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Sample records for abuse sexual harassment

  1. Harassment, sexual abuse, and safety of the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Brackenridge, C

    2000-04-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sports are discussed in relation to how female athletes might improve their personal safety to guard against such practices. The origins of sport research on this theme are traced, and the processes of sexual harassment and abuse are identified. Risk factors for the coach, the athlete, and the sport are presented, and, finally, sources of prevention measures for coaches, athletes, parents, and clubs are provided.

  2. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  3. Experiences of sexual harassment and abuse among Norwegian elite female athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2003-03-01

    This paper compares the prevalence of sexual harassment and abuse among 660 Norwegian elite female athletes and an age-matched control sample of nonathletes. It also explores differences in the prevalence of harassment and abuse in sport and work or school settings and compares harassment and abuse perpetrated by male authority figures and peers in these different contexts. No differences were found between the athletes and controls in overall prevalence of sexual harassment or abuse. However, the athletes experienced significantly more harassment from male authority figures than did the controls. Based on these results, the article considers whether or not sport offers women any particular immunity from sexual harassment and abuse. The implications of the findings for structural and cultural change in sport are discussed.

  4. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor.

    PubMed

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn

    2012-10-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  5. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  6. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  7. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  8. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  9. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  10. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  11. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  12. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  13. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  14. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  15. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  16. When sexual harassment hits home.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1999-05-01

    Sexual harassment cases illustrate the problems facing employees, including nurses' abusive experiences with both physicians and patients. Learn how to give employees the support they need and lower your liability.

  17. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  18. Sexual harassment in nursing.

    PubMed

    Robbins, I; Bender, M P; Finnis, S J

    1997-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a problem faced by women in the workplace which can lead to adverse psychological consequences as well as impaired work performance. Sexual harassment is about the abuse of power and status rather then merely being about sex per se and has to be viewed in the context of institutionalized male power. Although there is a relative dearth of research, there is increasing evidence that sexual harassment of nurses is common and that it can have adverse effects on nurses physical and psychological health as well as a direct impact on patient care. Nursing, by its very nature of having to care for patients bodily needs, transgresses normal social rules regarding bodily contact. This is exploited by the perpetrator who relies on nurses' caring attitude to be able to harass. A descriptive model of the processes involved in harassment is presented which offers the possibility of being able to intervene at a number of points in the process. Interventions need to be aimed at both individual and organizational levels if there is to be a prospect of reducing a major occupational stressor for nurses.

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann

    1986-01-01

    In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…

  1. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2010-06-01

    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.

  2. Residents' experiences of abuse, discrimination and sexual harassment during residency training. McMaster University Residency Training Programs.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, D J; Liutkus, J F; Risdon, C L; Griffith, L E; Guyatt, G H; Walter, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault, and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation, and to examine the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in residency training programs. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Residents in seven residency training programs during the academic year from July 1993 to June 1994. Of 225 residents 186 (82.7%) returned a completed questionnaire, and 50% of the respondents were women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of psychological abuse, physical assault and discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation experienced by residents during medical training, prevalence and residents' perceived frequency of sexual harassment. RESULTS: Psychological abuse was reported by 50% of the residents. Some of the respondents reported physical assault, mostly by patients and their family members (14.7% reported assaults by male patients and family members, 9.8% reported assaults by female patients and family members), 5.4% of the female respondents reported assault by male supervising physicians. Discrimination on the basis of gender was reported to be common and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (p < 0.01). Ten respondents, all female, reported having experienced discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. Most of the respondents experienced sexual harassment, especially in the form of sexist jokes, flirtation and unwanted compliments on their dress or figure. On average, 40% of the respondents, especially women (p < 0.01), reported experiencing offensive body language and receiving sexist teaching material and unwanted compliments on their dress. Significantly more female respondents than male respondents stated that they had reported events of sexual harassment to someone (p < 0.001). The most frequent emotional reactions to sexual harassment were

  3. Sexual Harassment in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duldt, Bonnie W.

    1982-01-01

    Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)

  4. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.

  5. The co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment: a mediational model of posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to identify 4 patterns of women's lifetime experiences of violence co-occurrence. The 1st cluster experienced relatively low levels of all 4 forms of violence; the 2nd group, high levels of all 4 forms; the 3rd, sexual revictimization across the lifespan with adult sexual harassment; and the 4th, high intimate partner violence with sexual harassment. This cluster solution was validated in a theoretically driven model that examined the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a mediator of physical health symptomatology. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that PTSD fully mediated the relationship between violence and physical health symptomatology. Consistent with a bio-psycho-immunologic theoretical model, PTSD levels more strongly predicted pain-related physical health symptoms compared to nonpain health problems. Implications for clinical interventions to prevent PTSD and to screen women for histories of violence in health care settings are discussed.

  6. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maypole, Donald E.; Skaine, Rosemarie

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the literature on sexual harassment to determine the issues the problem raises, its social contexts, and the resources available to working women. Examined the implications of sexual harassment for social work practice, policy, and research. (JAC)

  7. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  8. Confronting Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thameling, Carl L.

    An instructor uses a class activity to increase student understanding of the implications of sexual harassment in interpersonal relationships. Students read a dialogue inspired by a newspaper report about the disciplinary action against five senior government officials at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had participated in repeated…

  9. Coaches, Sexual Harassment and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past decade yet we know relatively little about the characteristics of the harassing coach. How are harassing coaches characterised by their victims, that is, the athletes themselves? Do they demonstrate specific kinds of behaviours? One purpose of this article is to address…

  10. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  11. Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Sexual harassment of students is illegal. A federal law, "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972" ("Title IX"), prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, including sexual harassment, in education programs and activities. All public and private education institutions that receive any federal funds must comply with…

  12. Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet addresses the issue of sexual harassment as it relates to students of postsecondary education institutions. It presents information concerning Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and provides answers to the following questions about sexual harassment: (1) What is an institution's legal responsibility to respond to allegations…

  13. Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet addresses the issue of sexual harassment as it relates to students at postsecondary education institutions. It presents information concerning Title IX 1972 Education Amendments, and concerning: (1) an institution's legal responsibility to respond to allegations of sexual harassment; (2) actions available to a student experiencing…

  14. Sexual Harassment in the Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    r AD-A097 544 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/ 5/11 SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE NAVY.U) DEC 80 P J REILY UNCLASSIFIED NL EEEEEEEl/ll/lI...1112iPiETS Cf-ATALOG uUgma., o.11-.?s..,___,..°..o_ .._ 4. TITLE (a" *uld .Itd ) S. Type Or REPORT a PERIOD COVEno SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE NAVY Master’s... SEXUAL HARASSMENT SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION SEXISM SEXIST ATTITUDES IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT 20. Auti*ACT (Coniefia l- an a e 041110 mit0010411 4041 14MEI110tp

  15. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  16. Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a look at the "big picture." Is sexual harassment common? What kinds of behaviors are taking place? Who is being harassed, and who is doing the harassing? For students who admit to harassing others, why do they do it? How does sexual harassment affect students' educational experience? What do students think should be done about…

  17. Sexual Harassment in the 90's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nora M. Fraser

    This document discusses the developing law of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is discussed not only in the school environment, but also in the workplace. Two legally recognized forms of sexual harassment are described: (1) quid pro quo, or demanding sexual favors in exchange for grades, raises, promotions; and (2) the hostile environment…

  18. 49 CFR 1019.5 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees shall not engage in harassment on the basis of sex. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal...

  19. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of section... requests for sexual favors, the employer may be held liable for unlawful sex discrimination against...

  20. Challenging Sexual Harassment on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nancy V.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…

  1. 18 CFR 1300.104 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from sexual harassment... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment....

  2. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., an employer is responsible for acts of sexual harassment in the workplace where the employer (or its... of non-employees, with respect to sexual harassment of employees in the workplace, where the employer... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604.11...

  3. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Contrapower Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…

  4. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  5. Sensemaking, Organizational Culture, and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…

  6. Sexual harassment of Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Tang, C S; Yik, M S; Cheung, F M; Choi, P K; Au, K C

    1996-04-01

    Sexual harassment of Chinese college students with a focus on their awareness, experiences, responses, and expectations of institutional intervention to the problem was examined. 358 male and 491 female Chinese college students in Hong Kong participated. There were no gender differences in students' awareness of the phenomenon. Students' own experiences were less frequent than what they had heard about sexual harassment. Peer harassment occurred twice as frequently as faculty harassment. Compared to men, twice as many women said they had been sexually harassed. About one in four women students experienced various forms of sexual harassment and 1% were coerced into sexual activities during their college years by either teachers or peers. Students typically avoided and ignored the harassers and felt that the university should take up active roles in combating the problem. Comparisons with U.S. studies suggested that Chinese college students had a lower awareness and experience level in sexual harassment than U.S. students.

  7. Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism

  8. Sexual Harassment in the Law Enforcement Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Nicholas H.

    Considerable confusion exists over male/female relationships in the work place, especially in such male-dominated professions as law enforcement. The laws governing sexual harassment offer unclear guidelines regarding the definition of harm that results from such harassment. This paper addresses the special problems of sexual harassment in the…

  9. Sexual Harassment: A Female Counseling Student's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…

  10. Sexual harassment of nurses in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M; Bullough, Vern

    2004-01-01

    Nurses who are sexually harassed at work face frustration and emotional and economic consequences. Historically before the 1970s, nurses had little legal recourse and tolerated sexual harassment as a necessary "evil" associated with working. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the option for legal remedies for sexual harassment/discrimination cases. Successful court cases established the legal criteria for sexual harassment. This article discusses the history, definition, high profile cases, research, consequences, and prevention of sexual harassment. Although research is scant and little is known of how nurses respond to harassing behavior, prevention requires coordinated activities of employers, individual employees, and the healthcare profession. Sexual harassment at work increases anxiety and undermines the nurse's ability to focus on the delivery of safe and competent care.

  11. Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    private life are carried over to the workplace (Gutek, 1985). In this case, men who hold traditional views of gender roles may sexually harass women in...that men do not generally feel sexually "harassed" by women in the workplace ; instead they may experience positive outcomes of women’s sexual interest...Richards, M., Swecker, J., Gold, Y., et al. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of

  12. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  13. Powerplays: How Teens Can Pull the Plug on Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Harriet

    Noting that sexual harassment has more to do with making victims feel powerless than with sex, this book advises adolescents and their parents on how to identify, stop, and prevent sexual harassment. Chapter 1, "What is Sexual Harassment, Anyway?" defines sexual harassment and details how harassment becomes assault. Chapter 2, "Why is Reporting…

  14. Training Materials for Handling Claims of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Reviews resource materials for handling claims of sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for administrators in handling complaints of sexual harassment and discusses the responsibilities of management. Explores the definition of sexual harassment. (RC)

  15. Campus Sexual Harassment and Departmental Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Meg A.; And Others

    Relationships among campus psychological climate, gender ratios, and incidence of sexual harassment were investigated to determine whether harassment within an institution could be related to the psychological climate of individual departments and to the gender ratios of women to men students, faculty, and full professors. Gender harassment, such…

  16. New Lessons in Dealing with Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Ann H.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent incidents have brought national attention to issues involving male professors and sexual-harassment policies on campuses. Allegations of harassment can involve high stakes for the accused, with dismissal as a possible penalty. Criminal charges for harassment, in contrast to assault, are rare. Within an institution, people accused of…

  17. Addressing Sexual Harassment on Campus. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Jonathan

    Although data on sexual harassment in the community college is limited, it is clear that it does exist and that it runs counter to the colleges' educational mission. Sexual harassment has been defined as verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, imposed on the basis of sex, that denies, limits, or provides different treatment. Recent legal…

  18. Over-Reaching: Sexual Harassment and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpson, Catharine R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses why sexual harassment in higher education continues to persist despite initiatives to eradicate it. Cites deep cultural roots of sexism. Claims, although higher education has participated in resistance to sexual harassment, this resistance will be of limited good unless historical connections among sexuality, gender, and power are…

  19. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome.” Sexual harassment does not refer to... harassment is a prohibited personnel practice when it results in discrimination for or against an employee on... comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome and interfere with...

  20. Sociological Perspectives on Sexual Harassment and Workplace Dispute Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lach, Denise H.; Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Sexual harassment is the most visible example of workplace disputes that systematically disadvantage women. The prevalence of sexual harassment contributes to the persistence of occupational sex segregation. (SK)

  1. Forensic aspects of sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, J P; McDonald, J J

    1999-03-01

    Sexual harassment law presents a complex set of issues not only for lawyers but also for psychiatrists in their roles both as evaluators and clinicians. Judge Reinhardt of the US Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit, summed up these complexities: "We tend these days, far more than in earlier times, to find our friends, lovers, and even mates in the workplace. We ... often discover that our interests and values are closer to those of our colleagues or fellow employees than to those of people we meet in connection with other activities. In short, increased proximity breeds increased volitional sexual activity." On the other hand, he notes that Title VII "entitles individuals to a workplace that is free from the evil of sexual intimidation or repression. It is frequently difficult to reconcile the two competing values." He goes on to ask, "When does a healthy constructive interest in romance become sexual harassment? To what extent is pursuit of a co-worker proper but of a subordinate forbidden? Is wooing or courting a thing of the past? Must a suitor cease his attentions at the first sign of disinterest or resistance? Must there be an express agreement before the person seeking romance may even hold the hand of the subject of his affection? Is it now verboten to steal a kiss? In the workplace? Everywhere? Under all circumstances or only some? Has the art of romantic persuasion lost its charm? Questions relating to love and sex are among the most difficult for society to answer." The US Supreme Court has stressed the need for common sense in evaluating cases of sexual harassment. Perhaps psychiatrists can play a sobering role in developing answers to these questions.

  2. Arresting Tailhook: The Prosecution of Sexual Harassment in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    140 Mil. L. Rev. 1 (1993) ARRESTING TAILHOOK: THE PROSECUTION OF SEXUAL HARRASSMENT IN THE MILITARY by Lieutenant Commander J. Richard Chema ABSTRACT...Against Women ..... 62 C. Abusing Positions of Authority To Commit Sexual . 65 Harrassment D. Miscellaneous Provisions ....... ............. 67 VI. THE...the victim fails to acquiesce to the superior’s sexual demands, quid pro quo harassers may retaliate with some form of workplace punishment.9 The

  3. Sexual Harassment: An Overview. Monograph. Volume 2, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Nancy A.

    Sexual harassment is a problem in high schools, on college campuses, and in the workplace, although unclear definitions and misinterpretations of sexual harassment have led many to believe that the amount of sexual harassment that occurs is minimal. Sexual harassment has been defined as a continuum of behaviors, with physical sexual assault at one…

  4. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306... Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment...

  5. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  6. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  7. Power, Consent, and Adolescent Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews the literature and case law related to the issue of sexual harassment of females and specifically focuses on the adolescent female in the public middle school setting. The controversial thesis statement the researcher explored was: "sexual harassment is a manifestation of the ubiquitous power imbalance between men and women…

  8. Combatting Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice, Ed.; Reilly, Mary Ellen, Ed.

    This book presents 18 papers on issues in sexual harassment within the higher education setting. It notes that only within the past two decades have sexual harassment and related subjects begun to be openly discussed, investigated, and become the formal concern of government, business, and education. Papers include: (1) "Issues and Questions"…

  9. Sexual Harassment Interventions. ERIC Digest No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Recent Supreme Court rulings are motivating employers to take actions reflecting their compliance with federal laws protecting against sexual harassment. Three key steps employers can take to counter sexual harassment are as follows: develop a strong company policy specifying outlawed behaviors and penalties for their demonstration; establish…

  10. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of section... which the alleged incidents occurred. The determination of the legality of a particular action will be... requests for sexual favors, the employer may be held liable for unlawful sex discrimination against...

  11. Sexual Harassment and Molestation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    Sexual harassment in schools is a public event, which means that there are witnesses, bystanders, and spectators to many of these occurrences. This paper argues that because sexual harassment is a public event, it is very damaging to its targets as well as bystanders by teaching others that schools are not safe or just. Schools may also serve as…

  12. Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tol, Joan E., Ed.

    Law review and journal articles on sexual harassment in higher education are presented along with policies and procedures from selected universities and organizations, guidance on drafting policies, and a selected bibliography. The following law review and journal articles are presented: "Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment"…

  13. Reducing Peer Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…

  14. Understanding sexual harassment using aggregate construct models.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz

    2014-11-01

    Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The sexual harassment of uppity women.

    PubMed

    Berdahl, Jennifer L

    2007-03-01

    In 3 studies, the author tested 2 competing views of sexual harassment: (a) It is motivated primarily by sexual desire and, therefore, is directed at women who meet feminine ideals, and (b) it is motivated primarily by a desire to punish gender-role deviants and, therefore, is directed at women who violate feminine ideals. Study 1 included male and female college students (N = 175) and showed that women with relatively masculine personalities (e.g., assertive, dominant, and independent) experienced the most sexual harassment. Study 2 (N = 134) showed that this effect was not because women with relatively masculine personalities were more likely than others to negatively evaluate potentially harassing scenarios. Study 3 included male and female employees at 5 organizations (N = 238) and showed that women in male-dominated organizations were harassed more than women in female-dominated organizations, and that women in male-dominated organizations who had relatively masculine personalities were sexually harassed the most.

  16. Emotional and psychological consequences of sexual harassment: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Thacker, R A; Gohmann, S F; Jhacker, R A

    1996-07-01

    The emotional and psychological consequences of sexual harassment were investigated. On the basis of previous empirical evidence concerning the correlates of sexual harassment, the role of the working relationship between harasser and target, type of harassment, gender composition of the work group, duration of the harassment, and gender were examined in relation to two psychological states: feelings about work and emotional/physical condition.

  17. Sexual harassment of nurses: an occupational hazard?

    PubMed

    Finnis, S J; Robbins, I

    1994-03-01

    A questionnaire was administered to qualified and student nurses to assess the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment. There was a 56% completion rate. Of these 43 (66%) of the registered nurses and nine (35%) of the student nurses reported having experienced sexual harassment. The incidence of harassment for registered nurses in the year prior to the study was 46%. Patients were most likely to be the harasser for both student and registered nurses but there was an increased likelihood that other staff were involved in the harassment of registered nurses with doctors and male nursing staff being the predominant perpetrators. Dimensions of assertiveness and sex role identity did not predict the likelihood of harassment. Results are discussed in the context of attribution theory and gender power relationships.

  18. The inverse hazard law: blood pressure, sexual harassment, racial discrimination, workplace abuse and occupational exposures in US low-income black, white and Latino workers.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2008-12-01

    Research on societal determinants of health suggests the existence of an "inverse hazard law," which we define as: "The accumulation of health hazards tends to vary inversely with the power and resources of the populations affected." Yet, little empirical research has systematically investigated this topic, including in relation to workplace exposures. We accordingly designed the United for Health study (Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, 2003-2004) to investigate the joint distribution and health implications of workplace occupational hazards (dust, fumes, chemical, noise, ergonomic strain) and social hazards (racial discrimination, sexual harassment, workplace abuse). Focusing on blood pressure as our health outcome, we found that among the 1202 low-income multi-racial/ethnic working class participants in our cohort - of whom 40% lived below the US poverty line - 79% reported exposure to at least one social hazard and 82% to at least one high-exposure occupational hazard. Only sexual harassment, the least common social hazard, was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) among the women workers. By contrast, no statistically significant associations were detectable between the other additional highly prevalent social and occupational hazards and SBP; we did, however, find suggestive evidence of an association between SBP and response to unfair treatment, implying that in a context of high exposure, differential susceptibility to the exposure matters. These results interestingly contrast to our prior findings for this same cohort, in which we found associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and two other health outcomes: psychological distress and cigarette smoking. Likely explanations for these contrasting findings include: (a) the differential etiologic periods and pathways involving somatic health, mental health, and health behaviors, and (b) the high prevalence of adverse exposures, limiting the ability to detect

  19. Sexual Harassment and Grievance Procedures Training Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-03

    sexual harassment which, if substantiated, must result in mandatory administrative processing. The physical contact in this case might be charged as a...fixing that would solve more than just a sexual harassment complaint. While the Navy whole-heartedly encourages, and in fact demands, physical fitness...there has been a substantiated incident involving physical contact of a sexual nature, which if charged as a violation of the UCMJ, could result in a

  20. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  1. Counseling Perspectives on Sexual Harassment in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Sheila; Papalia, Anthony S.

    This report focuses on the problem of sexual harassment in industry. Prior research documenting such harassment is cited, and the ability of the counseling profession to address the issue is discussed. Results of the authors' survey of salaried women (N=85) from a large industrial firm are reported; the demographic data and information on sexual…

  2. Visually Hostile Environments as Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Visual displays stereotyping females have been judged in courts as evidence of hostile environment sexual harassment, a form of gender discrimination. Cites cases that may determine whether such harassment exists in a school. To combat discrimination, school programs should not focus exclusively on behavior, but improvement of interpersonal…

  3. Interpreting the New Sexual Harassment Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyman, Michele; Robinson, Ronda

    1980-01-01

    Discusses sexual harrassment guidelines which legally define the term as sex discrimination. While this is good for those facing harassment, it unrealistically places a socially-based problem on the shoulders of personnel managers. Points out the long-term benefits of a workplace free from harassment and intimidation. (JOW)

  4. Raising Expectations: Institutional Responsibility and the Issue of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Lesley A.

    1996-01-01

    Sexual harassment defined as a gender neutral action aided by a power differential cannot explain the complex nature of sexual harassment, occurrence of peer harassment, or campus policies that address the issue when it occurs. Sexual harassment needs to be understood as a complex phenomenon determined by the interaction of power, gender, and…

  5. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  6. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... condition of employment, whether expressed in explicit or implicit terms; —If employment decisions, such as... affect the career, salary or job of an employee is engaging in sexual harassment. Similarly, an...

  7. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... condition of employment, whether expressed in explicit or implicit terms; —If employment decisions, such as... affect the career, salary or job of an employee is engaging in sexual harassment. Similarly, an...

  8. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... condition of employment, whether expressed in explicit or implicit terms; —If employment decisions, such as... affect the career, salary or job of an employee is engaging in sexual harassment. Similarly, an...

  9. Preventing Sexual Harassment of School Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Joyce; Ross, Marlene

    1983-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. School officials need to recognize it, understand their liability, and take steps to protect themselves and their employees. (MD)

  10. Preventing Student Sexual Harassment. ERIC Digest Number 160.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews effective strategies currently used by schools to combat sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is considered any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with the life of the target individual. Experts agree that sexual harassment is about power, not sex. A serious effort to keep a school free of sexual harassment…

  11. Armed Forces 2002 Sexual Harassment Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    of Sex Roles in the Active Duty Military. The second, Form B, represent- ed a complete redesign of the approach to inquiring about sexual harassment...or other regular daily activities as a result of your physical health? Please mark one answer for each statement. Were limited in the...MANPOWER DATA CENTER iii The Department of Defense (DoD) conducted sexual harassment surveys of active -duty members in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air

  12. Personal and organizational predictors of workplace sexual harassment of women by men.

    PubMed

    Dekker, I; Barling, J

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.

  13. Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Juanita M. Firestone Richard J. Harris DEFENSE EQUAL...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 09/30/2011 Technical Report Summer 2011 Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual ...Harassment and Sexual Assault Dr. Juanita M. Firestone and Dr. Richard J. Harris Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) 366 Tuskegee

  14. Harassment Hurts: Sex-Role Stereotyping and Sexual Harassment, Elementary School Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Pat; Larkin, June

    Sex role stereotyping can lead to sexual harassment, even in elementary school. This activity kit is designed to help elementary school students understand the link between sex role stereotyping and sexual harassment, to educate students about the harmful effects of sex role stereotyping and sexual harassment, and to provide students with the…

  15. The Lecherous Professor. Sexual Harassment on Campus. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziech, Billie Wright; Weiner, Linda

    The issue of sexual harassment of students by academicians is addressed, including the dilemma of teacher-student dating, newly devised policy statements on sexual harassment from several institutions, and faculty uneasiness about administrative directives on sexual harassment. Chapters are as follows: "Sexual Harrassment on Campus: The State of…

  16. Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Magley, V J; Hulin, C L; Fitzgerald, L F; DeNardo, M

    1999-06-01

    Research has consistently documented a discrepancy between experiencing offensive sex-related behaviors and labeling these situations as sexual harassment, leading to several attempts to understand this phenomenon. The authors propose that the issue of why it is that women who report such experiences generally do not indicate that they have been sexually harassed is an important psychological question, and may provide a path through the nested meanings of workplace harassment. The authors argue for the value of moving beyond a descriptive approach to this issue by examining the effects of self-labeling on the psychological, health, and work-related outcomes of unwelcome, sex-related experiences. They present data from female employees working in 3 separate organizations, demonstrating that women exposed to such behaviors report very similar consequences, whether they label their experiences as harassment or not.

  17. The Effects of Educational Intervention on Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonate, Diana L.; Jessell, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the effects of educational intervention upon perceptions of sexual harassment. Results from 96 subjects reveal that educational intervention impacted perception of sexual harassment, with literature interventions showing superiority over video. Gender differences in sensitivity to sexual harassment in favor of females prior to…

  18. Ideology or Experience: A Study of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperstein, Aron; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Determines whether the reporting of sexual harassment is a function of hypersensitivity through ideology or previous experience. Findings from 192 undergraduate students indicate that neither condition affected sexual harassment reporting. A gender-by-experience interaction was found with regard to tolerance of sexual harassment that suggested…

  19. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  20. Workplace Motivation and Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Motivation & Addressing Sexual Harassment, 17 orientation . From a total organization perspective, self-determination theory may be embraced by a...Workplace Motivation & Addressing Sexual Harassment in the Organization Major Rachel Castellon Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute...Director of Research July 2010 Technical Report No. 02-11 Workplace Motivation & Addressing Sexual Harassment, 2 Abstract This paper

  1. Influences on Women's Perceptions of Climate for Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytell, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…

  2. Sexual Harassment as Discrimination: Guidelines for Effective Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lea P.

    Sexual harassment is not an isolated phenomenon and should, therefore, not be studied in isolation. Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination and can be studied from a theoretical framework that addresses discrimination. In analyzing sexual harassment as a form of discrimination, it is important to distinguish between prejudice (an attitude)…

  3. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  4. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  5. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  6. 45 CFR 73.735-306 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited...

  7. Sexual Harassment Law in Employment: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes and compares the law applicable to sexual harassment at work in 23 industrialized countries. Shows how different legal approaches have been adopted to combat sexual harassment in the countries surveyed and how this diversity reflects differences of legal traditions and of attitudes toward the legal classification of sexual harassment.…

  8. Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Women, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…

  9. Sexual Harassment in Casinos: Effects on Employee Attitudes and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Stedham, Yvonne; Mitchell, Merwin C.

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on sexual harassment and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover among casino employees. It is the first study investigating sexual harassment in the gaming industry. Based on sex-role spillover theory it was expected that sexual harassment has less of an impact on casino employees than on employees in other industries. Six Reno, Nevada casinos participated in the study and 330 responses were generated from casino employees. The study results show that sexual harassment of and by casino employees is perceived to occur at about the same rate as in other industries. Sexually harassed employees were compared to employees who indicated that they had not been sexually harassed. Sexually harassed employees were less satisfied with their jobs and less committed to the organization. However, they were not more likely to quit their jobs. Sexually harassed employees tended to be younger, Caucasian, and in dealer positions. Hence, in addition to the well-publicized cost of sexual harassment lawsuits, the study shows that sexual harassment in casinos may well be the source of hidden costs important to human resources managers. A result of major interest was that employees who had been harassed held management responsible for not ensuring a work environment that is free of sexual harassment. Implications for casino management are discussed.

  10. Crime of Power, Not Passion: Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This paper focuses on the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. The legal definition of sexual harassment as drawn up by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is: "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that are explicitly or implicitly a term or condition…

  11. Attitudes and perceptions of workers to sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.

  12. Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, René Revis; Smith, Yevonne

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe and analyze the experiences of ethnically diverse female certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in order to discern the perceived nature of sexual harassment in the athletic training profession. Design and Setting: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for a larger study; however, only the qualitative data are…

  13. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individual's work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment. 1 The... made from the facts, on a case by case basis. (c) (d) With respect to conduct between fellow employees... of non-employees, with respect to sexual harassment of employees in the workplace, where the...

  14. Situation-Specific Assessment of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Bergman, Mindy E.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 13,743 women in the armed forces used an instrument to identify specific experiences of sexual harassment rather than aggregate approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. Reasons for using aggregate versus situation-specific approaches were identified. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  15. Youth at Work: Adolescent Employment and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares…

  16. Sexual Harassment and Bullying Behaviors in Sixth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaughm, Lauren P.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2008-01-01

    Sexual harassment is widely viewed as a form of bullying, but has received little attention in studies of middle school students. A survey of 109 6th grade students found that 29% of students reported at least one sexual harassment experience in the past 30 days, with 11% reporting harassment once per week or more. Although boys and girls reported…

  17. Judgments and Definitions of Sexual Harassment by High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loredo, Carren; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Considers how high school students perceive incidents of possible sexual harassment toward students and how they define sexual harassment. Scenario evaluations by 35 male and 38 female students of various ethnic groups demonstrated that type of harassment, status of the originator, and gender composition of the dyad affect severity ratings. (SLD)

  18. A Study Concerning Sexual Harassment among School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a study conducted in 22 counties in Middle Tennessee to determine the extent to which teachers have experienced sexual harassment. Of the 318 teachers responding, 172 report having been subjected to unwanted harassment. Of those responding positively, 150 are female. The forms of harassment indicated were sexual remarks,…

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  20. Can patients sexually harass their physicians?

    PubMed

    Gabbard, G O; Atkinson, S D; Jorgenson, L M

    1995-03-01

    It is the fate of certain fashionable legal terms that capture the attention of the media to have their usage expanded beyond the contexts for which they were originally designed. Such is the case with the term sexual harassment. Essentially, it describes situations in which a powerful person attempts to influence an individual's economic or academic status based on his or her response to sexual comments or behaviors. Title VII and Title IX of the US Code contain federal laws that prohibit discrimination based on sex in the workplace and in the education system, respectively. Accordingly, sexual harassment that occurs within the context of the employment or academic arena is prohibited under Title VII and Title IX and has evolved to apply to hostile work or academic environments that do not per se influence an individual's economic or academic status.

  1. Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination--a study of Black, Latino, and White low-income women and men workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Bates, Lisa M; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of workplace abuse, sexual harassment at work, and lifetime experiences of racial discrimination among the United for Health cohort of 1,202 predominantly black, Latino, and white women and men low-income union workers in the Greater Boston area. Overall, 85 percent of the cohort reported exposure to at least one of these three social hazards; exposure to all three reached 20 to 30 percent among black women and women and men in racial/ethnic groups other than white, black, or Latino. Workplace abuse in the past year, reported by slightly more than half the workers, was most frequently reported by the white men (69%). Sexual harassment at work in the past year was reported by 26 percent of the women and 22 percent of the men, with values of 20 percent or more in all racial/ ethnic-gender groups other than Latinas and white men. High exposure to racial discrimination was reported by 37 percent of the workers of color, compared with 10 percent of the white workers, with black workers reporting the greatest exposure (44%). Together, these findings imply that the lived--and combined-experiences of class, race, and gender inequities and their attendant assaults on human dignity are highly germane to analyses of workers' health.

  2. Sexual harassment victimization and perpetration among high school students.

    PubMed

    Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2014-10-01

    This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence.

  3. Responding to Complaints of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Charol

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes a study of 225 cases between 1990 and 1994 involving sexual abuse or harassment complaints against teachers. Interviews revealed how districts respond to complaints and the most effective preventive policies and procedures. School districts with rare occurrences screen prospective employees, have strong and clear policies, educate staff…

  4. SEXUAL HARASSMENT, WORKPLACE AUTHORITY, AND THE PARADOX OF POWER

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can serve as an “equalizer” against women in power, motivated more by control and domination than by sexual desire. The interviews point to social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender non-conformity and women’s authority, particularly in male-dominated work settings. PMID:23329855

  5. The 1995 Armed Forces Sexual Harassment Survey: Statistical Methodology Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    DMDC Report No. 96-016 December 1996 THE 1995 ARMED FORCES SEXUAL HARASSMENT SURVEY: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY REPORT Robert E. Mason, Jill A. Kavee...AND DATES COVERED 09 Dec 96 Final (15 Feb 95 -- 18 Sep 95) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The 1995 Armed Forces Sexual Harassment Survey...missing data compensation procedures) for the 1995 Status of the Armed Forces Surveys of sexual harassment. Three survey forms were used. Form A

  6. Propensity to Sexually Harass: An Exploration of Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Elissa L.; Schmidtke, James M.; Kulik, Carol T.

    1998-01-01

    The propensity of 67 predominantly white male and 97 female college students to engage in severe forms of sexual harassment was studied. Results indicate that males have significantly higher propensities to harass members of the opposite sex than females. Males and females also attended to different aspects of harassment situations. (SLD)

  7. The Power Game: Sexual Harassment on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Kay

    A study examined four reports of sexual harassment on college campuses. The reports show that harassers "key" their victims so that a contest will begin but the victims do not understand what is happening. Miscommunication occurs when power myths about men and women intersect during the harassment episode. Such myths include: the looking…

  8. Don't Try This at Home: Using a Multilayered Approach to Teach the Law of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgas, Jordan T. L.

    2006-01-01

    In a litigious society, it is of particular importance that students understand the law of sexual harassment and sexual harassment investigations. Sexual harassment litigation can create a heavy financial burden on employers. Sexual harassment investigations and litigation also cause a social impact on employers. In order to provide students with…

  9. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises, while behavioral indicators are ways victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Some of the indicators listed below can be explained by other causes (e.g. inappropriate or unusual behavior may signal dementia or drug interactions) and no single indicator can be taken ...

  10. The Sexual Harassment of Faculty Members by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchen, Jim; DeSouza, Eros

    2000-01-01

    College students and faculty completed a questionnaire exploring student sexual harassment of faculty members. Female faculty reported significantly more unwanted sexual attention from students and were more bothered by it than male faculty. Both sexes experienced equal amounts of sexual harassment, but females were more bothered by it. There were…

  11. Impact of Work Experiences on Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Alison M.; Gutek, Barbara A.

    1986-01-01

    Three theories account for individuals' perceptions of sexual harassment: (1) men and women view and define sexual harassment differently; (2) differential sexual experiences at work account for different perceptions; and (3) gender role "spillover" accounts for perceptual differences. A sample of 1,232 working men and women supports these…

  12. Rethinking Adolescent Peer Sexual Harassment: Contributions of Feminist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…

  13. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual...

  14. Sexual harassment victimization in adolescence: Associations with family background.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-06-01

    Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers.

  15. Sexual harassment on the job: psychological, social and economic repercussions.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, H L

    1984-09-01

    This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.

  16. Legal Consciousness and Responses to Sexual Harassment*

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Studies of legal mobilization often focus on people who have perceived some wrong, but rarely consider the process that selects them into the pool of potential “mobilizers.” Similarly, studies of victimization or targeting rarely go on to consider what people do about the wrong, or why some targets come forward and others remain silent. We here integrate sociolegal, feminist, and criminological theories in a conceptual model that treats experiencing sexual harassment and mobilizing in response to it as interrelated processes. We then link these two processes by modeling them as jointly determined outcomes and examine their connections using interviews with a subset of our survey respondents. Our results suggest that targets of harassment are selected, in part, because they are least likely to tell others about the experience. Strategies that workers employ to cope with and confront harassment are also discussed. We find that traditional formal/informal dichotomies of mobilization responses may not fully account for the range of ways individuals respond to harassment, and we propose a preliminary typology of responses. PMID:20300446

  17. Sexual harassment in the workplace: guidelines for educating healthcare managers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Robert K; Franklin, Geralyn Mcclure; Tinney, Cathie H; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    Actionable sexual harassment is defined as a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In recent years, there have been a number of significant developments in sexual harassment case law and litigation including: (1) nationwide legal recognition for same-sex sexual harassment; (2) increased standards on employer liability for sexual harassment perpetrated by supervisory and managerial personnel; and (3) guidelines for mitigating damages when employers are found liable. These developments are of particular concern in those professions such as healthcare in which women historically have been represented as a significant portion of the workforce. Moreover, because management and supervisory relationships in healthcare are often cloudy, harassment by "supervisors" in healthcare settings can be an issue of special concern. In this article, we review relevant issues related to sexual harassment and provide guidance in dealing with the issue in the workplace.

  18. Sexual harassment in academia: legal and administrative challenges.

    PubMed

    Dowell, M

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines and institutional policies regarding sexual harassment in academia have a relatively short and controversial background. Deference to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines in employment sexual harassment incidents guides much of the thinking in contemporary courts. Title IX of the Educational Amendments and the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 are but two of the legal redresses available to students with harassment grievance complaints. Lack of definition of the term as well as research studies in nursing complicate the issue of sexual harassment. The potential impact of harassment on nursing students both in the classroom and in the practice area is significant. Nursing administrators and educators must be proactive in writing and implementing policies regarding sexual harassment.

  19. Sexual Harassment and Experiential Education Programs: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeffler, T. A.

    Sexual harassment can be devastating and have tremendous impact on the emotional well-being, physical health, and vocational success of those who experience it. It is especially important for outdoor education program staff to proactively address sexual harassment because these programs often take place in remote locations that may make escape…

  20. A Laboratory Analogue for the Study of Peer Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Hirschman, Richard; Angelone, D. J.; Lilly, Roy S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of peer sexual harassment, and to examine person and situational factors associated with male on female peer sexual harassment. One hundred twenty-two male participants were given the opportunity to tell jokes to a female confederate from a joke list that included…

  1. Sexual Harassment: Development of a University's Policy and Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreth, Catherine; And Others

    In late 1988 the University of Florida began the process of revising and updating its policy and educational programs on sexual harassment. At that time a task force was formed which reviewed the current policy and procedures and drafted a revised brochure on sexual harassment. This brochure was reviewed and redrafted and distributed to every…

  2. Notoriety Yields Tragedy in Iowa Sexual-Harassment Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment broke into the national consciousness in 1991, when Anita Hill accused Clarence Thomas--then a nominee to the U.S. Supreme Court--of having made sexually inappropriate comments to her. The controversy spawned a flood of charges nationwide, including on college campuses. Since then colleges have tried to stem harassment with…

  3. Routine Activities and Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…

  4. Peer Sexual Harassment and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…

  5. Sexual Assault and Harassment: A Campus Community Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey conducted among students, faculty, and staff at the University of Rhode Island to explore experiences of and attitudes toward sexual assault and sexual harassment. (Author/MJL)

  6. The effects of harassment severity and organizational behavior on damage awards in a hostile work environment sexual harassment case.

    PubMed

    Cass, Stacie A; Levett, Lora M; Kovera, Margaret Bull

    2010-01-01

    Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 128) read a sexual harassment trial summary in which harassment severity and the organization's sexual harassment policy and response were manipulated. Jurors who read the severe harassment scenario were more likely to agree that the plaintiff had suffered and should be compensated for her suffering and that the organization should be punished than were jurors who read the mild harassment scenario. When the organization had and enforced a sexual harassment policy, jurors believed that the plaintiff had suffered little and the organization should not be punished compared with conditions in which the organization did not have an enforced sexual harassment policy. Harassment severity influenced jurors' compensatory awards, and organizational behavior influenced jurors' punitive awards. These results have implications for plaintiffs, who must decide whether to claim specific or garden-variety damages; organizations, which could create or modify sexual harassment policy to limit damages; and trial lawyers, who could tailor arguments to maximize or minimize awards.

  7. Combat Deployment is Associated With Sexual Harassment or Sexual Assault in a Large, Female Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence...experiences (Table 2). Women who were deployed who experi enced combat reported the highest cumulative incidence of sexual harassment (19.9%) and sexual ... sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61 3.78), but not the sexual assault only category. Women who deployed before baseline had

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...

  9. Breaking the Silence: Sexual Harassment of Mexican Women Farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nicole Jung-Eun; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Torres, Elizabeth; Nicola, R M Bud; Karr, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand Mexican women farmworkers' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment, its related factors and consequences, and potential points of intervention. This community-based participatory research study conducted focus groups with 20 women farmworkers in rural Washington. Four coders analyzed and gleaned interpretations from verbatim transcripts. Three main themes were identified. It was learned that women farmworkers: (1) frequently experienced both quid pro quo and hostile work environment forms of sexual harassment; (2) faced employment and health consequences due to the harassment; and (3) felt that both individual- and industry-level changes could prevent the harassment. Based on these findings, the authors identified three sets of risk factors contributing to workplace sexual harassment and recommend using a multilevel approach to prevent future harassment in the agriculture industry.

  10. Sexual harassment in healthcare: classification of harassers and rationalizations of sex-based harassment behavior.

    PubMed

    Madison, J; Minichiello, V

    2001-11-01

    This study identified how 16 Australian registered nurses classified sex-based harassers and explained their own behavior and the behavior of the harasser. A qualitative research design, relying on in-depth interviews, was used to collect the data. The study found that harassment is linked to gender roles and that the harassed are reluctant to blame the harasser--the harassed had "sound" rationalizations for harassment. Awareness of the interactional dynamics of self-blame and these rationalizations will help nurse executives ensure a harassment-free workplace.

  11. Sexual Harassment within the USAF Enlisted Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Harassment that Occurred Within the Last Four Weeks, by Sex ....................................... 12 TABLE 4 -- Reported Physical Harassment in the Last...harassment within todaW’s U.S. Air Force enlisted force. Following a general review of the subject, verbal and physical harassment in the active enlisted... physical harassment in the last four weeks by functional work areas revealed the following: 14I Sex of Respondent Row - Functional Area Male Female Average

  12. The Sexual Harassment Training Program in the National Guard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    oriented behavior (withholding of promotion if person does not commit to having sexual relations). There is no doubt that commanders, supervisors, and co...commander’s presentation at the newcomers’ orientation . Commanders and/or supervisors must work at eliminating sexual harassment or creating an...AD-RiS6 792 THE SEXUAL HARASSMENT TRAINING PROGRAM IN THE NATIONAL 1/1 GUARD(U) AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COIL MAXWJELL AFA AL T PAIGE APR 86 ACSC-86

  13. Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-30

    reporting and investigation; (3) eliminating sexual harassment and negative attitudes toward women at the Academy; and (4) ensuring cadet orientation ...cases, provide updates to commanders, and assist commanders in meeting annual and newcomer orientation on sexual assault training requirements. The...30-12-2005 Final Report April 2005 - December 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Service Academy 2005 Sexual Harassment and Assault Survey

  14. Penalties for Peer Sexual Harassment in an Academic Context: The Influence of Harasser Gender, Participant Gender, Severity of Harassment, and the Presence of Bystanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kimberly M.; Armenta, Madeline

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of harasser gender, participant gender, and presence of bystanders on perceptions of penalty appropriateness for peer sexual harassment in college. Students responded to descriptions of potential sexual harassment between one college student and another and described the appropriate penalty. Participants were more likely to…

  15. Sexual Harassment: The Supreme Court Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Richard L.; Hughes, William

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court, in its June 1998 "Gebser" decision, held that school districts cannot be sued for damages under Title IX unless a school official knows about a teacher's sexual abuse of a student and fails to stop it. However, districts must comply with Title IX requirements and follow appropriate guidelines. (MLH)

  16. Sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment can act as a barrier to further invasions by parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Kazutaka

    2013-02-01

    The assumption of a twofold cost of sex not only complicates the maintenance of sex but also sets conditions for sexual conflict: in organisms with the twofold cost, males often sexually harass females. Sexual harassment is detrimental to female fitness and thus might help maintain sexual populations if male harassment inflicts a harsher cost on parthenogens than on sexual females (asymmetric harassment cost). However, the generality of this concept is now considered doubtful because selective harassment of parthenogens results in loss of mating opportunities for males. Using three mathematical models, I show here that sexual harassment still can impose the asymmetric cost on parthenogens. First, I apply the Lotka-Volterra model to show the degree of asymmetric harassment cost that permits sex to be maintained stably in the population. Second, using adaptive dynamics, I examine whether sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment, which occurs only in sexual populations, can promote the asymmetric harassment cost. Finally, an individual-based model, which assumes a spatial structure unlike that in the other two, demonstrates that the asymmetric evolution of harassment cost prevents further invasions of parthenogens from different patches into sexual lineages; these mechanisms may account for allopatric distributions of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages as well as the maintenance of sex.

  17. The reasonable woman standard: effects on sexual harassment court decisions.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elissa L; Kulik, Carol T; Bourhis, Anne C

    2004-02-01

    Some federal courts have used a reasonable woman standard rather than the traditional reasonable man or reasonable person standard to determine whether hostile environment sexual harassment has occurred. The current research examined the impact of the reasonable woman standard on federal district court decisions, controlling for other factors found to affect sexual harassment court decisions. Results indicated that there was a weak relationship between whether a case followed a reasonable woman precedent-setting case and the likelihood that the court decision favored the plaintiff. The implications of our findings for individuals and organizations involved in sexual harassment claims are discussed.

  18. Angry and Afraid: Women's Appraisal of Sexual Harassment during Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine primary appraisal of sexual harassment, that is, a victim's cognitive evaluation of the harassment and the factors that influence this appraisal. The perspectives of 72 female plaintiffs were investigated by measuring their primary appraisal of the event, examining the structure of this appraisal, and…

  19. Classrooms and Courtrooms: Facing Sexual Harassment in K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    This book uses evidence gathered from legal, anecdotal, and survey-based sources to explore sexual harassment in K-12 schools. The text is divided into seven chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 use material from surveys, salient lawsuits, and students' stories to describe harassment and to elaborate on the contradictions and confusions that surround this…

  20. Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, although it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. Popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, but power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal…

  1. Sexual harassment in medical education: liability and protection.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia Ryan; Heru, Alison M; Price, Marilyn; Alves, Jody

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence and frequency of sexual harassment in medical education is well documented. On the graduation questionnaire administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges in 2003, 15% of medical students reported experiences of mistreatment during medical school. On items that specifically address sexual mistreatment, over 2% of students reported experiencing gender-based exclusion from training opportunities, and unwanted sexual advances and offensive sexist comments from school personnel. Sexual harassment of medical trainees by faculty supervisors is obviously unethical and may also be illegal under education discrimination laws. In two cases in 1998 and 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court clarified that schools may be held liable under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 for the sexual harassment of their students. In 2001, the Office of Civil Rights of the Department of Education released revised policy guidelines on sexual harassment that reflect the Supreme Court rulings. Medical school administrators should undertake formal assessments of the educational environment in their training programs as a first step toward addressing the problem of sexual harassment. The authors recommend that medical schools implement measures to both prevent and remedy sexual harassment in their training programs. These constructive approaches include applying faculty and student education, establishing a system for notification and response, and creating an institutional structure to provide continuous evaluation of the educational environment.

  2. What Sexual Harassment Experiences Lead Respondents to Acknowledge Being Sexually Harassed? A Secondary Analysis of a University Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Margaret S.; Vaux, Alan

    1993-01-01

    According to survey responses from 933 of 1,807 undergraduates, 227 of 1,006 graduate students, and 432 of 1,372 faculty/staff, experience of sexual seduction, coercion, or imposition increased the probability of acknowledgment of having been harassed. Probability of acknowledgment was not related to gender or form of harassment. (SK)

  3. Peer sexual harassment and disordered eating in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer L; Hyde, Janet S

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we used latent growth modeling with a sample of 406 U.S. adolescents to examine the relationship between longitudinal trends in peer sexual harassment from 5th to 9th grade and disordered eating in 9th grade. Longitudinal trends in self-surveillance were proposed as a mediator of the relationships. Results indicated that the relationship between upsetting sexual harassment at 5th grade and disordered eating symptoms at 9th grade was mediated by self-surveillance at 5th grade. Girls reported more upsetting sexual harassment, more self-surveillance, and thus more disordered eating than boys did. These results are in accord with objectification theory, which proposes that sexual harassment is a form of sexual objectification and may lead to self-surveillance and disordered eating.

  4. Sexual harassment at work place: are you safe?

    PubMed

    Naveed, Anila; Tharani, Ambreen; Alwani, Nasreen

    2010-01-01

    In today's world women are increasingly participating in the realm of work force, yet they are facing many obstacles in their way. Sexual harassment is one of those obstacles. Sexual harassment at work place is prevalent in every society. It could happen to anyone but women are the targeted victims. Sexual harassment is considered as a traumatic event and the victim may end up in having physical and mental sufferings that hinders a person to work effectively. At an organisational level this may result in decrease work effectiveness, decreased work productivity, high absenteeism, high turnover, and low staff morale. Hence there is a need that, organisations and government should look seriously into this matter. Proper education and training programs should be developed to deal with these issues. The goal must be both to deal with sexual harassment incidents effectively and to prevent the occurrence of future incidents.

  5. Bullying and sexual harassment among Brazilian high school students.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Eros R; Ribeiro, J'aims

    2005-09-01

    Bullying and sexual harassment at school have received recent attention in developed countries; however, they have been neglected in Latin America. Thus, the authors investigated these phenomena among 400 Brazilian high school students from two high schools (one private and one public). Analyses using t-tests showed that boys bullied and sexually harassed their peers more often than girls did. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that boys and girls who scored high on general misconduct bullied their peers more often than those who scored low on general misconduct. Boys who believed they would be punished by their teachers for bullying and who scored low on benevolent sexism bullied more often than boys who believed they would not be punished by their teachers and who scored high on benevolent sexism. Moreover, bullying predicted peer sexual harassment for boys and girls. Recommendations to prevent bullying and sexual harassment are offered.

  6. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  7. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  8. Sexual harassment of psychiatric trainees: experiences and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F; Porter, S

    1999-07-01

    A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment 'some-times' or 'frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be 'sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of 'zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis.

  9. Peer sexual harassment in adolescence: the function of gender.

    PubMed

    Dahinten, V Susan

    2003-06-01

    The author describes the sexual harassment experiences of 565 male and female students in Grades 9 through 11 and discusses the influence of the social construction of gender on those experiences. The sample was drawn from 12 schools in 2 Canadian provinces. The study employed a retrospective correlational survey design, using self-report questionnaires administered in class. The results indicate that sexual harassment is pervasive among both male and female adolescents but is particularly problematic for girls due to their qualitatively different harassment experiences. Both girls and boys reported gender harassment to be, in general, more upsetting than unwanted sexual advances. Girls employed a greater variety of coping strategies than boys; however, for both sexes passive coping strategies were predominant. The author offers recommendations related to school health programming and discusses the role of the school nurse.

  10. Revisiting the comparative outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Angela M; Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2012-10-01

    We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed.

  11. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  12. Duration of Sexual Harassment and Generalized Harassment in the Workplace Over Ten Years: Effects on Deleterious Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045

  13. Duration of sexual harassment and generalized harassment in the workplace over ten years: effects on deleterious drinking outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.

  14. Effects of Gender and Situation on the Perception of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Roger C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied variability in the perception of sexual harassment based on observer gender, gender of harasser and victim, and role relationship of harasser and victim with 197 college students. The more egalitarian the relationship, the less likely students were to perceive sexual harassment. Gender differences are discussed for the various scenarios.…

  15. Sexual Harassment: A Common Sample for the University and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauregard, Terri Kinion

    The sexual harassment experienced by a sample of women (N=154) in a university setting was compared with the sexual harassment experienced by them in a workplace setting. Results appeared to support the following generalizations: (1) there is greater gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion in the workplace setting than in…

  16. Experiences of Sexual Harassment among Elementary School Students in Taiwan: Implications for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative…

  17. An Action Research Study: Using Classroom Guidance Lessons to Teach Middle School Students about Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rebecca C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…

  18. Explaining sexual harassment judgments: looking beyond gender of the rater.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maureen; Gutek, Barbara A; Stockdale, Margaret; Geer, Tracey M; Melançon, Renée

    2004-02-01

    In two decades of research on sexual harassment, one finding that appears repeatedly is that gender of the rater influences judgments about sexual harassment such that women are more likely than men to label behavior as sexual harassment. Yet, sexual harassment judgments are complex, particularly in situations that culminate in legal proceedings. And, this one variable, gender, may have been overemphasized to the exclusion of other situational and rater characteristic variables. Moreover, why do gender differences appear? As work by Wiener and his colleagues have done (R. L. Wiener et al., 2002; R. L. Wiener & L. Hurt, 2000; R. L. Wiener, L. Hurt, B. Russell, K. Mannen, & C. Gasper, 1997), this study attempts to look beyond gender to answer this question. In the studies reported here, raters (undergraduates and community adults), either read a written scenario or viewed a videotaped reenactment of a sexual harassment trial. The nature of the work environment was manipulated to see what, if any, effect the context would have on gender effects. Additionally, a number of rater characteristics beyond gender were measured, including ambivalent sexism attitudes of the raters, their judgments of complainant credibility, and self-referencing that might help explain rater judgments. Respondent gender, work environment, and community vs. student sample differences produced reliable differences in sexual harassment ratings in both the written and video trial versions of the study. The gender and sample differences in the sexual harassment ratings, however, are explained by a model which incorporates hostile sexism, perceptions of the complainants credibility, and raters' own ability to put themselves in the complainant's position (self-referencing).

  19. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Evaluating Estimates from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    better align the survey with legal definitions of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Because such a large number of service members participated in...respondents to know the definition of sexual harassment and correctly apply it to their experiences, identified far more cases of sexual harassment than the

  20. Leading Change: Sexual Harassment/Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    articulated the importance of justice , morality, equality, and family values. In essence, sexual harassment and sexual assault violates the tenants of the...and together we will be Army Strong.”5 Army Regulation 600-20 makes it clear that “Sexual assault is a criminal offense and has no place in the...Army.”6 In addition to the criminal element, sexual assault in the military breaks down the fabric of the organization. It breeds anger, mistrust

  1. Sexual Harassment in the Federal Government: An Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    result from " Orientation for new employees, sexually harassing others. Many Employees’ awareness. The respondents also suggested that Board asked each...91 MAR28 199 3 UA U IN U mmit Ian,-------’----- ’Eu. SEXUAL HABASSIMNT iN Tu IEFDERA=L CC GVERN-lENT AN IJPDATE THE CHAIRMAN U.S. MERIT SYSTEMS...1978 (5 U.S.C. § 1205(a)(3)), it is my honor to submit this U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board report titled " Sexual Harassment in the Federal

  2. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs.

  3. Face the consequences: learning about victim's suffering reduces sexual harassment myth acceptance and men's likelihood to sexually harass.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Charlotte; Glaser, Tina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown that (1) better knowledge about the consequences of rape goes along with less rape-supportive attitudes and lower rape proclivity, and (2) empathy with the victims correlates negatively with sexual aggression. In two experiments, the authors combined these approaches in order to reduce sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) and the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH). In Study 1, 101 male and female university students read a report describing sexual harassment as either serious or harmless, and completed scales assessing dispositional empathy and SHMA. Results showed that higher empathy was associated with lower SHMA; furthermore, learning about the seriousness (vs. harmlessness) of sexual harassment led to lower SHMA, particularly in participants low in empathy. Gender differences in SHMA were fully explained by gender differences in empathy. In Study 2, perspective taking, a crucial aspect of empathy, was manipulated. One hundred nineteen male and female participants read either a neutral text or a description of a sexual harassment case, which was written either from the female target's or from the male perpetrator's perspective; then they completed scales measuring SHMA and (only male participants) LSH. The target's perspective led to lower SHMA and to lower LSH than did the neutral text, whereas no such effect was found for the perpetrator's perspective. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  4. Race, Class, and Emerging Sexuality: Teacher Perceptions and Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a highly troubling gendered phenomenon that plagues young women on a daily basis. The way in which sexual harassment is perceived and treated is varied and is largely based on racial and class stereotypes. This paper highlights the findings from a study in which a group of middle and high school teachers were interviewed and…

  5. Sexual Harassment on a University Campus: The Confluence of Authority Relations, Sexual Interest and Gender Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Donna Joan; Thomson, Gregg E.

    Twenty women responded to a student newspaper ad at the University of California, Berkeley to discuss in confidence personal experiences of sexual harassment. Information gained was used to develop a seven-page questionnaire with both open and closed-ended questions on sexual harassment experiences. It was mailed to a random sample of 400 female…

  6. Literature Review of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePanfilis, Diane

    This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…

  7. Student Attitude towards on Sexual Harassment: The Case of Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zewude, Bereket Tessema; Ashine, Kidus Meskele

    2016-01-01

    An attempt has been done on attitude towards sexual harassment which is critical issue nowadays in higher institutions. The result of the study could suggest for putting proper polices in place which is considered as vital in preventing sexual harassment as well as creating awareness about sexual harassment issue specially in higher institutions…

  8. Addicted to Power: Sexual Harassment and the Unethical Behaviour of University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rey A.

    1991-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment as unethical behavior in universities. Argues that codes of ethics and guidelines for sexual harassment do not address foundation of sexual harassment, namely, imbalance of power. Depicts university as oasis for persons addicted to power and uses addictions framework to explain how power addicts become involved in sexual…

  9. Organizational Justice and Men's Likelihood to Sexually Harass: The Moderating Role of Sexism and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…

  10. 2010 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members. Overview Report on Sexual Harassment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    2010 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members Overview Report on Sexual Harassment Additional copies of this report may...SURVEY OF ACTIVE DUTY MEMBERS: OVERVIEW REPORT ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT Lindsay M. Rock and Rachel N. Lipari Defense Manpower... ACTIVE DUTY MEMBERS: OVERVIEW REPORT ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT Executive Summary Background This report presents the results on issues related to

  11. Sexual Harassment: What It Is, Where It Is, and What to Do About It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Reviews issues and relevant court decisions related to sexual harassment in the workplace. Focuses on definitions and types of sexual harassment, circumstances and institutional settings under which it occurs, its effects on an organization, and steps an organization might take to keep sexual harassment out of the workplace. (35 citations) (MAB)

  12. The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment: A Strategy for Changing the Climate in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Ellen L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses difficulties in effecting change in campus climates and describes Portland (Oregon) State University's (PSU) efforts to combat sexual harassment, and the creation of the PSU Sexual Harassment Resource Network. Defines sexual harassment and explains the response to the Resource Network's prevention strategies. (NB)

  14. Sexual Harassment Policies in K-12 Schools: Examining Accessibility to Students and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…

  15. 2004 Sexual Harassment Survey of Reserve Component Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    toward women sexual attention. The 2004 survey also found that at the Academy; and (4) ensuring cadet orientation about 20% of female cadets had been...announced the orientation sexual assault training requirements. 54p 1 08-375, Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year...DMDC Report No. 2004-001 March 2005 2004 Sexual Harassment Survey of Reserve Co mponent Members Rachel N. Lipari, Anita R. Lancaster, and Alan M

  16. For Making the Research Environments with No Sexual Harassments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Mariko; Ikeuchi, Satoru

    2000-08-01

    The survey of problems and difficulties for women in astronomy in November 1999 has revealed that many female astronomers have suffered sexual harassments. Many institutes and universities have recently started to conduct themselves against sexual harassments, but it is insufficient. In some cases, astronomers appointed as a member of consulting committee are often unfamiliar with this subject, or unexperienced as counselors for mentally injured people. To assist them, the authors provide here valuable pieces of information, including general suggestions, resources, directions as an advisor or a counselor, and books of reference.

  17. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  18. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  19. Sexual Harassment. A Preliminary Analysis of Its Effects on Hong Kong Chinese Women in the Workplace and Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Darius K. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Chan, Wai

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the impact of sexual harassment on women in the workplace and college in Hong Kong. Questionnaires assessed sexual harassment experiences, perceived prevalence of sexual harassment at work, job or study satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Personal experience with sexual harassment negatively associated with job and study…

  20. [Sexual harassment among students - prevalence, developmental factors and potential ways of intervention].

    PubMed

    Allroggen, M; Rau, T; Fegert, J M

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment among adolescents has long been neglected in Germany though it is frequent and leads to significant strain for the victims. In international studies, the prevalence of sexual harassment ranges from 10 to 80 % among students. For the development of sexual harassment individual as well as school based factors play a role. Different pathways lead to this problematic behaviour. The effect of new media in the development of sexual harassment cannot be estimated so far. Frequent consequences of sexual harassment in addition to school associated difficulties are unspecific somatic complaints. General practitioners and pediatricians are frequently consulted tn the first place. Recommendations for consultation and interventions are presented.

  1. Bullying and sexual harassment in the school setting.

    PubMed

    Cavendish, R; Salomone, C

    2001-02-01

    This article defines bullying and sexual harassment, identifies associated characteristics of the aggressor and the victim, and describes implications for school nurses. The background of federal laws with a focus on the most current 1999 Supreme Court decision, holding a school district liable for damages under federal law (Title IX), is addressed with a case study. Health promotion issues and prevention concepts are outlined in a 10-Point Action Plan to facilitate the prevention and management of bullying and sexual harassment in schools. A survey tool to assess bullying and teaching plans for parents of victims and aggressors are provided. Suggested linkages among approved nursing languages, North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) nursing diagnoses (NANDA, 1998), Nursing Interventions Classification interventions (Iowa Intervention Project, 2000), and Nursing Outcomes Classification outcomes (Iowa Outcomes Project, 2000) are included for use in developing nursing care plans for both aggressors and victims of harassment.

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse: Research, Treatment, & Program Innovations for Victims, Survivors, & Offenders, 14(4), 1-24. doi: 10.1300/J070v14n04_ ... 1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal ...

  3. Sexual Harassment among Female Dentists and Dental Students in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telles-Irvin, Patricia; Schwartz, Ivy S.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 164 female members of the Texas dental association and 62 junior and senior students at the 3 Texas dental schools investigated sexual harassment experiences with patients and colleagues, reasons for tolerating such behavior, and the manner in which the offensive behavior was handled. Results and implications are discussed. (MSE)

  4. Teacher-On-Student Sexual Harassment: Monkeying Around?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a Texas sexual harassment case (Gebser v Lago Vista Independent School District involving a high-school English teacher and an eighth grader. Lower and federal courts favored the school district as to liability claims. In June 1998, the U.S. Supreme Court voted to adopt the actual notice standard, affirming dismissal of the plaintiff's…

  5. Students as Victims of Sexual Harassment: The Evolving Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1998-01-01

    Explores alleged abridgements of students' federal rights regarding sexual harassment by school employees or by classmates. Examines claims based on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the Fourteenth Amendment. Despite federal protections, students carry a heavy burden of proof in establishing that their rights have been impaired by…

  6. Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…

  7. Bullying and Sexual Harassment among Brazilian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Ribeiro, J'aims

    2005-01-01

    Bullying and sexual harassment at school have received recent attention in developed countries; however, they have been neglected in Latin America. Thus, the authors investigated these phenomena among 400 Brazilian high school students from two high schools (one private and one public). Analyses using t-tests showed that boys bullied and sexually…

  8. Targets and Witnesses: Middle School Students' Sexual Harassment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…

  9. Sexual Harassment of University Faculty by Colleagues and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    Used a questionnaire to examine the nature and prevalence of sexual harassment of faculty by peers and students at two schools in Colorado and Illinois. Minor and anonymous forms prevailed, more often reported by women. Most incidents were not formally reported. Reviews previous research. (DM)

  10. Communication Training as a Prevention to Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman-Fink, Cynthia

    Although illegal, sexual harassment is frequent in the American workplace and extremely disruptive and costly to employees and employers alike. Most organizational responses to the problem have been hard line, short term, after-the-fact measures that inform, threaten, or discipline employees. What is needed, however, is a training program with an…

  11. Sexual Harassment and Manly Sports: Are They Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur

    This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…

  12. Bullying and Sexual Harassment in the School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavendish, Roberta; Salomone, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    Defines bullying and sexual harassment, identifying characteristics of aggressors and victims, describing implications for school nurses, examining relevant federal laws, and reviewing a 10-Point Action Plan. A survey tool to assess bullying and teaching plans for parents of victims and aggressors are provided. Suggested linkages among relevant…

  13. Stress effects of sexual harassment on the job: implications for counseling.

    PubMed

    Crull, P

    1982-07-01

    Case material from 262 women who sought crisis intervention in sexual harassment situations suggest common patterns of harassment behavior and reactions to it. Incidents of sexual harassment typically threaten a women's job security and violate her physical privacy. Mental and physical stress symptoms, as well as diminished productivity and self-confidence, are common reaction. Suggestions for appropriate counseling strategies are offered.

  14. A Typology and Critique of Title IX Sexual Harassment Law after Gebser and Davis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplin, William A.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the recent history and current status of the sexual harassment problem in colleges and universities, focusing on the harassment of students by their teachers or peers and whether and how students can hold universities liable. Develops a typology of Title IX sexual harassment claims and their variable contexts, considers implications for…

  15. Secrets in Full View: Sexual Harassment in Our K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    Sexual harassment can range from touching, tickling, pinching, patting, or grabbing; to comments about one's body; to sexual remarks, innuendoes, and jokes that cause discomfort; to obscene gestures, staring, or leering; to assault and rape. This paper addresses student testimonies of harassment, provides a profile of harassment behaviors, and…

  16. Student-on-Student Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Frances E.

    2011-01-01

    No school board member, administrator, or teacher wants to see a student suffering from taunts of the student's peers, but with budget cutbacks, reductions in force, and increased class size, teachers and administrators are stretched too thin to easily identify, investigate, and remedy student-on-student harassment. But school districts must…

  17. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  18. Multiple Effects of Messages with Multiple Goals: Some Perceived Outcomes of Responses to Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.

    1989-01-01

    Tests the perceived effectiveness of different messages responding to sexual harassment in the organizational environment. Finds that none of the messages were perceived as being particularly effective at stopping the harasser's offensive conduct. (MM)

  19. Effects of sexual harassment on women and organizations.

    PubMed

    Gutek, B A; Koss, M P

    1993-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the consequences of sexual harassment of women, including the effects on the victim's work and health and the organization for which she works as well as the woman's attempts to cope with harassment when confronted with it. The responses of victims are influenced by the amount of support and understanding they receive from significant others and employers. The extent of emotional, physical, and psychological damage depends on the responsiveness of other people and the organization for which the woman works.

  20. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-12

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  1. Sex differences in outcomes and harasser characteristics associated with frightening sexual harassment appraisals.

    PubMed

    Settles, Isis H; Buchanan, Nicole T; Yap, Stevie C Y; Harrell, Zaje A T

    2014-04-01

    This study examined data from U.S. military personnel (1,764 men; 4,540 women) to determine whether appraisals of sexual harassment as frightening mediate the relationship between perpetrator characteristics (perpetrator sex and rank) and three psychological/job outcomes (psychological distress, role limitations, and work satisfaction), and whether these relationships were stronger for women than men. Results indicated that frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator rank and all outcomes for both sexes. However, frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator sex and outcomes only for women. As predicted, having a male perpetrator or a higher status perpetrator was more strongly related to frightening appraisals for women than men. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between frightening appraisals and more psychological distress, more role limitations, and less work satisfaction was stronger for men than women. We discuss the results in terms of expectancy norm violations and sexual harassment as a form of dominance.

  2. Is It Sexually Charged, Sexually Hostile, or the Constitution? Sexual Harassment in K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the panic that typically arises when the First Amendment is invoked in charges of sexual harassment in schools. Contends that sexism is a fundamental part of school culture, that school administrators apply free speech rights differently to males and females in schools, and that the Constitution applies to girls too. (24 footnotes) (MLF)

  3. Experiences of sexual harassment among elementary school students in Taiwan: implications for school nurses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2010-04-01

    Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative research design was employed using focus groups to collect data from 47 elementary students, 10 and 12 years of age. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: "experiences of physical harassment," "experiences of verbal harassment," and "coping with harassment." The potential for school nurses to influence students' behavior, improve sexual health instruction, and create a healthy school environment is significant. School nurses should participate in sexual health education classes actively to advance the sexual health behaviors of school children.

  4. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  5. Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

  6. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  7. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  8. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  9. Sexual Harassment of Women in the American Work Place

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    American Work Place 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) COL Charlene H. Lee 13a. TYPE OF REPORT Research 13b. TIME COVERED FROMAug 90 TO Apr 91 14...reproduced in whole or in part for distribution outside the federal executive branch without permission of the Associate Dean for Research and...and her family. This results in sick time . During the two year period from May 1985 through May 1987, sexual harassment cost the Federal government an

  10. Sexual Harassment, Bullying, and School Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does.

  11. Sexual Harassment Reporting and Whistle-Blowing: A Proposed Model of Predictors and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    To) 19/Feb/2002 MAJOR REPORT 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SEXUAL HARASSMENT REPORTING AND WHISTLE BLOWING: A PROPSED MODEL OF...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Sexual Harassment Reporting and Whistle-blowing: A...Funding for this study was provided by the Coleman Chair of the Kelley School of Business. Sexual Harassment Reporting and Whistle-blowing: A

  12. Disentangling the Power Bases of Sexual Harassment: Comparing Gender, Age, and Position Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Julie Holliday

    2000-01-01

    Males (n=123) and females (n=134) rated sexual harassment case studies, judging subordinates harassing supervisors more harshly than coworker cases. Females held organizations more responsible than males did. When behavior violated norms of role-prescribed behavior, it was more likely to be perceived as harassment. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  13. The Experience of Sexual Harassment among Grade-School Students: Early Socialization of Female Subordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnen, Sarah K.; Smolak, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Investigated elementary students' interpretations of sexual harassment and how they related to self-esteem and body esteem. After hearing scenarios exemplifying peer harassment, students expressed their thoughts and completed gender role, self-esteem, and body esteem scales. Most children had experienced peer harassment. Total harassment…

  14. Assessment of Sexual Harassment within the University of Rhode Island Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice; And Others

    In 1979, reports of sexual harassment and accusations of sexual assault at the University of Rhode Island led to the formation of a Sexual Harassment Committee. One of the tasks undertaken by a subgroup of this committee was a survey of the university community to identify actual experiences of and the attitudes of student and staff toward sexual…

  15. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  16. THE IMPACT OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650

  17. Still stable after all these years: perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts.

    PubMed

    Bursik, Krisanne; Gefter, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This research examined perceptions of sexual harassment in academic contexts using data sets collected in 1990 (Time 1) and 2000 (Time 2). We assessed the influence of two individual variables--gender and gender role--and one contextual variable--power of the harasser--on perceptions of harassment. When the harasser was a higher-power individual, participants perceived more vignettes as examples of sexual harassment, viewed female targets more positively, and evaluated male harassers more negatively. Contrary to prediction, participants viewed male harassers less negatively at Time 2 than at Time 1. Despite increased media attention and educational interventions, comparisons to the earlier findings highlight remarkable stability in perceptions of harassment over time.

  18. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  19. Peer sexual harassment: finding voice, changing culture--an intervention strategy for adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory intervention study examines the effectiveness of a single-sex women's studies course in reducing sexual harassment in an at-risk high school. It was hypothesized that the young women's loci of control would become more internal as a result of the course and participants would feel they had more control over their lives. Findings indicate that participants' knowledge of sexual harassment gained from the intervention had been retained and reports of sexual harassment increased. Administrative referrals for sexual harassment within the school were reduced by one third during the semester following the intervention. Participants' perceptions of their levels of internality increased over time.

  20. From the Kitchen to the Bedroom: Frequency Rates and Consequences of Sexual Harassment among Female Domestic Workers in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-01-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…

  1. Sexual Harassment Victimization during Emerging Adulthood: A Test of Routine Activities Theory and a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clodfelter, Tammatha A.; Turner, Michael G.; Hartman, Jennifer L.; Kuhns, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment of college students may lead to more serious forms of sexual assault. Few studies have investigated sexual harassment predictors framed within competing theoretical perspectives. In this study, the literature is extended by examining (a) three types of sexual harassment on a college campus, (b) the nature of reporting, and (c)…

  2. RN's experiences of sex-based and sexual harassment--an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Madison, J

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 317 registered nurses enrolled in tertiary post-registration courses found that two thirds of the 197 respondents had encountered sexual harassment in the work place. A quarter of these nurses identified medical officers and 22.1% identified co-workers as their harassers.This paper identifies the harassing behaviours the respondents experienced, their responses to the behaviour and the effects the harassment had on them.

  3. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  4. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  5. Commander’s Handbook for Prevention of Sexual Harassment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-28

    OPNAVINST 5510.162). May be taken when questions are raised about employee’s trustworthiness or loyalty (e.g., alcohol/drug abuse, sexual misconduct, other...taken when questions are raised about member’s trustworthiness or loyalty (e.g., alcohol/drug abuse, sexual misconduct, other behavior indicating...heard the Chief direct the Third Class to lie. (Oh, by the way, posters of NFL cheerleaders in scanty costumes and centerfolds from men’s magazines

  6. Sexual harassment and eating disorders in female elite athletes - a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Fasting, K; Brackenridge, C; Torstveit, M K; Berglund, B

    2003-10-01

    The aims were to examine the percentage of female elite athletes and controls reporting sexual harassment and abuse (SHAB), and whether a higher percentage of female athletes with eating disorders (ED) had experienced SHAB. A questionnaire was administered to the total population of female elite athletes (n = 660) and controls (n = 780) aged 15-39 years. Sexual harassment and abuse were measured through 11 questions, ranging from light to severe SHAB. In addition, questions about dietary-, menstrual- and training-history and the Eating Disorder Inventory were included. The response rate was 88% for athletes and 71% for controls. Athletes (n = 121) and controls (n = 81) classified as "at risk" for ED and non-ED controls participated in a clinical interview. A higher percentage of controls compared with athletes reported experiences of SHAB in general (59% vs. 51%, P < 0.001). A lower percentage of athletes had experienced SHAB inside sports than outside sport (28% vs. 39%, P < 0.001). A higher percentage of ED athletes than non-ED athletes had experienced SHAB (66% vs. 48%, P < 0.01), both inside sport and outside sport. In spite of the fact that a higher percentage of controls compared with athletes had experienced SHAB, it is necessary to formulate clear guidelines, set up educational workshops and implement intervention programs for both ED and SHAB in sport.

  7. The Busy Citizen's Discussion Guide: Sexual Harassment--Suggestions for Informal Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsfield Foundation, Pomfret, CT. Study Circles Resource Center.

    This discussion guide offers suggestions for conversations about sexual harassment. Its purpose is to help readers use dialogue to understand the legal definition of sexual harassment and to clarify and develop their own and others' definitions of acceptable behavior between men and women in the workplace, on campus, or wherever people gather. An…

  8. City College of San Francisco 1997 Sexual Harassment Student Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA. Office of Institutional Research, Planning and Grants.

    This document describes the findings of a 1997 sexual harassment student opinion survey conducted at City College of San Francisco. Survey questions were jointly developed by the Sexual Harassment Prevention Sub-Committee of the Diversity Advisory Committee and the Office of Research and Planning, approved by the College Advisory Council, and…

  9. Sexual Harassment as an Ethical Issue in Academic Life. Issues in Academic Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie Pickering

    This book provides a full examination of sexual harassment as an ethical issue in education. It considers issues raised by the definition, understanding, and regulation of campus sexual harassment and addresses the arguments that regulation may conflict with academic freedom and choice in relationships. Part 1 contains these chapters: (1) "Sexual…

  10. The Perception of Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: Impact of Gender and Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocca, Michela A.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of sexual harassment of male and female college students and perceptions of perpetrator and victim traits. Results from 296 male and 295 female college students indicate that women see the presented scenario as more sexually harassing than males did and that both men and women were influenced by perpetrator attractiveness.…

  11. "Some of Those Girls Can Be Real Drama Queens": Issues of Gender, Sexual Harassment and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s many feminists working for gender justice in education have highlighted the predominance and seriousness of sexual harassment in schools and condemned the enduring trivialization of such behaviours. This paper develops this body of work by focusing on how issues of sexual harassment are located within prevailing contemporary…

  12. Comparing Victim Attributions and Outcomes for Workplace Aggression and Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…

  13. Secrets in Public: Sexual Harassment in Public (and Private) Schools. Working Paper Series No. 256. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Nan D.

    This document, part of the Wellesley College (Massachusetts) Center for Research on Women's working papers series, examines the issue of sexual harassment in education. The report explores a number of incidents in which female students have been the targets of unwanted sexual comments, advances, and assaults. Much of the school-based harassment is…

  14. Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

  15. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  16. Liability for Sexual Harassment Involving Students under Federal Civil Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Discusses school district liability for sexual harassment under two provisions of federal law that are typically invoked as alternative bases for liability for sexual harassment: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (78 footnotes) (MLF)

  17. Gender Differences in Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Data from a Male-Dominated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Amy E.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental…

  18. The Development of a Sexual Harassment Proclivity Scale: Construct Validation and Relationship to Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.

    1996-01-01

    Develops and assesses the validity of a self-report measure of sexual harassment proclivities in men. Demonstrates the validity of the scale by its moderate correlations with attitude measures relevant to sexual harassment, its nonsignificant correlation with the need to provide socially desirable responses, and by showing that potential victims…

  19. Victimized Students: A Study of Sexual Harassment Liability in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinken, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Bound by federal and state laws, which protect individuals from sex discrimination, public higher education institutions must respond to the challenge of eliminating sexual harassment on campus. Statistics published by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission suggest that in spite of well-designed sexual harassment policies and action plans,…

  20. Sexual Harassment and Bullying: A Guide to Keeping Kids Safe and Holding Schools Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools is often discussed, but sexual harassment in schools, and how it differs from bullying is often overlooked. In fact, though, sexual harassment (committed both by fellow students and school personnel) is more common and yet more easily and quickly dismissed by those involved, though its consequences for the victim can be…

  1. The Impact of Reason for Training on the Relationship between "Best Practices" and Sexual Harassment Training Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Elissa L.; Kulik, Carol T.; Bustamante, Jennifer; Golom, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the use of best training practices on human resources managers' perceptions of sexual harassment training success and frequency of sexual harassment complaints. Results revealed no main effects of best training practices on sexual harassment training success. However, effects of best training practices on sexual…

  2. End Sexual Harassment of Employees, or Your Board Could Be Held Liable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    1987-01-01

    Defines sexual harassment and reminds school boards of their moral and legal obligation to protect employees and maintain an intimidation-free workplace. Offers several tips for preventing sexual harrassment and for launching investigations into complaints. (MLH)

  3. Measurement of the bystander intervention model for bullying and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Amanda B; Aloe, Ariel M; Livingston, Jennifer A; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2014-06-01

    Although peer bystanders can exacerbate or prevent bullying and sexual harassment, research has been hindered by the absence of a validated assessment tool to measure the process and sequential steps of the bystander intervention model. A measure was developed based on the five steps of Latané and Darley's (1970) bystander intervention model applied to bullying and sexual harassment. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 562 secondary school students confirmed the five-factor structure of the measure. Structural equation modeling revealed that all the steps were influenced by the previous step in the model, as the theory proposed. In addition, the bystander intervention measure was positively correlated with empathy, attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment, and awareness of bullying and sexual harassment facts. This measure can be used for future research and to inform intervention efforts related to the process of bystander intervention for bullying and sexual harassment.

  4. [Prevention of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam

    2004-01-01

    At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.

  5. Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military Service Academies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1) submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly...American youth today generally have casual attitudes toward sexual activities , underage and reckless alcohol use, and illegal drug use.22 Additionally... Sexual Harassment, Misconduct, and Assault Prevention and Response Program Office — In 2004, in an effort to bring all component activities related to

  6. How the Medical Culture Contributes to Coworker-Perpetrated Harassment and Abuse of Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; MacIntyre, Leslie; Tatemichi, Sue; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Harassment and abuse in the workplace of family physicians has been associated with higher levels of stress, increased consumption of alcohol, and higher risk for developing mental health problems. Few studies have examined issues contributing to abusive encounters in the workplace of family physicians. METHODS For the overall study we used a mixed methods design, which included a cross-sectional survey of a randomly selected sample of active family physicians from the database of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and telephone interviews with those who reported experiencing work related harassment and abuse in the last year. The data presented here arise from the qualitative interviews of the study, which were analyzed thematically. RESULTS The interview arm of the study included 23 female and 14 male participants. The major themes that emerged from the study were (1) modeling of abusive behaviors, (2) status hierarchy among various medical disciplines, (3) shortage of physicians, and (4) lack of transparent policies and follow-up procedures after abusive encounters. The results are discussed using the broken window theory. CONCLUSION Many family physicians experience harassing and abusive encounters during their training or in the workplace. The current medical culture appears to contribute to harassment and abuse in the workplace of family physicians in Canada. We described the components that intentionally or unintentionally facilitate abusive behavior in the medical culture. PMID:22412002

  7. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought.

  8. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed.

  9. The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on middle and high school girls.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James E; Fineran, Susan

    2007-06-01

    The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on six health outcomes among middle school girls were compared to these outcomes among high school girls. High school girls experienced more bullying and sexual harassment and poorer health outcomes than their middle school counterparts, but the impact of these experiences was less among high school students. Differences in outcomes may be the result of better support systems and coping mechanisms among high school girls and/or challenging developmental changes during middle school. Sexual orientation, race, and disability had some notable relationships to bullying and sexual harassment experiences as well as health outcomes.

  10. Experiences of sexual harassment of women health workers in four hospitals in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Paramita

    2007-11-01

    In 1997, the Supreme Court of India recognised sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of human rights. However, little is known about the extent or persistence of sexual harassment. To obtain an understanding of women's experiences of sexual harassment in the health sector, an exploratory study was undertaken in 2005-2006 among 135 women health workers, including doctors, nurses, health care attendants, administrative and other non-medical staff working in two government and two private hospitals in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Four types of experiences were reported by the 77 women who had experienced 128 incidents of sexual harassment: verbal harassment (41), psychological harassment (45), sexual gestures and exposure (15), and unwanted touch (27). None of the women reported rape, attempted rape or forced sex but a number of them knew of other women health workers who had experienced these. The women who had experienced harassment were reluctant to complain, fearing for their jobs or being stigmatised, and most were not aware of formal channels for redress. Experiences of sexual harassment reflected the obstacles posed by power imbalances and gender norms in empowering women to make a formal complaint, on the one hand, and receive redress on the other.

  11. Sex and power in the academy: modeling sexual harassment in the lives of college women.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Marisela; Cortina, Lilia M; Pang, Joyce S; Torges, Cynthia M; Magley, Vicki J

    2006-05-01

    The authors build an integrated model of the process by which academic sexual harassment undermines women's well-being; also examined is harasser power as a potential moderator of this process. Data from 1,455 college women suggest that sexual harassment experiences are associated with increased psychological distress, which then relates to lower academic satisfaction, greater physical illness, and greater disordered eating. The cumulative effect is greater disengagement from the academic environment, which in turn relates to performance decline (i.e., lower grades). Regardless of how frequently the harassment occurred, academic satisfaction was lower when the harassment came from higher-status individuals (i.e., faculty, staff, or administrators). At the same time, harassment was equally detrimental to mental health, regardless of who perpetrated it. The article concludes with implications for theory, research, and intervention.

  12. Sexual Harassment, Psychological Distress, and Problematic Drinking Behavior Among College Students: An Examination of Reciprocal Causal Relations.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.

  13. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  14. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined.

  15. Sexual harassment in middle and high school children and effects on physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Eom, Elizabeth; Restaino, Stephen; Perkins, Amy M; Neveln, Nicole; Harrington, John W

    2015-05-01

    Sexual harassment can be physical interaction and touching, as well as, psychological, environmental, or via Internet and text messaging. An online survey in an urban clinic asked children, aged 12 to 18 years the following: demographic data, height and weight, chronic medical conditions, healthcare use, questions concerning sexual harassment-witnessed and exposure, and finally questions from the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-35). Overall, 124 of 210 (59%) of the 12- to 18-year-olds surveyed had experienced sexual harassment, with the predominance being female 69% (80/116) versus 48% (49/92) male. Participants who had experienced sexual harassment were significantly more likely to score positive for psychological impairment than those who had not experienced sexual harassment (chi-square test P < .001; odds ratio: 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-11.8). There was a borderline significant association between elevated body mass index and having experienced sexual harassment (2-sample t test P = .08). Sexual harassment has a direct correlation to psychological impairment in adolescents, especially females.

  16. Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Hershcovis, M Sandy; Barling, Julian

    2010-09-01

    In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in an experimental study. We hypothesized that victims of sexual harassment are more likely than victims of workplace aggression to depersonalize their mistreatment and attribute blame to the perpetrator or the perpetrator's attitudes toward their gender. In contrast, victims of workplace aggression are more likely than victims of sexual harassment to personalize the mistreatment and make internal attributions. Results supported our hypotheses. On the basis of differential attributions for these 2 types of mistreatment, we argue that victims of workplace aggression may experience stronger adverse outcomes than victims of sexual harassment. In Study 2, we compared meta-analytically the attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Negative outcomes of workplace aggression were stronger in magnitude than those of sexual harassment for 6 of the 8 outcome variables. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  17. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use alcohol or drugs Engage in high-risk sexual behaviors Get poor grades in school Have a lot ... Sexual Abuse. https://www.childwelfare.gov/can/identifying/sex_abuse.cfm. Accessed November 21, 2014.

  18. Sexual harassment in online communications: effects of gender and discourse medium.

    PubMed

    Biber, Jodi K; Doverspike, Dennis; Baznik, Daniel; Cober, Alana; Ritter, Barbara A

    2002-02-01

    Differences in the perception of sexual harassment depending on discourse medium (traditional classroom setting versus online) and gender were examined via survey with 270 undergraduate participants. It was hypothesized that (1) participants would differ in their evaluations of similar behaviors when they were described as occurring in a traditional classroom setting as opposed to an online environment, and (2) males and females would differ in their evaluations of online behaviors. Eight potentially harassing acts were examined--including sexually explicit pictures, content, jokes, misogyny, the use of nicknames, requests for company, sexual favors, and comments about dress. Misogynist comments were seen as more harassing online than in traditional settings, as well as using nicknames and comments about dress. In a traditional setting, only requests for company were seen as more harassing. In terms of gender differences, women rated online pictures and jokes as significantly more harassing than men.

  19. Sexual Harassment in the Active-Duty Navy: Findings from the 1991 Navy-Wide Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    NPRDC-TR-94-2) harassed. This direct query method has the advantage of recognizing the complexities involved in deciding whether sexually - oriented ...NPRDC-TR-94-2 December 13 Sexual Harassment in the Active-Duty Navy: Findings from the 1991 Navy-Wide Survey ɘ DTIC Authors ELECTE Amy L Culbertson...1991-1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Sexual Harassment in the Active-Duty Navy: N0002293WREE500 Findings from the 1991 Navy-Wide Survey 6

  20. Impact of gender on reactions to military sexual assault and harassment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.

  1. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Highlights from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    members are subject to mistreatment on the basis of their gender that deprives them of equal opportunities within the military. RB-9841-OSD (2015) RAND’s...assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the military. The resulting study, the RAND Military Workplace Study (RMWS), invited close to...takes a new approach to counting individuals in the military who experienced sexual assault, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination in the

  2. Peer harassment and risky behavior among sexual minority girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall.

  3. Outrage Management in Cases of Sexual Harassment as Revealed in Judicial Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Paula; Graham, Tina; Martin, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment can be conceptualized as a series of interactions between harassers and targets that either inhibit or increase outrage by third parties. The outrage management model predicts the kinds of actions likely to be used by perpetrators to minimize outrage, predicts the consequences of failing to use these tactics--namely backfire, and…

  4. Attributions of Responsibility for an Incident of Sexual Harassment in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine-French, Suzanne; Radtke, H. Lorraine

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effect of observer characteristics (gender and traditional vs. less traditional attitudes) on attributions of responsibility in a case of sexual harassment. Gender of the victim in the scenarios presented were varied, along with the victim's reaction to the harassment. Observers' evaluations and responsibility attributions are…

  5. Seeking Justice for Sexual Harassment in Schools: Is Title IX the Only Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In its current term, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear arguments in "Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee" (2007), a case involving alleged student-to-student sexual harassment between a kindergartner and a third grader. At first blush, the case is about unfortunate, alleged incidents of harassment of a young student while on the…

  6. Perceptions of Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Gender and Academic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Ormerod, Alayne J.

    1991-01-01

    To explore factors influencing how sexual harassment is perceived in the university setting, faculty members and graduate students were asked to rate hypothetical situations involving professors and students. Women were more likely to view less explicitly coercive situations as harassing, but the power difference between faculty and students in…

  7. Effects of Type of Coping Response, Setting, and Social Context on Reactions to Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigal, Janet; Braden-Maguire, Jane; Patt, Ivy; Goodrich, Carl; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates at a multicultural university (MU) and a historically black university (HBU) read scenarios in which a student was sexually harassed by a professor or workplace supervisor. Participants rated the victim's behavior. HBU students considered the harasser not guilty significantly more often than MU students, but considered the harasser…

  8. Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

  9. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  10. Intervention Strategies for Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rencken, Robert H.

    This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…

  11. Sex and ethnicity as moderators in the sexual harassment phenomenon: a revision and test of Fitzgerald et al. (1994).

    PubMed

    Bergman, Mindy E; Henning, Jaime B

    2008-04-01

    Fitzgerald, Hulin, and Drasgow (1994) proposed that personal vulnerability characteristics (such as sex and ethnicity) would moderate the effect of sexual harassment on its outcomes. This paper argues that personal vulnerability characteristics instead moderate the effect of organizational sexual harassment climate on sexual harassment because of their role as identity markers within social hierarchies. Using a sample of nearly 8,000 male and female military personnel from four ethnicity groups, the proposition that organizational climate differentially affects sexual harassment frequency across sex and ethnicity was evaluated. Results suggested that sex is an important moderator of these relationships, but that ethnicity is not. Further, sex and ethnicity were not found to moderate the effect of sexual harassment on its outcomes. Potential generalizability of these results to other types of harassment (e.g., racial harassment, bullying), as well as needed future research in this area, is discussed.

  12. Effects of a brief pilot sexual harassment prevention workshop on employees' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol

    2013-10-01

    Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition.

  13. Dubious value of the "reasonable woman" standard in understanding sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, R

    1995-12-01

    There are problems with the "reasonable woman" concept for sexual harassment cases. Also, the 1995 findings of Baird, et al., although statistically significant, identify very small differences between men and women subjects. "Reasonable woman," as employed in sexual harassment cases, is a culture-bound concept used by some feminists to present a specific worldview in which women are seen in the victim's role, and men are viewed negatively.

  14. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.

  15. Care for survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tidy, H

    1996-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse affects at least 18% of British women but the true figure may be far higher. Repressed memories may resurface at childbirth. Midwives need to be aware of certain behavioural tendencies which may indicate childhood sexual abuse. There are four recognised labour styles which may be adopted by abuse survivors. Extra sensitivity should be used by midwives when caring for a possible abuse survivor. Disclosure of abuse must always come from the client.

  16. Flirting with disaster: short-term mating orientation and hostile sexism predict different types of sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We combine evolutionary and sociocultural accounts of sexual harassment, proposing that sexuality-related and hostility-related motives lead to different types of harassment. Specifically, men's short-term mating orientation (STMO) was hypothesized to predict only unwanted sexual attention but not gender harassment, whereas men's hostile sexism (HS) was hypothesized to predict both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. As part of an alleged computer-chat task, 100 male students could send sexualized personal remarks (representing unwanted sexual attention), sexist jokes (representing gender harassment), or nonharassing material to an attractive female target. Independently, participants' STMO, HS, and sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) were assessed. Correlational and path analyses revealed that STMO specifically predicted unwanted sexual attention, whereas HS predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. Furthermore, SHMA fully mediated the effect of HS on gender harassment, but did not mediate effects of STMO or HS on unwanted sexual attention. Results are discussed in relation to motivational explanations for sexual harassment and antiharassment interventions.

  17. Sexual Harassment of Women Graduate Students: The Impact of Institutional Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuehrer, Ann; Schilling, Karen Maitland

    Sexual harassment is one concern of women graduate students in community psychology programs. When a sexual relationship exists between male faculty and female students, the distribution of power reflects the subordinate status of women and the dominant position of men. Many studies have documented the negative consequences of sexual contact…

  18. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  19. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  20. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  1. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: From Conflict to Community. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Robert O.; And Others

    Colleges and universities are expected to provide safe and appropriate learning and working environments, including freedom from sexual harassment. Unfortunately, the frequency of complaints on college and university campuses has increased. Sexual harassment is a form of sexual discrimination and is prohibited by federal laws. This behavior…

  2. Sexual Harassment of Women Professors by Students: Exploring the Dynamics of Power, Authority, and Gender in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauerholz, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaire explores the sexual harassment of women professors by students to gain insight into how widespread the problem is, and to understand better how both gender and status define an individual's vulnerability to sexual harassment. Survey data show a range of incidents, from sexist comments to sexual assault. (Author/JS)

  3. Perception Differences in Ambiguous Forms of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Comparison between the United States and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toker, Yonca

    2016-07-03

    Certain social-sexual behaviors that could be potentially encountered in workplaces are ambiguous in nature and perceiving them as sexual harassment can depend on the culture. With an aim to delineate the overlap and distinctions of sexual harassment perceptions of such behaviors across samples of women university students from Turkey (TR, N = 215) and the United States (US, N = 209), measurement invariance and latent mean differences in perceiving three ambiguous forms; sexist hostility, sexual hostility, and insinuation-of-interest, were examined. It was hypothesized that the US sample would perceive sexist hostility more sexually harassing as sexist workplace discriminatory practices are emphasized as a form of sexual harassment, and that the TR sample would perceive sexual hostility and insinuation-of-interest as more sexually harassing as women in TR operate in a conservative context. Despite similarities in rank ordering, US participants perceived sexist hostility more sexually harassing; insinuation-of-interest and sexual hostility less sexually harassing than Turkish participants, supporting all three hypotheses. There are implications of differing perceptions across cultures for organizations in terms of disseminating awareness via training programs about the forms of sexual harassment (SH) in a local context and for taking account of local findings in shaping the labor code of countries in relation to SH.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  5. False Accusations of Nosocomial Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…

  6. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  7. Sexual harassment of girls in elementary school: a concealed phenomenon within a heterosexual romantic discourse.

    PubMed

    Gådin, Katja Gillander

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses showed that young girls experienced verbal, nonverbal, and sexual assault behaviors at school. Sexual harassment as a concealed phenomenon and manifest within a romantic discourse were themes found in the analysis. A conclusion is that schools have to acknowledge behaviors related to sexual harassment as a potential problem even in young ages and develop methods to approach the subject also for this age group.

  8. The effects of sexual harassment on turnover in the military: time-dependent modeling.

    PubMed

    Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2005-11-01

    Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations.

  9. Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and the psychological well-being of African American women.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2008-04-01

    Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Children and Evidence of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argent, A. C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 96 children, ages 23 months to 14 years, in Cape Town, South Africa, was linked to sexual abuse in 67 percent of patients. It is recommended that symptomatic prepubertal children with STDs should be investigated for sexual abuse. (Author/SW)

  11. The evaluation of sexual abuse in children.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Nancy

    2005-08-01

    This clinical report serves to update the statement titled "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children," which was first published in 1991 and revised in 1999. The medical assessment of suspected sexual abuse is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate laboratory data. The role of the physician may include determining the need to report sexual abuse; assessment of the physical, emotional, and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse; and coordination with other professionals to provide comprehensive treatment and follow-up of victims.

  12. Perceived sexual harassment at work: meta-analysis and structural model of antecedents and consequences.

    PubMed

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J F; Depolo, Marco

    2008-05-01

    Although sexual harassment has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions about its antecedents and consequences, both at the personal and organizational level. An extensive literature search yielded 42 empirical studies with 60 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported the hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of harassment.

  13. The Incidence and Dimensions of Sexual Harassment in Academia and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of Sexual Experiences Questionnaire to assess sexual harassment. Reports on results of psychometric analyses, application of inventory to two large public universities, and development of second form of the inventory designed for working women. Discusses results for large sample of academic, professional and semiprofessional,…

  14. Sexual Harassment of Girls in Elementary School: A Concealed Phenomenon within a Heterosexual Romantic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadin, Katja Gillander

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses…

  15. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  16. Beyond Foucault: Toward a User-Centered Approach to Sexual Harassment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Frances J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how United States national policy regarding sexual harassment exemplifies the Foucauldian paradigm in its attempt to regulate sexuality through seemingly authorless texts. Proposes a user-centered approach to policy drafting that values the knowledge of workers as users and makers of workplace policy. Argues that regulation through such…

  17. The Relationship between Sexual Minority Verbal Harassment And Utilization of Health Services: Results from Countywide Risk Assessment Survey (CRAS) 2004

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt D’Anna, Laura; Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Janson, Michael; Chen, Cristy; Malotte, C. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation-based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County-funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, orbisexual. Those who reported being verbally harassed received significantly more services overall than those who were not verbally harassed, and service utilization varied by sexual orientation. These findings inform future efforts to identify and assess social discrimination in health and social service settings. PMID:23044662

  18. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Statistical Analysis: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. Results: The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (P<0.01). Conclusions: Men and women differ in their awareness as to what constitute sexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment. PMID:22969176

  19. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment.

  20. Harassment Issues in Sport Organizations: Utilitarian, Justice, Kantian, and Existential Approaches to Moral Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, David Cruise; Zakus, Dwight H.

    2004-01-01

    The literature discussing harassment issues in sport primarily focuses on sexual harassment and abuse. Discussion of this topic is dominated by definitions of harassment in terms of the biological, psychological, cultural, and organizational rationale for its occurrence and a variety of educational methods to transmit the "facts" of this…

  1. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  2. Examining the Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Darius K-S.; Lam, Chun Bun; Chow, Suk Yee; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace. Using a meta-analytic approach, we analyzed findings from 49 primary studies, with a total sample size of 89,382, to obtain estimates of the population mean effect size of the association between sexual harassment and…

  3. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  4. The Role of Ethnicity in Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Students' Experience of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Lisa K.; Gilbert, Lucia Albino

    2012-01-01

    This study explored dimensions of a social phenomenon not often investigated among Mexican American college students, namely sexual harassment. Mexican American (n = 261) and non-Hispanic White female students (n = 111) from three southwestern universities responded to scales assessing experiences of sexually harassing behaviors, harassment…

  5. Sexual Harassment in the Federal Workplace: Is It a Problem? A Report of the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board Office of Merit Systems Review and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Patricia A.; Prokop, Ruth T.

    This report represents the culmination of a year-long evaluation of the nature and extent of sexual harassment in the federal government. The various chapters explore the: (1) attitudes of federal employees toward sexual harassment; (2) extent of sexual harassment in the federal workplace; (3) characteristics of victims and perpetrators of sexual…

  6. Preventing Sexual Abuse. Reference Sheet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…

  7. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  8. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  9. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  10. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  11. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  12. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  13. Trauma: memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can have big implications for a woman both physically and psychologically during childbearing. There are aspects of midwifery practice such as vaginal examinations which can have devastating effects for survivors of childhood abuse because of their similarities to sexual abuse. There are steps which can be taken by student midwives and midwives alike to not only prevent the re-traumatisation of the survivors of childhood sexual abuse but empower them through their pregnancy and birthing experience. This article is based on a presentation to fellow students in which Stephanie Marriott examined the issues.

  14. Reinstatement of the sexual harasser: the conflict between federal labor law and Title VII.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, T J

    1993-01-01

    Greater numbers of employers are adopting and vigorously enforcing policies prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace. Discipline, including possible termination of employment, often is prescribed for the violation of such policies. When employees are represented by a union and covered by a collective bargaining agreement, final decisions relating to discipline often are made by arbitrators pursuant to the agreement's grievance and arbitration procedure. For a variety of reasons, arbitrators may decide that a lesser form of discipline than that imposed by the employer is warranted for acts of sexual harassment. Such arbitration awards present a substantial conflict between two compelling public policies--the public policy favoring the private resolution of workplace disputes and the public policy against sexual harassment. This article will address the several federal courts of appeals' decisions that have attempted to resolve this conflict.

  15. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    de Lijster, Gaby P A; Felten, Hanneke; Kok, Gerjo; Kocken, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual harassment behavior were presented to secondary school students. We evaluated its effectiveness, using a cluster-randomized controlled design to assign schools to an experimental condition [n = 14 schools; 431 students (51 % female)] and a control condition [n = 11 schools; 384 students (51 % female)]. To measure the effects of the intervention at first post-test and 6-month follow-up, our multilevel analyses used a two-level random intercept model. Outcome measures were sexual harassment behaviors, behavioral determinants and distal factors influencing these behaviors. At post-test, students in the experimental group reported a reduced intention to commit sexual harassment behavior and higher self-efficacy in rejecting it. At post-test and follow-up there was a significant positive effect on social norms for rejecting sexual harassment behavior. At follow-up, sexual self-esteem was higher in students in the experimental group than in the control group. Effects on these determinants will benefit adolescents' future sexual behaviors. In combination, the play and lessons, possibly together with continued sexual health education and skills programs on social-emotional learning in subsequent school years, have potential for preventing sexual harassment behavior.

  16. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  17. How do sexual harassment policies shape gender beliefs? An exploration of the moderating effects of norm adherence and gender.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Justine E

    2013-09-01

    Sexual harassment laws have led to important organizational changes in the workplace yet research continues to document resistance to their implementation and backlash against the people who mobilize such laws. Employing experimental research methods, this study proposes and tests a theory specifying the mechanisms through which sexual harassment policies affect gender beliefs. The findings show evidence that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms. I also find that men and women's different structural locations in the status hierarchy lead to different, but related sets of concerns about the status threats posed by sexual harassment policies. By specifying the social psychological processes through which sexual harassment law affects beliefs about men and women, this study sets the stage for investigating ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective.

  18. Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: empirical evidence from two organizations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, K T; Swan, S; Fitzgerald, L F

    1997-06-01

    Previous evidence regarding the outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace has come mainly from self-selected samples or analogue studies or those using inadequate measures. The sexual harassment experiences, coping responses, and job-related and psychological outcomes of 447 female private-sector employees and 300 female university employees were examined. Discriminant function analyses indicated that women who had not been harassed and women who had experienced low, moderate, and high frequencies of harassment could be distinguished on the basis of both job-related and psychological outcomes. These outcomes could not be attributed to negative affective disposition, attitudes toward harassment, or general job stress. Results suggest that relatively low-level but frequent types of sexual harassment can have significant negative consequences for working women.

  19. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active-Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE U.S. MILITARY Top-Line Estimates for Active -Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace...SUBTITLE Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active -Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace...and Tables Figures 1. Estimated Percentage of Active -Duty Service Men and Women Who Experienced Unwanted Sexual Contact in the Past Year, as

  20. Victims' psychosocial well-being after reporting sexual harassment in the military.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.

  1. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  2. Assisting sexually abused adults. Practical guide to interviewing patients.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.

    1996-01-01

    Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817

  3. The effects of prior workplace behavior on subsequent sexual harassment judgments.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Richard L; Winter, Ryan; Rogers, Melanie; Arnot, Lucy

    2004-02-01

    A dual processing model of sexual harassment judgments predicted that the behavior of a complainant in a prior case would influence evaluations in an unrelated subsequent case. In the first of two experimental scenarios depicting social-sexual conduct at work, the female complainant's conduct was manipulated to be aggressive, submissive, ambiguous, or neutral. Half of the participants were asked to reflect upon the first scenario after reading it and before answering responsibility questions. The other half simply reviewed the scenario and answered the questions. When the complainant acted aggressively, her behavior in the first scenario caused men who reflected on the fact pattern to find less evidence of harassment. Most interestingly, an aggressive complainant observed in the first scenario caused participants (especially women) to rate lower the likelihood that a neutral complainant in a second independent case was the victim of gender discrimination. Across cases, men found less evidence of harassment than did women.

  4. Medical advances in child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell A

    2011-09-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  6. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  7. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  8. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  9. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646

  10. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-05-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.

  11. Sexual Harassment in the Physician-Patient Interaction: Analysis of Charges Against Doctors in the State of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Claudio; Kelian, Rogério L’Abbate; Oliveira, Reinaldo Ayer; Gobbetti, Gisele Joana; Massad, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research intends to discuss sexual harassment within the doctor-patient relationship based on four parameters: doctor’s characteristics, accuser’s characteristics, accusation characteristics, and the evaluation by the Medicine Council of São Paulo. METHOD It is a descriptive, quantitative approach using a retrospective documental analysis. Studied subjects were doctors who were allegedly engaged in sexual harassment. This analysis considered all accusations made from January 2000 to December 2005 (n=150). RESULTS For this type of sexual abuse, there was a prevalence of male professionals (96.6%) who committed abuse against female patients (90.3%) during adulthood (77.7%). The mean age of the accused was 46.87 years, ranging from 30–76 years, concentrated between 46–75 years. The intrinsic difficulty of understanding sexual harassment by a professional constrained ethical evaluation of the cases, with 24.1% of the cases being considered proceeding charges by the professional council. When the cases were recognized as proceeding, they were either filed (88.2%) or were considered to be ethical infringement (11.8%) becoming Professional Ethical Process (PEP). In the majority of proceeding cases (87%), there was a Police Occurrence Report enclosed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The incidence of sexual abuse by professionals was independent of education, as the accused professionals came from a large variety of medical colleges, without significant differences related to institution. The predominance of accusations against older professionals may occur due to the frail personality structure that allows professional acting out. Objective evidence is very important in ethical evaluations compared to psychological and subjective evidence. PMID:19936181

  12. Sexual Harassment Solutions at Work. Profiles of Successful Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Colleen

    This publication profiles the successful efforts of eight organizations to develop programs and policies to prevent sexual harassment in their workplaces. The profiles highlight a facet of each organization's efforts. An introduction offers a blueprint for action. The first profile is a look at US West and the key elements for developing and…

  13. Ambiguities around Sexuality: An Approach to Understanding Harassment and Bullying of Young People in British Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a small study undertaken in 2001, which examined the experiences of and responses to sexual harassment and bullying adopted by different professionals (teachers, education social workers, youth workers and a school nurse) and by young people (12 to 25-year-olds). It draws together some of the literature relating to young…

  14. Sexual Harassment among Students with Educational Disabilities: Perspectives of Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Heath, Melissa Allen; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Smith, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of special education teachers about the prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among students identified with educational disabilities. Utah special education teachers (250) were randomly selected from the state's database. Fifty-two percent (n = 129) of the surveys were returned. Approximately…

  15. PTSD Symptoms and Sexual Harassment: The Role of Attributions and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Sadie E.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have compiled significant evidence demonstrating that sexual harassment leads to psychological harm, including the full symptom picture of PTSD, but few have examined the psychological processes involved. Research on attributions among trauma victims would suggest that causal attributions and perceptions of control may be important…

  16. Same- and Cross-Gender Sexual Harassment Victimization in Middle School: A Developmental-Contextual Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoll, Jessica S.; Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy J.; Pepler, Debra; Simkins-Strong, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Using a developmental-contextual framework, the present study investigated risk factors for same- and cross-gender sexual harassment victimization in 986 middle school students. Participants completed questionnaires in the fall and spring of the same school year so risk factors could be explored longitudinally. Results revealed that gender…

  17. Sexual Harassment Reported Among a Sample of Undergraduate Women in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, Lauren M.; Brewe, Eric; Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hazari, Zarha; Hodapp, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    The field of physics lags behind most other scientific fields in gender parity of students earning bachelor's degrees. The transition from enrollment in high school physics to graduating with physics degree represents the biggest decrease in the proportion of female students for any step in physics educational attainment. Sexual harassment contributes to an unwelcome climate. It is unknown how prevalent sexual harassment is in the field of physics and whether it's a contributing factor to the field's inability to recruit and retain female students. Our goal was to measure a quantitative baseline for sexual harassment--associated with physics--observed and experienced by a sample of female undergraduate students. As part of a larger conference evaluation survey, we conducted an internet-based survey (n = 632) of attendees of the APS Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics to measure the extent to which they personally experienced or observed sexual harassment in a context associated with physics. We will present results from this survey. Opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF, DOE, or APS. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (PHY-1346627) and by the Department of Energy (DE-SC0011076).

  18. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  19. Account Credibility and Public Image: Excuses, Justifications, Denials, and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Deborah; Cody, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines and challenges theories of account giving and public image following an accusation of sexual harassment in the workplace, using college students and working adults as subjects. Challenges the existing theories of account giving and public image, and lays to rest the notion that full apologies and excuses are mitigating in serious account…

  20. Are Blogs Putting Youth at Risk for Online Sexual Solicitation or Harassment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In light of public concern about the dangers to young people from maintaining online journals or "blogs," this exploratory paper examines whether bloggers are at increased risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment. Method: A national telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10-17, conducted between March and June…

  1. Writers and Their Maps: The Construction of a GAO Report on Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kelli Cargile

    2000-01-01

    Examines a 1994 General Accounting Office (GAO) report on sexual harassment at U.S. service academies to determine how power structures affected the report writers' rhetorical choices. Identifies what is valued and devalued in the report's contents. Describes Congress's reaction to the report and speculates on the report's impact on public…

  2. Adolescent Girls' Cognitive Appraisals of Coping Responses to Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears; Ayres, Melanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a stressor for many girls in middle and high school. Prior research indicates that approach strategies (seeking support or confronting) are generally more effective than avoidance strategies in alleviating stress. However, the deployment of effective coping behaviors depends partly on how individuals evaluate different…

  3. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

  4. Ambivalence and Stereotypes Cause Sexual Harassment: A Theory with Implications for Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Theorizes that workplace sexual harassment results from the complex interplay of ambivalent motives and gender stereotyping of women and jobs. It argues that ambivalence combines hostile and "benevolent" sexist motives based on paternalism, gender differentiation, and heterosexuality and that organizational context can encourage or discourage the…

  5. Sexual Harassment and Social Justice: Reflections on the Distance yet to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2003-01-01

    Despite progress, protections remain inadequate for victims who bring legal claims of sexual harassment. The process for damages determination frequently increases harm and undercuts the policy initiatives enshrined in Title VII. The author critiques this process, focusing on misuse of psychological examinations and failure of the federal…

  6. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  7. Sexual Harassment in a Residential Occupation: The Experiences of Women Seafarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michelle A

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This paper reports women seafarers' experiences of sexual harassment. Design: Data reported in this paper were collected as part of a larger study exploring company policies and practices relating to women seafarers and the experiences of women seafarers themselves. Setting: Data reported here was collected with women from seven…

  8. Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment: Longitudinal Profiles and Transitions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…

  9. In Harm's Way: Factors Related to Psychological Distress following Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The negative consequences for victims of sexual harassment are well documented. However, one area unexamined is the process that leads to harm. Researchers have proposed three influences (i.e., objective or stimulus factors, individual factors, and contextual factors) on the psychological, health-related, and organizational outcomes of sexual…

  10. Comparing Sexual Harassment Subtypes among Black and White Women by Military Rank: Double Jeopardy, the Jezebel, and the Cult of True Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.; Woods, Krystle C.

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist analyses of double jeopardy and the cult of true womanhood, we examine race, rank, sexual harassment frequency, and psychological distress for Black and White female military personnel (N= 7,714). Results indicated that White women reported more overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and crude behavior, whereas Black…

  11. An Examination of Sexual Harassment Complaints in the Air Force for FY 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    Athens, Ohio f or The Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute Patrick Air Force Base, Florida United States Navy-ASEE 1988 Summer Faculty...PAGE COUNT Final I FROM 1 3Jun TO 23JJg 880930 1 4-3 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Prepared as a part of the Defense Equal Opportunity Management...the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines. According to the EEOC, sexual harassment includes: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests

  12. Incestuous Sexual Abuse: Preventing the Scars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)

  13. From the kitchen to the bedroom: frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Eros R; Cerqueira, Elder

    2009-08-01

    Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment than those residing in their own homes, when controlling for participants' age, race, and social class. Women residing in their employers' residences used more alcohol and drugs than their counterparts. Harassed women had significantly higher self-esteem impairment and anxiety and depression than nonharassed women. Nonharassed women residing in their own homes had the best physical well-being. Concerning participants' worst sexually harassing experiences, the perpetrators were likely to be men (75%), who also engaged in more severe types of sexual harassment than female perpetrators. The emotional reactions to such incidents were significantly more negative when perpetrated by men than by women. Implications for foreign in-home workers employed by Europeans and North Americans are discussed.

  14. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  15. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  16. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.

  17. Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapes, Bruce E.

    Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  19. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  20. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  1. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  2. Here comes the judge: the influence of judge personal characteristics on federal sexual harassment case outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Carol T; Perry, Elissa L; Pepper, Molly B

    2003-02-01

    This study explored the effects of judges' personal characteristics (gender, race, age, and political affiliation) and case characteristics on the outcomes of federal cases of hostile environment sexual harassment. Results revealed that even after controlling for the effects of relevant case characteristics (e.g., severity of the harassment), judges' personal characteristics influenced case outcomes. Specifically, younger judges and Democrat judges were more likely to find for the plaintiff (the alleged victim of harassment). The probability that the decision would favor the plaintiff was only 16% when the case was heard by an older judge but 45% when heard by a younger judge. The probability that the decision would favor the plaintiff was only 18% when the case was heard by a judge who had been appointed by a Republican president but 46% when the judge had been appointed by a Democrat president.

  3. Sexual desire and linguistic analysis: a comparison of sexually-abused and non-abused women.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-02-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored.

  4. Help, I Am Losing Control! Examining the Reporting of Sexual Harassment by Adolescents to Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment is often encountered by adolescents on social networking sites (SNS). One option to cope with a situation of harassment on SNS is to alarm the provider by reporting the transgressive content. It is yet unclear what the determinants of reporting a sexual harassment situation on SNS are, as well as the subsequent actions to these reports from the part of the SNS provider. In this article, we seek to address these gaps, and in particular examine whether control-by-the-self over the situation and negative emotions play a role in the reporting of sexual harassment on SNS. Findings indicate that a low situational control-by-the-self, indirectly (namely through a higher experience of negative emotions such as anger and shame) increases the reporting of sexual harassment by the victim. Public visibility of the incident and the impossibility to remove the content reduce the situational control-by-the-self. Results further suggest that SNS providers often ignore reported situations of sexual harassment. The study concludes with suggestions for responses to reported harassment on SNS, which should be directed toward increasing behavioral control and thereby alleviating negative emotions.

  5. [Psychological harassment].

    PubMed

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  7. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  8. The Effects of Sexual Abuse on Women in Battering Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Paulin M.; And Others

    The prevalence of sexual abuse by male batterers has been estimated to be between 34% and 59%, although there are few studies examining the effects of this sexual abuse on the female victims. Further, the relationship between other forms of abuse and sexual abuse by a battering partner has not been systematically examined. The purpose of this…

  9. Urgent Medical Assessment after Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…

  10. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  11. Make a Move: A Comprehensive Effect Evaluation of a Sexual Harassment Prevention Program in Dutch Residential Youth Care.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-06-27

    Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program-Make a Move-targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen's ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects.

  12. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Do They Decrease the Occurrence of Child Sexual Abuse?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 825 female undergraduates found 62 percent participated in a "good touch-bad touch" sexual abuse prevention program in school. Eight percent who reported ever having had a prevention program also reported having been subsequently sexually abused, compared to 14 percent who did not ever have a prevention program. (Contains references.)…

  14. Childhood sexual abuse: sources of trauma.

    PubMed

    Draucker, C B

    1993-01-01

    Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Child sexual abuse: seven years in practice.

    PubMed

    Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention.

  16. Dental fear in sexually abused women.

    PubMed

    Willumsen, T

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental fear in women who have been exposed to different kinds of sexual abuse. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, 99 sexually abused women were divided into three groups: one group who reported having been exposed to sexual touching (ST); one group who reported intercourse (IC); and one group who reported sexual abuse involving oral penetration (OP). The mean score on dental fear assessments was significantly higher for all groups than for Norwegian women in general. Women in the OP group scored significantly higher than women in other groups on dental fear. The majority of the women reported that they had experienced problems in relation to dental treatment situations. About half of the women in the OP group and one-third in the other groups reported that they had never considered that there was a relationship between the abuse and their problems with dental treatment situations. Significantly more women in the OP group reported that they had not been aware of the relationship, possibly because the abuse had been repressed. The majority of the women with extreme dental fear had never informed a dentist that they had been sexually abused.

  17. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    PubMed

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed.

  18. Sexual Harassment and Assault in the U.S. Military: A Review of Policy and Research Trends.

    PubMed

    Stander, Valerie A; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing concern regarding the problem of sexual violence in the military. Because sexual harassment and assault are more closely intertwined in the military than in most civilian contexts, the military context affords a unique opportunity to study the interrelationships between these two types of sexual violence. In this review, we briefly summarize existing research on military sexual trauma prevalence rates, effects on victims, and risk factors, as well as prevention and response programs in the military context. In each of these topic areas, we emphasize issues unique to the complex interplay between sexual harassment and assault in the military and make recommendations for future research.

  19. Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice

    2008-05-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.

  20. Predicting Sexual Harassment From Hostile Sexism and Short-Term Mating Orientation: Relative Strength of Predictors Depends on Situational Priming of Power Versus Sex.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2016-12-09

    Previous research has shown that short-term mating orientation (STMO) and hostile sexism (HS) selectively predict different types of sexual harassment. In a priming experiment, we studied the situational malleability of those effects. Male participants could repeatedly send sexist jokes (gender harassment), harassing remarks (unwanted sexual attention), or nonharassing messages to a (computer-simulated) female target. Before entering the laboratory, participants were unobtrusively primed with the concepts of either sexuality or power. As hypothesized, sexuality priming strengthened the link between STMO and unwanted sexual attention, whereas power priming strengthened the link between HS and gender harassment. Practical implications are discussed.

  1. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  2. When the customer shouldn't be king: antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Hilary J; Gelfand, Michele J

    2007-05-01

    Much of the work in today's service industries requires women to deal with people outside of their organizations, namely, customers and clients, yet research on sexual harassment has focused almost exclusively on sexual harassment within organizations. Because the threat of harassment also operates at the boundaries of organizations, our existing models based solely on harassment inside organizations may be too restricted to adequately explain the harassment experiences of women in today's economy. To address this, the authors introduce a theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment by clients and customers (CSH) and describe 2 field studies conducted to test components of the model. In Study 1, they developed a model of antecedents and consequences of CSH and illustrated that certain contextual factors (client power and gender composition of the client base) affect levels of CSH and that CSH is related to a number of job and psychological outcomes among professional women. Study 2 revealed that CSH is related to lower job satisfaction among nonprofessional women, above and beyond that which is accounted for by internal sexual harassment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Differences in the eyes of the beholders: The roles of subjective and objective judgments in sexual harassment claims.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Katherine M K; Farnum, Katlyn S; Wiener, Richard L; Allen, Jill; Nuss, Gwenith D; Gervais, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    In 2 studies, we found support for current sexual harassment jurisprudence. Currently, the courts use a 2-prong test to determine the viability of a sexual harassment claim: that the adverse treatment is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter conditions of employment based on a protected class from the perspective of the individual complainant (subjective prong) and from the perspective of a reasonable person (objective prong). In Experiment 1, trained male undergraduate research assistants administered sequential objectifying gazes and comments to undergraduate female research participants. We found that the pervasive objectification delivered by multiple men (compared with 1 man) did not elicit more negative emotion or harm the experiencers' task performance, although it did lead them to make increased judgments of sexual harassment. In Experiment 2, observers (who viewed a recording of an experiencer's interactions with the male research assistants) and predictors (who read a protocol describing the facts of the interaction) anticipated the female targets would experience negative emotions, show impaired performance, as well as find more evidence in the interaction of sexual harassment. Observers' judgments mirrored those of the experiencers' while predictors' judgments demonstrated affective forecasting errors. Predictors were more likely to anticipate more negative emotion, worse performance, and greater likelihood of sexual harassment. Overall, these studies demonstrate the impact and importance of considering perceptions of sexual harassment from multiple perspectives and viewpoints. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active-Duty Coast Guard Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    workplace in the past year.11 Whereas the estimated total and male percentages experiencing sexual harassment in the Coast Guard are lower than among...some people will have been assaulted more than once. Sexual harassment (particularly a sexually hostile workplace ) is more common than sexual assault...such high rates, sexual harassment and other MEO violations could affect unit cohesion, degrade mission effectiveness , and result in voluntary

  5. "That Is So Common Everyday . . . Everywhere You Go": Sexual Harassment of Workers in Assisted Living.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina; Moorhead, James R; Perkins, Molly M; Bender, Alexis A

    2016-02-09

    In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.

  6. [Institutional handling of sexual abuse: experiences, evaluations, and desires of nonabusing parents of sexually abused children].

    PubMed

    Klopfer, U; Berger, C; Lennertz, I; Breuer, B; Deget, F; Wolke, A; Fegert, J M; Lehmkuhl, G; Lehmkuhl, U; Lüderitz, A; Walter, M

    1999-11-01

    This article describes experiences of parents of sexual abused children and their evaluations of institutional interventions on sexual child abuse. Results are presented of a study investigating 'individual and institutional reactions on sexual child abuse'. The number of contacted institutions, personnel experiences with these institutions and resulting requirements are described. The results are based on a sample of 47 (82.5%) girls and 10 (17.5%) boys (range 6-18 years) and interviews with their 'non-abusing' parents. 28 (49.1%) of these children were abused by a member of the family, 29 (50.9%) children by non-familiar persons. It could be shown that 70.2% of the children had contacted four or more different institutions soon after the sexual abuse had been revealed. In cases of sexual abuse by a family member the first contacted institution was the Youth-and-Health-Care-System whereas in cases of sexual abuse by non-familiar persons mostly the police was contacted. Nevertheless in most cases both judicial and supporting approach were chosen. Additionally to concrete advices and professional competences the interviewed parents reported that emotional warmth was a very helpful aspect of the professional intervention. Generally the perspective of the parents seems to give some interesting informations about 'consumer satisfaction'.

  7. Peer sexual harassment victimization at school: the roles of student characteristics, cultural affiliation, and school factors.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the links between students' reports of sexual harassment victimization by peers and a number of individual and school contextual factors. It is based on a nationally representative sample of 16,604 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 327 schools across Israel who completed questionnaires during class. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine the links. Overall, approximately one in four students (25.6%) were victims of at least one unwanted and unwelcome act of harassment by peers (such as being touched or pinched in sexual manner) in the prior month. The most vulnerable groups were Israeli-Arab boys and students with negative perceptions of their school climate. The school correlates associated with higher levels of victimization were a higher share of students with less-educated parents, larger schools and classrooms, and negative school climate. The interactions between gender and school-related factors indicate that the gender patterns are different for Israeli-Arab and Jewish schools and for schools with different concentrations of students' families with low socioeconomic status. The study emphasizes the need for an ecological perspective in addressing school-based sexual harassment.

  8. Dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: longitudinal profiles and transitions over time.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization experienced by youth. The sample was ethnically diverse, consisting of 795 seventh-grade students from schools that were part of a multi-site, longitudinal evaluation of a dating violence initiative (50 % female; 27 % White, 32 % African American, 25 % Latino, 16 % other or multiple races). Results from latent transition analyses revealed five classes of students with distinct behavioral profiles: multi-problem (victimization and perpetration), bullying and sexual harassment (victimization and perpetration), bullying (victimization and perpetration) and sexual harassment (victimization only), bullying (victimization and perpetration), and a least problem group. The majority of classes were characterized by reports of both perpetration and victimization for at least one behavior. Girls were more likely to be in the less problematic classes. Class membership was fairly stable across the three time points. When students transitioned to a different class, the shift was most often from a more problematic to a less problematic class, particularly for girls. The findings support understanding dating violence within a dynamic, developmental process that recognizes related behaviors within and across individuals. Overall, the findings highlight the utility of person-oriented approaches to enhance our understanding of longitudinal profiles and transitions over time for dating violence and related behaviors.

  9. Military Personnel. The DOD and Coast Guard Academies Have Taken Steps to Address Incidents of Sexual Harassment and Assault, but Greater Federal Oversight is Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Sexual Assault Awareness Month Assists the senior commander to meet annual SAPR training requirements, including orientation for newly assigned...by providing sexual harassment and assault orientation briefings for new students and personnel. Each of the DOD academies employs different...Address Incidents of Sexual Harassment and Assault, but Greater Federal Oversight Is Needed January 2008 GAO-08-296 Report Documentation

  10. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  11. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  12. It isn't all just fun and games: Collegiate participation in extracurricular activities and risk for generalized and sexual harassment, psychological distress, and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed.

  13. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2010-08-01

    We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.

  14. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  15. A theoretical foundation for understanding clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Jason M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical model of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse for future research. The model conceptualizes clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse as the convergence of interactive processes between the clergy-perpetrator, the parishioner-survivor, and the religious community.

  16. Sexual abuse in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tice, L; Hall, R C; Beresford, T P; Quinones, J; Hall, A K

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of sexual abuse in eating disorder patients appears significant. Fifty percent of both our anorectic and bulimic patients reported a history of sexual abuse while only 28% of a non-anorexic, non-bulimic control population reported similar problems (p less than 0.01). Several patterns of behavior seemed related to previous sexual assault. In one, the eating disorder was used to change the body image of the patient and therefore to provide a defense to future abuse. Other behaviors which occurred more specifically in bulimic women dealt with a projection of repressed anger toward male authority figures. Forty six percent of the bulimic women seen in our study exhibited some promiscuous behavior, using sex either as a gauge of their own self worth or as a means of punishing men. It is essential that sexual issues be addressed early in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Disclosure is often difficult particularly in outpatient situations where the patient lives at home with her family. It usually does not occur in such cases until the later stages of therapy, or until the patient is hospitalized. Rape is the exception since our data suggests that it is usually revealed early in the course of treatment (p less than 0.001). Once disclosure occurs, a dramatic change is usually seen in the patient and treatment becomes more effective. As the patient deals with the issues of sexual abuse, they no longer need to deny their sexuality or punish themselves or others. Issues of guilt, depression, repressed anger, low self-esteem, social isolation and inadequacy are important and need to be addressed during the course of therapy with sexually abused patients.

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  18. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  2. Positive Coping Strategies Developed by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…

  3. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  4. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  5. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  6. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  7. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  8. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  9. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  10. Discrimination, Harassment, Abuse and Bullying in the Workplace: Contribution of Workplace Injustice to Occupational Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D.; de Castro, A. Butch

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices – discrimination, harassment, abuse and bullying – to occupational health disparities. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the pathways through which injustices at the interpersonal and institutional level lead to differential risk of vulnerable workers to adverse occupational health outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies also show that workplace injustice can influence workers’ health through effects on workers’ family life and job-related outcomes. Lastly, this paper discusses methodological limitations in research linking injustices and occupational health disparities and makes recommendations to improve the state of research. PMID:23813664

  11. Two sides of the same coin: gender harassment and heterosexist harassment in LGBQ work lives.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-08-01

    This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction). Results showed that gender harassment-both sexist and policing subtypes-rarely occurred absent heterosexist harassment, and vice versa. Harassment severity (experiencing moderate to high levels of all three harassment types) was significantly associated with greater levels of job burnout (both disengagement and exhaustion) and job dissatisfaction. Even infrequent experiences of harassment related to large increases in the "threat" variety of job stress (i.e., sense of feeling hassled and overwhelmed on the job). Additionally, employees who perceived the lowest organizational support reported the most harassment. We interpret results in light of research on organizational behavior and LGBQ psychology. Moreover, we discuss our findings in the context of Title VII, currently interpreted to protect against harassment based on gender, sex, and sex stereotyping, but not sexual orientation. Our results can inform several possible avenues of expanding gay civil rights in employment: broadening judicial interpretations of Title VII, passing new legislation (e.g., the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, or ENDA), and strengthening organizational supports and policies that protect against sexuality-based abuses.

  12. [Psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Vyssoki, David; Schürmann-Emanuely, Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Violence is what the victims experience as violence. Only they are able to measure what oppression, injury, pain or sexual violence can cause. Violence starts where human beings are constrained, humiliated, abjected and injured in their self-determination by other human beings. The experienced violence causes a trauma in most cases and in many cases also a PTSD. As a lot of epidemiological studies have affirmed, the highest lifetime-prevalence of PTSD appears after one respectively after a repeated act of sexual violence.It is important to define the circumstances of the action, by defining three fields of violence: domestic sexual violence, sexual violence in civil everyday life respectively violence, that occurs not inside families and sexual violence in wartime.Victims of all fields of violence can be found in Western Europe, the last mentioned form of violence predominant among refugees, but also among survivors of the last world war.

  13. Survivors of sexual abuse allege therapist negligence.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1997-01-01

    In two recent litigation cases, adult survivors of sexual abuse claimed that their current symptomology was linked to the failure of mental health professionals to provide appropriate treatment. If mental health practitioners are to be held accountable for providing acceptable standards of treatment, these standards must be based on empirical evidence of the efficacy of treatment methodologies. This article provides a review of the professional literature and determines that with the exception of time-limited group treatment, which appears to reduce symptoms in some survivors of sexual abuse, there is an absence of clear evidence of treatment efficacy. Other data point to low consumer satisfaction with treatment, the absence of evidence for a consistent symptom presentation in survivors of sexual abuse that confounds standardizing treatment approaches, and iatrogenic effects of some forms of treatment. The authors conclude that, at this time, there is little empirical data to support the development of standards of practice for treating women who have been sexually abused as children.

  14. Physician Knowledge of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socolar, Rebecca R. S.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…

  15. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  16. Criminal Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martone, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…

  17. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  18. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…

  19. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  20. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  1. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…

  2. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  3. Sexual Abuse: Somatic and Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)

  4. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence.

  5. Religion in child sexual abuse forensic interviews.

    PubMed

    Tishelman, Amy C; Fontes, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    Religion is an under-studied factor affecting children's sexual victimization and their willingness to discuss such experiences. In this qualitative study, 39 child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center (CAC) directors in the United States discussed religious influences on children's sexual abuse experiences, their relationships to CACs, and their disclosures in the forensic setting. Participants reported both harmonious and dissonant interactions between religiously observant children and families on one hand and child advocacy centers on the other. Themes emerged related to abuse in religious contexts and religious justifications for abuse; clergy and religious supports for disclosures as well as suppression of disclosures; and the ways CACS accommodate religious diversity and forge collaborations with clergy. Participants discussed a wide range of religions. Recommendations for practice and research are included.

  6. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  7. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  8. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  9. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  10. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Students: Examining Mediation and Moderated Mediation by Gender.

    PubMed

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari

    2016-11-01

    This longitudinal study tested whether sexual harassment perpetration mediates the relationship between bullying perpetration and teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and tested moderated mediation by assessing whether the developmental pathway varies by gender among middle school-aged youth. Although TDV has been associated with bullying and sexual harassment, the developmental relationship among all three behaviors has rarely been examined, especially by gender. The data were collected from one cohort of seventh grade middle school students (N = 612) from four schools. Students were surveyed every 6 months during seventh and eighth grades for a total of four waves of data collection. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to address the study aims, consisting of three stages: measurement models, mediation, and moderated mediation (otherwise known as Contrast of Mediated Effects). Results indicate no evidence of mediation. However, in the overall model, bullying and sexual harassment both emerged as significant predictors of TDV at a later time point. Among girls, only bullying significantly predicted TDV at a later time point, and, among boys, only sexual harassment significantly predicted TDV at a later time point. Prevention programs that target bullying and sexual harassment perpetration may reduce later perpetration of TDV. Further research is needed to disentangle the temporal relationships between these aggressive behaviors among youth.

  11. Gendered Voices: Students' Descriptions of Sexual Harassment and University Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Anne; And Others

    Research suggests that male and female college students have different views of what constitutes sexual coercion and divergent standards for behavior in which they themselves would engage. It is likely that students experience different realities and perceive campus quality of life in different terms depending on their gender. An exploratory…

  12. The Enough Abuse Campaign: building the movement to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.

  13. Experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military among OEF/OIF veterans: implications for health care providers.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margret E; Reardon, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Given the frequent occurrence and significant health impact of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military, it is important that for health care providers working with Veterans to have at least some basic knowledge in this area. Targeting providers addressing mental health and psychosocial issues, but also applicable to clinicians working with survivors in a variety of capacities, this article provides an overview of clinical care with survivors of sexual trauma in the military, particularly those who are OEF/OIF Veterans. We cover basic background information, focusing primarily on the impact of sexual trauma in the military, how survivor's reactions are shaped by various aspects of the military context, and general principles to assist clinicians in working effectively with survivors, whatever their role.

  14. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors.

  15. The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

    2007-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

  16. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

  17. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-07-18

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes.

  18. Forensic psychiatry and the internet: practical perspectives on sexual predators and obsessional harassers in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Michael G; Casey, Eoghan

    2002-01-01

    The growth of the Internet has revolutionized how society conducts business in many areas. Not to be left behind, the sexual predator and the obsessional harasser have found cyberspace to be a vehicle capable of meeting their needs: obtaining information, monitoring and contacting victims, developing fantasy, overcoming inhibitions, avoiding apprehension, and communicating with other offenders. Although clearly disparate offender categories, these two groups are included in this article because of the likelihood of their using the Internet in pursuit of their goals. Forensic psychiatrists should become familiar with computers and the Internet so that they can conduct relevant psychiatric evaluations of such individuals and can advise attorneys, victims, and law enforcement personnel competently, when retained in that capacity. This article discusses the Internet and its use by the sexual predator and the obsessional harasser, highlighting information of interest to the forensic psychiatrist, including the poorly understood field of digital evidence. Aspects of the Internet, such as on-line dating and cybersex also are covered, because they relate to sexual predation and stalking.

  19. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  20. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Loneliness and Network Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Rebecca L.; Hartshorne, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Data regarding history of sexual abuse, loneliness, and network orientation were gathered from 231 female university students, 24 of whom indicated a history of abuse, and from 26 female clients at 2 treatment centers. Victims of sexual abuse, especially those in treatment, were more lonely and less likely to utilize their social support system…

  2. Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179

  3. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  4. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  6. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Malaysian paramedical students.

    PubMed

    Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N

    1996-06-01

    There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse.

  7. Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose.

  8. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  9. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  10. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.

  11. Training-related harassment and drinking outcomes in medical residents versus graduate students.

    PubMed

    Shinsako, S A; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse, and their differential effects on drinking behaviors in medical residents and graduate students at an urban American university. While medical residents had greater odds of experiencing harassment and abuse in their training programs, it was found that in most cases their deleterious drinking behaviors decreased, whereas graduate student drinking behaviors increased as a consequence of these experiences. The drinking outcomes of men were more affected by harassment and abuse than those of women.

  12. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  13. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  14. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  15. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Volume 3. Estimates for Coast Guard Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    corrected. Sexual Harassment and Gender Discrimination Findings: Coast Guard Active Component 29 MEO goals. Even relatively substantial changes in gender ...the workplace that were persistent or severe (2 percent), being accused of not acting according to men’s gender role in a persistent or severe manner...told not acting according to gender role Repeatedly told about sexual activities Repeatedly asked about sexual activities Repeated attempts to

  16. Sexual harassment stories: testing a story-mediated model of juror decision-making in civil litigation.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Jill E; Costanzo, Mark

    2003-02-01

    The story model of juror decision-making proposes that jurors use personal experience and information presented at trial to create stories that guide their verdicts. This model has received strong empirical support in studies using criminal cases. The research presented here extends the story model to civil litigation and tests a story-mediated model against an unmediated model of jury decision-making. In Phase 1, content analysis of mock juror responses to 4 realistic sexual harassment cases revealed prototypic plaintiff and defense stories. In Phase 2, these prototypic stories were included as mediators in a model predicting verdicts in 4 additional sexual harassment cases. Mock juror attitudes, experiences, and demographics were assessed, then attorneys presented abbreviated versions of 4 actual sexual harassment cases. Path analyses provided support for the story-mediated model, which added significantly to the amount of variance accounted for in the outcome measures of verdict, commitment to verdict, and confidence times verdict. Implications for sexual harassment and other types of civil cases are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of a Youth-Led Program for Preventing Bullying, Sexual Harassment, and Dating Aggression in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy; Schnoll, Jessica; Simkins-Strong, Emily; Pepler, Debra; MacPherson, Alison; Weiser, Jessica; Moran, Michelle; Jiang, Depeng

    2015-01-01

    Although youth-led programs (YLP) have been successful in many areas of public health, youth leadership is rarely used in the prevention of peer aggression. A YLP to reduce bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression was compared experimentally with the board-mandated usual practice (UP). Four middle schools in an urban Canadian school…

  18. Can Legal Interventions Change Beliefs? The Effect of Exposure to Sexual Harassment Policy on Men's Gender Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…

  19. "Prompt and Equitable" Explained: How to Craft a Title IX Compliant Sexual Harassment Policy and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    An April 2011 "Dear Colleague" letter issued by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights provided new guidance related to Title IX and the civil rights violation inherent in sexual harassment cases. Using the "Dear Colleague" letter as a guide, this article will provide best practice suggestions to remedy…

  20. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  1. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  2. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  3. Healing from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to as the Sexual Violence Study, yielded a subsample of 48 women and 47 men who had experienced childhood sexual abuse. During semistructured, open-ended interviews, they were asked to describe their experiences with healing from childhood sexual abuse and other victimization throughout their lives. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used with these data to develop constructs and hypotheses about healing. For the Sexual Violence Study, frameworks were developed to describe the participants' life patterns, parenting experiences, disclosures about sexual violence, spirituality, and altruism. Several analytic techniques were used to synthesize the findings of these frameworks to develop an overarching theoretical model that describes healing from childhood sexual abuse. The model includes four stages of healing, five domains of functioning, and six enabling factors that facilitate movement from one stage to the next. The findings indicate that healing is a complex and dynamic trajectory. The model can be used to alert clinicians to a variety of processes and enabling factors that facilitate healing in several domains and to guide discussions on important issues related to healing from childhood sexual abuse.

  4. Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field.

  5. Employer's Guide: A Time for Action on Sexual Harassment in the Workplace = Guide de L'Employeur: Les Enjeux du Harcelement Sexuel au Travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Women's Directorate, Toronto.

    Harassment, like other forms of violence against women, is not a new problem. It is not a problem that will just go away, but it can be stopped. This guide is designed for use by organizations and employers to help them develop policies and implement programs in their workplace that address workplace sexual harassment. It focuses on Canadian…

  6. The effect of sexual harassment on lethal mutation rate in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Immler, Simone; Løvlie, Hanne; Flis, Ilona; Friberg, Urban

    2013-01-07

    The rate by which new mutations are introduced into a population may have far-reaching implications for processes at the population level. Theory assumes that all individuals within a population have the same mutation rate, but this assumption may not be true. Compared with individuals in high condition, those in poor condition may have fewer resources available to invest in DNA repair, resulting in elevated mutation rates. Alternatively, environmentally induced stress can result in increased investment in DNA repair at the expense of reproduction. Here, we directly test whether sexual harassment by males, known to reduce female condition, affects female capacity to alleviate DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies. Female gametes can repair double-strand DNA breaks in sperm, which allows manipulating mutation rate independently from female condition. We show that male harassment strongly not only reduces female fecundity, but also reduces the yield of dominant lethal mutations, supporting the hypothesis that stressed organisms invest relatively more in repair mechanisms. We discuss our results in the light of previous research and suggest that social effects such as density and courtship can play an important and underappreciated role in mediating condition-dependent mutation rate.

  7. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  8. [Pornography and sexual abuse in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W

    2007-01-01

    Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality.

  9. Revictimization as a Sequela to Childhood Sexual Abuse of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Tracy Kay

    Research literature pertaining to revictimization as a sequela to childhood sexual abuse of females is reviewed and the methodology critiqued. Inconsistent definitions of the variables and a variety of possible intervening factors make the attribution of direct causality between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent revictimization in adulthood…

  10. Sexual Abuse of Older Adults: Aps Cases and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…

  11. Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse: Learning from Direct Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…

  12. Sexual Abuse and Adolescent HIV Risk: A Group Intervention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Miller, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are at particular risk for HIV because of difficulties with affect regulation and dysfunctional thinking that are thought to be sequelae of the abuse. These difficulties can lead to impulsivity and failure to assertively set limits in sexual situations. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has frequently been…

  13. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  14. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  15. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  16. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Sexual Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  19. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  20. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...