Hammerschlag, Margaret R.
This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures. PMID:16555518
Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla
Background To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods 2,019 women aged 20–44 were randomly selected in a two-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Results Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.06–3.98) and sexual violence (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.05–2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01–2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.46–4.00) compared to women with one sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.55–1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. Conclusions The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs. PMID:19060779
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...
Bachmann, L H; Lewis, I; Allen, R; Schwebke, J R; Leviton, L C; Siegal, H A; Hook, E W
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in patients entering residential drug treatment. METHODS: Data on sexual and substance abuse histories were collected. Participants provided specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing. Trichomonas vaginalis culture, and syphilis serologic testing. RESULTS: Of 311 patients, crack cocaine use was reported by 67% and multisubstance use was reported by 71%. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors were common. The prevalence of infection was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis, 2.3%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1.6%; trichomoniasis, 43%; and syphilis, 6%. CONCLUSIONS: STD counseling and screening may be a useful adjunct to inpatient drug treatment. PMID:11029998
Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John
The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross-sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse departments. Data from health departments and substance abuse agencies of 48 states and from 269 substance abuse treatment programs revealed that human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related services are more frequent than hepatitis C virus or sexually transmitted infection-related services, and that nonmedical services are more frequent than medical services. While the availability of infection-related health services is associated with medical staffing patterns, addiction pharmacotherapy services, and state priorities, reimbursement was the most significant determining factor. These findings suggest that greater funding of these health services in substance abuse treatment settings, facilitated by supportive state policies, represents an effective response to the excess morbidity and mortality of these substance use-related infections. PMID:17639646
Isa, A R; Moe, H; Sivakumaran, S
The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among female drug abusers was determined by screening 130 new inmates of a rehabilitation centre. The majority of the subjects (77.7%) were self-confessed sex workers. A high prevalence of syphilis (50.8%), hepatitis B (52.2%), moniliasis (23.8%) and trichomoniasis (19.2%) were noted. Gonorrhoea vaginitis was seen in 8.5%, which was low compared to previous studies. Six subjects were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with 5 of them admitting to needle sharing and working as prostitutes. More than half of them harboured 2 or more STD. A rich reservoir of STD was seen among the drug abusers. With more evidence now available concerning the ease of HIV transmission associated with ulcerative STD, a stage could be set for greater heterosexual HIV transmission. As part of the rehabilitation process, female drug abusers need a thorough screening for STD followed by aggressive treatment regimens. PMID:8350786
Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.
Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen. While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result. PMID:22782828
Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.
Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick
Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.
An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…
Sigle, Gavin W.; Kim, Rebekah
There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402
Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L
The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...
Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H
In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below. PMID:24889293
Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas
Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact. PMID:22628666
Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...
The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...
Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Pi-Yen; Lu, Po-Liang
This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), intravenous drug users (IDUs), and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%), IDUs without HIV (49.3%), and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%). A total of 115 (12.7%) inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community. PMID:23217358
Bechtel, Mark A; Trout, Wayne
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continue to be a global epidemic with significant risk of morbidity/mortality for the fetus. STDs with prominent cutaneous findings including condylomata acuminata, genital herpes infections, and syphilis are reviewed. Important clinical cutaneous findings help aid early diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Condylomata acuminata have the potential of causing cervical cancer, anogenital cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Significant advances have been made in human papilloma virus vaccinations and treatment. Genital herpes infection can produce significant physical and emotional distress to the patient and significant potential harm to the fetus. Early clinical recognition of STDs and their appropriate management is critical. PMID:25565081
Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736
... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...
Cook, L S; Koutsky, L A; Holmes, K K
OBJECTIVES. New evidence linking lack of circumcision with sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus revives concerns about circumcision and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between circumcision and syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, genital herpes, nongonococcal urethritis, and exophytic genital warts. METHODS. A cross-sectional study of 2776 heterosexual men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in 1988 was used to investigate the relationship between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. Subjects with specific sexually transmitted diseases and those without such diseases were compared after adjustment for age, race, zip code of residence, other sexually transmitted diseases, and number of sexual partners. RESULTS. A positive relationship was observed between uncircumcised status and both syphilis and gonorrhea. A negative relationship was found between warts and lack of circumcision. No apparent relationship was noted between uncircumcised status and genital herpes, chlamydial infection, or nongonococcal urethritis. CONCLUSIONS. Uncircumcised men were more likely than circumcised men to have syphilis and gonorrhea and were less likely to have visible warts. PMID:8296939
Epidemiological factors and changing ecological conditions have greatly facilitated the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and led to their rising incidence in Indonesia. Gonorrhoea is at present very prevalent, and drug resistance among circulating strains of gonococci is a contributing factor. Despite medical advances in both diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, these are becoming commoner; unlike other communicable diseases they have so far defied efforts to control them. PMID:6893569
Dhawan, Jyoti; Gupta, Somesh; Kumar, Bhushan
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in children are not uncommon in India, though systematic epidemiological studies to determine the exact prevalence are not available. STDs in children can be acquired via sexual route or, uncommonly, via non-sexual route such as accidental inoculation by a diseased individual. Neonatal infections are almost always acquired intrauterine or during delivery. Voluntary indulgence in sexual activity is also an important factor in acquisition of STDs in childhood. Sexual abuse and sex trafficking remain the important problems in India. Surveys indicate that nearly half of the children are sexually abused. Most at risk children are street-based, homeless or those living in or near brothels. Last two decades have shown an increase in the prevalence of STDs in children, though most of the data is from northern part of the country and from major hospitals. However, due to better availability of antenatal care to majority of women, cases of congenital syphilis have declined consistently over the past two-three decades. Other bacterial STDs are also on decline. On the other hand, viral STDs such as genital herpes and anogenital warts are increasing. This reflects trends of STDs in the adult population. Concomitant HIV infection is uncommon in children. Comprehensive sex education, stringent laws to prevent sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, and antenatal screening of all the women can reduce the prevalence of STDs in children. PMID:20826987
From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…
... please visit OPA . '); Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also called sexually ... from mother to baby during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Expand All How do STIs affect pregnant women? ...
Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (diseases) has been already increasing again for more than one decade; the world number of 125-340 millions of new cases a year is estimated. Fifteen thousands of new HIV-positive persons daily present a substantial contribution to the total amount. Besides an increasing number of unplanned pregnancies, the huge spreading of sexually transmitted infections predominantly of the second generation is the main reason for a renewed interest in search of local contraceptives, i.e. spermicides. An urgent need for a new, non-detergent, synthetic or natural spermicide emerged to replace the traditional nonoxynol-9. New preparation of microbicidal spermicide should offer dual protection against both unplanned conception and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23256629
Vernon, Irene S.; Bubar, Roe
Victims of child abuse are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, not only directly through sexual abuse, but also because they engage in more high-risk behaviors. Because American Indian youth experience higher rates of sexual abuse and have less access to treatment and counseling, they are especially at risk.…
Verdich, J U
Sexual abuse in children is reported increasingly frequently. The abuse frequently comes to the attention of the authorities when the children present symptoms which raise the suspicion of sexual abuse. One of these symptoms may be sexually transmitted disease in the child. Previously, there was a tendency to accept the possibility that sexually transmitted disease in children could be transmitted by other means than sexual contact, eg indirectly by infected bedclothes and toilet articles. Where gonorrhoea is concerned, no documentation exists in the literature for non-sexual infection in children. Condylomata acuminata are caused by infection with the human papilloma virus and may possibly infect children by non-sexual contact in rare instances but, in the majority of cases, meticulous investigation of the surroundings of the children will raise the suspicion of sexual abuse as the cause of the infection. The case history of gonococcal vulvo-vaginitis in a girl aged 23 months were the source of infection could not be successfully proved is mentioned. Two case histories are reported concerning anal condylomata acuminata in a girl aged nine years who had been sexually abused and a girl aged 25 months where there was a strong suspicion of sexual abuse but where the source of infection remained unknown. On the basis of literature from recent years and the case histories reported here, it is concluded that all gonococcal infections in children must be regarded as being sexually transmitted and these should, therefore, be reported to the social authorities. In addition, all children with ano-genital condylomata acuminata should be investigated meticulously for sexual abuse and be reported to the social authorities, if the suspicion is well founded. PMID:2922864
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...
Van Kemseke, C
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major public health problem because their incidence is increasing worldwide despite prevention campaigns and because they raise the risk of HIV infection. Anorectal localisations of STD are common among men who have sex with men (MSM) but can also be seen among heterosexuals (men or women). Transmission of such infections is due to anal sex or to other sexual behaviours like "fisting". Although some pathogens (like Human Papillomavirus-HPV) are common in gastroenterologist/proctologist consultations, others are not so well-known. Furthermore during the last years, sexual risky behaviours have led to resurgence of old affections (like syphilis) or to emergence of unknown diseases (like lymphogranuloma venereum) in our countries. This presentation tends to focus on clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of different STD: HPV, Herpes Simplex Virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis (in particularly lymphogranuloma venereum) and Treponema pallidum. PMID:20163035
Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozenčić, Jasna
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451
Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E
Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear. PMID:9612761
Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.
This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…
... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...
Finkel, K C
An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988
Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)
Fanfair, Robyn Neblett; Workowski, Kimberly A
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their associated syndromes are extremely common in clinical practice. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and partner management are important to ensure sexual, physical, and reproductive health in our patients. PMID:24493491
Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B
The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381
Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan
In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665
Comings, David E.; Comings, Brenda G.
Notes that sexual abuse of children is common and serious problem and that wide range of behavioral abnormalities have been linked to sexual and physical abuse. Notes that many symptoms also are seen in children with other disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Tourette syndrome. Presents case report of seven-year-old…
Tong, Liz; And Others
The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Ooi, Catriona; Lewis, David
SUMMARY The control of sexually transmitted infections relies on case-finding and treatment of sexual contacts to prevent further transmission. Screening for infections should be tailored to the demographic and sexual risk of the individual. For most sexually transmitted infections, screening is performed on self-collected, non-invasive samples using highly sensitive molecular assays. These are quick and inexpensive. Shorter courses of antivirals for genital herpes are now recommended. New chemoprophylactic strategies for preventing HIV transmission have emerged, including treatment to prevent transmission and the use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:26843713
Ooi, Catriona; Lewis, David
The control of sexually transmitted infections relies on case-finding and treatment of sexual contacts to prevent further transmission. Screening for infections should be tailored to the demographic and sexual risk of the individual. For most sexually transmitted infections, screening is performed on self-collected, non-invasive samples using highly sensitive molecular assays. These are quick and inexpensive. Shorter courses of antivirals for genital herpes are now recommended. New chemoprophylactic strategies for preventing HIV transmission have emerged, including treatment to prevent transmission and the use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:26843713
... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... screened in a variety of settings are monitored. Chlamydia—United States In 2012, a total of 1, ...
... on Facebook Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This web ... MSM accounted for 75% of P&S syphilis cases. Syphilis—All Stages (P&S, Early Latent, Late, Late Latent, ...
Jadack, Rosemary A.; And Others
Using hypothetical scenarios in which sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted, college freshmen and seniors were asked to explain why they believed the characters should or should nor engage in risky behaviors. Results indicated that seniors had a significantly higher stage of moral reasoning than the freshmen when responding to…
Reinhart, M A
Male victims of child sexual abuse have received inadequate attention in the literature. This article is a retrospective review of the reports of 189 boys evaluated during 1983-85. This population was younger than those previously reported. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of girl victims seen during the same period revealed many similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. The acts perpetrated against the boys included a wide array of invasive acts at all ages, but sodomy was more frequently reported in the older victims. Abnormal anogenital findings were seen more often in younger children, but the findings were often nonspecific. An examiner experienced with young children and infants is essential. PMID:3594283
... Let's Talk About Sexual Health Safe in the City Webinars Webinars Archive Widgets Archive Be Smart. Be ... a Box Home Script for Sex in the City Video STD Clinical Slides STD Clinical Slides STD ...
Hunt, L. M.; Nash, J. R.; Dilke-Wing, G. M.
The management of 63 patients diagnosed by surgeons as having sexually transmitted disease (STD) was audited. A diagnosis of STD was made in 51 (81%) of patients without taking a sexual history. Only 2 (3%) patients were referred to genitourinary medicine (GUM). Appropriate microbiological specimens were obtained from only two of 52 (4%) patients diagnosed with either pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or epididymo-orchitis. Reliance was placed on inappropriate specimens in 22 (42%). There was widespread use of inappropriate antibiotics. The management of sexually transmitted disease by surgeons was very poor. These patients should all be referred to genito-urinary medicine. Images Figure 1 PMID:9849339
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McMillen, Curtis; And Others
Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…
Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often associated with chronic diseases and can have severe impacts on host reproductive success. For airborne or socially transmitted pathogens, patterns of contact by which the infection spreads tend to be dispersed and each contact may be of very short duration. By contrast, the transmission pathways for STIs are usually characterized by repeated contacts with a small subset of the population. Here we review how heterogeneity in sexual contact patterns can influence epidemiological dynamics, and present a simple model of polygyny/polyandry to illustrate the impact of biased mating systems on disease incidence and pathogen virulence. PMID:23339239
Catterall, R D
Despite being part of one of the few remaining primitive areas of the world, both Sabah and Sarawak are provided with adequate, though simple, urban and rural general medical services. At present no reliable data on the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in these areas have been collected and no organised treatment services are available. Gonorrhoea appears to be the commonest notifiable infectious disease in Sarawak, and beta-lactamase-producing strains have been isolated. Because of the rapidly expanding economy and the encouragement of the tourist trade, sexually transmitted disease is likely to prove an increasing problem, for which a specialised service for diagnosis and treatment is badly needed. PMID:6895709
Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David
This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)
Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A
An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is made, therefore, not only for the abused child but for other members of the family (including both parents). The method adopted is to offer group therapy to the child, mother, and father and regular family meetings with professionals in the community, concerned with care and protection of children. Clinical data on the first 56 children treated are discussed and our approach to treatment is evaluated. PMID:6486864
Texas State Dept. of Health, Austin.
This document contains an educational resource guide designed to help educators provide relevant education about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to secondary school students in compliance with the Texas State Board of Education Rules for Curriculum. The guide, taking a pragmatic approach that emphasizes a prevention/intervention strategy,…
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.
This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…
Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…
Narang, Tarun; Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Kumaran, M Sendhil
It is well-known that syphilis is a sexually-transmitted or an inherited infection. Syphilis in preschoolers is rarely described in modern medical literature. Our case represents the difficulty or dilemma faced by dermatologists after diagnosing syphilis in a girl child due to inability of the young children to provide a history of sexual abuse and more over the parents/guardians also try to hide the history of sexual-abuse. Although rare, we can consider non-sexual transmission after we have thoroughly investigated and ruled out even the remote possibility of sexual abuse, because misdiagnosis of both abuse and non-abuse can be devastating to the patient and family. PMID:24339468
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the most common infectious diseases worldwide, with over 350 million new cases occurring each year, and have far-reaching health, social, and economic consequences. Failure to diagnose and treat STDs at an early stage may result in serious complications and sequelae. STDs are passed from person to person primarily by sexual contact and are classified into varied groups. Some cause mild, acute symptoms and some are life-threatening. They are caused by many different infectious organisms and are treated in different ways. Syphilis and gonorrhea are ancient afflictions. Now, however, Chlamydia is prevalent and has become the most common bacterial STD. Antimicrobial resistance of several sexually transmitted pathogens is increasing, rendering some regimens ineffective, adding to therapeutic problems. A standardized treatment protocol for STDs is recommended to ensure that all patients receive adequate treatment. Appropriate treatment of STDs is an important public health measure. PMID:22025952
Toibaro, Javier J; Ebensrtejin, Juan E; Parlante, Angel; Burgoa, Patricia; Freyre, Alejandro; Romero, Marcela; Losso, Marcelo H
Few data are available regarding the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), including HIV-1 infection, and risk behaviors of transgender individuals. Previous reports indicate that this community has a high prevalence of HIV and STIs. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of HIV-1 infection, STI and risk behaviors of transgender people versus non transgender people. We used a cross sectional design study. Patients who received services at our testing site between November 2002 and April 2006, and provided written informed consent, were included in the analysis. Socio-demographic data, sexual behaviour, recreational drug use, condom use, concurrent or previous STI and HIV-1 infection diagnosis and partner serologic status, were collected. We used descriptive statistics and chi 2 for comparisons of proportions. In the period of the study, 105 transgender individuals were identified in a population of 4118 patients tested. The prevalence of HIV infection in the transgender group was 27.6% (29/105), while in the non transgender group was 6.2% (247/4013) p:0.0000. Low level of formal instruction, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, previous history of STI and sex work (100% transgenders and 2.3% of non-transgenders) were significantly more frequent in the transgender. The referred correct use of condom was similar in both groups. The prevalence of syphilis was 42.3% in transgender group and 18.1% in non-transgender individuals. These data show that this population has a very high prevalence of HIV-1 and STI. This information could be instrumental to design targets for intensive HIV prevention strategies in this particular high risk population. PMID:19622481
Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.
To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)
Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna
This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J
The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522
Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher
The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims. PMID:26075920
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658
Rencken, Robert H.
This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…
Larson, Noel Ruth
This report describes various aspects of an inservice training program for human service professionals concerned with family sexual abuse. Covered in the report are the content, objectives and phases of the training program, demographic information on the trainees, and a description of the types of evaluation conducted. The overall purpose of the…
Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. It is estimated that only 50% of travellers use condoms during casual sex abroad. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers is an exceptionally high-risk behaviour. The common risk factor is also young age. Adolescents and young adults constitute 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STIs. Many STIs are asymptomatic and therefore can be difficult to identify and control. The clinical manifestation of STIs can be grouped into a number of syndromes, such as genital ulcer or erosion, urethral or vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease. STIs are divided into curable infections caused by bacteria (gonorrhoea, chlamydiasis, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale) or protozoa (trichomoniasis) and incurable viral infections (genital herpes, genital warts, HIV). STIs are not only a cause of acute morbidity, but may result in complications including male and female infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, premature mortality or miscarriage. Monogamous sex with a stable, uninfected partner or sexual abstinence remains the only way to avoid the risk of becoming infected with STIs. PMID:26726895
Bartholow, B N; Doll, L S; Joy, D; Douglas, J M; Bolan, G; Harrison, J S; Moss, P M; McKirnan, D
From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending urban sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Sexual abuse was found to be significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV risk behavior including unprotected and intercourse and injecting drug use, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. Data suggest that sexual abuse may have a wide-ranging influence on the quality of life and health risk behavior of homosexual men. Increased awareness as to the potential outcomes of male sexual abuse is critically important to the design and implementation of medical and psychological services for sexually abused men. PMID:8000905
Johnson, Beverly K
Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424
Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.
Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…
Fischer, William A; Wohl, David A
The unprecedented Ebola outbreak that devastated West Africa evolved within months from a regional outbreak to a global public health emergency. While the rate of confirmed cases declined dramatically, sporadic clusters of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continue well beyond the double incubation period of 42 days used to declare a nation Ebola-free. At the same time, evidence that the virus persists in genital fluids and can be sexually transmitted, along with the potential for lingering virus in other body compartments to permit recrudescence of EVD, has shaken our thinking of what it takes to achieve lasting control of an Ebola epidemic. A comprehensive response to the threat of persistence and sexual transmission of Ebola is required and should build on accessible longitudinal medical care of survivors and accurate genital fluid testing for Ebola. Control of this and future Ebola outbreaks will depend on our ability to recognize and respond to this persistence of the virus in those who survive. PMID:26936667
Anderson, D. Mark; Pörtner, Claus C.
People who drop out of high school fare worse in many aspects of life. We analyze the relationship between dropping out of high school and the probability of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous studies on the relationship between dropout status and sexual outcomes have not empirically addressed unobserved heterogeneity at the individual level. Using fixed effects estimators, we find evidence supporting a positive relationship between dropping out of high school and the risk of contracting an STI for females. Furthermore, we present evidence that illustrates differences between the romantic partners of dropouts versus enrolled students. These differences suggest that female dropouts may be more susceptible to contracting STIs because they partner with significantly different types of people than non-dropouts. Our results point to a previously undocumented benefit of encouraging those at risk of dropping out to stay in school longer. PMID:25705058
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have plagued humans for millennia and can result in chronic disease, pregnancy complications, infertility, and even death. Recent technological advances have led to a better understanding of the causative agents for these infections as well as aspects of their pathogenesis that might represent novel therapeutic targets. The articles in this Review Series provide excellent updates on the recent advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of some very important and persistent STIs and discuss the importance of considering each pathogen in the broader context of the environment of the individual who it infects. PMID:22133882
Lamb, Chris A; Lamb, Elizabeth Iris Mary; Mansfield, John C; Sankar, K Nathan
There is a rising incidence of several sexually transmitted infections (STIs), many of which can present with proctitis. Causative organisms include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Giardia lamblia (giardiasis) and Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis). This paper outlines important clinical discriminators and key investigations to distinguish these organisms from non-infective pathology that include inflammatory bowel disease, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and Behçet's syndrome. Management of these infections is described and suggestions are made for successful gastroenterology clinical consultation when an STI is suspected. PMID:23914292
Brockmeyer, N H; Meyer, T
Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has significantly improved in recent years by the application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). In addition to detection of infectious agents, molecular methods were also used for characterization of pathogens (typing, genotypic resistance testing). In contrast to conventional Sanger sequencing of amplicons, new sequencing technologies (next generation sequencing) are able to identify resistant variants that represent only small minorities in a heterogeneous population. NAATs are also available as fully automated closed systems that can be run independently of centralized laboratories and will become increasingly important for point-of-care testing. PMID:26646440
Leach, Chelsea; Stewart, Anna; Smallbone, Stephen
The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis posits that persons, especially males, who are sexually abused as children are at particular risk of sexually abusing others later in life. We tested this hypothesis by prospectively examining associations between maltreatment and offending in a birth cohort of 38,282 males with a maltreatment history and/or at least one finalized offense. We examined these associations within the context of the wider birth population. Proportionally few boys were the subject of official notifications for sexual abuse (14.8% of maltreated boys, and 1.4% of the birth population); proportionally very few of these sexually abused boys (3%) went on to become sexual offenders; and, contrary to findings typically reported in retrospective clinical studies, proportionally few sexual offenders (4%) had a confirmed history of sexual abuse. Poly-victimization (exposure to multiple types of maltreatment) was significantly associated with sexual offending, violent offending, and general (nonsexual, nonviolent) offending. We found no specific association between sexual abuse and sexual offending, and nor did we find any association between sexual abuse and sexual offending specifically within the poly-victimized group. The total number of sexual abuse notifications did make a small unique contribution to the variance in sexual offending compared to other offending. Implications concerning maltreated boys and male sexual offenders are discussed. PMID:26615777
Rubin, Linda J.
Presents an argument for the possibility of faulty memory in perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse as an additional component in a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sexual trauma and memory loss. Discusses motivations perpetrators may have for repressing memories, the most prominent being their own sexual abuse as children.…
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…
Alexander, Randell A.
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…
Chiokadze, Sh; Galdava, G; Kvlividze, O; Durglishvili, G
According statistical data in Georgia sexually transmitted disorders represent one of the most important medical and social problems. Main causes of this are hard social and economic condition of the country, changing sexual-behavioral stereotypes, drugs and alcohol abuse, political perturbation, as well as unprecedented decrease in financing prevention programs of STD by government. The purpose of given research is statistical analysis of spread of sexually transmitted disorders in Georgia, in particular, among the people included in risk group; finding trends and in accordance with this, working out recommendations for improvement of situation in given field of medicine. Essays showed that through 2000-2012 years among STD revealed in the group of increased risk chlamidiosis was the most common. There is an objective trend of increasing the level of morbidity with chlamidiosis and trichomoniasis, however the speed of increasing morbidity with trichomoniasis probably does not correspond the reality. In the same time morbidity with gonorrhea and syphilis is decreasing, however in the result of significant decrease in STD prevention program scale data validity concerning syphilis might be doubtful. Coming out of this in the field of health care related to STD optimization of laboratory diagnostics management is essential; perfection of methods of epidemiologic control; increasing the scales of prevention programs as well as initiation of researches related to antimicrobial resistance of gonococci. Authors consider essential taking steps for optimization of management of laboratory diagnostics and perfection of methods of epidemiologic control and increasing scales of preventive programs. PMID:24743123
Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine
Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803
Workowski, Kimberly A; Bolan, Gail A
These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30-May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815
Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred
Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…
The incidence of sexually transmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexually transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices. PMID:23798024
Sinal, S H
Increasingly, clinicians are being asked to help determine whether a child or adolescent has been a victim of sexual abuse. Since the late 1970s numerous articles about sexual abuse have appeared in the literature. This review article will acquaint the clinician with the definition and incidence of sexual abuse and the characteristics of the abused and the abuser. Practical guidelines are included for interviewing the victim, performing the physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing, treatment, reporting to appropriate authorities, and court testimony. PMID:7973924
Benbow, S. M.; Haddad, P. M.
Sexual abuse of the elderly may occur more commonly than is recognized. Reasons for the neglect of this area and possible risk factors are discussed. A definition of elder sexual abuse is proposed, and four case histories, each of which raises various issues about the nature, detection and management of sexual abuse, are described. In the absence of procedures for dealing with elder sexual abuse, professional staff need to be open to its occurrence and to be prepared to carry out thorough, sympathetic, collaborative assessments of both parties involved where it is suspected. PMID:8290413
Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R
Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623
Manhart, Lisa E; Kay, Noa
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging pathogen that has been detected in the male and female reproductive tracts. It is an established cause of nongonococcal urethritis and evidence linking it to cervicitis, endometritis, and tubal factor infertility is accumulating. Whether a pathogen is sexually transmitted has important implications for clinical management because partner management strategies are an essential part of the treatment plan for sexually transmitted infections. However, mere detection in the genital tract and associations with reproductive tract disease are insufficient to conclude that an organism is sexually transmitted. Therefore, to assess whether M. genitalium is sexually transmitted, we evaluated the literature in terms of associations with established risk factors for other sexually transmitted infections, comparisons of sexually experienced individuals to nonsexually experienced individuals, consideration of other modes of transmission, assessment of concordant infection status among sexual partners, and examination of molecular strain typing in concordantly infected partners. PMID:21308546
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Wen, Luo-Sheng; Zhong, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Fan
We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.
The child sexual abuse knowledge base has developed within a highly charged political and social context. As such, early theories of sexual abuse were susceptible to biases that reflected the larger sociocultural context. The purpose of this paper is to consider whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might also be susceptible to such biases. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that attachment theory may remain at risk for becoming a vehicle for transmitting political and ideological agendas. PMID:16221635
Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.
Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…
Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…
Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.
This reference book, developed to present options for the prevention and treatment of child sexual abuse, contains descriptions of creative approaches used to address the problem of child sexual abuse. Some of the programs described offer active and entertaining interventions, such as puppet shows, coloring books, stories, teddy bears, and…
Barham, Martha; Clark, Mary McGinn
This paper presents clinical observations, experiences, and interventions from group psychotherapy when the main theme was molestation/sexual abuse. The findings presented are a synthesis of experiences in three areas: (1) the difficulty patients encounter when trying to disconnect with the negative effects of sexual abuse; (2) assessment and…
Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.
Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…
Bolen, Rebecca M.
Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)
Friedrich, William N.
This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…
Berkowitz, Carol D.
Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Ben-Amitay, Galit; Kimchi, Nir; Wolmer, Leo; Toren, Paz
Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli. A minority of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Abused females displayed significant elevations in heart rate, electromyography, and electroencephalography while viewing allusive stimuli and elevated heart rate while viewing neutral stimuli. The dysfunctional regulation of the physiological stress system associated with child sexual abuse may endanger the victims with various stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26934544
Fivush, Robyn; Edwards, Valerie J.
Twelve white middle-class women who had been severely sexually abused as children by a family member were asked to provide a narrative of their abuse and discuss their subsequent remembering and forgetting of these experiences. Most claimed they had undergone periods during which they had not recalled their abuse, but also claimed that they had…
Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M
Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799
Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing factory. The results were compared to a previous sample of 502 respondents in the general population in Winnipeg, Canada. The identities of the perpetrators of physical and sexual abuse, and the types of sexual abuse reported were similar in the two countries; however, the rates of reported abuse were lower in China. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be far less common in the general population in Canada than in China. PMID:16354651
Leach, M. M.; Bethune, C.
Millions of adults have been sexually abused. Patients often confide in their family physicians concerning their abuse. Physicians must understand their own issues surrounding sexual abuse and its sequelae before they attempt to treat sexually abused patients. The PLISSIT model offers a practical guide for assisting abused adult patients. PMID:8924817
Ghetti, Simona; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne L.
A study investigated the consistence of 222 children's (ages 3-16) reports of sexual and physical abuse. Older children were more consistent, children were more consistent when reporting sexual abuse, and girls were more consistent in sexual abuse reports. Consistency in sexual abuse reports was predicted by measures of memory. (Contains…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...
Alexander, Randell A
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area. PMID:21970641
Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P
A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792
De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.
Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646
Savich, Nancy L.
Due to the increase in child sexual abuse allegations, it is essential to know possible predictors or risk factors to aid in prevention. This study examines the correlation between a mother who was sexually abused as a child and the increased risk of her children being sexually abused. The sample consisted of 60 child sexual abuse investigations…
... Anyone who has sexual contact—vaginal, anal, or oral sex—with another person may get an STI. STIs ... Body fluids also can carry STIs. Having any unprotected sexual contact with an infected person poses a ...
Mason, Carole; Kennedy, Neil
Potential human immunodeficiency virus transmission makes prompt disclosure of child sexual abuse in Africa critical. The pattern of disclosure of 133 children presenting to the largest hospital in Malawi were analyzed. Eighty percent presented early enough for effective use of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Seventy-five percent of children made a disclosure of child sexual abuse; 29% spontaneously and 47% after prompting. Disclosures were most commonly made to a parent, and age did not affect the pattern of disclosure. The number of children reporting child sexual abuse is increasing, possibly because of increasing awareness, availability of services, and fear of HIV. Although prompt disclosure rates were relatively high, facilitating easier disclosure of child sexual abuse by a free telephone help-line and better training of teachers may be helpful. PMID:24641596
Oaks, Judy; Anspaugh, David
Addresses the issue of incestuous sexual abuse of children, focusing on the definition and prevalence of the problem and associated myths, immediate and longterm consequences and symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach to prevention and treatment. (JC)
Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn
The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)
Jones, Jerry G.
Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153
Shamroy, Jerilyn A.
The Cincinnati Children's Hospital treated preadolescent children for symptoms, signs, or complaints of sexual abuse. The alleged abuser was known to the children in 72 percent of the cases. Describes the hospital's procedure for identifying these children and the follow-up services necessary for their protection and emotional adjustment. (Author)
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Mapes, Bruce E.
Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…
Byram, Victoria; And Others
Female undergraduates (n=100) were surveyed concerning body percept and past experience with sexual abuse. Body size overestimation was greater in noneating-disordered women who had relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. Overall findings suggested that age at time of abuse and body image are only associated where there is a degree of eating…
Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…
Whisnant, Roberta Ann
Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…
Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F
The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745
Rellini, Alessandra H.
Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…
Boisso, Cynthia V.; And Others
While female victims of sexual abuse have received increased attention, male victims continue to be overlooked. Recognition of effects of sexual abuse has been an important step in increasing identification of and treatment for victims of abuse. To assess the characteristics of male victims, sexually abused male (N=13) and female (N=16)…
Samson, Alana; And Others
This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…
Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.
Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa
The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different
Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.
This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…
Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse
The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention. PMID:20345776
Draucker, C B
Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8407289
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the United States and internationally. Guidelines for culturally sensitive child abuse interviewing are provided to facilitate disclosures of abuse from culturally diverse children in formal settings. PMID:20924908
Csorba, Roland; Lampé, Rudolf; Póka, Róbert
The evaluation of a child presenting with an anogenital complaint or lesion can be challenging for both the clinician and the patient. The doctor met the real possibility that a diagnosis of a condition caused by sexual abuse will affect significantly the child and the family. A misdiagnosis of abuse or failure to recognize a treatable condition can also have detrimental consequences. Most primary care physicians are not trained to recognize the variety of systemic and dermatologic problems that affect the anogenital area. Dermatologists and other specialists often do not appreciate the possibility of sexual abuse. In this article we present a systematic approach to the child with anogenital complaints which may mimic sexual abuse. PMID:19939783
Connors, M E; Morse, W
Studies investigating a possible relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders have reported highly discrepant results. Some variability can be accounted for by methodological issues including diagnostic criteria, study design, and assessment techniques. The heterogeneity of an eating disordered population, especially regarding the comorbidity of eating pathology and personality disorder, is also a factor. Overall results suggest that around 30% of eating disordered patients have been sexually abused in childhood, a figure that is relatively comparable to rates found in normal populations. For some patients there may be a direct link between sexual trauma and eating pathology, but in general sexual abuse is best considered a risk factor in a biopsychosocial etiological model of eating disorders. Complex associations between trauma, self-regulatory deficits, and psychopathology require further research. PMID:8477269
Bulbul, Selda; Demirceken, Fulya; Cakir, Baris; Cakir, Elif Pinar; Unlu, Erdal; Soyer, Tutku
Human papillomavirus is responsible for anogenital warts and could be regarded as an indicator of possible sexual abuse in children. A genital wart was detected during an investigation of anti-hepatitis C virus positivity in a four-year-old male patient. No pathological findings of another sexually transmitted disease were found except complete…
Warrington, S A; de San Lazaro, C
AIMS: The aetiology of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is unknown. A series of 42 cases of this uncommon condition is reported. The aim of this study was to identify associations of LSA and document the association with sexual abuse. METHODS: Information about the patients was obtained by retrospective case note review and some patients were contacted by telephone for further information. RESULTS: In 12 cases there was evidence of sexual abuse. The abused group were slightly older than the non-abused group but were similar in all other respects. All three patients who presented over the age of 12 years had evidence of sexual abuse. Genital trauma was recalled by the patient or found at examination in 17 cases. Evidence of autoimmunity was present in five cases. Positive microbiological isolates were obtained in 18 cases. In only 11 cases were there no associated factors. The symptoms of LSA started between the ages of 3 and 7 years in most patients. The usual symptoms were related to genital skin involvement, and symptoms related to bladder and bowel function were common (50%). CONCLUSION: In this large series of paediatric LSA, associations with trauma, autoimmunity, and infection were noted. There was a high rate of coexisting sexual abuse with LSA, possibly due to genital trauma. Images Figure 2 PMID:9014605
Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; Newcomb, Michael
Examined 111 women's retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse. Explored domains of circumstances of abuse, mediators, and outcomes (negative effects of abuse). Found long-term negative outcomes of abuse directly affected by close relationship to perpetrator and severity of abuse from circumstance of abuse domain, and immediate negative…
Regotti, Terri L.
Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)
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Leavitt, F; Labott, S M
Distinguishing authentic abuse from false memory among adults who recover memories of childhood sexual trauma has far-reaching significance. This study initially examined 13 previously reported Rorschach signs of sexual abuse in women not abused, and women sexually abused (and not amnestic). The abuse signs were more prevalent in the abused group. A sexual abuse index composed of 8 signs correctly classified 93% of the abused, and 98% of the nonabused group. The index was then applied to women who recovered memories of abuse; some had analogues of dissociation in their protocols and others did not. Those exhibiting dissociative signs produced more signs of sexual abuse. The index classified 88% of the dissociative group as abused, but only 24% of the nondissociative group. The relevance of these findings for assessing authenticity of recovered memories is explored. PMID:8827651
McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha
Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…
Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.
Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…
Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.
School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...
Objective: This study is centered on interviewing techniques with alleged child sexual abuse victims who do and do not disclose sexual abuse. Method: Ninety randomly selected videotapes are reviewed, and the interviewing techniques are recorded on a 69-item Child Sexual Abuse Interviewing Skills Instrument. Results: The nondisclosure children are…
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This research examines the understudied issue of race/ethnicity in relation to child sexual abuse experiences (CSA) in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 461 female college students completing a survey. Comparisons of students' abuse experiences revealed ethnic differences in sexual abuse prevalence, severity of abuse, the victim-offender…
Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.
Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…
Brotman, Rebecca M.
Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886
Freshwater, K; Leach, C; Aldridge, J
Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11589329
Freshwater, Kate; Leach, Chris; Aldridge, Jan
Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11802849
Guimarães, Rafael Alves; da Silva, Leandro Nascimento; França, Divânia Dias da Silva; Del-Rios, Nativa Helena Alves; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Teles, Sheila Araujo
Abstract Objectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users. Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0. Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9) reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0) and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8), alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3), antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9) and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2) were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:26444164
Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John
Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)
Brewis, A A
The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657
Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.
Reviews the literature on sexual victimization of minors and the role of school psychologists in assessing and intervening with sexually abused minors. Although estimates of child sexual abuse prevalence differ widely owing to disclosure biases and the researcher definitions, it is clear that child sexual abuse is a serious public problem.…
Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…
Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.
During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Vyssoki, David; Schürmann-Emanuely, Alexander
Violence is what the victims experience as violence. Only they are able to measure what oppression, injury, pain or sexual violence can cause. Violence starts where human beings are constrained, humiliated, abjected and injured in their self-determination by other human beings. The experienced violence causes a trauma in most cases and in many cases also a PTSD. As a lot of epidemiological studies have affirmed, the highest lifetime-prevalence of PTSD appears after one respectively after a repeated act of sexual violence.It is important to define the circumstances of the action, by defining three fields of violence: domestic sexual violence, sexual violence in civil everyday life respectively violence, that occurs not inside families and sexual violence in wartime.Victims of all fields of violence can be found in Western Europe, the last mentioned form of violence predominant among refugees, but also among survivors of the last world war. PMID:19011596
Martone, Mary; And Others
This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…
Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim
A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…
David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…
Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others
Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)
Lambie, Ian; McCarthy, John
Adolescents who have sexually abused may pose a serious problem for both the community and the treatment provider concerning the management of risk and the application of effective intervention strategies. Fundamental to providing good clinical treatment is an assessment that results in an individualized treatment plan specifically tailored to the…
Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin
In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…
Myers, John E. B.
Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…
Socolar, Rebecca R. S.
A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…
Lindsay, D. Stephen
This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…
Reviews the literature on children's retraction of their disclosure of having been sexually abused. The evidence indicates that very few lied originally. The circumstances that underlie recantation, including false allegations, secrecy, denial, lack of support, pressure to recant, societal attitudes, and intervening events, are discussed, and…
Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…
Elrod, Jeanne M.; Rubin, Roger H.
Parental knowledge of child sexual abuse and interest in educating themselves and their children for primary prevention was studied, via interviews with 51 mothers and 50 fathers of preschool and day-care center children. There were significant differences by sex of parent for sources of preferred information, preferred educators, and types of…
Responses of 100 parents, 30 teachers, and over 200 preschool children were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse prevention curriculum for preschool children. An orientation meeting for parents and teachers preceded a presentation of the curriculum to preschool children. Parents and teachers were already aware of child sexual…
Mosack, Katie E; Randolph, Mary E; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors for the childhood sexual abuse group. The mechanisms of risk are different for those with divergent childhood sexual abuse histories and thus interventions should be developed to educate women with a history of childhood sexual abuse about ways to avoid revictimization, particularly within a context of poverty, prostitution, and drug use. PMID:20390778
Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.
Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…
A recent increase of syphilis and gonorrhea has been observed in France. More recently, the resurgence of very infrequent STDs, such as lymphogranuloma venerum, has been noticed in Western Europe. This data illustrates the emergence of high-risk behavior and the relative failure of prevention for sexually transmitted infection and HIV infection, especially in homosexual men. Since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, oral sex has been increasingly used both by heterosexual and homosexual partners. Even if the risk of HIV transmission with oral sex is very low, oral sex is a major mode of transmission for syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes. Condoms are seldom used for oral sex. The transmission of STI by oral sex is less documented in heterosexual than in homosexual patients. The level of knowledge does not seem to reduce risky behavior in the most concerned population. An infection not normally considered as sexually transmitted (i.e. hepatitis C) may be transmitted by high risk sexual behavior increasing the risk of blood-blood contact, as recently reported among HIV-infected homosexual men. The emergence of high-risk sexual practices (traumatic practices, fisting) in a specific population required focused prevention measures to avoid blood-transmitted infections. The increased risk of HIV transmission by ST co-infection (syphilis, genital herpes, gonorrhea) and the potential morbidity of STI in HIV infected patients should also be emphasized. PMID:15878817
One-quarter of the 3 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) each year occur in teenagers. Teens are at high risk because of biological, age, and behavioral factors. Education is the best weapon against STDs. As their children's first sex educators, parents must make every effort to promote STD education at home and school. (SM)
Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.
The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…
Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian
Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression analysis (n=237) with cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Wave I (NSCAW, Dowd et al., 2002). This study found that school engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse. PMID:22265933
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa
This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897
Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir; Profumo, Elio
The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. We show that the epidemic outbreak in bipartite populations, with number of sexual partners distributed as in empirical observations from national sex surveys, takes place for larger spreading rates than for the case in which the bipartite nature of the network is not taken into account. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the theoretical results. Our findings indicate that the restriction to crossed infections between the two classes of individuals (males and females) has to be taken into account in the design of efficient immunization strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18212127
Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo
The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826
Worku, Dereje; Gebremariam, Abebe; Jayalakshmi, S
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major contributing factor to the burden of disease among children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CSA and its outcomes among female high school students in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Jirren high school female students in April 2005. A total of 323 female students from grade 9 were selected by systematic random sampling and they completed a self-administered questionnaire on experiences of sexual abuse. Data were cleaned and analysed by SPSS/PC statistical package. The results revealed that the prevalence of CSA was 68.7%. Among the different forms of sexual abuses, verbal harassment was the most common (51.4%) followed by sexual intercourse, 18.0% and unwelcome kissing, 17.1%. The commonly indicated abusers in this study were unknown persons (36%) followed by school-mates (31.5%). Among victims of sexual abuse, 7.2% had an unwanted pregnancy and 5.9% had sexually transmitted diseases. The rate of other psychological effects of CSA, such as suicide ideation, suicide attempt, and sexual dysfunction, was high. The overwhelming majority (86.4%) considered sexual abuse to be a major social problem. The study revealed that the prevalence of CSA is high. Reproductive health education should be provided to students. Parents, police, and the public in general should be made aware of the problem before it endangers the lives of children and adolescents. PMID:16884614
Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic
Willcox, R R
Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558
Willcox, R R
Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. PMID:6894558
Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun
A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths. PMID:25981223
Deblinger, Esther; Taub, Brandi; Maedel, Allyson B.; Lippmann, Julie; Stauffer, Lori B.
Examines factors influencing nonoffending mothers' reports of their sexually abused children's symptomatology (N=96). Results indicate that maternal belief in the allegations, combined with physical abuse perpetrated by the sexual offender, contributed unique variance to the number of post-traumatic stress symptoms reported. Physical abuse,…
Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.
This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…
Alert-Dancer, Claire; Halley, Nancy; Hamate, Maryam; Bernard-Bonnie, Anne-Claude
Medical evaluation of 316 children, mean age 6 years, found 39 perpetrators of sexual abuse were less than 16 years old and 15 were between 16 and 19. Young aggressors were more likely to abuse older female children. Adolescent aggressors appeared to engage in more genital/genital and genital/anal sexual abuse than older aggressors. (Author/DB)
Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.
Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…
Schonberg, Ila J.
Child sexual abuse continues to be a problem despite efforts towards prevention. The burden of protecting children still falls mainly on women, yet society's general attitudes take away from women the tools they need to do this job. Mothers of sexually abused children have been blamed for their daughters' abuse because of their emotional…
Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.
Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…
Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…
Wurtele, Sandy K.; Schmitt, Ann
This study examined the knowledgeability of child care workers (n=97) regarding their rights and responsibilities in reporting suspected child sexual abuse. Day care personnel knew significantly less about procedures for reporting suspected abuse and their protection under the law (when compared to child sexual abuse experts). (Author/DB)
Kleemeier, Carol; And Others
The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…
Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.
In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…
Thin, R N; Rendell, P; Wadsworth, J
Although gonorrhoea is often regarded as the sexually transmitted disease against which others are measured, its infectivity is not clearly understood. Estimates of the infection rate have varied from 5--90%. In this study, 50 couples with gonorrhoea were matched with 50 couples with genital yeast infection. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed in both partners of 32 couples and genital yeast infection in both partners of 21 couples. These figures provide an indication of the sexual transmission of these conditions. The higher figure for gonorrhoea may be related to a greater urgency in tracing contacts. PMID:486247
Roesler, T A; Savin, D; Grosz, C
A significant portion of children referred for psychiatric treatment have been sexually abused. One of the most difficult symptom manifestations to treat in young children is the management of anger. In this case, a 4-year-old boy was sexually abused by persons outside the family. He showed symptoms of regressive behavior including encopresis, enuresis, difficulty sleeping, fearfulness, recurrent nightmares, and had hyperalertness and frequent outbursts of anger. Treatment initially involved group therapy, with a concurrent parents' group. After experiencing little improvement in group therapy, the youngster was put in individual play therapy and family therapy. Family therapy proved essential in creating a safe environment for the patient where he could learn to regulate his affect and process his traumatic experience successfully. PMID:8407771
... in-depth look at the severe human and economic burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the ... would have resulted in a substantially higher estimated economic burden. 1 Satterwhite CL, et al. Sexually transmitted ...
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…
Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.
Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…
King, H. Elizabeth; And Others
These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…
Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A
In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health. PMID:18798442
Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N
There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse. PMID:8800523
Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben
The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose. PMID:20587459
Latif, A S
During the three months between December 1979 and February 1980, 2867 patients attended a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Of the 929 (32.4%) patients examined and interviewed clinical and laboratory finding showed that chancroid was the commonest disease (38.4%) and gonorrhoea almost as common (35.3%) in men. Pelvic inflammatory disease was the commonest disease (47.0%) and gonorrhoea the next commonest (22.7%) in women. PMID:6894561
Singh, HSS Amar; And Others
A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)
Singh, Onkar; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K.
Approximately 34 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) at the end of 2011. From the last two decades, researchers are actively involved in the development of an effective HIV-1 treatment, but the results intended are still doubtful about the eradication of HIV. The HIV-1 virus has gone from being an “inherently untreatable” infectious agent to the one liable to be affected by a range of approved therapies. Candidate microbicides have been developed to target specific steps in the process of viral transmission. Microbicides are self-administered agents that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the aim of preventing, or reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV-1. The development of efficient, widely available, and low-cost microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections should be given high priority. In this review, we studied the various forms of microbicides, their mechanism of action, and their abundant approaches to control the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:26556193
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi
Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765
Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L
Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77374; 1998: N = 81247). Findings indicate that sexual abuse was reported by both boys and girls and among students of all ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of adolescents reported sexual abuse in each cohort, with girls 5 times more likely to report abuse than boys. Ethnic variation was minor, with African American, Native American, and Hispanic teens slightly more likely to report abuse than White or Asian American youth. School nurses should routinely assess for a history of sexual abuse in adolescents and should be prepared to provide support and referral for abused students and their families. PMID:14498771
Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.
Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…
Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare
Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo
We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ρs and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ρs=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ρs<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo
This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718
Morano, Jamie P.
The primary care physician has a vital role in documenting and preventing sexual abuse among the mentally retarded populations in our community. Since the current national trend is to integrate citizens with mental retardation into the community away from institutionalized care, it is essential that all physicians have a basic understanding of the unique medical and legal ramifications of their clinical diagnoses. As the legal arena is currently revising laws concerning rights of sexual consent among the mentally retarded, it is essential that determinations of mental competency follow national standards in order to delineate clearly any instance of sexual abuse. Clinical documentation of sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease is an important part of a routine examination since many such individuals are indeed sexually active. Legal codes adjudicating sexual abuse cases of the mentally retarded often offer scant protection and vague terminology. Thus, medical documentation and physician competency rulings form a solid foundation for future work toward legal recourse for the abused. PMID:15014610
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M
Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling. PMID:26542045
Doll, L S; Joy, D; Bartholow, B N; Harrison, J S; Bolan, G; Douglas, J M; Saltzman, L E; Moss, P M; Delgado, W
From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding potentially abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Thirty-seven percent of participants reported they had been encouraged or forced to have sexual contact before age 19 with an older or more powerful partner; 94% occurred with men. Median age of the participant at first contact was 10; median age difference between partners was 11 years. Fifty-one percent involved use of force; 33% involved anal sex. Black and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to report such sexual contact. Using developmentally-based criteria to define sexual abuse, 93% of participants reporting sexual contact with an older or more powerful partner were classified as sexually abused. Our data suggest the risk of sexual abuse may be high among some male youth and increased attention should be devoted to prevention as well as early identification and treatment. PMID:1486514
Murray, Joan; And Others
The idea is widely supported that abuse is far more common among acquaintances than among strangers and is most common within the family. The dating relationship is another intimate relationship in which abuse occurs. In this study the association between abuse in the family of origin and sexual abuse in dating was analyzed by determining the…
Springs, F E; Friedrich, W N
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent health risk behaviors and medical problems was examined in 511 women who had used a family practice clinic in a rural midwestern community during a 2-year period (1988 and 1989). These women completed a questionnaire that assessed various health risk behaviors--smoking, drinking, drug abuse, number of sexual partners, and age at first intercourse--and a medical symptom checklist that assessed 38 medical problems related to major systems of body function, the somatization scale from the SCL-90, a screen for sexual abuse, and a brief measure of social support. The results indicated that sexually abused women, who represented 22.1% of the sample, reported significantly more medical problems, greater levels of somatization, and more health risk behaviors than did the nonabused women. More severe abuse (for example, penetration or multiple abusers) correlated with more severe problems. Extent of social support correlated inversely with the number of gynecologic problems reported in the sexually abused group. Fewer than 2% of the sexually abused women had discussed the abuse with a physician. To identify and assist victims of sexual abuse, physicians should become experienced with nonthreatening methods of eliciting such information when the medical history is obtained. PMID:1434879
Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva
Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508
Schuman, D C
Child sexual abuse is sometimes mistakenly over-reported. This discussion of seven cases focuses on one potential area which can generate a substantial segment of false positives: conflicted domestic relations litigation situation. Such situations generate striking, regressive affect and behavior especially when issues of child custody or visitation erupt. Parental regression has been discussed in the literature, but children regress too: behavioral symptoms erupt with vegetative and social disruption, and instinctual material regarding both sex and anger is more accessible to consciousness than is age-appropriate. Heightened instinctual forces in children and regressive loosening of pre-litigation character defenses in adults, both in the context of stressful family breakdown, combine to generate genuine perceptions of abuse but invalid reports. PMID:3697518
De Schryver, A.; Meheus, A.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are now the commonest group of notifiable infectious diseases in most countries, particularly in the age group of 15 to 50 years and in infants. Their control is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their socioeconomic impact, and their role in increasing transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The worldwide incidence of major bacterial and viral STD is estimated at over 125 million cases yearly. STD are hyperendemic in many developing countries. In industrialized countries, the bacterial STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chancroid) declined from the peak during the Second World War till up to the late fifties, then increased during the sixties and early seventies, and they have been decreasing again from the late seventies till the present. In the industrialized world, diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes virus, human papillomaviruses and human immunodeficiency virus are now more important than the classical bacterial ones; both groups remain major health problems in most developing countries. Infection rates are similar in both women and men, but women and infants bear the major burden of complications and serious sequelae. Infertility and ectopic pregnancies are often a consequence of pelvic inflammatory disease, and are preventable. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women can result in prematurity, stillbirth and neonatal infections. In many areas 1-5% of newborns are at risk of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, a blinding disease; congenital syphilis causes up to 25% of perinatal mortality. Genital and anal cancers (especially cervical cancer) are associated with viral sexually transmitted diseases (genital human papillomavirus and herpes virus infections). Urethral stricture and infertility are frequent sequelae in men. PMID:2289300
González, A; Rossini, C; Eisner, M; Eisner, T
The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925
Shao, C; Xu, W; Ye, G
This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s. Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the implementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environment was changed to a great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-introduced in the Chinese mainland and new foci of infection established themselves in some cities. During the recent 8 years the national STD case-reporting and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The results of surveillance show that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors associated with the increasing incidence of STD mainly are; population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population, the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution) and asymptomatic STD increased. Finally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail. PMID:9387394
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo
We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.
First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane
Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540
Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…
Sexual abuse as an extreme childhood trauma produces distorted object-images, introjects of violence which reproduce the trauma permanently through symptoms and acting-out. Although the traumatic power should be relived in transference, psychoanalytic therapy does not always mean permanent interpretation of transference, rather supporting, confirming, valuing activity is indicated. The following scopes can be differentiated: idealization, changing the therapeutic object into a triangulating one; negative transference of an archaic destructive mother imago, nevertheless also of the traumatic object, setting free hidden aggressive affects; emerging of the specific sexual trauma in transference and counter-transference. In the whole course of therapy, especially at the end, working through of guilt-feelings, shame and mourning permits the separation from the traumatic objects, although the danger of returning to them, often represented by the real actual objects, does not guarantee a full success in all cases. PMID:9499697
Levandowski, Brooke A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Torrone, Elizabeth; Wilson, George
The social dynamics of some communities are affected by the loss of significant numbers of people to prison and by the release of others who encounter the challenge of coping with the negative effects of the incarceration experience. The effects on communities are evident, in part, in the high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in North Carolina (NC) counties that have a high rate of incarceration. In the present study, we examined whether the same associations can be observed at the census tract level in one urban city of NC. To identify the mechanisms by which incarceration can affect the transmission of STIs, we conducted ethnographic interviews with ex-offenders and people who lost a sexual partner to prison. We found that census tract rates of incarceration were consistently associated with gonorrhea rates in the subsequent year. An increase of the percentage of census tract person-time spent in prison from 2.0% to 2.5% corresponded to a gonorrhea rate increase of 7.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The people interviewed spoke of sexual partnership changes including those left behind finding new partners, in part for help in making financial ends meet; men having sex with men for the first time in prison; and having multiple new partners upon reentry to the community. The statistical associations and stories of the effects of incarceration on sexual relationships provide additional evidence of unintended community health consequences of high rates of incarceration. PMID:18046653
Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Hunter, P R
Understanding predisposing factors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young adults may identify targets for public health interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of university students' sexual attitudes, behaviours and lifestyles and self-reported rates of STI. A total of 827 students responded, 22.4% had two or more sexual partners in the previous year with inconsistent condom use and the lifetime prevalence of STIs was 9.6%. Factors associated with a diagnosis of STI were increasing age and number of sexual partners ever, female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31, 5.56) and use of crack (AOR 10.45, 95% CI 1.46, 75.16). For female students, these were increasing age and number of partners ever, whereas for male students having sex with other men (bisexual AOR 4.8, 95% CI 1.02, 22.595, homosexual AOR 17.66, 95% CI 3.03, 103.04) and use of crack (AOR 32.24, 95% CI 3.33, 312.08). Multiple partners and recreational drug use may predict incidence of STI. Prevention strategies need to aim at reducing risk behaviour across various activities. PMID:18595873
Day, S; Ward, H
OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894
Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…
Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas
Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence. PMID:15457623
Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.
Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…
... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...
Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…
Wagner, William G.
In this study of brief-term concomitant of child sexual abuse, children's reports of self-concept and depression, and parents' ratings of their children's depressive symptomology, were examined for child victims of molestation or sexual abuse outside the family, and for nonabused children whose parents sought psychological services for them. (BB)
Goldman, Renitta L.
This paper examines the characteristics and behaviors which may exacerbate the vulnerability of children with an intellectual disability toward sexually abusive relationships. It focuses on incidence, characteristics of offenders, characteristics of children, consequences of sexual abuse, and challenges for intervention and prevention. (JDD)
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…
Underwager, Ralph; Wakefield, Hollida
The investigation and adjudication of cases of alleged sexual abuse of children can cause as much or more trauma to a child as the sexual abuse itself. Such secondary victimization may occur when children are subjected to repeated interviews, questionable techniques, intrusive physical examinations, inappropriate reactions and overreactions by…
Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese
There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.186 Section 115.186 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.186 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The lockup shall conduct a...
Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen
Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…
Cooper, Sharon W.
Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…
Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.
This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…
Duhon, Rose M.
Teachers need training to work with community agencies to treat sexual abuse of children. They also need to develop the necessary skills to help sexually abused children overcome emotional trauma impeding effective learning. A survey was conducted to ascertain information on the extent of instruction and training of 510 teachers in the area of…
Viviani, Anna Michele
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.
Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…
Anaya, Henry D.; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Risk behaviors were compared between sexually abused and nonabused youth living with HIV (YLH). Abused YLH were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide, to have been admitted into an alcohol and/or drug treatment program, and to have engaged in crack cocaine use than were nonabused YLH and had a greater number of sexual partners. A…
Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386 Section 115.386 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286 Section 115.286 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.286 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The...
Draucker, Claire B.
A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)
Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W
Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality. PMID:17177094
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P
Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232
Study analyzed interviews to identify children's terminology of private body parts and sexual abuse activity. "Touching" was the most frequently used term in describing sexual parts and/or sexual abuse. Children's choice of words can imply various meanings; the interview should clarify the meaning of slang terms. Recommends interviewers use "what"…
The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse
Banwari, Girish H.
Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease. PMID:24379502
Rush, Elizabeth B.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Quas, Jodi A.
Prior research has found that children disclosing physical abuse appear more reticent and less consistent than children disclosing sexual abuse. Although this has been attributed to differences in reluctance, it may also be due to differences in the process by which abuse is suspected and investigated. Disclosure may play a larger role in arousing suspicions of sexual abuse, while other evidence may play a larger role in arousing suspicions of physical abuse. As a result, children who disclose physical abuse in formal investigations may be doing so for the first time, and they may be more reluctant to provide details of the abuse. We examined abuse disclosure and evidence in comparable samples of court-substantiated physical (n = 33) and sexual (n = 28) abuse. Consistent with predictions, the likelihood that the child had disclosed abuse before an investigation began was lower in physical (27%) than that in sexual (67%) abuse cases, and there was more nondisclosure evidence of abuse in physical abuse cases. These findings have implications for understanding the dynamics and meaning of disclosure in cases involving different types of abuse. PMID:24899582
Lawson, David Allen
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a fairly recent inclusion in the literature as a psychiatric disorder. Currently, researchers are trying to relate PTSD to many different environmental and psychosocial stressors including physical abuse, emotional abuse, war trauma, and sexual abuse. This paper addresses research concerning the…
Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.
Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…
Hays, Kate F.; Stanley, Sheila F.
Compared the dental experiences of 132 women with a history of sexual abuse to 49 women reporting no such history. Findings show that a history of abuse, especially the severity of abuse, predicted different patterns in making and keeping dental appointments, stress-related dental problems, and post-traumatic-stress-disorder-type symptoms while at…
Allers, Christopher T.; And Others
Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…
Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of knowledge about those who sexually abuse children while working in organizations. Here, we adopt a case study approach to examine this problem. We focus on eight adult males who had been imprisoned for abusing a total of 35 children while working in educational and voluntary settings. We provide a detailed account of abusers'…
Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509
A child who has been sexually abused typically is not going to be forthcoming about the abuse. Therefore, it can be difficult and time-consuming for a physician who suspects sexual abuse to get the child to disclose what is happening. This article reviews strategies that can help physicians establish a trusting relationship with a child that may enable them to speak openly about what is going on in their lives. PMID:22372050
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…
Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments. PMID:27276546
Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo
We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.
Giannini, A J; Colapietro, G; Slaby, A E; Melemis, S M; Bowman, R K
The authors reviewed historical literature and hypothesized a relationship between epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases and foot fetishism. They tested this hypothesis by quantifying foot-fetish depictions in the mass-circulation pornographic literature during a 30-yr. interval. An exponential increase was noted during the period of the current AIDS epidemic. The authors offer reasons for this possible relationship. PMID:9819924
Sánchez, J; Gotuzzo, E; Escamilla, J; Carrillo, C; Phillips, I A; Barrios, C; Stamm, W E; Ashley, R L; Kreiss, J K; Holmes, K K
OBJECTIVES. This study examined the prevalences of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a sample of Peruvian adults. METHODS. Among adults seeking health certification in Lima, Peru, 600 were randomly selected to undergo interviews and serologic testing. RESULTS. Men's reported mean lifetime number of partners (10.6) far exceeded women's (1.1), yet antibody to sexually transmitted infection pathogens among sexually experienced participants was 2.8 times more prevalent among women than among men. Among men, female sex workers accounted for 37% of recent partners, and only sex with female sex workers while using condoms less than half of the time was independently associated with antibody (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 8.8). among women, number of partners was associated with any sexually transmitted infection antibody, while intercourse before 18 years of age was associated with C trachomatis antibody. At every level of perceived risk, sexually transmitted infection antibody was more frequent among women. CONCLUSIONS. Men having unprotected sex with female sex workers had the greatest risk of acquiring infections and (by inference) of transmitting them to women. PMID:8712268
Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.
This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…
De Jong, A R; Rose, M
Clinicians have long recognized and attorneys have disputed that physical evidence of injury, sexually transmitted diseases, and seminal fluid are often absent in cases of child sexual abuse. To determine the frequency and significance of physical evidence in legally "proven" felony cases with penetration, a retrospective review of sexual abuse court records was done. A total of 45 randomly selected cases were reviewed; 39 (87%) had resulted in conviction of the perpetrator for felony. Charges of vaginal rape were made in 32 cases, and charges of oral and/or anal sodomy in 23 cases. No significant difference in rate of felony conviction was found in cases with or without physical evidence. Of 32 cases without physical evidence, 30 (94%) resulted in felony convictions, whereas only 9 of 13 cases (69%) with physical evidence resulted in a felony conviction. Multiple variables describing the abuse situation were not shown to effect the legal outcome of the cases. Of cases that resulted in felony convictions, physical evidence was present in only 23% (9 of 39). These results should be helpful for the clinician in counseling the family of the sexual abuse victim and the attorney who prosecutes child sexual abuse cases. PMID:2587130
Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416
Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M
Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. PMID:27169881
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.
This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…
Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit
It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:25774414
Malmedal, Wenche; Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid
Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons. PMID:25642347
Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco
Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654
Plummer, Carol A.
This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…
Kaufman, Bobbie; Wohl, Agnes
Recognizing the compelling language of imagery available in the drawings of children who have been sexually abused, this book focuses on the link between sexual abuse during the latency period and specific developmental problems. Chapter 1, "Paradigms of Trauma and Sexual Abuse," presents sexual abuse as an external event associated with a…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari
Interviews with 372 homeless and runaway adolescents found one-half reported being physically abused and almost one-third experienced sexual abuse. Females experienced significantly higher rates of sexual abuse. Sexual minority youth experienced more physical and sexual abuse compared to heterosexual youth. Nonfamily members most often perpetrated…
Collins, Christi M; O'Neill-Arana, Margarita R; Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Ossege, Jennifer M
The long-term effects of child sexual abuse include numerous psychological, social, and behavioral difficulties in women survivors, ranging from poor self-esteem and depression to sexual disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role that religious beliefs may play in the difficulties these women suffer has been largely unexplored. This qualitative study explored women's experience of healing within the context of Catholicism. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women raised as Catholics who reported child sexual abuse and who had participated in at least two years of psychotherapy. Results suggest that Catholic identity can both compound and relieve the suffering many women experience in healing from child sexual abuse. Participants related that their Catholicism was rarely addressed during psychotherapy. These findings have implications for clinicians working with Catholic survivors of child sexual abuse. PMID:24819394
McLeod, David V.; Day, Troy
The selective forces shaping mating systems have long been of interest to biologists. One particular selective pressure that has received comparatively little attention is sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While it has been hypothesized that STIs could drive the evolutionary emergence of monogamy, there is little theoretical support. Here we use an evolutionary invasion analysis to determine what aspects of pathogen virulence and transmission are necessary for serial monogamy to evolve in a promiscuous population. We derive a biologically intuitive invasion condition in terms of population-specific quantities. From this condition, we obtain two main results. First, when pathogen virulence causes mortality rather than sterility, monogamy is more likely to evolve. Second, we find that at intermediate pathogen transmission rates, monogamy is the most selectively advantageous, whereas at high- and low-transmission rates, monogamy is generally selected against. As a result, it is possible for a pathogen to be highly virulent, yet for promiscuity to persist. PMID:25320174
The history of sexually transmitted diseases in Canada from 1800 to the present reflects the changing views and values of citizens, medical experts, politicians and bureaucrats. During the colonial period, the military devoted attention to the problem but strict moral codes and social conventions prevented public discussion. Although middle class reformers began to pressure the federal government for funding and direction after 1900, World War I was the catalyst for involvement. Health education through a voluntary group and federal-provincial cost-shared funding for treatment facilities across Canada were introduced to control STDs. Public perception of STD patients as marginalised or deviant limited the impact of these efforts. Social changes during the 1960s, new STDs appearing in the 1970s and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s have redirected the STD campaign to focus on high risk groups and prevention rather than the moralistic curative efforts of the past. PMID:8300103
This paper points to the congruence between political and social variables and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in modern China. STDs became a major health problem after the fall of the empire in 1911 and were only reluctantly addressed by a weak nationalist government during the 1930s. During the 1950s and 60s, the communist regime brought STDs under control, but problems have reappeared since reforms were implemented during the 1980s. Cultural values and social attitudes have also structured medical responses to venereal disease. From the reform movements between the two World Wars to the more recent communist health campaigns, medical theory has often been confused with moral prescription. PMID:8244349
Todd, C S; Haase, C; Stoner, B P
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of asymptomatic genital tract infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis among emergency department patients. METHODS: Individuals seeking emergency department evaluation for nongenitourinary complaints provided urine samples for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis testing by ligase chain reaction and completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. RESULTS: Asymptomatic N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis was found in 9.7% of persons tested. Correlates of C trachomatis infection included younger age, residence in high-morbidity zip code areas, previous history of N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis, and number of sex partners in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Urine-based screening of asymptomatic emergency department patients detected significant numbers of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis infections. Targeted screening programs may contribute to community-level prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:11236416
de Vries, Henry J C
Cutaneous signs and skin conditions associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are discussed. Syphilis, condyloma acuminata, and scabies are well-known STIs with cutaneous manifestations. Chlamydia and gonorrhea can also cause specific muco-cutaneous signs and symptoms. HIV often manifests itself through skin conditions. Dermatologists are pivotal in the timely diagnosis of HIV infection and play an important role in the disease prognosis and ongoing transmission. Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN), an HPV related precursor of anal carcinoma affecting HIV positive men, is a relatively new condition that many dermatologists will face in the future. STIs should be involved in the differential diagnosis when dermatologists are confronted with anogenital dermatoses, especially in patients with an increased risk for STIs. PMID:24559554
Assi, Roland; Hashim, Peter W; Reddy, Vikram B; Einarsdottir, Hulda; Longo, Walter E
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant public health concern. Several STIs, once thought to be on the verge of extinction, have recently reemerged. This change is thought to be partially related to an increase in STIs of the anus and rectum. Importantly, the global human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has contributed to the emergence of particular anorectal lesions that require specialized approaches. In this report, we review common anorectal STIs that are frequently referred to colorectal surgeons in the United States. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management are summarized, including the latest treatment recommendations. The particularity of anorectal diseases in HIV/AIDS is addressed, along with recent trends in anal cytology and human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID:25386074
Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S
Attributable risk combines information on the prevalence of an exposure with a measure of the associated increment in risk, providing an estimate of the proportion of incident or prevalent disease that might be avoided by eliminating the exposure. Thus, attributable risk identifies exposures most productively targeted by public health interventions. Attributable risk can be defined as the ratio of average excess risk to average risk. As with other measures of association between exposure and disease computed from observational data, adjustment must be made for confounding factors. Estimates of attributable risk are highly variable. Nonetheless, attributable risk retains its usefulness as an approximate measure of the public health significance of exposures associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted disease, provided it is estimated and interpreted cautiously. PMID:8843248
Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824
Meel, B L
Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970
Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958
Weatherred, Jane Long
The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed. PMID:25635896
Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L
Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources). PMID:26301441
Matas, M; Marriott, A
There has been an explosion of interest recently in sexual abuse and incest, with reported causal links to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The integrity of Freud's seduction theory has been challenged by Jeffrey Masson and sexual abuse activists. What is the position of a therapist who finds out that a patient's reports of incest and sexual abuse turn out to be fabrications? These issues are presented and discussed in the context of a brief, illustrative case history. There is also a review of the concept of "pseudologia fantastica", as well as a brief review of a feminist critique of Freudian theory. PMID:3607712
Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer
This study examined a range of sexually abusive acts women with protective orders against violent partners experienced using three groups: (a) women who never experience stalking or rape by the violent partner; (b) women who experienced stalking but who had never been raped by the violent partner; and (c) women who were stalked and raped by the violent partner. Findings suggest that women in violent relationships experienced a wide range of sexually abusive experiences and that there is a significant association of partner stalking and partner sexual abuse beyond rape. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21665857
Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148
Ona, Samsiya; Molina, Rose L; Diouf, Khady
Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6.4%. M. genitalium may play a role in pathogenesis as an independent sexually transmitted pathogen or by facilitating coinfection with another pathogen. The long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in asymptomatic individuals need to be investigated further. Though screening for this pathogen is not currently recommended, it should be considered in high-risk populations. Recent guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control regarding first-line treatment for PID do not cover M. genitalium but recommend considering treatment in patients without improvement on standard PID regimens. Prospective studies on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in the general population are needed to determine if screening protocols are necessary. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance. PMID:27212873
Ona, Samsiya; Molina, Rose L.; Diouf, Khady
Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6.4%. M. genitalium may play a role in pathogenesis as an independent sexually transmitted pathogen or by facilitating coinfection with another pathogen. The long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in asymptomatic individuals need to be investigated further. Though screening for this pathogen is not currently recommended, it should be considered in high-risk populations. Recent guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control regarding first-line treatment for PID do not cover M. genitalium but recommend considering treatment in patients without improvement on standard PID regimens. Prospective studies on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in the general population are needed to determine if screening protocols are necessary. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance.
Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007. PMID:17786104
Tiblom Ehrsson, Ylva; Stenhammar, Christina; Rosenblad, Andreas; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja
Aim To investigate the occurrence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female university students requesting contraceptive counselling. Material and methods Cross-sectional study. Female university students (n = 353) completed a waiting-room questionnaire in connection with contraceptive counselling at a Student Health Centre in Uppsala, Sweden. Results Ninety-three (26.3%) female students had experienced an STI. The three most frequently reported STIs were chlamydia trachomatis, condyloma, and genital herpes. The experience of an STI was significantly associated with the total number of sexual partners (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.030–1.091, P < 0.001), being heterosexual (OR 4.640, 95% CI 1.321–16.290, P = 0.017), having experienced an abortion (OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.112–6.771, P = 0.028), not being HPV-vaccinated (OR 2.696, 95% CI 1.473–4.935, P = 0.001), and having had intercourse on first night without using a condom (OR 2.375, 95% CI 1.182–4.771, P = 0.015). Conclusions Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID:26489857
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John
We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749
McDaniels-Wilson, Cathy; Belknap, Joanne
A growing body of research reports on the lifetime prevalence of sexual victimization experiences among incarcerated women. However, none of this research provides a detailed account of the many types and levels of sexual violations and sexual abuses, the age of occurrence, and the victim-offender relationship. This study used the Sexual Abuse Checklist (designed by the first author) and a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to obtain a detailed account of 391 incarcerated women's self-reported sexual violation and abuse histories. Seventy percent of the women reported at least one violation consistent with what qualifies as "rape" in most states in the United States today, and half of the women reported child sexual abuse victimization. The most prevalent victim-offender relationships were male strangers, male lovers or boyfriends, male dates, husbands, uncles, brothers, male cousins, and stepfathers. PMID:18757348
Oliffe, John L; Chabot, Cathy; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy; Bungay, Vicky; Shoveller, Jean A
Sexual health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is typically portrayed as a women's issue amid men's estrangement from healthcare services. While the underreporting of men's STIs has been linked to masculinities, little is known about how women interpret and respond to heterosexual men's sexual health practices. The findings drawn from this qualitative study of 34 young women reveal how femininities can be complicit in sustaining, as well as being critical of and disrupting masculine discourses that affirm sexual pleasure and resistance to health help-seeking as men's patriarchal privileges. Our analysis revealed three patterns: looking after the man's libido refers to women's emphasised femininity whereby the man's preference for unprotected sex and reticence to be tested for STIs was accommodated. Negotiating the stronger sex refers to ambivalent femininities, in which participants strategically resist, cooperate and comply with men's sexual health practices. Rejecting the patriarchal double standard that celebrates men as 'studs' and subordinates women as 'sluts' for embodying similar sexual practices reflects protest femininities. Overall, the findings reveal that conventional heterosexual gender relations, in which hegemonic masculinity is accommodated by women who align to emphasised femininity, continues to direct many participants' expectations around men's sexual health and STI testing. PMID:22497206
Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey
Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…
A hypothesis, based on concepts of narcissism and perversion, is presented of the mental functioning of the physically and sexually abusive parent. The concept also gives insight into the structuring of the personality of the child-victim, who undergoes the risk of himself becoming a physically and/or sexually abusive parent. (DB)
Filipas, Henrietta H.; Ullman, Sarah E
The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and…
Jennings, A G; Armsworth, M W
As many as a third of the women in this culture experience sexual abuse prior to reaching age 18. Recent literature and research have presented divergent views related to the impact of early abuse on ego development, with arguments supporting both ego fragmentation and ego acceleration. This preliminary study compared the level of ego development, as measured by Loevinger's Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT), of 30 women with histories of childhood sexual victimization, and 30 women with no history of abuse. Results indicated no significant difference between the ego levels of the sexually abused and nonabused groups, with a slight trend toward higher ego development in the abused group. Factors contributing to these findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are suggested. PMID:1393718
Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)
Treguear, T; Peters, L
In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363
Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H
The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204
Wells, Robert D.; And Others
Girls who had been sexually abused (n=68) or had alleged being sexually abused (n=68) exhibited sleep problems, fearfulness, emotional and behavioral changes, concentration problems, and sexual curiosity and knowledge. Girls known to have been abused were more self-conscious, fearful of being left alone, and had more nightmares than the allegedly…
Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148
Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan
This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…
Rogers, D J; Roberts, R E
Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose. Images PMID:7750955
Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail
Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…
Mbassa Menick, D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448
Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna
Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337
Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.
Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…
As a result of the recent publicity given problems of physical and sexual child abuse, society now expects teachers to be fully informed, to educate both children and parents, and to actively intercede in abuse cases. Guidelines are given to help middle level teachers cope with these and related developments. (DCS)
Spencer, Tanya D.; Tan, Josephine C. H.
Investigates undergraduates' reactions toward hypothetical male survivor's disclosure of sexual abuse. Reports that when age of incident was higher, survivor was seen as less masculine; more responsible for abuse; and sex role and rape myths were strongly applied to him. Less positive reactions were associated with disclosing to other men, abuse…
Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata
Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…
Duty, Diane Scott
Sexual abuse of children has been recognized as a major problem. Attempts have been made to elicit descriptions of the abuse of children. A variety of interview methods for obtaining descriptions have been used. Methods of interviewing depend on the age of the child, the purpose of the interview, and the training and philosophy of the interviewer.…
Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn
Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…
Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.
Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…
Seligson, Anne Glinert
Object relations theory offers the most viable explanation of the dynamics of sexually abused individuals by allowing for the conceptualization of an individual, whose earlier object relations left him barren, lonely, or neglected, as having a predisposition or vulnerability to abuse. Children with adequate nurturing experiences react negatively…
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.
Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…
Westcott, Nina A.
Counselors must become aware of psychosocial and legal aspects of sexual abuse of children in order to provide much-needed assistance through informational programs and to establish clear channels of communication with referral agencies catering to needs of abused children. Frequently, school counselors are the only available confidants in the…
Bolen, Rebecca M.; Lamb, J. Leah
A concern in the intervention with sexually abused children is the support of their nonoffending guardians after disclosure of the abuse. Approximately a third of nonoffending guardians respond with vacillation in support, and these nonoffending guardians are at greater risk for having their children removed. This article reconceptualizes…
Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.
This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…
Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J
Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.
Sexual abuse can have negative consequences for children during the time of abuse as well as later in life. An important research question concerns the cycle of sexual abuse, specifically the likelihood that individuals who were victims of sexual abuse as children will become sexual abusers of children in adulthood. At the request of Congress, the…
Omokhodion, F O; Balogun, M O; Klemetti, M M; Olaolorun, F M
The environment in salons provides hairdressers the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits which may promote unhealthy sexual behaviour and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to determine sexual practices and knowledge and experience of STIs among hairdressers. The study was carried out in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 1700 hairdressers were selected by cluster sampling technique. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour, knowledge and experience of STIs were identified. Their mean age was 27.0 ± 8.1 years, 860 (50.6%) were single. Majority of them, 1453(85.5%) had ever had sex. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.9 years. Mean knowledge score of STIs was 14.0 out of 25. Only 158(9.3%) experienced symptoms of STIs in the last 12 months. Among singles, senior secondary education was a predictor of ever had sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.13), good knowledge of STIs (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.45-2.83) and experience of STIs in the last 12 months (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13). Hairdressers, especially singles, are a vulnerable group at risk of reproductive health morbidities. There is a need to focus reproductive health interventions on this occupational group. PMID:25642818
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354
Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.
The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…
Doherty, Irene A; Padian, Nancy S; Marlow, Cameron; Aral, Sevgi O
Because pathogens spread only within the unique context of a sexual union between people when one person is infectious, the other is susceptible to new infection, and condoms are not used to prevent transmission, the epidemiological study of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly challenging. Social network analysis entails the study of ties among people and how the structure and quality of such ties affect individuals and overall group dynamics. Although ascertaining complete sexual networks is difficult, application of this approach has provided unique insights into the spread of STIs that traditional individual-based epidemiological methods do not capture. This article provides a brief background on the design and assessments of studies of social networks, to illustrate how these methods have been applied to understanding the distribution of STIs, to inform the development of interventions for STI control. PMID:15627230
Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…
Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.
Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…
Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758
Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758
Kerani, Roxanne P.; Handcock, Mark S.; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Holmes, King K.
Objectives. We measured and compared the concentration of primary and secondary syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and genital herpes in a large county with urban, suburban, and rural settings. Methods. We geocoded sexually transmitted infections reported to King County, Washington health department in 2000–2001 to census tract of residence. We used a model-based approach to measure concentration with Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. Results. Syphilis exhibited the highest level of concentration (estimated Gini coefficient = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64, 0.78), followed by gonorrhea (estimated Gini coefficient=0.57; 95% CI=0.54, 0.60), chlamydial infection (estimated Gini coefficient = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.43), and herpes (estimated Gini coefficient=0.26; 95% CI=0.22, 0.29). Conclusions. Geographically targeted interventions may be most appropriate for syphilis and gonorrhea. For less-concentrated infections, control strategies must reach a wider portion of the population. PMID:15671471
Howie, Sarah E. M.; Horner, Patrick J.; Horne, Andrew W.; Entrican, Gary
Purpose of review To review recent findings on immunity and vaccine development to Chlamydia trachomatis. Recent findings There is increasing knowledge on the interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis and infected host cells. During genital infection the organism avoids generating protective immunity but immune responses to a number of chlamydial proteins have been associated with reproductive tract pathology. Various vaccine and adjuvant preparations have been tried experimentally. Information generated by proteomics and complex studies of serological and T-lymphocyte immune responses points to novel vaccine candidates. Summary Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is associated with reproductive pathology. To develop rational vaccines it is necessary to understand the complex life-cycle of the organism, the host immune response to infection and how these relate to disease. Infection does not prevent reinfection and antibiotic treatment prevents antibody production at a population level. It remains unclear what type of immune response would be sufficient to prevent infection and/or reinfection. Although the prevalence and demographics of infection and the severity of disease associations suggest it would be desirable, there is no vaccine currently available. A number of studies have identified novel vaccine candidates. PMID:21124214
Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima
The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647
Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei
This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs. PMID:26208181
Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross
In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative. PMID:26877073
Adams, Joyce A.
The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86 Section 115.86 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual...
Eisenberg, N.; And Others
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin
All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…
Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Baker, J N; Tanis, H J; Rice, J B
Siblings are often not included in treatment programs for children who have been sexually abused. This article describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Including siblings in treatment permits families to realize the maximum benefits of therapy for the victim as well as each family member. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed (i.e., preventing future abuse, providing support for siblings, teaching siblings to refrain from victim-blaming). Case examples using a particular intervention approach at The Family Learning Program and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. PMID:17521997
Ross, Colin A
The author reviews the psychodynamics of eating disorder behaviors in women with childhood sexual abuse histories, with a focus on anorexia, bingeing, purging, and overeating. The various defenses and behaviors interact with each other through numerous different feedback loops. The same behavior can have multiple defensive functions and the same defensive function can be served by different behaviors. None of the behaviors is specific to childhood sexual abuse, but the abuse history modifies the content, heightens the intensity of the feelings being defended against, and should be taken into account in the therapy. Several examples of therapeutic strategies are also provided. PMID:19845087
Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer
To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323
Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D
The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. PMID:26294381
Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…
Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.
This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…
Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…
Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra
The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…
Rubenzahl, Samuel A.; Gilbert, Brenda O.
Surveys of agencies specializing in treating victims of child sexual abuse indicate that sexual education is covered in treatment with children of all ages, with male and female clients, and in both individual and group therapy. There was a statistically significant difference in the coverage of sexual education based on clients' age, but not…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009
Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…
Gelles, Richard J.; Conte, Jon R.
Reviews research on family violence and sexual abuse of children in the 1980s. Examines family violence rates, intergenerational transmission of violence, effects of violence on children and women, and effectiveness of interventions. Review of child sexual abuse examines defining sexual abuse, its prevalence, research on sexual offenders and risk…
Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle
An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813
Delva, Wim; Wuillaume, Françoise; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Claeys, Patricia; Verstraelen, Hans; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Temmerman, Marleen
In light of the imminent threat of a growing HIV epidemic in east and southeast Europe, optimal accessibility of primary and secondary HIV preventative interventions, including HIV testing and sexually transmitted infection (STI) care, are fast becoming public health priorities. We surveyed 2150 high school students in Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, and Montenegro to examine the uptake of HIV testing and associated predictors. Among sexually active youth (n = 651), 5.9% had already been tested for HIV. In marginal logistic regression, country of origin, type of high school, knowing a friend or relative with HIV, poor self-assessed health status, suspicion of having had an STI, and not having used a condom at first sex were independently associated with HIV testing. Fear of the diagnosis, fear of violation of confidentiality, and not knowing where to go for HIV testing were reported as barriers to HIV testing. Of sexually active adolescents who thought they might have contracted an STI, only 42% had subsequently visited a doctor or health facility. The main reasons for not doing so were spontaneous disappearance of the complaints, fear of the diagnosis and being ashamed of discussing the problem. In conclusion, the uptake of HIV testing among this population of sexually active, urban high school students was found to be low, although a higher prevalence of HIV testing history was observed among students showing evidence of risky sexual behavior. Practical and psychological factors seem to challenge the accessibility of facilities for HIV testing and STI care. PMID:18847388
Leifer, M; Shapiro, J P; Martone, M W; Kassem, L
We measured psychological functioning in a group of 79 Black females between the ages of 5 and 16 and a comparison group of nonabused girls using the Rorschach. In addition to Exner's (1985) Comprehensive System, the Elizur (1949) Rorschach Content Test Scale (RCT), the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (MOA; Urist, 1977; Urist & Shill, 1982), and the Barrier and Penetration Scales (Fisher & Cleveland, 1968) were used. Sexually abused girls were found to show more disturbed thinking, to experience a higher level of stress relative to their adaptive abilities, to describe human relationships more negatively, and to show more preoccupation with sexuality than the comparison group. The distress experienced by the victimized children was more related to internal mediating variables then to abuse characteristics. Sexually abused girls who are cognitively and emotionally active also experienced high levels of distress compared to abused girls who are psychologically constricted. PMID:2002437
Powell, R A; Boer, D P
While serious questions have arisen concerning the validity of Freud's seduction theory of neurosis, a related issue concerns the extent to which Freud, following the abandonment of the seduction theory, may have misinterpreted real memories of sexual abuse as imaginary. Certain theoretical statements by Freud as well as his advice to Jung concerning a 6-yr.-old patient who had accused her foster-father of sexual abuse indicate that he may have been significantly biased toward interpreting certain types of incest allegations as fantasies. Increased awareness of Freud's biases, both in his early tendency to pressure patients into believing that they were victims of abuse and in his later tendency to regard certain types of incest allegations as unreal, may contribute to a more objective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of sexual abuse in the future. PMID:8559882
Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M; Naved, Ruchira T; Curtis, Siân L
Using data from 8,320 husbands'self reports for the 2006 Urban Health Survey, this article examines the prevalence of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by husbands against their wives in Bangladesh and identifies risk markers associated with such violence. Of the men included in the sample for this study, 55 percent reported perpetrating physical IPV against their wives at some point in their married lives, 23 percent reported perpetrating physical IPV in the past year, 20 percent reported ever perpetrating sexual IPV, and 60 percent reported ever perpetrating physical or sexual IPV. Bivariate analyses revealed that men residing in slums had a greater likelihood than those residing in nonslum areas and in district municipalities of perpetrating lifetime and past-year physical IPV, and any lifetime (physical or sexual) IPV. Lifetime sexual IPV prevalence, by contrast, was highest in district municipalities (26 percent), followed by slum (20 percent) and nonslum (17 percent) areas. Net of other factors, low socioeconomic levels were associated with men's increased likelihood of perpetrating IPV. Alcohol and drug use, sexually transmitted disease infection, poor mental health, and holding attitudes supportive of wife beating were predictive of IPV perpetration. These results suggest that IPV-prevention programs targeting men should consider spousal abuse, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors as social and public health problems and should also consider the sociocultural context within which men who abuse their partners are embedded. PMID:21469270
Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631
Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice. PMID:24945659
Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers. PMID:22994693
Taylor, R R; Jason, L A
Using a randomly selected community-based sample, this investigation examined whether histories of childhood sexual, physical, and death threat abuse predicted adulthood outcomes of specific medical and psychiatric conditions involving chronic fatigue. This study also tested prior suggestions that most individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome report a past history of interpersonal abuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between abuse history and chronic fatigue group outcomes while controlling for the effects of sociodemographics. Compared with healthy controls, childhood sexual abuse was significantly more likely to be associated with outcomes of idiopathic chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue explained by a psychiatric condition, and chronic fatigue explained by a medical condition. None of the abuse history types were significant predictors of chronic fatigue syndrome. A closer examination of individuals in the chronic fatigue syndrome group revealed that significantly fewer individuals with CFS reported abuse as compared with those who did not. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11708672
ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial. PMID:16221632
Adams, Christine B L
When children are abused they utilize strategies already in place to cope with stress. These strategies develop during early life within the family and may be part of the unconscious framework formed within attachments and relationships. The case presented illustrates a teen-aged girl who was the victim of sexual abuse and experienced depression, PTSD and substance abuse. This paper describes the psychodynamic psychotherapy used to examine the patient's coping skills, which predated the abuse, and how these coping mechanisms were used to ameliorate her symptoms. PMID:23393991
Jimenez, Melissa; Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and adolescents is a serious worldwide problem. It is, in essence, the sexual abuse of a minor for economic gain. In the United States, there is no uniform nationwide database to capture the incidence and prevalence of CSEC. Therefore, there is a great variation in the estimates, but the actual numbers are unknown. Given the clandestine nature of the practice, it is often underreported and underidentified. Healthcare providers will often encounter victims of commercial sexual exploitation due to mental health, physical health, and sexual health consequences, and therefore should be knowledgeable in the signs of possible sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to educate healthcare providers on how vulnerable children may become sexually exploited, the health consequences involved with sexual exploitation, how to better identify possible victims, and the medical evaluation of a victim of sexual exploitation. PMID:25823944
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…
Crowley, M. Sue
Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…
Mennen, Ferol E.; Meadow, Diane
Evaluated the relationship between abuse-specific variables and levels of depression, anxiety, and self-worth in a racially mixed sample of 134 sexually abused girls. Found penetration predicted a more serious outcome on all study variables, and an interaction effects between force and perpetrator's identity. (JBJ)
Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert
Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…
This article is based on observations and thoughts during intensive psychotherapeutic work with 997 sexually abused children and their parents after they had been reported to the Confidential Doctor Center Kind in Nood of the VUB (between 1986 and 1994). Without denying the existence of sexual abuse of children, it is important not to exaggerate this phenomena, which can be described as the Child Sexual Abuse Panic Syndrome. Doing this only gives way to denial and indignation or scandalization and revenge, and certainly does not lead to a clear analysis of the problem. Accurate observation enables some existing myths to become unravelled: abusive fathers are seldom power robots, mothers are not always warm-hearted, innocent creatures and children are not black boxes without feeling and sexual desires. The underlying message is about the bitter fight against modernization of sexuality, which seems again experienced as dangerous. However it is fear for a free, adult sexuality that is at the core of sexual exploitation of children, which should encourage caution in professional answers to this delicate issue. PMID:8669307
Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC overall, among pregnant women, and among women ≤25 years. Methods During October 2004–September 2006, HIV-infected women at 3 obstetrics and gynecology clinics were asked about sexual behaviors and STI symptoms, physically examined, and screened for chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify correlates of infections. NNS was calculated using standard methods. Results Among 1,124 women, 526 (47.0%) had STI symptoms or signs, 469 (41.7%) had CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, and 133 (11.8%) had an STI. Correlates of having an STI included pregnancy and having STI signs. Among 469 women and 655 women with vs. without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs, respectively, 43 (9.2%) vs. 31 (4.7%), 2 (0.4%) vs. 9 (1.4%), and 45 (9.6%) vs. 38 (5.8%) had CT, GC, or “CT or GC”, respectively; correlates included receiving care at university hospitals and having sex with a casual partner within 3 months. NNS for women overall and women ≤25 years old were 18 (95% CI, 13-25) and 11 (95% CI, 6-23), respectively; and for pregnant and non-pregnant women, 8 (95% CI, 4-24) and 19 (95% CI, 14-27), respectively. Conclusions STI prevalence among HIV-infected women, including CT and GC among those without symptoms or signs, was substantial. Screening for CT and GC, particularly for pregnant women, should be considered. PMID:23601556
Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…
van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte
Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…
Donald, W H
The factors associated with the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents in England and Wales are both social and medical. Among the social factors is the large part played by sex in periodicals, advertisements, the theater, radio, and television. Also playing their part are increased mobility of populations, particularly moves from rural to urban areas, increased affluence, increased alcohol comsumption and leisure time together with greater personal freedom. The medical factors include the prevalence of asymptomatic infection mainly in women but also in men, the high incidence in homosexual men who may be asymptomatic and very promiscuous, and the fact that modern treatment is simple and effective reduces the fear of infection. Furthermore, modern contraceptive techniques such as the IUD and oral contraceptives (OCs) offer no barriers to infection unlike the condom and diaphragm. Syphilis is no longer a problem in the UK, as the incidence has remained at a low level of 2-3 cases/100,000 population for the past 20 years. Gonorrhea has become a problem in its place reaching almost epidemic proportions by 1975, although the incidence is now showing some sign of leveling off. Nonspecific urethritis in men and nonspecific genital infection in women, and the virus condition of herpes genitalis and genital warts have all continued to increase in incidence. In most clinics 40-50% of female patients with gonorrhea are under the age of 20. Changing patterns of sexual behavior have altered the pattern of disease. Oral coitus, both fellatio and cunnilingus, have become more prevalent and can lead to pharyngeal gonorrhea which can be symptomless in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Rectal gonorrhea occurs in women as well as in male homosexuals and can be a cause of failure of initial treatment. The diagnosis of gonorrhea is a bacteriological diagnosis, and smears and cultures must be taken from the urethra and cervix in the female. It is gradually
Adams, Joyce A
The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The examination is important, however, and medical providers who examine children need to be aware of published research on findings in nonabused children, studies of healing of injuries, and studies documenting the association between sexual contact and the diagnosis of sexually transmissible infections in children. This article reviews the current approach to interpreting findings in children who may have been sexually abused and why additional research is needed. PMID:21970647
G. Allan Roeher Inst., Toronto (Ontario).
Written for people with mental disabilities, this booklet focuses on ways that individuals with disabilities can protect themselves from sexual abuse and understand their individual rights pertaining to sexuality. An introduction explains discrimination and gives examples of sexual abuse. The first chapter briefly discusses sexuality and sexual…
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…
Nathanson, D L
Competence in treating the victims of sexual abuse and exploitation requires an understanding of shame, the complex and multilayered emotion triggered when we have been exposed or when our self-esteem has been reduced. The experience of shame is initially physiologic, involving a cortical shock momentarily halting higher cognitive function, but followed immediately by a host of associations to previous experiences of shame. Acutely, the affect itself impels hiding, while defenses against it include anger, humor, silence, and a wide range of behaviors. In our culture, all sexuality involves an interplay between exposure and privacy, between control and release. The sexual abuse of adults and the sexual exploitation of children must produce shame, study of the interaction between abuser and abused suggests that shame conflict figures prominently in the genesis of such activity. To the extent that psychotherapy itself involves exposure, it must trigger shame; thus, it is likely that the therapist unskilled in the recognition of shame in all its disguises will overlook or misunderstand many of the issues that should form the core of our treatment of those whose sexual selves have been abused or exploited. PMID:2748444
Billingsley, Ralph C.
Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…
Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert
Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507
Esparza, D V; Esperat, M C
In 2 urban areas of Texas, 124 mothers, 13-20 years old, all but 6% of whom were Mexican American or African American, were recruited from 4 public agencies to a study designed to determine the incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse on the lives of these adolescent mothers. The study used the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) to compare the personality characteristics of those mothers who had experienced sexual abuse with their nonabused counterparts. Most adolescent mothers were single (80%), lived with their parents (63%), were pregnant for the first time (56%), currently attended school (84%), and lived in a family whose annual income was less than $12,000. 44% of the mothers had experienced some form of childhood sexual abuse. More than 50% reported oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with their abusers. The abusers tended to be male (97%) and known to the victim (66%). Male strangers accounted for 19% of abusers. The researchers were able to use data from 111 subjects to compare the 2 groups. The abused adolescent mothers always had clinically and statistically significant poorer scores than nonabused mothers. Abused mothers had greater difficulties in self-concept (p 0.0001), self-esteem (p = 0.004), body comfort (p = 0.002), sexual acceptance (p = 0.002), peer security (p = 0.002), and family rapport (p = 0.002). They also had clinically significant lower levels of academic confidence (p = 0.018), social conformity (p = 0.035), scholastic achievement (p 0.0001), and attendance consistency (p = 0.002). When researchers controlled for the effect of the Life Event Scale-Adolescents, abused mothers had differences that were significantly different than those of nonabused mothers (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that nurses within prenatal or well-baby care agencies should guide adolescent mothers who experienced childhood sexual abuse as they learn to communicate with their family or refer them to existing support services. It is
Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were used to investigate the distribution in the provision of STI care and the usefulness of GP data in surveillance. Methods Data on STI-related episodes and STI diagnoses based on ICPC codes and, for chlamydia, prescriptions, were obtained from GP electronic medical records (EMRs) of the GP network and compared to data from STI centers from 2002 to 2007. Incidence rates were estimated for the total population in the Netherlands. Results The incidence of STI-consultations and -diagnoses increased substantially in recent years, both at GPs and STI centers. The increase in consultations was larger than the increase in diagnoses; Chlamydia incidence rose especially at STI centers. GPs were responsible for 70% of STI-related episodes and 80-85% of STI diagnoses. STI centers attract relatively younger and more often male STI-patients than GPs. Symptomatic STIs like Herpes genitalis and genital warts were more frequently diagnosed at GPs and chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis at STI centers. Conclusions GPs fulfill an important role in STI care, complementary to STI centers. Case definitions of STI could be improved, particularly by including laboratory results in EMRs. The contribution of primary care is often overlooked in STI health care. Including estimates from GP EMRs can improve the surveillance of STIs. PMID:20487552
Mertens, D M
Sexual abuse of deaf youth is a serious problem that needs to have attention given to it in a way that will lead to real changes in the lives of the boys and girls affected. Through the use of an emancipatory approach to research, this study investigated the various theories that people hold as to why sexual abuse occurs in this population and what can be done to prevent it. Data were collected at one residential school through document review, observation, interviews, and a survey of staff. The results revealed that some participants held theories that blame the victim or the culture and that such theories would not lead to positive, meaningful change. Other theories that recognize the power inequities inherent in a sexual abuse situation are discussed as leading to potentially fruitful political and social actions. PMID:9002320
Arenella, J; Ornduff, S R
Rorschach Inkblot Test (Rorschach, 1921/1942) records of clinical samples of sexually abused and nonabused but distressed girls were examined with respect to selected contents hypothesized to reflect aspects of bodily concern. Consistent with core psychoanalytic assumptions regarding the salience of bodily based experiences on personality development, it was proposed that sexually abused participants would produce significantly different frequencies of Rorschach contents indicative of bodily concern than their nonabused counterparts. Results revealed significant group differences on the barrier scale of the Barrier and Penetration Scoring System (Fisher & Cleveland, 1968), with sexually abused girls scoring significantly lower than nonabused girls (p < .003). No reliable group differences emerged with respect to penetration scores, or any of the Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) variables under study. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:11070621
Hvozdík, Anton; Bugarský, Andrej; Kottferová, Jana; Vargová, Milada; Ondrasovicová, Ol'ga; Ondrasovic, Miloslav; Sasáková, Nad'a
This report presents an analysis of sexual abuse of five three-month old calves that died as a result of injury. A subsequent police investigation concluded that the animals had been sexually abused by an individual affected with zoophilia. The calves received injuries in the anogenital region resulting in fatal internal bleeding. The wounds appeared to have been caused by inserting and manipulating an unknown object into the vaginas of the animals. Post-mortem examination showed rupture of both the rectum and vagina in each calf with massive haemorrhage into the abdominal and thoracic cavities. From the psychiatric and animal welfare viewpoints animal sexual abuse is linked to clinical veterinary ethology. Ethical and legal aspects of animal welfare are evaluated with particular regard to the cases described. PMID:16019241
Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B
Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400
Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray
This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376
Donders, G G
Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg
Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William
The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)
Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin
This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…
Shenk, Chad E.
OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173
Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.
Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…
Kako, H; Butcher, R; Lauri, B; Puiahi, E; Pitakaka, R; Sokana, O; Kilua, G; Roth, A; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C
Objectives This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. Methods We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attenders in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Vaginal swab samples were tested for infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using a commercial strand displacement amplification assay. Serum samples were tested for syphilis. Results We enrolled 296 women, aged 16–49, attending three clinics. Knowledge of safe sexual practices was high but reported condom usage was low. The prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis was 20%. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoeae and syphilis were 5.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are a major health problem in the Solomon Islands. Interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25922103
... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167
Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A
Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin
The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…
Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie
It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…
Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.
Explores the relationship between sexual abuse and two problem outcomes in adolescents (N=42,568): binge drinking and suicidal ideation. Focused on factors related to problem behaviors among adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Results indicate that adolescents who endured sexual and physical abuse exhibited more problems than those experiencing…
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Ney, Tara, Ed.
This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse"…
Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.
The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47…
Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
This exploratory study of 42 cases with sexual abuse allegations and polygraph results found that polygraph findings were unrelated to other evidence of likelihood of sexual abuse, including the child's statements, medical evidence, psychological symptoms, or indicators of sexual abuse. When alleged offenders passed polygraphs, criminal…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Fontes, Lisa Aronson
This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken
This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…
Muram, David; And Others
Fifty-nine girls (age 12 and under) who were associates of victims of sexual abuse received a colposcopic examination. Forty-five of the girls were found to have abnormal genital findings, which were considered specific for sexual abuse in 40 cases. Medical evaluation of siblings and close associates of sexual abuse victims is recommended.…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
GRAD, ALECSANDRA IULIA; VICA, MIHAELA LAURA; MATEI, HOREA VLADI; GRAD, DORU LUCIAN; COMAN, IOAN; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU
Background and aim Sexually transmitted infections are a very frequent and under-diagnosed cause of illness worldwide. A high number of detection methods and a large range of specimens in which sexually transmitted infections can be determined are available at the moment. Polymerase chain reaction performed on first void urine offers the advantage of being non-invasive, self-collectable and has high sensitivity and specificity. We looked to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods Six sexually transmitted infections were determined in the first void urine of 15 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients by polymerase chain reaction. We used “Epicenter MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit” for the DNA purification and “Seeplex® STD6 ACE Detection” for the DNA amplification. The results were examined in UV light. Results A number of 5 patients had positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually transmitted infections are more frequent in men between 27 and 40 years old. Conclusions Polymerase chain reaction is a good diagnostic tool for sexually transmitted infections because it has a high sensitivity and specificity. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:26528045
Van Howe, Robert S.
The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368
Beitchman, Joseph H.; And Others
This review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse examines age and sex of child, relationship to offender, frequency and duration of abuse, type of sexual act and use of force, and family functioning. Frequency/duration of abuse, abuse involving force, and close relationship to the perpetrator were related to more severe outcomes.…
Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…
Tharinger, Deborah; And Others
Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…
Schmidt, Mary F.; McKirnan, David
This study investigated the role that emotional factors play in learning about sexual health and in adopting sexually healthy behaviors. Learning about health and adopting healthy behaviors hinges on two variables: the desire to avoid illness and a belief that one can avoid threats to health through personal action. This paper reports on…
Lowry, Dennis T.; Towles, David E.
Replicates a 1979 study of sexual behavior on afternoon soap operas, classifying sexual behavior in terms of physical acts, implied acts, and verbal references. Finds a substantial increase in sex between unmarried persons and a norm of promiscuous sex, with few attendant consequences. (MS)
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Objectives. I estimated the sexually transmitted disease–related mortality among US reproductive-aged women from 1999 to 2010. Methods. I estimated mortality from National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data. I defined reproductive age as 15 to 44 years. For diseases partially caused by sexual transmission, I estimated the proportion attributable to sexual transmission from the literature. To calculate mortality rates, I estimated number of deaths from each disease and Census Bureau population for reproductive-aged women for 1999 to 2010. Results. From 1999 to 2010, the cumulative sexually transmitted disease–related mortality rate decreased by 49%, from 5.3 to 2.7 deaths per 100 000. The primary contributors were HIV and human papilloma virus infections. Mortality from sexually transmitted HIV infection decreased by 62%, from 3.4 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000. Mortality from human papilloma virus–associated gynecologic cancers decreased by 19%, from 1.6 deaths per 100 000 in 1999 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000 in 2010. Conclusions. Screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases may reduce mortality. Research is needed to determine whether sexually transmitted disease–related morbidity among reproductive-aged women has decreased over the past decade. PMID:24922169
Finkel, K. C.
The problem of child sexual abuse is of increasing relevance to family physicians. Apart from the need to recognize and manage child victims and their families, it is important to be aware of the incidence and nature of the many sequelae of childhood sexual exploitation. Common signals include physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Some physicians must deal with their own childhood victimization if the best interests of their patients are to be served. PMID:8038637
Robinson, Candice L; Young, Lauren; Bisgard, Kristine; Mickey, Tom; Taylor, Melanie M
Delays in syphilis treatment may contribute to transmission. We evaluated time to treatment for symptomatic patients with syphilis by clinical testing site in 2 Arizona counties. Fewer patients were tested and treated at publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinics, but received the timeliest treatment; these clinics remain crucial to syphilis disease control. PMID:26650993
Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael
Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934
Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.
The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…
This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…
Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.; Aban, Inmaculada B.
The process of experiential avoidance has been proposed to account for many of the correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA). Explores variables related to two of the long-term correlates of CSA, general psychological distress and high risk sexual behavior. Results indicate that CSA survivors report higher levels of experiential avoidance and…
Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May
Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…
Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...