization had and enforced a sexual harassment policy, jurors believed that the plaintiff had suffered little and the organization should not be punished compared with conditions in which the organization did not have an enforced sexual harassment policy. Harassment severity influenced jurors' compensatory awards, and organizational behavior influenced jurors' punitive awards. These results have implications for plaintiffs, who must decide whether to claim specific or garden-variety damages; organizations, which could create or modify sexual harassment policy to limit damages; and trial lawyers, who could tailor arguments to maximize or minimize awards.

  16. Breaking the Silence: Sexual Harassment of Mexican Women Farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nicole Jung-Eun; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Torres, Elizabeth; Nicola, R M Bud; Karr, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand Mexican women farmworkers' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment, its related factors and consequences, and potential points of intervention. This community-based participatory research study conducted focus groups with 20 women farmworkers in rural Washington. Four coders analyzed and gleaned interpretations from verbatim transcripts. Three main themes were identified. It was learned that women farmworkers: (1) frequently experienced both quid pro quo and hostile work environment forms of sexual harassment; (2) faced employment and health consequences due to the harassment; and (3) felt that both individual- and industry-level changes could prevent the harassment. Based on these findings, the authors identified three sets of risk factors contributing to workplace sexual harassment and recommend using a multilevel approach to prevent future harassment in the agriculture industry.

  17. Breaking the Silence: Sexual Harassment of Mexican Women Farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nicole Jung-Eun; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Torres, Elizabeth; Nicola, R M Bud; Karr, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand Mexican women farmworkers' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment, its related factors and consequences, and potential points of intervention. This community-based participatory research study conducted focus groups with 20 women farmworkers in rural Washington. Four coders analyzed and gleaned interpretations from verbatim transcripts. Three main themes were identified. It was learned that women farmworkers: (1) frequently experienced both quid pro quo and hostile work environment forms of sexual harassment; (2) faced employment and health consequences due to the harassment; and (3) felt that both individual- and industry-level changes could prevent the harassment. Based on these findings, the authors identified three sets of risk factors contributing to workplace sexual harassment and recommend using a multilevel approach to prevent future harassment in the agriculture industry. PMID:26797165

  18. Sexual harassment under social identity threat: the computer harassment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Maass, Anne; Cadinu, Mara; Guarnieri, Gaia; Grasselli, Annalisa

    2003-11-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated the hypothesis that threat to male identity would increase the likelihood of gender harassment. In both experiments, using the computer harassment paradigm, male university students (N=80 in Experiment 1, N=90 in Experiment 2) were exposed to different types of identity threat (legitimacy threat and threat to group value in Experiment 1 and distinctiveness threat and prototypicality threat in Experiment 2) or to no threat and were then given the opportunity to send pornographic material to a virtual female interaction partner. Results show that (a) participants harassed the female interaction partner more when they were exposed to a legitimacy, distinctiveness, or prototypicality threat than to no threat; (b) this was mainly true for highly identified males; and (c) harassment enhanced postexperimental gender identification. Results are interpreted as supporting a social identity account of gender harassment.

  19. [Sexual abuse of minors].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The author gives a definition of sexual abuse on minors, emphasizing its more frequent occurrence inside the family (incest) than outside. He describes the countertransference reactions induced by this type of abuse, especially in professional teams who tend to put each other in a position of rivalry. Next, he sketches the pathogeny of sexual abuse, the clinical signs and the long term effects. The author deduces what should be the first signs of sexual abuse and proposes a pattern of diagnosis. Finally, he explains a management model, of the crisis and the follow-up of this difficult situation. PMID:1670411

  20. Penalties for Peer Sexual Harassment in an Academic Context: The Influence of Harasser Gender, Participant Gender, Severity of Harassment, and the Presence of Bystanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kimberly M.; Armenta, Madeline

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of harasser gender, participant gender, and presence of bystanders on perceptions of penalty appropriateness for peer sexual harassment in college. Students responded to descriptions of potential sexual harassment between one college student and another and described the appropriate penalty. Participants were more likely to…

  1. Sexual harassment of college students: implications for campus health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cleary, J S; Schmieler, C R; Parascenzo, L C; Ambrosio, N

    1994-07-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of sexual harassment by faculty members at a state university, using a sample of 1,139 graduate and undergraduate students. Twenty-six percent (292) of those in the sample responded. The instrument used in the study, adapted from a survey previously used at the University of Iowa, operationally defined eight categories of behavior: sexist comments, undue attention, verbal sexual advances, body language, invitations, physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. As many as 8% of the respondents indicated they had experienced the three most extreme forms of harassment--physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. Although most students thought they would report sexual harassment, only three incidents of the most extreme forms of sexual harassment were actually reported. Those who experienced harassment indicated that it generally came from one rather than from several faculty members and that it came from both male and female faculty. Twenty-three percent of the men reported experiencing sexist comments, and 5 male students reported they had experienced at least one of the three most extreme forms of sexual harassment. Recommendations for policy revisions and campus health promotion programming that were made following the survey are discussed. PMID:8077521

  2. Scandinavian Universities Respond to Complaints of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    1997-01-01

    Across Scandinavia, higher education institutions are acknowledging incidents of sexual harassment and developing policy and procedures to address them. The issue emerged after a University of Stockholm survey found 12% of all female employees on campus, including many graduate students, had experienced some harassment on the job. Initiatives…

  3. Investigating Sexual Harassment Complaints--Part II: A Sample Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhler, Scott F.; Allison, Rinda Y.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an example of procedures to be followed when investigating a sexual harassment complaint in libraries. Highlights include preparation, including reviewing personnel files; interviewing the complainant, including sample questions; interviewing the alleged harasser; gathering information from other sources, including third-party witnesses;…

  4. Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, although it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. Popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, but power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal…

  5. Angry and Afraid: Women's Appraisal of Sexual Harassment during Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine primary appraisal of sexual harassment, that is, a victim's cognitive evaluation of the harassment and the factors that influence this appraisal. The perspectives of 72 female plaintiffs were investigated by measuring their primary appraisal of the event, examining the structure of this appraisal, and…

  6. Classrooms and Courtrooms: Facing Sexual Harassment in K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    This book uses evidence gathered from legal, anecdotal, and survey-based sources to explore sexual harassment in K-12 schools. The text is divided into seven chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 use material from surveys, salient lawsuits, and students' stories to describe harassment and to elaborate on the contradictions and confusions that surround this…

  7. What Sexual Harassment Experiences Lead Respondents to Acknowledge Being Sexually Harassed? A Secondary Analysis of a University Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Margaret S.; Vaux, Alan

    1993-01-01

    According to survey responses from 933 of 1,807 undergraduates, 227 of 1,006 graduate students, and 432 of 1,372 faculty/staff, experience of sexual seduction, coercion, or imposition increased the probability of acknowledgment of having been harassed. Probability of acknowledgment was not related to gender or form of harassment. (SK)

  8. Sexual Abuse Allegations by Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…

  9. Sexual Harassment in the Schools: A Statewide Project for Secondary and Vocational Schools. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Women's Law Center, Seattle, WA.

    This report describes ways of eliminating sexual harassment from Washington State schools. It is divided into nine sections. Section I examines the relationship between sexual harassment and societal norms and myths which support sexual exploitation of women. Section II defines sexual harassment as any unwanted sexual attention on the job or in…

  10. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  11. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  12. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible. PMID:26268291

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. The Diet Cola Man and Other Fantasies: Sexual Assertiveness or Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floerchinger, Debra

    1995-01-01

    The literature of sexual harassment, particularly on college campuses, is reviewed. Topics discussed include definition of sexual harassment, legal implications, the role of individual perceptions, victim and peer response to harassment, and development of institutional policy and strategies for combatting harassment. A substantial bibliography is…

  15. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  16. An Action Research Study: Using Classroom Guidance Lessons to Teach Middle School Students about Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rebecca C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…

  17. Experiences of Sexual Harassment among Elementary School Students in Taiwan: Implications for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative…

  18. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  19. Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Results from a Representative Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutek, Barbara A.

    Sexual harassment at work has recently received considerable attention. Working men (N=405) and women (N=827) in Los Angeles County responded to questions about respondent's work, job characteristics, and work climate. Other questions concerned the respondent's experience of socio-sexual behaviors on current and previous jobs, definitions of…

  20. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs.

  1. Face the consequences: learning about victim's suffering reduces sexual harassment myth acceptance and men's likelihood to sexually harass.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Charlotte; Glaser, Tina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown that (1) better knowledge about the consequences of rape goes along with less rape-supportive attitudes and lower rape proclivity, and (2) empathy with the victims correlates negatively with sexual aggression. In two experiments, the authors combined these approaches in order to reduce sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) and the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH). In Study 1, 101 male and female university students read a report describing sexual harassment as either serious or harmless, and completed scales assessing dispositional empathy and SHMA. Results showed that higher empathy was associated with lower SHMA; furthermore, learning about the seriousness (vs. harmlessness) of sexual harassment led to lower SHMA, particularly in participants low in empathy. Gender differences in SHMA were fully explained by gender differences in empathy. In Study 2, perspective taking, a crucial aspect of empathy, was manipulated. One hundred nineteen male and female participants read either a neutral text or a description of a sexual harassment case, which was written either from the female target's or from the male perpetrator's perspective; then they completed scales measuring SHMA and (only male participants) LSH. The target's perspective led to lower SHMA and to lower LSH than did the neutral text, whereas no such effect was found for the perpetrator's perspective. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  2. Race, Class, and Emerging Sexuality: Teacher Perceptions and Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a highly troubling gendered phenomenon that plagues young women on a daily basis. The way in which sexual harassment is perceived and treated is varied and is largely based on racial and class stereotypes. This paper highlights the findings from a study in which a group of middle and high school teachers were interviewed and…

  3. Need for expansion of forensic psychiatrists' role in sexual harassment cases.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Schorrig, S

    1995-01-01

    Apparently intimidated by the current climate of political correctness, forensic psychiatrists in sexual harassment cases often limit themselves to a determination of damages. Yet they are in a unique position to help in the resolution of more complex issues: they need not merely accept plaintiffs' allegations at face value, as treating psychiatrists generally do, but can assess credibility and identify psychodynamics that could be crucial in the clarification of legal questions such as "welcomeness." This article discusses the significance of pertinent data, such as a history of childhood sexual abuse, but emphasizes that such information does not necessarily invalidate the plaintiffs allegations. It also reviews the obstacles that can stand in the way of a complete psychiatric examination and thereby limit the forensic psychiatrist's ability to help the courts. Increased involvement by forensic psychiatrists could contribute to a more impartial evaluation of sexual harassment cases and help establish the distinction between valid claims and frivolous ones.

  4. Sexual Harassment Policies in K-12 Schools: Examining Accessibility to Students and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…

  5. The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…

  6. Organizational Justice and Men's Likelihood to Sexually Harass: The Moderating Role of Sexism and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…

  7. Sexual Harassment in American Secondary Schools: A Legal Guide for Administrators, Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layman, Nancy S.

    The purpose of this book is to familiarize middle and high school administrators, teachers, and students with the laws concerning sexual harassment and strategies for dealing with it. The book can also help educators avoid liability for sexual harassment. Part 1 defines sexual harassment and emphasizes that men and women may perceive the same…

  8. An Ounce of Knowledge = a Pound of Deterrence: Preventing Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoop, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A "boilerplate" sexual harassment policy embedded in the district policy manual is insufficient. Schools need a comprehensive sexual harassment prevention program addressing authority, accountability, responsibility, and training. Since the vast majority of sexual harassment in schools is student-to-student, training efforts should not be limited…

  9. Sexual Abuse of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerstein, Norman S.; Canavan, J. William

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective review of 145 sexually abused children was undertaken to assess the importance of male children as victims and to determine if they pose problems different from those of girl victims. Journal Availability: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610. (Author/PHR)

  10. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.

    This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…

  11. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  12. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...

  14. Communication Training as a Prevention to Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    Although illegal, sexual harassment is frequent in the American workplace and extremely disruptive and costly to employees and employers alike. Most organizational responses to the problem have been hard line, short term, after-the-fact measures that inform, threaten, or discipline employees. What is needed, however, is a training program with an…

  15. Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…

  16. Bullying and Sexual Harassment among Brazilian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Ribeiro, J'aims

    2005-01-01

    Bullying and sexual harassment at school have received recent attention in developed countries; however, they have been neglected in Latin America. Thus, the authors investigated these phenomena among 400 Brazilian high school students from two high schools (one private and one public). Analyses using t-tests showed that boys bullied and sexually…

  17. Students as Victims of Sexual Harassment: The Evolving Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1998-01-01

    Explores alleged abridgements of students' federal rights regarding sexual harassment by school employees or by classmates. Examines claims based on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the Fourteenth Amendment. Despite federal protections, students carry a heavy burden of proof in establishing that their rights have been impaired by…

  18. Sexual Harassment and Manly Sports: Are They Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur

    This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…

  19. Nearing the Line: When Does Teacher Speech Become Sexual Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    This case was developed for a class on administration and supervision. It describes the classroom speech of a teacher who uses questionable terms when referring to female students in his class. The case explores the distorted boundary between inappropriate speech and sexual harassment as a principal is called on to deal with a teacher's use of the…

  20. Student-on-Student Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Frances E.

    2011-01-01

    No school board member, administrator, or teacher wants to see a student suffering from taunts of the student's peers, but with budget cutbacks, reductions in force, and increased class size, teachers and administrators are stretched too thin to easily identify, investigate, and remedy student-on-student harassment. But school districts must…

  1. Legal Issues: Student-on-Student Sexual Harassment: What Are Schools' Responsibilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the issue of student-on-student sexual harassment in legislation and litigation to determine the effects of the law on school districts. School districts are urged to fashion a student-on-student sexual harassment policy, provide inservice training, investigate complaints of harassment, and take action to resolve sexual…

  2. Secrets in Full View: Sexual Harassment in Our K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    Sexual harassment can range from touching, tickling, pinching, patting, or grabbing; to comments about one's body; to sexual remarks, innuendoes, and jokes that cause discomfort; to obscene gestures, staring, or leering; to assault and rape. This paper addresses student testimonies of harassment, provides a profile of harassment behaviors, and…

  3. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills. PMID:23684190

  4. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  5. Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

  6. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  7. Sexual Harassment, Bullying, and School Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does.

  8. Assessment of Sexual Harassment within the University of Rhode Island Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice; And Others

    In 1979, reports of sexual harassment and accusations of sexual assault at the University of Rhode Island led to the formation of a Sexual Harassment Committee. One of the tasks undertaken by a subgroup of this committee was a survey of the university community to identify actual experiences of and the attitudes of student and staff toward sexual…

  9. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  10. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER.

    PubMed

    Houle, Jason N; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-07-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald's theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald's model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt.

  11. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650

  12. Still stable after all these years: perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts.

    PubMed

    Bursik, Krisanne; Gefter, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This research examined perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts using data sets collected in 1990 (Time 1) and 2000 (Time 2). We assessed the influence of two individual variables--gender and gender role--and one contextual variable--power of the harasser--on perceptions of harassment. When the harasser was a higher-power individual, participants perceived more vignettes as examples of sexual harassment, viewed female targets more positively, and evaluated male harassers more negatively. Contrary to prediction, participants viewed male harassers less negatively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Despite increased media attention and educational interventions, comparisons to the earlier findings highlight remarkable stability in perceptions of harassment over time.

  13. Peer sexual harassment: finding voice, changing culture--an intervention strategy for adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory intervention study examines the effectiveness of a single-sex women's studies course in reducing sexual harassment in an at-risk high school. It was hypothesized that the young women's loci of control would become more internal as a result of the course and participants would feel they had more control over their lives. Findings indicate that participants' knowledge of sexual harassment gained from the intervention had been retained and reports of sexual harassment increased. Administrative referrals for sexual harassment within the school were reduced by one third during the semester following the intervention. Participants' perceptions of their levels of internality increased over time. PMID:18096862

  14. From the Kitchen to the Bedroom: Frequency Rates and Consequences of Sexual Harassment among Female Domestic Workers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…

  15. Sexual Harassment Victimization during Emerging Adulthood: A Test of Routine Activities Theory and a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clodfelter, Tammatha A.; Turner, Michael G.; Hartman, Jennifer L.; Kuhns, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment of college students may lead to more serious forms of sexual assault. Few studies have investigated sexual harassment predictors framed within competing theoretical perspectives. In this study, the literature is extended by examining (a) three types of sexual harassment on a college campus, (b) the nature of reporting, and (c)…

  16. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  17. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  18. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  19. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  20. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  1. Sexual Harassment and Bullying: A Guide to Keeping Kids Safe and Holding Schools Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools is often discussed, but sexual harassment in schools, and how it differs from bullying is often overlooked. In fact, though, sexual harassment (committed both by fellow students and school personnel) is more common and yet more easily and quickly dismissed by those involved, though its consequences for the victim can be…

  2. Gender Differences in Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Data from a Male-Dominated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Amy E.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental…

  3. Comparing Victim Attributions and Outcomes for Workplace Aggression and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…

  4. Sexual Harassment Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Selected School Board Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey of school superintendents in Newfoundland (Labrador) found that 13 of 14 school districts had adopted sexual harassment policies. However, none of the policies contained all elements required to constitute a comprehensive policy; few procedures existed for informing new or current personnel of sexual harassment policies; and…

  5. Secrets in Public: Sexual Harassment in Public (and Private) Schools. Working Paper Series No. 256. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan D.

    This document, part of the Wellesley College (Massachusetts) Center for Research on Women's working papers series, examines the issue of sexual harassment in education. The report explores a number of incidents in which female students have been the targets of unwanted sexual comments, advances, and assaults. Much of the school-based harassment is…

  6. Victimized Students: A Study of Sexual Harassment Liability in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinken, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Bound by federal and state laws, which protect individuals from sex discrimination, public higher education institutions must respond to the challenge of eliminating sexual harassment on campus. Statistics published by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission suggest that in spite of well-designed sexual harassment policies and action plans,…

  7. Liability for Sexual Harassment Involving Students under Federal Civil Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Discusses school district liability for sexual harassment under two provisions of federal law that are typically invoked as alternative bases for liability for sexual harassment: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (78 footnotes) (MLF)

  8. Sexual Harassment on Campus. A Guide for Administrators, Faculty, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Bernice R., Ed.; Shoop, Robert J., Ed.

    This book discusses many of the problems faced by higher education institutions in addressing sexual harassment on campus. It is an attempt to help institutions involved in the process of reexamining and revising their policies and procedures that deal with sexual harassment. The 19 chapters, each written by a nationally recognized scholar,…

  9. Creating New Taboos in the Academy: Faculty Responsibility in Preventing Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paludi, Michele A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses faculty responsibility for establishing college climate free of sexual harassment. Analyzes faculty perceptions of sexual harassment and power. Presents examples of educational programs for faculty. Concludes goals of changing both relative power of women in academy and the education the academy provides will be accomplished when women…

  10. Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

  11. What Schools Can Do To Combat Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, L. Dean; And Others

    1997-01-01

    By their silence and failure to combat peer sexual harassment, schools are serving as training grounds for domestic violence. Schools must establish a districtwide program of student peer sexual harassment prevention and intervention comprised of a school policy, an environmental survey of the problem, a grievance procedure, a training component,…

  12. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  13. Sexual Harassment as an Ethical Issue in Academic Life. Issues in Academic Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie Pickering

    This book provides a full examination of sexual harassment as an ethical issue in education. It considers issues raised by the definition, understanding, and regulation of campus sexual harassment and addresses the arguments that regulation may conflict with academic freedom and choice in relationships. Part 1 contains these chapters: (1) "Sexual…

  14. Raising the Awareness of Sexual Harassment and Preventing Its Occurrence in the Junior/Senior High School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Pamela

    The problem of sexual harassment in junior and senior high schools is addressed in this practicum. Its major goals were to raise the awareness and understanding of sexual harassment and to create a school environment that does not tolerate sexual harassment. It was found that both students and staff possessed a poor understanding of what defines…

  15. The Impact of Reason for Training on the Relationship between "Best Practices" and Sexual Harassment Training Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Elissa L.; Kulik, Carol T.; Bustamante, Jennifer; Golom, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the use of best training practices on human resources managers' perceptions of sexual harassment training success and frequency of sexual harassment complaints. Results revealed no main effects of best training practices on sexual harassment training success. However, effects of best training practices on sexual…

  16. End Sexual Harassment of Employees, or Your Board Could Be Held Liable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    1987-01-01

    Defines sexual harassment and reminds school boards of their moral and legal obligation to protect employees and maintain an intimidation-free workplace. Offers several tips for preventing sexual harrassment and for launching investigations into complaints. (MLH)

  17. Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Amanda B; Aloe, Ariel M; Livingston, Jennifer A; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Although peer bystanders can exacerbate or prevent bullying and sexual harassment, research has been hindered by the absence of a validated assessment tool to measure the process and sequential steps of the bystander intervention model. A measure was developed based on the five steps of Latané and Darley's (1970) bystander intervention model applied to bullying and sexual harassment. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 562 secondary school students confirmed the five-factor structure of the measure. Structural equation modeling revealed that all the steps were influenced by the previous step in the model, as the theory proposed. In addition, the bystander intervention measure was positively correlated with empathy, attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment, and awareness of bullying and sexual harassment facts. This measure can be used for future research and to inform intervention efforts related to the process of bystander intervention for bullying and sexual harassment.

  18. Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Amanda B; Aloe, Ariel M; Livingston, Jennifer A; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Although peer bystanders can exacerbate or prevent bullying and sexual harassment, research has been hindered by the absence of a validated assessment tool to measure the process and sequential steps of the bystander intervention model. A measure was developed based on the five steps of Latané and Darley's (1970) bystander intervention model applied to bullying and sexual harassment. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 562 secondary school students confirmed the five-factor structure of the measure. Structural equation modeling revealed that all the steps were influenced by the previous step in the model, as the theory proposed. In addition, the bystander intervention measure was positively correlated with empathy, attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment, and awareness of bullying and sexual harassment facts. This measure can be used for future research and to inform intervention efforts related to the process of bystander intervention for bullying and sexual harassment. PMID:24793386

  19. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought.

  20. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. PMID:22276546

  1. Sex and power in the academy: modeling sexual harassment in the lives of college women.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Marisela; Cortina, Lilia M; Pang, Joyce S; Torges, Cynthia M; Magley, Vicki J

    2006-05-01

    The authors build an integrated model of the process by which academic sexual harassment undermines women's well-being; also examined is harasser power as a potential moderator of this process. Data from 1,455 college women suggest that sexual harassment experiences are associated with increased psychological distress, which then relates to lower academic satisfaction, greater physical illness, and greater disordered eating. The cumulative effect is greater disengagement from the academic environment, which in turn relates to performance decline (i.e., lower grades). Regardless of how frequently the harassment occurred, academic satisfaction was lower when the harassment came from higher-status individuals (i.e., faculty, staff, or administrators). At the same time, harassment was equally detrimental to mental health, regardless of who perpetrated it. The article concludes with implications for theory, research, and intervention. PMID:16702155

  2. Exploring gender differences in body image, eating pathology, and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Nicole T; Bluestein, Brooke M; Nappa, Alexa C; Woods, Krystle C; Depatie, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between body image (weight/shape concerns), eating pathology, and sexual harassment among men and women (N=2446). Hierarchical regressions controlling for depression revealed main effects of gender such that women reported greater weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and binge eating compared to men. Main effects for sexual harassment indicated that as harassment increased, participants reported increased weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors. There were small but significant interactions between gender and harassment for eating pathology total score (which included each of the domains listed above), weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and eating concerns such that the relationship between increased harassment and increased pathology was stronger for women compared to men. The largest interaction was found for compensatory behaviors, such that while women and men's scores both increased as harassment increased, the relationship was stronger for men.

  3. Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-09-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in an experimental study. We hypothesized that victims of sexual harassment are more likely than victims of workplace aggression to depersonalize their mistreatment and attribute blame to the perpetrator or the perpetrator's attitudes toward their gender. In contrast, victims of workplace aggression are more likely than victims of sexual harassment to personalize the mistreatment and make internal attributions. Results supported our hypotheses. On the basis of differential attributions for these 2 types of mistreatment, we argue that victims of workplace aggression may experience stronger adverse outcomes than victims of sexual harassment. In Study 2, we compared meta-analytically the attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Negative outcomes of workplace aggression were stronger in magnitude than those of sexual harassment for 6 of the 8 outcome variables. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:20718532

  4. Sexual abuse allegations by children with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-03-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric experts were engaged in only two cases. When experts were involved, the courts focused on credibility issues. When the courts applied neuropsychiatric arguments in the absence of an expert, they used developmental arguments. When the authors found that significant neuropsychiatric issues were not discussed by the court it concerned interpretations of symptoms and developmental standpoints. The results illustrate the complexity and pitfalls of drawing conclusions about associations between symptoms and personality characteristics on one side and accuracy of sexual abuse allegations on the other. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of a high quality system for providing courts with adequate neuropsychiatric knowledge.

  5. Outrage Management in Cases of Sexual Harassment as Revealed in Judicial Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Paula; Graham, Tina; Martin, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment can be conceptualized as a series of interactions between harassers and targets that either inhibit or increase outrage by third parties. The outrage management model predicts the kinds of actions likely to be used by perpetrators to minimize outrage, predicts the consequences of failing to use these tactics--namely backfire, and…

  6. Seeking Justice for Sexual Harassment in Schools: Is Title IX the Only Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In its current term, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear arguments in "Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee" (2007), a case involving alleged student-to-student sexual harassment between a kindergartner and a third grader. At first blush, the case is about unfortunate, alleged incidents of harassment of a young student while on the school bus.…

  7. Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

  8. Politics, Policies and Practice: Assessing the Impact of Sexual Harassment Policies in UK Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alison M.

    2004-01-01

    Since sexual harassment was first named and identified as an obstacle to women's equality in the mid 1970s, concern about both its prevalence and its damaging effects has resulted in the widespread introduction of anti-harassment policies in UK universities, as in other work and educational settings. The study reported here sought to assess the…

  9. Prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Durfee, M

    1989-06-01

    Child sexual abuse prevention programs are a growing phenomenon addressing an expanding number of topics raised by a variety of violent and perverse acts. Currently programs tend to focus on a fairly narrow age group and use an educational model for children. There is a need for broad-based programs with a strong focus on the adults around children. Perinatal prevention programs require an adult focus and must take advantage of a special time in child and family development to address lesson of health and intimacy in a way that may decrease the incidence of future child sexual abuse. PMID:2748446

  10. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  11. Thorny Legal Issues Face Colleges Hit by Sexual-Harassment Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1993-01-01

    Sexual harassment incidents on college campuses, sometimes accompanied by litigation, raise complex questions about the institution's responsibilities, including counseling for victim and accused, employment status of accused faculty, aggressiveness of investigations, staff training policies, complaint procedures, and institutional liability. (MSE)

  12. Intervention Strategies for Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rencken, Robert H.

    This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…

  13. Sexual harassment: perspectives from the past, present practice, policy, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodner, E D; Kolenich, D B

    1993-01-01

    During the times of Florence Nightingale, elements of sexual harassment were evident and were addressed in her writings. The more recent Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas judicial hearings brought more attention to the issue. It is imperative that hospitals and their staff development departments have a clear understanding of what constitutes sexual harassment so that effective policies can be implemented. Preventive training can be implemented to avoid absenteeism, staff turnover, lost productivity, decreased quality of patient care, and exorbitant legal costs.

  14. Flirting with disaster: short-term mating orientation and hostile sexism predict different types of sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We combine evolutionary and sociocultural accounts of sexual harassment, proposing that sexuality-related and hostility-related motives lead to different types of harassment. Specifically, men's short-term mating orientation (STMO) was hypothesized to predict only unwanted sexual attention but not gender harassment, whereas men's hostile sexism (HS) was hypothesized to predict both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. As part of an alleged computer-chat task, 100 male students could send sexualized personal remarks (representing unwanted sexual attention), sexist jokes (representing gender harassment), or nonharassing material to an attractive female target. Independently, participants' STMO, HS, and sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) were assessed. Correlational and path analyses revealed that STMO specifically predicted unwanted sexual attention, whereas HS predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. Furthermore, SHMA fully mediated the effect of HS on gender harassment, but did not mediate effects of STMO or HS on unwanted sexual attention. Results are discussed in relation to motivational explanations for sexual harassment and antiharassment interventions.

  15. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  16. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  17. Sexual harassment among young tourists visiting Mediterranean resorts.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Amador; Hughes, Karen; Blay, Nicole; Bellis, Mark A; Mendes, Fernando; Juan, Montse; Lazarov, Philip; Cibin, Barbara; Duch, Mari Angels

    2013-05-01

    Despite the known increase in substance use and risky sexual behaviors among young people during holiday periods, issues of sexual harassment (SH) and having sex against one's will (SAW) have not received adequate attention. We implemented a cross-sectional airport-based study to identify experience of SH and SAW in 6,502 British and German holidaymakers aged 16-35 years visiting tourist resorts in Southern Europe (Crete, Cyprus, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) in summer 2009. Across all participants, 8.6 % reported SH during their holiday and 1.5 % reported SAW. Women reported higher levels of SH than heterosexual males. However, gay and bisexual males reported SH levels similar to females and the highest levels of SAW. Of 19 predictor variables tested, ten were independently associated with SH. SH was increased in those who were visitors to Mallorca or Crete, British, younger, female, gay or bisexual, frequently drunk on holiday, cocaine users, and attracted to bars where people get drunk, or where there are opportunities for sex. Among 13 predictor variables tested for SAW, four were significant. SAW reduced in those visiting Cyprus, and was strongly associated with being a gay or bisexual male, using cannabis on holiday and being attracted to bars where there were opportunities for sex. Holiday resorts represent a key location for SH and SAW, especially for holidaymakers who get drunk and use drugs. Preventive programs can raise awareness of the risks of unwanted sexual encounters on holiday and work with the tourist industry and tourist authorities to develop environments where sexual aggression is not tolerated. PMID:22733155

  18. Sexual harassment among young tourists visiting Mediterranean resorts.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Amador; Hughes, Karen; Blay, Nicole; Bellis, Mark A; Mendes, Fernando; Juan, Montse; Lazarov, Philip; Cibin, Barbara; Duch, Mari Angels

    2013-05-01

    Despite the known increase in substance use and risky sexual behaviors among young people during holiday periods, issues of sexual harassment (SH) and having sex against one's will (SAW) have not received adequate attention. We implemented a cross-sectional airport-based study to identify experience of SH and SAW in 6,502 British and German holidaymakers aged 16-35 years visiting tourist resorts in Southern Europe (Crete, Cyprus, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) in summer 2009. Across all participants, 8.6 % reported SH during their holiday and 1.5 % reported SAW. Women reported higher levels of SH than heterosexual males. However, gay and bisexual males reported SH levels similar to females and the highest levels of SAW. Of 19 predictor variables tested, ten were independently associated with SH. SH was increased in those who were visitors to Mallorca or Crete, British, younger, female, gay or bisexual, frequently drunk on holiday, cocaine users, and attracted to bars where people get drunk, or where there are opportunities for sex. Among 13 predictor variables tested for SAW, four were significant. SAW reduced in those visiting Cyprus, and was strongly associated with being a gay or bisexual male, using cannabis on holiday and being attracted to bars where there were opportunities for sex. Holiday resorts represent a key location for SH and SAW, especially for holidaymakers who get drunk and use drugs. Preventive programs can raise awareness of the risks of unwanted sexual encounters on holiday and work with the tourist industry and tourist authorities to develop environments where sexual aggression is not tolerated.

  19. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: From Conflict to Community. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Robert O.; And Others

    Colleges and universities are expected to provide safe and appropriate learning and working environments, including freedom from sexual harassment. Unfortunately, the frequency of complaints on college and university campuses has increased. Sexual harassment is a form of sexual discrimination and is prohibited by federal laws. This behavior…

  20. Perception Differences in Ambiguous Forms of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Comparison between the United States and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toker, Yonca

    2016-07-01

    Certain social-sexual behaviors that could be potentially encountered in workplaces are ambiguous in nature and perceiving them as sexual harassment can depend on the culture. With an aim to delineate the overlap and distinctions of sexual harassment perceptions of such behaviors across samples of women university students from Turkey (TR, N = 215) and the United States (US, N = 209), measurement invariance and latent mean differences in perceiving three ambiguous forms; sexist hostility, sexual hostility, and insinuation-of-interest, were examined. It was hypothesized that the US sample would perceive sexist hostility more sexually harassing as sexist workplace discriminatory practices are emphasized as a form of sexual harassment, and that the TR sample would perceive sexual hostility and insinuation-of-interest as more sexually harassing as women in TR operate in a conservative context. Despite similarities in rank ordering, US participants perceived sexist hostility more sexually harassing; insinuation-of-interest and sexual hostility less sexually harassing than Turkish participants, supporting all three hypotheses. There are implications of differing perceptions across cultures for organizations in terms of disseminating awareness via training programs about the forms of sexual harassment (SH) in a local context and for taking account of local findings in shaping the labor code of countries in relation to SH. PMID:27027729

  1. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  2. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424

  3. Treatment for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  5. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  6. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  7. Perceived sexual harassment at work: meta-analysis and structural model of antecedents and consequences.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J F; Depolo, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Although sexual harassment has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions about its antecedents and consequences, both at the personal and organizational level. An extensive literature search yielded 42 empirical studies with 60 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported the hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of harassment.

  8. Child sexual abuse: origins, dynamics, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Leahy, M M

    1991-01-01

    This article is intended as an overview of the current literature on child sexual abuse. There are some patterns of psychopathology seen in both the abused and the abusers that warrant further scrutiny. The presence of narcissistic pathology in both groups is interesting, particularly in light of the generationality of child sexual abuse. This finding raises the issue of the nature of psychic injury incurred by some of the victims and places it at the level of early self development.

  9. Sexual Harassment of Girls in Elementary School: A Concealed Phenomenon within a Heterosexual Romantic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadin, Katja Gillander

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses…

  10. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  11. Beyond Foucault: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Sexual Harassment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Frances J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how United States national policy regarding sexual harassment exemplifies the Foucauldian paradigm in its attempt to regulate sexuality through seemingly authorless texts. Proposes a user-centered approach to policy drafting that values the knowledge of workers as users and makers of workplace policy. Argues that regulation through such…

  12. The Relationship between Sexual Minority Verbal Harassment And Utilization of Health Services: Results from Countywide Risk Assessment Survey (CRAS) 2004.

    PubMed

    Hoyt D'Anna, Laura; Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Janson, Michael; Chen, Cristy; Malotte, C Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation-based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County-funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, orbisexual. Those who reported being verbally harassed received significantly more services overall than those who were not verbally harassed, and service utilization varied by sexual orientation. These findings inform future efforts to identify and assess social discrimination in health and social service settings.

  13. Harassment Issues in Sport Organizations: Utilitarian, Justice, Kantian, and Existential Approaches to Moral Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, David Cruise; Zakus, Dwight H.

    2004-01-01

    The literature discussing harassment issues in sport primarily focuses on sexual harassment and abuse. Discussion of this topic is dominated by definitions of harassment in terms of the biological, psychological, cultural, and organizational rationale for its occurrence and a variety of educational methods to transmit the "facts" of this…

  14. The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    2012-01-01

    This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…

  15. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  16. Examining the Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…

  17. How To Stop Sexual Harassment in Our Schools: A Handbook and Curriculum Guide for Administrators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoop, Robert J.; Edwards, Debra L.

    Some educators continue to believe that sexual harassment is not a serious problem for their students. This book presents evidence to the contrary, citing statistics from recent surveys in which four out of five students reported that they have been the target of some form of sexual harassment during school. Part 1, comprised of seven chapters,…

  18. Women's Perceptions and Labeling of Sexual Harassment in Academia before and after the Hill-Thomas Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik-Herman, Mollie L.; Fisk, Alene

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the effects of the Hill-Thomas hearings on changing sexual-harassment perceptions of female college students. Sixty-two students evaluated a video depicting a sexual harassment incident and provided their perceptions. Compared to a study conducted before the Hill-Thomas hearings, results indicate that publicity about the hearings…

  19. Sexual Harassment of Students at Iowa State University. Subcommittee Report Approved by the University Committee on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ., Ames. Committee on Women.

    Sexual harassment in student-teacher relationships at Iowa State University was investigated in 1981. A questionnaire was sent to 1,000 male and female undergraduate and graduate students, and 372 responses were received. One focus was to determine what types of teacher behavior students considered to be sexual harassment, and to what extent male…

  20. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior. PMID:27044017

  1. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.

  2. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  4. Residency Training in Child Sexual Abuse Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, Angelo P.; Brayden, Robert M.; Sugarman, Jacqueline M.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 147 pediatric faculty and 64 resident pediatricians examined the quantity and adequacy of training in child sexual abuse evaluation. Both faculty and residents believed that preparation in how to conduct a sexual abuse evaluation may be inadequate for residents during their three years of post-graduate training. (CR)

  5. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  6. Psychoanalytically Oriented Psychotherapy with Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Linda Provus; McElroy, Ross A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes use of individual psychodynamic treatment for child victims of intrafamily sexual abuse. Presents symptoms and psychological consequences of sexual abuse. Discusses specific techniques emphasizing communicative value of defense mechanisms and roles of clarification, confrontation, and interpretation. Provides three case examples to…

  7. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  8. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  9. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  10. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships. PMID:26301436

  13. Holocaust child survivors and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during the war completed open-ended interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed according to Tutty, Rothery, and Grinnell's (1996) guidelines. Three major themes were found: issues relating to the sexual abuse trauma, survivors' perceptions of the abuse, and survivors' general perspectives towards life. The identity of the offenders, Jewish or non-Jewish, determined the survivors' feelings towards themselves, the perpetrators, and about the worth of life.

  14. Adolescent Girls' Cognitive Appraisals of Coping Responses to Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears; Ayres, Melanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a stressor for many girls in middle and high school. Prior research indicates that approach strategies (seeking support or confronting) are generally more effective than avoidance strategies in alleviating stress. However, the deployment of effective coping behaviors depends partly on how individuals evaluate different…

  15. Sexual Harassment in a Residential Occupation: The Experiences of Women Seafarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michelle A

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This paper reports women seafarers' experiences of sexual harassment. Design: Data reported in this paper were collected as part of a larger study exploring company policies and practices relating to women seafarers and the experiences of women seafarers themselves. Setting: Data reported here was collected with women from seven…

  16. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  17. PTSD Symptoms and Sexual Harassment: The Role of Attributions and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Sadie E.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have compiled significant evidence demonstrating that sexual harassment leads to psychological harm, including the full symptom picture of PTSD, but few have examined the psychological processes involved. Research on attributions among trauma victims would suggest that causal attributions and perceptions of control may be important…

  18. Sexual Harassment among Students with Educational Disabilities: Perspectives of Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Heath, Melissa Allen; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Smith, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of special education teachers about the prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among students identified with educational disabilities. Utah special education teachers (250) were randomly selected from the state's database. Fifty-two percent (n = 129) of the surveys were returned. Approximately…

  19. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  20. Are Blogs Putting Youth at Risk for Online Sexual Solicitation or Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In light of public concern about the dangers to young people from maintaining online journals or "blogs," this exploratory paper examines whether bloggers are at increased risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment. Method: A national telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10-17, conducted between March and June…

  1. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Unanticipated Consequences of Modern Social Control in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.; De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth

    2001-01-01

    Modern organizational changes purportedly intended to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover are actually forms of social control. Analysis of data from 6,000 employees found that an unintended yet beneficial consequence of these changes is reduced sexual harassment. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  2. Sexual Harassment Reported Among a Sample of Undergraduate Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, Lauren M.; Brewe, Eric; Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hazari, Zarha; Hodapp, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    The field of physics lags behind most other scientific fields in gender parity of students earning bachelor's degrees. The transition from enrollment in high school physics to graduating with physics degree represents the biggest decrease in the proportion of female students for any step in physics educational attainment. Sexual harassment contributes to an unwelcome climate. It is unknown how prevalent sexual harassment is in the field of physics and whether it's a contributing factor to the field's inability to recruit and retain female students. Our goal was to measure a quantitative baseline for sexual harassment--associated with physics--observed and experienced by a sample of female undergraduate students. As part of a larger conference evaluation survey, we conducted an internet-based survey (n = 632) of attendees of the APS Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics to measure the extent to which they personally experienced or observed sexual harassment in a context associated with physics. We will present results from this survey. Opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF, DOE, or APS. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (PHY-1346627) and by the Department of Energy (DE-SC0011076).

  3. Dating Violence & Sexual Harassment across the Bully-Victim Continuum among Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Holt, Melissa K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations among bullying, peer victimization, sexual harassment, and dating violence were examined among 684 middle and high school students. Cluster analysis of self-report measures revealed four distinct bully-victim subtypes: uninvolved, victims, bully-victims, and bullies. African-American students comprised the bully cluster more than…

  4. Same- and Cross-Gender Sexual Harassment Victimization in Middle School: A Developmental-Contextual Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoll, Jessica S.; Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy J.; Pepler, Debra; Simkins-Strong, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Using a developmental-contextual framework, the present study investigated risk factors for same- and cross-gender sexual harassment victimization in 986 middle school students. Participants completed questionnaires in the fall and spring of the same school year so risk factors could be explored longitudinally. Results revealed that gender…

  5. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  6. Ambivalence and Stereotypes Cause Sexual Harassment: A Theory with Implications for Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Theorizes that workplace sexual harassment results from the complex interplay of ambivalent motives and gender stereotyping of women and jobs. It argues that ambivalence combines hostile and "benevolent" sexist motives based on paternalism, gender differentiation, and heterosexuality and that organizational context can encourage or discourage the…

  7. An Organizational Development Approach to Preventing Sexual Harassment: Developing Shared Commitment through Awareness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomann, Daniel A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Saint Louis University's efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive sexual harassment training program as the foundation for a cultural influence process is described. The use of the training program as the foundation of a normative-reeducative process of change is described. (MLW)

  8. Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment in Schools: Old Myths, New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    1997-01-01

    For many students in the 1990s, school is no longer a safe environment in which they feel free to learn. This brief is intended to dispel myths about peer sexual harassment and clarify the new realities of the phenomenon in schools. The brief also conveys the message that school administrators have a duty to foster a school environment based on…

  9. When No Means No: Recognizing and Preventing Sexual Harassment in Your Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisci, George S.

    1999-01-01

    Supreme Court decisions to date underscore school boards' responsibility to take action against on-campus sexual harassment. The high court will support employers who issue, communicate, and enforce policies prohibiting unlawful gender discrimination. Such policies need a clear "no tolerance" statement, detailed legal definitions, and a clearly…

  10. Ambiguities around Sexuality: An Approach to Understanding Harassment and Bullying of Young People in British Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a small study undertaken in 2001, which examined the experiences of and responses to sexual harassment and bullying adopted by different professionals (teachers, education social workers, youth workers and a school nurse) and by young people (12 to 25-year-olds). It draws together some of the literature relating to young…

  11. Sexual Harassment and Social Justice: Reflections on the Distance yet to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2003-01-01

    Despite progress, protections remain inadequate for victims who bring legal claims of sexual harassment. The process for damages determination frequently increases harm and undercuts the policy initiatives enshrined in Title VII. The author critiques this process, focusing on misuse of psychological examinations and failure of the federal "rape…

  12. Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment: Longitudinal Profiles and Transitions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…

  13. Writers and Their Maps: The Construction of a GAO Report on Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kelli Cargile

    2000-01-01

    Examines a 1994 General Accounting Office (GAO) report on sexual harassment at U.S. service academies to determine how power structures affected the report writers' rhetorical choices. Identifies what is valued and devalued in the report's contents. Describes Congress's reaction to the report and speculates on the report's impact on public…

  14. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

  15. Medical advances in child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell A

    2011-09-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.

  16. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  17. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  18. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  19. Comparing Sexual Harassment Subtypes among Black and White Women by Military Rank: Double Jeopardy, the Jezebel, and the Cult of True Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.; Woods, Krystle C.

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist analyses of double jeopardy and the cult of true womanhood, we examine race, rank, sexual harassment frequency, and psychological distress for Black and White female military personnel (N= 7,714). Results indicated that White women reported more overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and crude behavior, whereas Black…

  20. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646

  1. Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep.

    PubMed

    Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P

    2009-12-01

    A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

  2. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  3. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  4. Sexual Abuse of Children: A Clinical Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn

    1978-01-01

    The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)

  5. Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jerry G.

    1982-01-01

    Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)

  6. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  7. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  8. Clinician Responses to Sexual Abuse Allegations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Helene; Nuttall, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 656 social workers, pediatricians, psychiatrists, and psychologists rated the credibility of vignettes alleging child sexual abuse. Seven case factors affected credibility: perpetrator's race, relationship to victim, and history of substance abuse; and victims' race, affect, age, and behavioral changes. Several clinician factors were…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  10. Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapes, Bruce E.

    Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

  11. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  12. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  13. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    PubMed

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed.

  14. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    PubMed

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. PMID:26350167

  15. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

  16. Sexual Abuse of Boys: Current Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Terryann

    1983-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding the sexual abuse of boys. Although boys may be equally at risk for sexual victimization as girls, they are a unique clinical group whose needs have not been addressed significantly. Awareness and prevention components in community education and media can raise public awarness. (JAC)

  17. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  18. Urgent Medical Assessment after Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…

  19. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  1. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  2. When the customer shouldn't be king: antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Hilary J; Gelfand, Michele J

    2007-05-01

    Much of the work in today's service industries requires women to deal with people outside of their organizations, namely, customers and clients, yet research on sexual harassment has focused almost exclusively on sexual harassment within organizations. Because the threat of harassment also operates at the boundaries of organizations, our existing models based solely on harassment inside organizations may be too restricted to adequately explain the harassment experiences of women in today's economy. To address this, the authors introduce a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers (CSH) and describe 2 field studies conducted to test components of the model. In Study 1, they developed a model of antecedents and consequences of CSH and illustrated that certain contextual factors (client power and gender composition of the client base) affect levels of CSH and that CSH is related to a number of job and psychological outcomes among professional women. Study 2 revealed that CSH is related to lower job satisfaction among nonprofessional women, above and beyond that which is accounted for by internal sexual harassment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:17484555

  3. Differences in the eyes of the beholders: The roles of subjective and objective judgments in sexual harassment claims.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Katherine M K; Farnum, Katlyn S; Wiener, Richard L; Allen, Jill; Nuss, Gwenith D; Gervais, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    In 2 studies, we found support for current sexual harassment jurisprudence. Currently, the courts use a 2-prong test to determine the viability of a sexual harassment claim: that the adverse treatment is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter conditions of employment based on a protected class from the perspective of the individual complainant (subjective prong) and from the perspective of a reasonable person (objective prong). In Experiment 1, trained male undergraduate research assistants administered sequential objectifying gazes and comments to undergraduate female research participants. We found that the pervasive objectification delivered by multiple men (compared with 1 man) did not elicit more negative emotion or harm the experiencers' task performance, although it did lead them to make increased judgments of sexual harassment. In Experiment 2, observers (who viewed a recording of an experiencer's interactions with the male research assistants) and predictors (who read a protocol describing the facts of the interaction) anticipated the female targets would experience negative emotions, show impaired performance, as well as find more evidence in the interaction of sexual harassment. Observers' judgments mirrored those of the experiencers' while predictors' judgments demonstrated affective forecasting errors. Predictors were more likely to anticipate more negative emotion, worse performance, and greater likelihood of sexual harassment. Overall, these studies demonstrate the impact and importance of considering perceptions of sexual harassment from multiple perspectives and viewpoints. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26914857

  4. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  5. Analysis of sexual abuse hotline reports.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R L; Pierce, L H

    1985-01-01

    As concern about physical child abuse and neglect has increased, so too has the realization that children are also sexually exploited and abused. Yet, many protective service workers are often ill prepared to perform the difficult task of treating the abused child and his/her family. Through the analysis of sexual abuse hotline reports, the central aim of this study was to generate findings that would increase the knowledge base of protective service workers and private therapists engaged in treating sexually abused children and their families. To accomplish this task, and using seven classes of variables, analysis was performed on 205 substantiated cases of childhood sexual abuse. A number of important conclusions were discovered including: One-third of the cases had been reported to the agency previously; less than one-half (48%) of the victimized children were living with their natural fathers; natural fathers were identified as the perpetrator in 39% of the cases; and in contrast to other studies, a great number of cases (43%) involved vaginal intercourse between the victim and the perpetrator. Implications for treatment are also discussed, particularly in relation to improving resources and specialized training for workers involved in this highly sensitive area of practice.

  6. Sexism and sexual harassment. Concerns of African American women of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.

    PubMed

    Whitson, M H

    1997-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project that examined social issues identified by a select group of religiously active African American women. The research examines sexism and sexual harassment and its prevalence within the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CMEC). A total of 100 African American women from the CMEC participated in the focus group interviews. Findings suggest that the participants want the Church to acknowledge the existence of sexism and sexual harassment within is confines. Women participants perceived that their concern regarding the prevalence of sexism and sexual harassment within the Church had been subjugated in favor of those concerns more identifiable with males. Participants voiced the opinion that if the Church was indeed an agent concerned about societal issues that affect all its members, such issues should not be directed solely to the Women's Missionary Society but should be addressed at all levels of the Church. Furthermore, results from the focus group interviews suggest that women desire policy change in the Church before directing attention to policy change in the general community. Women professed the belief that because the CMEC has a hierarchical structure similar to the community and the criminal justice system, changes implemented within the Church are likely to be reflected in the behavior, attitudes, and policies of the community and the criminal justice system.

  7. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  8. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  9. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  10. Food for thought [on child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Tan, M

    1999-01-01

    This article uncovers the hidden side of child rape and sexual abuse in the Philippines. The imposition of the death penalty, however, is not the solution to the problem because, firstly, child abuse often occurs over a prolonged period of time, before a complaint is made; secondly, child abuse cases will not make it to courts unless an adult recognizes the problem; thirdly, victims often keep silent because they know adults will not believe them and will blame them instead; fourthly, many victims keep silent to protect a mentor, especially a relative; finally, child sexual abuse involves authoritarian power relations. Thus, this article suggests preventive measures to prevent incidents from occurring. These are: recognizing that there is a problem, identifying the problem through rigorous research, identifying local risk factors that lead to abuse, and recognizing that children can prevent abuse. No one can heal a sexually abused child; only the victim can do this, given the opportunity and support to move forward on the road toward becoming a survivor.

  11. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  12. Internal and External Mediators of Women's Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; Newcomb, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Examined 111 women's retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse. Explored domains of circumstances of abuse, mediators, and outcomes (negative effects of abuse). Found long-term negative outcomes of abuse directly affected by close relationship to perpetrator and severity of abuse from circumstance of abuse domain, and immediate negative…

  13. Harassment: Imaginings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Judith

    1993-01-01

    Imagines the role of the male college professor in view of the erotic and sexual nature of his subjectivity and the glaring possibilities of sexual misconduct with students. Outlines some experiences related to the sexual harassment policies of one private college. (HB)

  14. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Forrest T.; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24106536

  15. Two sides of the same coin: gender harassment and heterosexist harassment in LGBQ work lives.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-08-01

    This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction). Results showed that gender harassment-both sexist and policing subtypes-rarely occurred absent heterosexist harassment, and vice versa. Harassment severity (experiencing moderate to high levels of all three harassment types) was significantly associated with greater levels of job burnout (both disengagement and exhaustion) and job dissatisfaction. Even infrequent experiences of harassment related to large increases in the "threat" variety of job stress (i.e., sense of feeling hassled and overwhelmed on the job). Additionally, employees who perceived the lowest organizational support reported the most harassment. We interpret results in light of research on organizational behavior and LGBQ psychology. Moreover, we discuss our findings in the context of Title VII, currently interpreted to protect against harassment based on gender, sex, and sex stereotyping, but not sexual orientation. Our results can inform several possible avenues of expanding gay civil rights in employment: broadening judicial interpretations of Title VII, passing new legislation (e.g., the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, or ENDA), and strengthening organizational supports and policies that protect against sexuality-based abuses.

  16. Two sides of the same coin: gender harassment and heterosexist harassment in LGBQ work lives.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-08-01

    This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction). Results showed that gender harassment-both sexist and policing subtypes-rarely occurred absent heterosexist harassment, and vice versa. Harassment severity (experiencing moderate to high levels of all three harassment types) was significantly associated with greater levels of job burnout (both disengagement and exhaustion) and job dissatisfaction. Even infrequent experiences of harassment related to large increases in the "threat" variety of job stress (i.e., sense of feeling hassled and overwhelmed on the job). Additionally, employees who perceived the lowest organizational support reported the most harassment. We interpret results in light of research on organizational behavior and LGBQ psychology. Moreover, we discuss our findings in the context of Title VII, currently interpreted to protect against harassment based on gender, sex, and sex stereotyping, but not sexual orientation. Our results can inform several possible avenues of expanding gay civil rights in employment: broadening judicial interpretations of Title VII, passing new legislation (e.g., the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, or ENDA), and strengthening organizational supports and policies that protect against sexuality-based abuses. PMID:24933169

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  19. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  20. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  1. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  2. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  3. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  4. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  5. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  6. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  7. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  9. Developmentally Appropriate Criteria for Evaluating Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Nancy S.; Wright, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    Proposes using a developmentally appropriate practice framework to determine if a sexual abuse prevention program takes into consideration the unique learning abilities of preschool children. Reviews definition of and statistics related to sexual abuse. Compares appropriate and inappropriate teaching practices in child sexual abuse prevention…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  11. Discrimination, Harassment, Abuse and Bullying in the Workplace: Contribution of Workplace Injustice to Occupational Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D.; de Castro, A. Butch

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices – discrimination, harassment, abuse and bullying – to occupational health disparities. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the pathways through which injustices at the interpersonal and institutional level lead to differential risk of vulnerable workers to adverse occupational health outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies also show that workplace injustice can influence workers’ health through effects on workers’ family life and job-related outcomes. Lastly, this paper discusses methodological limitations in research linking injustices and occupational health disparities and makes recommendations to improve the state of research. PMID:23813664

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  13. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  14. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  15. [Psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Vyssoki, David; Schürmann-Emanuely, Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Violence is what the victims experience as violence. Only they are able to measure what oppression, injury, pain or sexual violence can cause. Violence starts where human beings are constrained, humiliated, abjected and injured in their self-determination by other human beings. The experienced violence causes a trauma in most cases and in many cases also a PTSD. As a lot of epidemiological studies have affirmed, the highest lifetime-prevalence of PTSD appears after one respectively after a repeated act of sexual violence.It is important to define the circumstances of the action, by defining three fields of violence: domestic sexual violence, sexual violence in civil everyday life respectively violence, that occurs not inside families and sexual violence in wartime.Victims of all fields of violence can be found in Western Europe, the last mentioned form of violence predominant among refugees, but also among survivors of the last world war. PMID:19011596

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical and mental health work barriers, and employment outcomes using a large panel study of current and former welfare recipients. Controlling for human capital and demographic characteristics, they found CSA was associated with significantly fewer months worked over the…

  17. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…

  19. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  20. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  1. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…

  2. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  3. Sexual Abuse: Somatic and Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)

  4. Physician Knowledge of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socolar, Rebecca R. S.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…

  5. Sexual Abuse of Vulnerable Young and Old Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.

    2007-01-01

    During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…

  6. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  7. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  8. [Physical and sexual child abuse].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Kathrin

    2008-07-01

    Child abuse may result in dramatic short and longtime damage of children's physical and emotional well being. This underscores the clinician's special responsibility to contribute a sound professional and scientific approach to the multiprofessional diagnosis and intervention in suspected child abuse cases. The approach is to correlate the probability of a given finding with the history and comparing it to biomechanical principles. Of concern are especially all serious injuries with an alleged trivial or inadequate for age mechanism, missing, vague or changing patterns of explanation, injuries of different age, delay of medical care and allegations by independent observers or even the child. Exact documentation of all medical examinations is the basis of any forensic expertise if child abuse is to be considered. This paper ist dealing with morhological findings following various kinds of violence which can often be observed in connection with child abuse, as well as the interpretation of characteristic patterns of findings. Furthermore, practicable procedures after diagnosing child abuse ar being discussed on the basis of legal terms.

  9. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  10. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826

  11. The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

    2007-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

  12. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  13. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors.

  14. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors. PMID:22774431

  15. Factors influencing recall of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M L

    1995-10-01

    Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  16. Prevalence of sexual abuse of male high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual abuse of boys is a neglected problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. As a result, its prevalence, contributing factors and circumstance in which sexual abuse occurs are largely unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with sexual abuse of male high school students in Addis Ababa city administration. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 884 randomly selected students of nine high schools in Addis Ababa was conducted in March 2009. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Analysis of the data was made using SPSS for windows version 15. Results This study indicates the life time prevalence of rape and sexual harassment of boys in Addis Ababa were 4.3%, and 68.2%, respectively. The chance of experiencing sexual coercion was higher among students who live alone (AOR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.07, 7.66) and among students who live with others (AOR =1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.11) than those living with both parents. Similarly, the odds of experiencing rape in their life time was higher among students who live with others (AOR=2.20; 95% CI; 1.04, 4.68) than those who live with their parents. Conclusions Sexual abuse of male students is not uncommon in Addis Ababa. It is higher in those living alone or not living with their parents. Due attention is needed by schools, parents and other concerned bodies. Designing a program to fight against sexual abuse should include young school boys. PMID:23680171

  17. Sexual abuse in childhood : a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Cherian, A; Kuruvilla, K

    1996-04-01

    Sexual abuse of children and adolescents is prevalent across all cultures. Sexual abuse often begins in infancy or toddler stage for many children. A Child's developmental level influences the detection and disclosure of sexual abuse. Pre-school children very rarely make verbal disclosures, but may present with behavioural and physical symptoms. Older children may make a conscious decision to reveal the abuse, but often feel that they risk their safety in making a disclosure. This paper reports four cases of sexual abuse detected in a clinic during a period of 12 months. The age group of these children ranged between 4-12 years. PMID:21584153

  18. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  19. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  20. Pattern of Child Sexual Abuse by Young Aggressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alert-Dancer, Claire; Halley, Nancy; Hamate, Maryam; Bernard-Bonnie, Anne-Claude

    1997-01-01

    Medical evaluation of 316 children, mean age 6 years, found 39 perpetrators of sexual abuse were less than 16 years old and 15 were between 16 and 19. Young aggressors were more likely to abuse older female children. Adolescent aggressors appeared to engage in more genital/genital and genital/anal sexual abuse than older aggressors. (Author/DB)

  1. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Dissociation, and Adult Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2001-01-01

    Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…

  3. Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179

  4. Sexual Abuse History and Pelvic Floor Disorders in Women

    PubMed Central

    Cichowski, Sara B.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sexual abuse rates in the general female population range between 15% and 25%, and sexual abuse is known to have a long-term impact on a woman’s health. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of sexual abuse history in women presenting to clinicians for pelvic floor disorders (PFD) and to determine whether a history of sexual abuse is associated with a specific type of PFD. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of new urogynecology patients seen at the University of New Mexico Hospital. All women underwent a standardized history and physical examination and completed symptom severity and quality-of-life measures. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine which PFDs were associated with a history of sexual abuse among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Results A total of 1899 new urogynecology patients with complete information were identified from January 2007 and October 2011; 1260 (66%) were asked about a history of sexual abuse. The prevalence of sexual abuse was 213/1260 (17%). In the multivariable analysis, only chronic pelvic pain remained significantly associated with a history of sexual abuse. Conclusions A history of sexual abuse is common among women with PFDs, and these women were more likely to have chronic pelvic pain. PMID:24305526

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  6. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  7. Sexual abuse of children. Detection and management.

    PubMed

    Herjanic, B; Wilbois, R P

    1978-01-23

    Detection of sexual abuse in children involves careful history-taking, complete physical examination, and most importantly, a high index of suspicion. Primary care physicians play an important role, since they are likely to be the first persons consulted. Complete management includes immediate attention to physical care, prophylactic measures, psychological evaluation and treatment, and collection of medicolegal evidence. For the protection of the child, one person must assume responsibility to coordination of treatment and adequate follow-up.

  8. Children's life transition following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hatlevig, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    The life transition of children 6 to 13 years old was studied for 1 to 3 years following sexual abuse. Data included transcripts from in-depth interviews about the children's daily living experiences and drawings were analyzed using the ADOPT analysis procedure. Implications for nursing include the use of drawings as a research technique and the effectiveness of strategies used by participants to manage the aftermath of the trauma.

  9. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  10. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  11. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  12. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  13. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.

  14. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765

  15. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  16. Cyclists’ experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076

  17. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  18. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  19. Evaluation of a Youth-Led Program for Preventing Bullying, Sexual Harassment, and Dating Aggression in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy; Schnoll, Jessica; Simkins-Strong, Emily; Pepler, Debra; MacPherson, Alison; Weiser, Jessica; Moran, Michelle; Jiang, Depeng

    2015-01-01

    Although youth-led programs (YLP) have been successful in many areas of public health, youth leadership is rarely used in the prevention of peer aggression. A YLP to reduce bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression was compared experimentally with the board-mandated usual practice (UP). Four middle schools in an urban Canadian school…

  20. "Prompt and Equitable" Explained: How to Craft a Title IX Compliant Sexual Harassment Policy and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    An April 2011 "Dear Colleague" letter issued by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights provided new guidance related to Title IX and the civil rights violation inherent in sexual harassment cases. Using the "Dear Colleague" letter as a guide, this article will provide best practice suggestions to remedy gender discrimination…

  1. Factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex in a sample of women experiencing police-involved intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Thaller, Jonel; Bagwell, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant social problem, particularly among women who are concurrently experiencing physical violence in their intimate relationships. This research examined the prevalence and factors associated with IPSV among a sample of women recruited at the scene of police-involved intimate partner violence incidents (N = 432). Within this sample, 43.98 percent of participants reported experiencing IPSV; this includes 17.36 percent who reported sexual abuse and 26.62 percent who reported forced sex. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex, controlling for victim and relationship characteristics. Compared with women not reporting IPSV, women who were sexually abused or forced into sexual intercourse were significantly more likely to experience strangulation, feelings of shame, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Women whose partners had forced sex were more likely to report that they had a child in common with their abusive partner; and that their partner was sexually jealous, had threatened to kill them, had stalked or harassed them, or caused them to have a miscarriage due to abuse. These findings can be used to better inform social work practitioners about the prevalence and nature of IPSV and the associated risk factors, and can assist in routine screening and intervention. PMID:25095631

  2. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  3. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  4. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  5. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  6. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

  7. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  8. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  9. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  10. Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508

  11. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  12. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion.

  13. The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Sexual Identity Formation in Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…

  14. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  15. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  16. [Pornography and sexual abuse in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W

    2007-01-01

    Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality. PMID:17177094

  17. [Pornography and sexual abuse in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W

    2007-01-01

    Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality.

  18. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731

  19. Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-04-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimuli. In a community sample of women with (N = 48) and without (N = 48) a history of CSA, we tested (1) the mediation of negative affect on the relation between sexual self-schemas and sexual function/satisfaction, (2) the mediation of negative affect in the relation between CSA and sexual function/satisfaction, and (3) the mediation of sexual self-schemas in the relation between a history of CSA and negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. We found that more Embarrassed/Conservative and less Romantic/Passionate sexual self-schemas predicted negative affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli which, in turn, predicted levels of sexual satisfaction. The lower sexual satisfaction of CSA survivors was partially mediated by higher reports of negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. However, negative affect prior to sexual stimuli was not mediated by the sexual self-schemas of CSA survivors. Thus, although sexual self-schemas predicted sexual satisfaction, they did not predict variance in negative affect prior to sexual videos experienced by women with a history of CSA. PMID:21140286

  20. Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...

  1. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  2. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  3. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  4. A Theoretical Foundation for Understanding Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…

  5. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  6. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  7. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  8. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  9. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  10. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  11. When Daughter's Sexual Abuse Is an Injury to Mother's Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePinho, Connie Maria

    The mother's reaction to the disclosure of sexual abuse is often dramatic and her particular type of response in turn affects the daughter's coping mechanisms to deal with the abuse and the disclosure. The type of symptoms developed are thus considered in part dependent on the mother's reaction. Mothers of children who have been sexually abused…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  13. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  14. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  15. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  16. Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse: Learning from Direct Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…

  17. A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

  18. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia: what's the difference?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Molly R; Nochajski, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and therapeutic issues than survivors of child sexual abuse who have had continuous memory of their abuse. This article first discusses those differences in terms of the moderating risk factors for developing dissociative amnesia (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) and then mediating risk factors (e.g., social support, trait dissociativity, etc.). The differences between the two types of survivors are then explored in terms of treatment issues.

  19. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  20. Sexual, Physical, Verbal/Emotional Abuse and Unexplained Chest Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…

  1. Sexual Abuse by Men Who Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about those who sexually abuse children while working in organizations. Here, we adopt a case study approach to examine this problem. We focus on eight adult males who had been imprisoned for abusing a total of 35 children while working in educational and voluntary settings. We provide a detailed account of abusers'…

  2. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  3. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning.

  4. Attorney attitudes regarding behaviors associated with child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hartman, G L; Karlson, H; Hibbard, R A

    1994-08-01

    There appears to be a good deal of disagreement between professionals as to what constitutes child abuse. Attorneys as a group have been found to judge behaviors associated with child abuse more leniently than other abuse professionals. However, no one has discriminated between defense and prosecuting attorneys in these areas. It was hypothesized that because of divergent roles in child sexual abuse cases attitudes toward adult-child behaviors associated with sexual abuse would differ among attorney groups. Two prosecuting and two defense attorneys from every county in the state of Indiana were sent questionnaires. Participants were asked to indicate if a behavior was acceptable, inappropriate, or sexual abuse if it occurred on one or on multiple occasions. Prosecutors had more severe judgements than the defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. They were more likely to indicate that a behavior was inappropriate or abuse. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as a possible explanation for these findings.

  5. The Impact of a History of Child Sexual Abuse on Maternal Response to Allegations of Sexual Abuse Concerning Her Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…

  6. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  7. The Relationship of Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors among Heterosexual Adult Female STD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to high-risk sexual behavior and between sexual abuse and expectations for condom use. Among 83 female clinic patients with sexually transmitted diseases, those sexually abused in childhood had more sexual partners, more positive hedonic outcome expectations for condom use, and fewer…

  8. Sexually abused and nonabused mothers' discussions about sex and their children's sexual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Grocke, M; Smith, M; Graham, P

    1995-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of a mother's experience of childhood sexual abuse on her discussion of sex with her child. Two groups of sexually abused and nonabused mothers, drawn from a larger community sample and matched for social class and the sex and age of their index children, were asked about discussion of sexual information within their family. Children were interviewed about their sexual knowledge. Significantly more mothers who reported an incident of sexual abuse during their childhood said that they had detailed discussions with their child about sexual development and contraception than mothers who reported no childhood incidence of abuse. Although there was no difference between the two groups in independent interviewers' ratings of the children's overall sexual knowledge, more children from the abused mothers' group mentioned their parents as a definite source of sexual information, in particular, regarding contraception. There were also differences between the two groups in the children's responses to a set of ambiguous pictures. More children in the abused mothers' group than the nonabused group gave stories related to child abductions and the possibility of sexual abuse in response to two of the pictures. A mothers' willingness to acknowledge childhood sexual abuse is related to more open discussion of sexual information within the family.

  9. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M

    2016-09-01

    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. PMID:27169881

  10. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M

    2016-09-01

    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals.

  11. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  13. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  14. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

    This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

  15. "Normal" Childhood Sexual Play and Games: Differentiating Play from Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Coakley, Mary

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 128 undergraduate female students indicated that 44% had experienced cross-gender sexual play as children, which was often seen as involving persuasion, manipulation, or coercion. A typology of six kinds of sexual play experiences was derived. Discussion focuses on the differentiation of childhood sexual abuse from play and gender…

  16. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: suggestions for perinatal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Roussillon, J A

    1998-11-01

    As many as 1 in 4 women are survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This traumatic life event profoundly influences the care that advanced practice nurses provide throughout the life cycle, and particularly the care that is provided during times of physical and emotional stress. Despite the prevalence of sexual abuse, there has been little research on the experiences of survivors during the perinatal period, and few suggestions for interventions. This article reviews the literature on the implications of sexual abuse on a woman's experience of pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. It emphasizes the importance of routine screening for abuse, as well as assessment of a survivor's stage in the recovery process. Finally, this article suggests topics for appropriate perinatal anticipatory guidance for women who have a history of sexual abuse.

  17. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Malmedal, Wenche; Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons. PMID:25642347

  18. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  19. Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

  20. Attribution retraining with sexually abused children: review of techniques.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne; Hazzard, Ann; Campbell, Susan K; Lang, Claudia B

    2002-02-01

    Clinicians increasingly use empirically based cognitive-behavioral techniques in their treatment of child victims of sexual abuse. Attribution retraining is often a primary component of this work, and it involves various techniques aimed at decreasing abuse-related self-blame and encouraging the child to attribute responsibility for the abuse to the perpetrator This article reviews literature that highlights the complexity of self and other blame for sexually abused children in terms of developmental status, the multifaceted nature and interrelationships of abuse-specific attributions, and the psychological effects of self-blame and perpetrator blame. A review of written attribution retraining techniques developed by diverse authors for use with sexually abused children and their nonoffending parents is provided, including written and verbal techniques and techniques using games and the arts. The relative utility of different approaches with children of various stages of development is discussed, along with the need for empirical research regarding the effectiveness of these techniques.

  1. Child sexual abuse in Tanzania: much noise, little justice.

    PubMed

    Rajani, R R

    1998-01-01

    Every day in Tanzania, newspapers report horrible stories of the sexual abuse of children. This serious situation has aroused calls for stricter punishment of perpetrators, but little is being done to help the abused children. A 1997 analysis of these reports by the Tanzania Legal Human Rights Center has revealed that the majority of the perpetrators are adult males who are close to their victims and who hold positions of respect in society. The sexual abuse of children is fundamentally an expression of power over a child's life, and Tanzanian children have little control over their lives and are usually disciplined with corporeal punishment. Tanzanian children are accustomed to seeing men hurt weaker people without censure, and the children do not have the status to defend themselves against physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Thus, child sexual abuse is an inevitable consequence in a society where children have no voice. It is impossible to condone physical and verbal abuse while condemning sexual abuse, and punishing the abusers will not solve the problem. Instead, perpetrators must be held accountable and made to understand the seriousness of their actions. In order to make amends to their victims, they should be required to pay for the child's health care and education and to perform mandatory community service to make children safer. Children must be given the opportunity to learn that they can say no to adults and refuse to accept abuse.

  2. Sexual revictimization: the impact of attachment anxiety, accumulated trauma, and response to childhood sexual abuse disclosure.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

  3. Catholicism and childhood sexual abuse: women's coping and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christi M; O'Neill-Arana, Margarita R; Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Ossege, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    The long-term effects of child sexual abuse include numerous psychological, social, and behavioral difficulties in women survivors, ranging from poor self-esteem and depression to sexual disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role that religious beliefs may play in the difficulties these women suffer has been largely unexplored. This qualitative study explored women's experience of healing within the context of Catholicism. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women raised as Catholics who reported child sexual abuse and who had participated in at least two years of psychotherapy. Results suggest that Catholic identity can both compound and relieve the suffering many women experience in healing from child sexual abuse. Participants related that their Catholicism was rarely addressed during psychotherapy. These findings have implications for clinicians working with Catholic survivors of child sexual abuse. PMID:24819394

  4. An Epidemiological Overview of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958

  5. HIV-seroconversion following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2005-10-01

    Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970

  6. Casualties of Childhood: A Developmental Perspective on Sexual Abuse Using Projective Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Bobbie; Wohl, Agnes

    Recognizing the compelling language of imagery available in the drawings of children who have been sexually abused, this book focuses on the link between sexual abuse during the latency period and specific developmental problems. Chapter 1, "Paradigms of Trauma and Sexual Abuse," presents sexual abuse as an external event associated with a…

  7. 'Sometimes it's fun to play with them first': girls and boys talking about sexual harassment in Caribbean schools.

    PubMed

    Cobbett, Mary; Warrington, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in four government secondary schools in the Caribbean state of Antigua and Barbuda on students' experiences at school in relation to sexuality. Both girls and boys experienced a range of anxieties and confusions in relation to sexuality, whilst also seeing (hetero)sexual attraction as an exciting part of schooling. Sexual harassment of girls emerged as a widespread and serious (as well as 'normalised') occurrence in all the schools studied. However, the data also showed that girls were far from passive. Instead, girls demonstrated complex and contradictory responses to boys' behaviour due to their own investments in being desirable within discourses of hetero-femininity, as well as the pleasure they gained from their relationships. Both genders would clearly benefit from opportunities to discuss their needs, beliefs and desires regarding sexuality and relationships. PMID:23805947

  8. Women's responses to sexual abuse in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J C

    1989-01-01

    One hundred ninety-three women having serious problems in an intimate relationship with a man were recruited by newspaper advertisement to participate in this study. Of the 97 battered women, 44.3% also were being sexually abused. Sexual abuse was inversely correlated with body image and self-esteem scores and positively related to danger of homicide, even when severity and frequency of violence were controlled for. Assessment and interventions for sexual abuse are necessary in all women's health settings, especially if a woman is battered.

  9. Child sexual abuse and the media: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weatherred, Jane Long

    2015-01-01

    The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed. PMID:25635896

  10. The girl who cried wolf: pseudologia phantastica and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Matas, M; Marriott, A

    1987-05-01

    There has been an explosion of interest recently in sexual abuse and incest, with reported causal links to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The integrity of Freud's seduction theory has been challenged by Jeffrey Masson and sexual abuse activists. What is the position of a therapist who finds out that a patient's reports of incest and sexual abuse turn out to be fabrications? These issues are presented and discussed in the context of a brief, illustrative case history. There is also a review of the concept of "pseudologia fantastica", as well as a brief review of a feminist critique of Freudian theory. PMID:3607712

  11. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources). PMID:26301441

  12. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  13. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  14. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  15. Extradyadic Sexual Involvement and Sexual Compulsivity in Male and Female Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John

    2016-01-01

    We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749

  16. Voices of healing and recovery from childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Arias, Brittany J; Johnson, Chad V

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse continues to occur for a significant number of children, often having deleterious consequences for survivors' physical and mental health. Research has thoroughly explored various consequences as a result of child sexual abuse, but scholars and practitioners know less about the healing processes from survivors' viewpoints. Using a constructivist grounded theory design, this study examined perceptions of healing in 10 female survivors of child sexual abuse. Results conclude with a theoretical model of healing, capturing the significance of supportive relationships, internal characteristics, turning points, and sources of active healing. Important sources of active healing include therapy, informal and formal education, compassion and empathy, blame attribution to abusers, and confronting abusers. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24125084

  17. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  19. A Validational Study of the Structured Interview of Symptoms Associated with Sexual Abuse (SASA) Using Three Samples of Sexually Abused, Allegedly Abused, and Nonabused Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robert; McCann, John; Adams, Joyce; Voris, Joan; Dahl, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    A study validated the use of a structured parent interview regarding emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms by comparing results among 22 sexually abused boys whose perpetrator confessed, 47 boys evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic but without a history of perpetrator confession, and 52 nonabused boys (ages 3-15). (Author/CR)

  20. The Impact of Training and Conflict Avoidance on Responses to Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Caren B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a pretest/posttest design and included a control group to examine the impact of harassment training on intended responses to harassment. The sample consisted of 282 full-time professionals. At time 2, trainees expressed lower intentions to confront the perpetrator than did control-group participants. The simple and moderating…

  1. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  2. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  3. Sexual harassment and female gregariousness in the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Túnez, Juan I.; Cassini, Marcelo H.

    2008-07-01

    Most colonial pinnipeds form extreme clusters of breeding females that cannot be entirely explained by the distribution of sites for reproduction. Avoidance of male harassment has been postulated as an important determinant of reproductive aggregation in this group of mammals. Female gregariousness can reduce harassment by resident males by two mechanisms; directly by the ‘dilution effect’ or indirectly because resident males that defend large female groups are less harassing. In order to investigate the relationship between male harassment and female gregariousness in relation to the size of breeding groups, we analysed the behaviour of dominant males and their females in a breeding colony of Otaria flavescens. Females in large breeding groups received less harassment by resident males due to dilution effects and because males that defended a large group interacted less frequently with females than males with small groups.

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Spanish (español) Abuso sexual de menores Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Woman's Guide to Coping with Childhood Abuse Issues Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Bilingual PDF Substance Abuse ...

  6. Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…

  7. Anatomically Correct Dolls: Use in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duty, Diane Scott

    Sexual abuse of children has been recognized as a major problem. Attempts have been made to elicit descriptions of the abuse of children. A variety of interview methods for obtaining descriptions have been used. Methods of interviewing depend on the age of the child, the purpose of the interview, and the training and philosophy of the interviewer.…

  8. Treatment and Therapy for the Sexually Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Sandra C.

    Little information is available on therapeutic interventions or counseling techniques used with sexually abused children. Many experts consider parental and family support to be the single most important factor in preventing abuse from becoming a life destroying event. The goals of therapy are to make the child and family feel better about…

  9. Forensic Impact of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…

  10. Group Work with Sexually Abused Children: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn

    Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…

  11. The Fallacy of Victimization in the Treatment of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Anne Glinert

    Object relations theory offers the most viable explanation of the dynamics of sexually abused individuals by allowing for the conceptualization of an individual, whose earlier object relations left him barren, lonely, or neglected, as having a predisposition or vulnerability to abuse. Children with adequate nurturing experiences react negatively…

  12. Undergraduate Students' Reactions to Analogue Male Disclosure of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tanya D.; Tan, Josephine C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates undergraduates' reactions toward hypothetical male survivor's disclosure of sexual abuse. Reports that when age of incident was higher, survivor was seen as less masculine; more responsible for abuse; and sex role and rape myths were strongly applied to him. Less positive reactions were associated with disclosing to other men, abuse…

  13. Filial Dependency and Recantation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…

  14. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  15. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse Assessment: Issues in Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    1995-01-01

    Coordinates ethical codes for psychiatry, psychology, and social work and discusses their implications for child sexual abuse assessment in child protection and divorce/custody/visitation cases. Guidelines developed by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children are also considered. Confidentiality, protection from harm, and bias…

  17. Teachers That Sexually Abuse Students: An Administrative and Legal Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.

    This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…

  18. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  19. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  20. Sexual and Physical Revictimization Among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This fifteen year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse—revictimizations (N=89). Method These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of non-abused comparison females (N=90). Results Abused females were almost twice as likely to have experienced sexual revictimization (Odds = 1.99 ± 2.79, p<.05), and physical revictimization (Odds = 1.96 ±2.58, p<.05) as compared to victimization rates reported by comparison females. Abused females’ revictimizations were also more likely to have been perpetrated by older, non-peers and characterized by physical injury than were victimizations reported by comparison females. Conclusion Early childhood sexual abuse may provide information regarding the level of risk for recurrent sexual and physical victimization. PMID:19596434

  1. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  2. Preventing and responding to complaints of sexual harassment in an academic health center: a 10-year review from the Medical University of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Best, Connie L; Smith, Daniel W; Raymond, John R; Greenberg, Raymond S; Crouch, Rosalie K

    2010-04-01

    There is a high incidence of sexual harassment and gender discrimination in academic health center (AHC) settings according to multiple surveys of medical students. Therefore, it is incumbent on AHCs to develop programs both to educate faculty, residents, and students and to handle complaints of possible episodes of sexual harassment or gender discrimination. Despite the apparent high prevalence of gender discrimination and sexual harassment, and the importance of handling complaints of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in a prompt, consistent, and rational manner, there are few descriptions of programs that address those concerns in AHCs.Herein, the authors describe their experiences in dealing with complaints of sexual harassment and gender discrimination for a 10-year period of time (late 1997 to early 2007) at the Medical University of South Carolina, through an Office of Gender Equity. They describe their complaint process, components of their prevention training, and the outcomes of 115 complaints. Key elements of their policies are highlighted. The authors offer an approach that could serve as a model for other AHCs.

  3. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242

  4. Maternal Perceptions Of And Responses To Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vidovič, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381

  5. Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Kotarski, Jan; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Radowicki, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation defines child sexual abuse as the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. It is estimated that in the world on average one in 3-4 women and one in 6-10 men were victims of sexual abuse in childhood. In Poland, according to the estimates of the Child's Rights Protection Committee, approximately 20% of girls and 5-6% of boys under the age of 15 years has suffered sexual abuse. In 2007 there was an increase in violence victims in all age categories, but the most alarming data concerned minors under 13 years. Girls fall victim to sexual abuse three times more frequently than boys. Sexual abuse of boys frequently involves violence. Data show that there are fewer women than men who execute such actions against a minor. Most victims (49-84%) know the perpetrator, and approximately 14-20% of acts of violence take place within the family. This article presents recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning procedures in cases of suspected sexual abuse of children. PMID:21061918

  6. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  7. Sexual Abuse Prevention Treatment Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    The paper describes a federally funded project of the University of Alberta (Canada) addressing sexual assault and sexual abuse of people with disabilities. Written in outline style, the paper briefly describes project activities and general conclusions. Phase I of the project documented the nature and extent of the problem. It was concluded that…

  8. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  9. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  10. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  12. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  13. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. PMID:26294381

  14. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information.

  15. Prevalence of a history of sexual abuse among female psychiatric patients in a state hospital system.

    PubMed

    Craine, L S; Henson, C E; Colliver, J A; MacLean, D G

    1988-03-01

    Fifty-one percent of a sample of 105 female state hospital patients were found to have been sexually abused as children or adolescents. In the majority of cases, hospital staff were unaware that the patients had histories of sexual abuse, and only 20 percent of the abused patients believed they had been adequately treated for sexual abuse. Sixty-six percent of the abused patients met the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, although none had received that diagnosis. Compared with patients who had not been sexually abused, abused patients were significantly more likely to have 17 of 32 symptoms commonly linked with sexual abuse. Every patient who was positive for six symptoms--compulsive sexual behavior, chemical dependency, sadomasochistic sexual fantasy, sexual identity issues, chronic fatigue, and loss of interest in sex--had been sexually abused.

  16. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments.

  17. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  19. Sexual and Physical Revictimization among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…

  20. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…