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Sample records for abuse sexually transmitted

  1. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  3. [Child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Pitche, P

    2005-11-01

    Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures.

  4. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  5. Health services for HIV/AIDS, HCV, and sexually transmitted infections in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John

    2007-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross-sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse departments. Data from health departments and substance abuse agencies of 48 states and from 269 substance abuse treatment programs revealed that human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related services are more frequent than hepatitis C virus or sexually transmitted infection-related services, and that nonmedical services are more frequent than medical services. While the availability of infection-related health services is associated with medical staffing patterns, addiction pharmacotherapy services, and state priorities, reimbursement was the most significant determining factor. These findings suggest that greater funding of these health services in substance abuse treatment settings, facilitated by supportive state policies, represents an effective response to the excess morbidity and mortality of these substance use-related infections. PMID:17639646

  6. Legal aspects of sexually transmitted diseases: abuse, partner notification and prosecution.

    PubMed

    Argo, A; Zerbo, S; Triolo, V; Averna, L; D'Anna, T; Nicosia, A; Procaccianti, P

    2012-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), with special emphasis to HIV infection, involve legal and ethical issues regarding informed consent to submit to a diagnostic, observance of professional secrecy in regard to partner(s) and community; legal troubles of particular difficulties are related to STD involving minors; lastly, physicians must be able to recognize the state of so called medical necessity. Knowledge and awareness of these related obligations are crucial to STD in medical practice; it is also important to allow for proper protection of victims of suspected sexual abuse under observation of healthcare. With regard to this aspect should be emphasized that violence against women and minors is a worldwide problem that has not yet been sufficiently acknowledged. Italian legislation (Law n. 96/1996) against rapes finally gave significant relevance to sex crimes. When sexual abusers have to be evaluated some obstacles may arise for lack of appropriate interdisciplinary approach, with insurance of the collection of biological samples, also related to STD diagnosis and alerts of legal authorities. Personal preconceptions may interfere with investigation if the biological evidences in children are few. In this regard, rules of document "Carta di Noto" drafted in 1996 and reviewed in July 2002 include some specific indications aiming to grant the reliability of the results of technical investigations and authenticity of the statements of the alleged victims. PMID:23007211

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. This study investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from an STD clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men, and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior, including more sexual partners, unprotected sex, and sex trading. Alcohol use for men, and drug use for women, mediated the relation between CSA and the number of partners in the past three months; intimate partner violence mediated the relation between CSA and the number of episodes of unprotected sex in the past three months for women. These results document the prevalence of CSA among patients seeking care for an STD, and can be used to tailor sexual risk-reduction programs for individuals who were sexually abused. PMID:16881780

  8. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among female drug abusers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Isa, A R; Moe, H; Sivakumaran, S

    1993-06-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among female drug abusers was determined by screening 130 new inmates of a rehabilitation centre. The majority of the subjects (77.7%) were self-confessed sex workers. A high prevalence of syphilis (50.8%), hepatitis B (52.2%), moniliasis (23.8%) and trichomoniasis (19.2%) were noted. Gonorrhoea vaginitis was seen in 8.5%, which was low compared to previous studies. Six subjects were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with 5 of them admitting to needle sharing and working as prostitutes. More than half of them harboured 2 or more STD. A rich reservoir of STD was seen among the drug abusers. With more evidence now available concerning the ease of HIV transmission associated with ulcerative STD, a stage could be set for greater heterosexual HIV transmission. As part of the rehabilitation process, female drug abusers need a thorough screening for STD followed by aggressive treatment regimens. PMID:8350786

  9. Guidelines for the Use of Molecular Biological Methods to Detect Sexually Transmitted Pathogens in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen. While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result. PMID:22782828

  10. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs ... often help with the symptoms and keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  12. Sexually Transmitted Proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Gavin W.; Kim, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402

  13. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  14. [Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence: study of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella R; de Vilhena, Marília Mello; de Paula, Mariana Campos

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are frequent in adolescence and facilitates HIV contamination. The early age limit of the first sexual intercourse, the diversity of partners, the habit of not using condoms and illicit drug abuse are pointed out as risk factors for sexual transmitted disease. We interviewed 356 adolescents who sought medical attendance at the Adolescent Health Study Center of The State University of Rio de Janeiro between August/2001 and July/2002 regarding their sexuality and to identify risk behaviors. Periodical analysis and chi-square tests were performed on the collected data. We observed statistically significant correlations between Sexual transmitted diseases and the variables of: slow learning, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse, sexual abuse and the habit of not using condoms during sexual intercourse. The results indicate multiple Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors in adolescence, and the failure to use condoms is the factor which is most possibly influenced by programs run by health workers.

  15. Sexually transmitted parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Levine, G I

    1991-03-01

    Sexual activity is the primary method of transmission for several important parasitic diseases and has resulted in a significant prevalence of enteric parasitic infection among male homosexuals. The majority of parasitic sexually transmitted diseases involve protozoan pathogens; however, nematode and arthropod illnesses are also included in this group. Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common parasitic STD. Infection with this organism typically results in the signs and symptoms of vaginitis. Trichomoniasis can be diagnosed in the office setting by performing a microscopic evaluation of infected vaginal secretions and can be successfully treated with metronidazole. Both pediculosis pubis, caused by the crab louse Pthirus pubis, and scabies, caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei, present with severe pruritus. A papular or vesicular rash and linear burrows seen in the finger webs and genital area are characteristic of scabies. Pediculosis pubis is diagnosed by observing adult lice or their nits in areas that bear coarse hair. The diagnosis of scabies is confirmed by scraping suspicious burrows and viewing the mite or its byproducts under the microscope. Lindane, 1% used in treating scabies, is also very effective for treating pediculosis pubis. Synthetic pyrethrins, also applied as a cream or lotion, are less toxic alternatives for the treatment of either condition. Oral-anal and oral-genital sexual practices predispose male homosexuals to infection with many enteric pathogens, including parasitic protozoans and helminths. The most common of these parasitic infections are amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, and giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia. Both entities may cause acute or chronic diarrhea, as well as other abdominal symptoms. Most gay men with amebiasis are asymptomatic, and invasive disease in this group is extremely rare. Both amebiasis and giardiasis can be diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of stool

  16. [Sexual abuse of minors].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The author gives a definition of sexual abuse on minors, emphasizing its more frequent occurrence inside the family (incest) than outside. He describes the countertransference reactions induced by this type of abuse, especially in professional teams who tend to put each other in a position of rivalry. Next, he sketches the pathogeny of sexual abuse, the clinical signs and the long term effects. The author deduces what should be the first signs of sexual abuse and proposes a pattern of diagnosis. Finally, he explains a management model, of the crisis and the follow-up of this difficult situation. PMID:1670411

  17. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Forrest T.; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24106536

  18. [Sexually transmitted infections and spermicides].

    PubMed

    Driák, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (diseases) has been already increasing again for more than one decade; the world number of 125-340 millions of new cases a year is estimated. Fifteen thousands of new HIV-positive persons daily present a substantial contribution to the total amount. Besides an increasing number of unplanned pregnancies, the huge spreading of sexually transmitted infections predominantly of the second generation is the main reason for a renewed interest in search of local contraceptives, i.e. spermicides. An urgent need for a new, non-detergent, synthetic or natural spermicide emerged to replace the traditional nonoxynol-9. New preparation of microbicidal spermicide should offer dual protection against both unplanned conception and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23256629

  19. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit OPA . '); Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also called sexually ... from mother to baby during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Expand All How do STIs affect pregnant women? ...

  20. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  1. Approach in sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Belda Junior, Walter; Shiratsu, Ricardo; Pinto, Valdir

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, sexually transmitted diseases are one of the most common public health issues. Among its consequences are the possibility of transmission from mother to baby - which may cause miscarriages and congenital disease, male and female infertility, and the increase of HIV infection risk. Therefore, the main goal of these guidelines is to contribute to the improvement of the treatment for sexually transmitted diseases patients by presenting to the medical community how today's science stands on the matter and also what the recommendation for diagnosing and treating a patient are.

  2. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  3. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  4. Adolescents and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Yarber, W L; Parrillo, A V

    1992-09-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious health problem for adolescents, occurring in an estimated one-quarter of sexually active teen-agers. Many of the health problems--including STDs--result from specific risk-taking behaviors. Determinants of STD risks among adolescents include behavioral, psychological, social, biological, institutional factors. Education is an important component in STD control in adolescents. The goal of education is to increase adolescent self-efficiency in practicing STD prevention and risk-reduction. A comprehensive approach including quality, theory-based education, accessible and effective health clinics, and improved social and economic conditions has the most promise of controlling STDs in adolescents. PMID:1434562

  5. The Relationship of Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors among Heterosexual Adult Female STD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to high-risk sexual behavior and between sexual abuse and expectations for condom use. Among 83 female clinic patients with sexually transmitted diseases, those sexually abused in childhood had more sexual partners, more positive hedonic outcome expectations for condom use, and fewer…

  6. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear. PMID:9612761

  7. [Sexually transmitted diseases and travel].

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Prazuck, T; Malkin, J E

    1997-01-01

    Travelers are highly exposed to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases especially since the most popular destinations are high risk areas. While this risk applies to all travelers, it is highest for the "sex" tourist who is typically a male with a mean age of 38 years. Awareness of risks is still incomplete, especially with regard to HIV. Several studies have shown that only 20% to 70% of travelers use condoms. This finding accounts for the high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in returning travelers: 2% to 10%. The risk of HIV infection is particularly high for persons living abroad. Based on available data, we can define the typical profile of the high risk traveler who should be targeted for prevention. Prevention depends on providing adequate information before departure, especially concerning HIV infection. Use of a condom throughout sexual contact is a basic safety rule. However condom quality is poor in many developing countries. Returning travelers should seek medical advice if manifestations involving the anogenital regions should appear.

  8. Sexual Abuse of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerstein, Norman S.; Canavan, J. William

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective review of 145 sexually abused children was undertaken to assess the importance of male children as victims and to determine if they pose problems different from those of girl victims. Journal Availability: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610. (Author/PHR)

  9. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.

    This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...

  11. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ross, S M

    1982-12-01

    Numerous sexually transmitted diseases--syphilis, gonococcal infections, group B beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, chlamydial infections, mycoplasmas, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus infections, hepatitis B viral infections, fungal infection, trichomonas vaginalis, condylomata acuminata, and scabies--are of concern when they occur during pregnancy, either because of their potential adverse effects on the fetus or the chance of a modified reaction in the pregnant woman. This article discusses each of these venereal diseases in turn, providing information on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Pregnancy appears to have a benign effect on syphilis in the mother, but the fetus is likely to suffer from abortion, intrauterine death, intrauterine growth retardation, and congenital syphilis, underscoring the need for serologic testing of symptomatic pregnant women and treatment with penicillin. Neisseria gonorrhoea, still a prevalent sexually transmitted disease among women of childbearing age, is of considerable seriousness during pregnancy due to the risk of contamination of the newborn during passage through the birth canal. Infants delivered of women infected with chlamydia may develop a neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, nasopharygitis, otitis media, or an afebrile pneumonia syndrome. PMID:6293753

  13. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  14. Hepatitis B as a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious, common, viral, sexually transmitted disease. It is unique among the sexually transmitted diseases in that a safe, effective, proven vaccine is available. Increased recognition of hepatitis B as an important STD, appropriate counseling, and wise use of vaccination may well reduce the prevalence of this disease. PMID:21221349

  15. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases in Germany.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, D; Jappe, U; Hartmann, M; Hamouda, O

    2002-04-01

    In the former West Germany, in specific venereal diseases legislation passed in 1953, only syphilis, gonorrhoea, ulcus molle, and lymphogranuloma venereum were defined as venereal diseases and subject to mandatory notification. The proportion of unreported cases was as high as 75% for syphilis and up to 90% for gonorrhoea. Epidemiological data for the past 10 years exist only on selected populations from research studies and are summarized in this article. In the former East Germany reporting of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was mandatory and, due to the centralized organization, underreporting was considered to be low, although no specific studies have examined this. After the unification in 1990 of the two German states the West German laws were adopted in East Germany. Since 1982 - when the first AIDS case was reported in Germany - information on AIDS cases has voluntarily been collected at the national register at the AIDS Centre of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. The law governing the reporting of infectious diseases has recently been revised. Under the new Protection against Infection Act, which became effective on 1 January 2001, clinical diagnoses of STIs (with the exception of hepatitis B) are no longer notifiable diseases. Laboratory reporting of positive test results for Treponema pallidum has been introduced. With T. pallidum and HIV notifications, additional disaggregated data are collected. Since T. pallidum and HIV remain the only notifiable STIs, all other STIs have to be monitored through sentinel surveillance systems. These surveillance systems are currently being established. Under the new legislation, local health authorities have to provide adequate counselling and testing services for STIs, which may be provided free of charge if necessary.

  17. Updating the management of sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Catriona; Lewis, David

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The control of sexually transmitted infections relies on case-finding and treatment of sexual contacts to prevent further transmission. Screening for infections should be tailored to the demographic and sexual risk of the individual. For most sexually transmitted infections, screening is performed on self-collected, non-invasive samples using highly sensitive molecular assays. These are quick and inexpensive. Shorter courses of antivirals for genital herpes are now recommended. New chemoprophylactic strategies for preventing HIV transmission have emerged, including treatment to prevent transmission and the use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:26843713

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Let's Talk About Sexual Health Safe in the City Webinars Webinars Archive Widgets Archive Be Smart. Be ... a Box Home Script for Sex in the City Video STD Clinical Slides STD Clinical Slides STD ...

  19. About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  20. Sexually transmitted infections in polygamous mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Ben; Gupta, Sunetra

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often associated with chronic diseases and can have severe impacts on host reproductive success. For airborne or socially transmitted pathogens, patterns of contact by which the infection spreads tend to be dispersed and each contact may be of very short duration. By contrast, the transmission pathways for STIs are usually characterized by repeated contacts with a small subset of the population. Here we review how heterogeneity in sexual contact patterns can influence epidemiological dynamics, and present a simple model of polygyny/polyandry to illustrate the impact of biased mating systems on disease incidence and pathogen virulence. PMID:23339239

  1. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  3. Survey of Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This survey covers periodical literature published in the field of research on sexually transmitted diseases during 1985. The articles cover the following diseases: (1) genital chlamydial infection; (2) gonorrhea; (3) genital herpes infection; (4) human papillomavirus infection; (5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); (6) genital…

  4. Prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Durfee, M

    1989-06-01

    Child sexual abuse prevention programs are a growing phenomenon addressing an expanding number of topics raised by a variety of violent and perverse acts. Currently programs tend to focus on a fairly narrow age group and use an educational model for children. There is a need for broad-based programs with a strong focus on the adults around children. Perinatal prevention programs require an adult focus and must take advantage of a special time in child and family development to address lesson of health and intimacy in a way that may decrease the incidence of future child sexual abuse. PMID:2748446

  5. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  6. Intervention Strategies for Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rencken, Robert H.

    This book provides a framework for understanding the dimensions (scope, taxonomy, philosophy) and dynamics (individual, familial, and societal) of child sexual abuse. The major focus is on integrated intervention strategies for any professional who must work with incomplete information. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the problem of child sexual…

  7. Self-screening for sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Potter, Yvonne

    2014-06-17

    There is an increasing trend towards self-collection of samples for sexually transmitted infection screening in lieu of genital examination and clinician-obtained urethral and cervical swabs. This article examines the advantages and disadvantages of this trend, and the effect on nursing practice particularly within integrated sexual health (ISH) services, which provide genito-urinary medicine (GUM) and contraceptive services. This article might also be of interest to nurses working within separate GUM and contraceptive services, especially those that are preparing to become ISH services.

  8. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  9. Travel-related sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common notifiable health problems worldwide, with particularly high rates in developing countries. Men and women with multiple sexual partners at home or a previous history of STIs are more likely to have casual sexual exposure (CSE) while travelling. Over the last several decades 5% to even 50% of short-term travellers engaged in CSE during foreign trips. It is estimated that only 50% of travellers use condoms during casual sex abroad. Sexual contact with commercial sex workers is an exceptionally high-risk behaviour. The common risk factor is also young age. Adolescents and young adults constitute 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STIs. Many STIs are asymptomatic and therefore can be difficult to identify and control. The clinical manifestation of STIs can be grouped into a number of syndromes, such as genital ulcer or erosion, urethral or vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease. STIs are divided into curable infections caused by bacteria (gonorrhoea, chlamydiasis, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale) or protozoa (trichomoniasis) and incurable viral infections (genital herpes, genital warts, HIV). STIs are not only a cause of acute morbidity, but may result in complications including male and female infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, premature mortality or miscarriage. Monogamous sex with a stable, uninfected partner or sexual abstinence remains the only way to avoid the risk of becoming infected with STIs. PMID:26726895

  10. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  11. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424

  12. Treatment for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focused…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  14. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  15. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  16. Confronting Ebola as a Sexually Transmitted Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, William A; Wohl, David A

    2016-05-15

    The unprecedented Ebola outbreak that devastated West Africa evolved within months from a regional outbreak to a global public health emergency. While the rate of confirmed cases declined dramatically, sporadic clusters of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continue well beyond the double incubation period of 42 days used to declare a nation Ebola-free. At the same time, evidence that the virus persists in genital fluids and can be sexually transmitted, along with the potential for lingering virus in other body compartments to permit recrudescence of EVD, has shaken our thinking of what it takes to achieve lasting control of an Ebola epidemic. A comprehensive response to the threat of persistence and sexual transmission of Ebola is required and should build on accessible longitudinal medical care of survivors and accurate genital fluid testing for Ebola. Control of this and future Ebola outbreaks will depend on our ability to recognize and respond to this persistence of the virus in those who survive. PMID:26936667

  17. [Modern diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, N H; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has significantly improved in recent years by the application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). In addition to detection of infectious agents, molecular methods were also used for characterization of pathogens (typing, genotypic resistance testing). In contrast to conventional Sanger sequencing of amplicons, new sequencing technologies (next generation sequencing) are able to identify resistant variants that represent only small minorities in a heterogeneous population. NAATs are also available as fully automated closed systems that can be run independently of centralized laboratories and will become increasingly important for point-of-care testing. PMID:26646440

  18. Child sexual abuse: origins, dynamics, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Leahy, M M

    1991-01-01

    This article is intended as an overview of the current literature on child sexual abuse. There are some patterns of psychopathology seen in both the abused and the abusers that warrant further scrutiny. The presence of narcissistic pathology in both groups is interesting, particularly in light of the generationality of child sexual abuse. This finding raises the issue of the nature of psychic injury incurred by some of the victims and places it at the level of early self development.

  19. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  20. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  1. Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, Carlos T; Schmitt, Caio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the first ten causes of unpleasant diseases in young adult males in developing countries and the second major cause of unpleasant diseases in young adult women. Adolescents and young adults (15-24 years old) make up only 25% of the sexually active population, but represent almost 50% of all new acquired STDs. In general, STDs are epidemics and present an enormous health and economic consequences. An adequate screening for STDs should be done on a routine basis in every part of the world. Many STDs are asymptomatic and therefore can difficult to control. The purpose of reporting of STDs is to ensure that persons who are infected will be quickly diagnosed and appropriately treated to control the spread of infection and also so that partners are notified, tested and appropriately treated. It is estimated that reported cases of STDs represent only 50%-80% of reportable STD infections in the United States, reflecting limited screening and low disease reporting. High-risk sexual behavior is a highly contributive factor of this process as it often leads to teenage pregnancies and HIV/AIDS. One possible explanation for this behavior is that people do not have enough information about the transmission of STDs or ignore the precautions required for safe sex. Approximately 60% of new HIV infections worldwide occur in young people. The frequency of high-risk behaviors among youths may also be influenced by opportunity to engage in them, particularly the amount of time that they are unsupervised by adults. However, in diagnosing and treating these patients, we can effectively prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Individuals infected with STDs are 5-10 times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire or transmit HIV through sexual contact. The breaking of the genital tract lining or skin creates a portal of entry for HIV and, hence, HIV-infected individuals with other STDs are more likely to shed HIV in their genital secretions

  2. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  3. Residency Training in Child Sexual Abuse Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, Angelo P.; Brayden, Robert M.; Sugarman, Jacqueline M.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 147 pediatric faculty and 64 resident pediatricians examined the quantity and adequacy of training in child sexual abuse evaluation. Both faculty and residents believed that preparation in how to conduct a sexual abuse evaluation may be inadequate for residents during their three years of post-graduate training. (CR)

  4. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  5. Psychoanalytically Oriented Psychotherapy with Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Linda Provus; McElroy, Ross A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes use of individual psychodynamic treatment for child victims of intrafamily sexual abuse. Presents symptoms and psychological consequences of sexual abuse. Discusses specific techniques emphasizing communicative value of defense mechanisms and roles of clarification, confrontation, and interpretation. Provides three case examples to…

  6. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  7. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  8. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  9. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  10. Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Bipartite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Luo-Sheng; Zhong, Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on bipartite graph. According to the difference of sex conception in western and oriental nations, we construct the Barabási Albert-Barabási Albert (BA-BA) model and Barabási-Albert Homogeneity (BA-HO) model for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Applying the rate equation approach, the positive equilibria of both models are given analytically. We find that the ratio between infected females and infected males is distinctly different in both models and the infected density in the BA-HO model is much less than that in the BA-BA model. These results explain that the countries with small ratio have less infected density than those with large ratio. Our numerical simulations verify these theoretical results.

  11. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  12. [Sexually transmitted infections: epidemiology and control].

    PubMed

    Díez, M; Díaz, A

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) include a group of diseases of diverse infectious etiology in which sexual transmission is relevant. The burden of disease that STI represent globally is unknown for several reasons. Firstly, asymptomatic infections are common in many STI; secondly, diagnostic techniques are not available in some of the most affected countries; finally, surveillance systems are inexistent or very deficient in many areas of the world. The Word Health Organization has estimated that in 1999 there were 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia infection and trichomoniasis. An increasing trend in the incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis has been noticed in the last years in the European Union, including Spain. Co-infection with other STI, especially HIV, should be ruled out in all STI patients. Chlamydia screening is also of particular importance since this is the most common STI in Europe and frequently goes unnoticed. STI prevention and control should be based on health education, early diagnosis and treatment, screening for asymptomatic infections, contact investigation and vaccination for those diseases for which a vaccine is available. PMID:21750856

  13. Sexual Abuse of Indian (Asian) Children in South Africa: First Report in a Community Undergoing Cultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffejee, Ismail E.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 6-year period, 162 cases of child abuse were encountered at a South African hospital serving an Indian community. Sexual abuse occurred in 37 cases. This report discusses the victim's age and medical history, type of abuse, perpetrators, religion, stress factors, and sexually transmitted disease. (JDD)

  14. Introduction to the special section: medical advances in child sexual abuse, part 2.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell

    2011-11-01

    This volume is the second of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The four articles in this special section discuss topics such as estimating the sexual maturity of a child from computer or photographic images; how several cases of supposed Neisseria gonorrhoeae meningitis actually were a different, but related, organism, thereby removing sexual abuse as a consideration as to etiology; what current laboratory methods are available today to detect specific sexually transmitted infections and what should be used; and how all the evidence in child sexual abuse cases is organized to make clear and accurate statements.

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships. PMID:26301436

  18. Holocaust child survivors and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during the war completed open-ended interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed according to Tutty, Rothery, and Grinnell's (1996) guidelines. Three major themes were found: issues relating to the sexual abuse trauma, survivors' perceptions of the abuse, and survivors' general perspectives towards life. The identity of the offenders, Jewish or non-Jewish, determined the survivors' feelings towards themselves, the perpetrators, and about the worth of life.

  19. Medical advances in child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell A

    2011-09-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.

  20. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  1. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  2. 28 CFR 115.286 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.286... Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of every sexual abuse investigation, including where the allegation has not been...

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases: a neglected public health priority.

    PubMed Central

    Yankauer, A

    1994-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases remain uncontrolled although millions of cases occur annually in the United States. The advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is also a sexually transmitted disease, has not altered this situation. The major portion of federal funding for sexually transmitted diseases is allocated to a search for an AIDS vaccine or cure. State health department funding for sexually transmitted diseases, although only a small fraction of the $1.3 billion AIDS research budget of the National Institutes of Health, is largely consumed by AIDS. A single adequately funded sexually transmitted disease control program that applies well-established public health principles for the control of communicable diseases would make sense. However, a consensus to develop and support such a program does not exist in the United States. PMID:7998625

  4. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646

  5. Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep.

    PubMed

    Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P

    2009-12-01

    A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

  6. Sexual Abuse of Children: A Clinical Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roland; Kryso, JoAnn

    1978-01-01

    The paper suggests that incest has been underestimated as a significant determinant of emotional disturbance, and that misuse of sexuality between parents and children can have detrimental consequences that parallel those resulting from other forms of child abuse. (Author)

  7. Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jerry G.

    1982-01-01

    Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)

  8. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153

  9. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  10. Clinician Responses to Sexual Abuse Allegations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Helene; Nuttall, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 656 social workers, pediatricians, psychiatrists, and psychologists rated the credibility of vignettes alleging child sexual abuse. Seven case factors affected credibility: perpetrator's race, relationship to victim, and history of substance abuse; and victims' race, affect, age, and behavioral changes. Several clinician factors were…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  12. Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapes, Bruce E.

    Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

  13. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  14. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  15. How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anyone who has sexual contact—vaginal, anal, or oral sex—with another person may get an STI. STIs ... Body fluids also can carry STIs. Having any unprotected sexual contact with an infected person poses a ...

  16. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

  17. Sexual Abuse of Boys: Current Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Terryann

    1983-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding the sexual abuse of boys. Although boys may be equally at risk for sexual victimization as girls, they are a unique clinical group whose needs have not been addressed significantly. Awareness and prevention components in community education and media can raise public awarness. (JAC)

  18. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  19. Urgent Medical Assessment after Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…

  20. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  2. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  3. Difficulties in Diagnosing Sexual Abuse in Children with Condyloma Acuminata in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Selda; Demirceken, Fulya; Cakir, Baris; Cakir, Elif Pinar; Unlu, Erdal; Soyer, Tutku

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is responsible for anogenital warts and could be regarded as an indicator of possible sexual abuse in children. A genital wart was detected during an investigation of anti-hepatitis C virus positivity in a four-year-old male patient. No pathological findings of another sexually transmitted disease were found except complete…

  4. Marital Status and Sexually Transmitted Infections among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eboni M.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the relationship between low marriage rates and racial disparities in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth was used to examine the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by marital status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether racial differences in marriage…

  5. Analysis of sexual abuse hotline reports.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R L; Pierce, L H

    1985-01-01

    As concern about physical child abuse and neglect has increased, so too has the realization that children are also sexually exploited and abused. Yet, many protective service workers are often ill prepared to perform the difficult task of treating the abused child and his/her family. Through the analysis of sexual abuse hotline reports, the central aim of this study was to generate findings that would increase the knowledge base of protective service workers and private therapists engaged in treating sexually abused children and their families. To accomplish this task, and using seven classes of variables, analysis was performed on 205 substantiated cases of childhood sexual abuse. A number of important conclusions were discovered including: One-third of the cases had been reported to the agency previously; less than one-half (48%) of the victimized children were living with their natural fathers; natural fathers were identified as the perpetrator in 39% of the cases; and in contrast to other studies, a great number of cases (43%) involved vaginal intercourse between the victim and the perpetrator. Implications for treatment are also discussed, particularly in relation to improving resources and specialized training for workers involved in this highly sensitive area of practice.

  6. Food for thought [on child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Tan, M

    1999-01-01

    This article uncovers the hidden side of child rape and sexual abuse in the Philippines. The imposition of the death penalty, however, is not the solution to the problem because, firstly, child abuse often occurs over a prolonged period of time, before a complaint is made; secondly, child abuse cases will not make it to courts unless an adult recognizes the problem; thirdly, victims often keep silent because they know adults will not believe them and will blame them instead; fourthly, many victims keep silent to protect a mentor, especially a relative; finally, child sexual abuse involves authoritarian power relations. Thus, this article suggests preventive measures to prevent incidents from occurring. These are: recognizing that there is a problem, identifying the problem through rigorous research, identifying local risk factors that lead to abuse, and recognizing that children can prevent abuse. No one can heal a sexually abused child; only the victim can do this, given the opportunity and support to move forward on the road toward becoming a survivor.

  7. Internal and External Mediators of Women's Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; Newcomb, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Examined 111 women's retrospective reports of childhood sexual abuse. Explored domains of circumstances of abuse, mediators, and outcomes (negative effects of abuse). Found long-term negative outcomes of abuse directly affected by close relationship to perpetrator and severity of abuse from circumstance of abuse domain, and immediate negative…

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  10. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  11. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  12. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  13. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  14. 28 CFR 115.86 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.86... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.86 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  15. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  16. 28 CFR 115.386 - Sexual abuse incident reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual abuse incident reviews. 115.386... NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.386 Sexual abuse incident reviews. (a) The facility shall conduct a sexual abuse incident review at the conclusion of...

  17. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  18. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter Kamugisha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse was also investigated. Method: Participants (N=487) from a university in Tanzania completed a questionnaire which assessed abusive childhood sexual experiences, gathering…

  20. Developmentally Appropriate Criteria for Evaluating Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Nancy S.; Wright, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    Proposes using a developmentally appropriate practice framework to determine if a sexual abuse prevention program takes into consideration the unique learning abilities of preschool children. Reviews definition of and statistics related to sexual abuse. Compares appropriate and inappropriate teaching practices in child sexual abuse prevention…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  2. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  3. [Psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Vyssoki, David; Schürmann-Emanuely, Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Violence is what the victims experience as violence. Only they are able to measure what oppression, injury, pain or sexual violence can cause. Violence starts where human beings are constrained, humiliated, abjected and injured in their self-determination by other human beings. The experienced violence causes a trauma in most cases and in many cases also a PTSD. As a lot of epidemiological studies have affirmed, the highest lifetime-prevalence of PTSD appears after one respectively after a repeated act of sexual violence.It is important to define the circumstances of the action, by defining three fields of violence: domestic sexual violence, sexual violence in civil everyday life respectively violence, that occurs not inside families and sexual violence in wartime.Victims of all fields of violence can be found in Western Europe, the last mentioned form of violence predominant among refugees, but also among survivors of the last world war. PMID:19011596

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical and mental health work barriers, and employment outcomes using a large panel study of current and former welfare recipients. Controlling for human capital and demographic characteristics, they found CSA was associated with significantly fewer months worked over the…

  5. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  6. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…

  7. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  8. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  9. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic childhood…

  10. The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender management initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks,…

  11. Sexual Abuse: Somatic and Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)

  12. Physician Knowledge of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socolar, Rebecca R. S.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…

  13. Sexual Abuse of Vulnerable Young and Old Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberto, Karen A.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Nikzad, Katherina A.

    2007-01-01

    During a 4-year period, aggregated data from Adult Protective Services case files in Virginia revealed 17 cases of sexually abused young, middle-age, and old men. The most common types of sexual abuse across age groups involved instances of sexualized kissing and fondling and unwelcome sexual interest in the individual men's bodies. The majority…

  14. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  15. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  16. [Physical and sexual child abuse].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Kathrin

    2008-07-01

    Child abuse may result in dramatic short and longtime damage of children's physical and emotional well being. This underscores the clinician's special responsibility to contribute a sound professional and scientific approach to the multiprofessional diagnosis and intervention in suspected child abuse cases. The approach is to correlate the probability of a given finding with the history and comparing it to biomechanical principles. Of concern are especially all serious injuries with an alleged trivial or inadequate for age mechanism, missing, vague or changing patterns of explanation, injuries of different age, delay of medical care and allegations by independent observers or even the child. Exact documentation of all medical examinations is the basis of any forensic expertise if child abuse is to be considered. This paper ist dealing with morhological findings following various kinds of violence which can often be observed in connection with child abuse, as well as the interpretation of characteristic patterns of findings. Furthermore, practicable procedures after diagnosing child abuse ar being discussed on the basis of legal terms.

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases and related genital pathologies in oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Merino, G; Murrieta, S; Rodriguez, L; Sandoval, C; Moran, C; Bailon, R

    1993-01-01

    Sexually transmitted pathogens are associated with a wide range of anomalies and diseases, including recurrent genital herpes, urethritis, syphilis, prostitis, genital ulcers, perihepatitis, unexplained infertility, infant prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal death or malformations. Prompt diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is essential to ensure appropriate specific treatment and to reduce complications. Extensive studies on the etiology of male infertility include poorly treated infections such as STDs, epididymitis, complications associated with mumps, delayed treatment of undescended testes, repair of inguinal hernia, varicocele, endocrine disorders, anomalies of the reproductive tract and male accessory organs, trauma, surgery, heat-cold injury, and active-passive immunization.

  18. Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: Maximizing opportunities for optimal care

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Upton D; MacDonald, Noni E

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a growing public health concern in Canada, with rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, gonorrhea and syphilis increasing among adolescents and young adults. The present practice point outlines epidemiology, risk factors, laboratory testing and management for C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum, with a lesser focus on HIV. The need for test-of-cure and indications for further investigations are also discussed. The importance of maximizing opportunities to screen for and treat sexually transmitted infections in this age group is highlighted. PMID:25383001

  19. Reprint of "Cancer of the cervix: A sexually transmitted infection?".

    PubMed

    Beral, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    When mortality patterns for cancer of the uterine cervix were compared with trends in incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in both England and Wales and in Scotland, there were striking associations between the temporal, social class, occupational, and geographic distributions of these diseases. The data suggest that exposure to sexually transmitted infection is an important determinant of cervical cancer. Although they are still young, women born after 1940 are already experiencing increased cervical-cancer mortality. If cervical-cancer prevention and therapy remain unchanged, this generation's high risk of death from cervical cancer will probably continue to operate throughout their lives.

  20. [Sexually transmitted diseases and gender: a cross-sectional study with adolescents in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella R; de Vilhena, Marília Mello; de Paula, Mariana Campos

    2004-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are frequent in adolescence and contribute to the increase in the number of AIDS cases. Early sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, and lack of condom use are considered risk factors and are influenced by a male-dominated gender system. We interviewed 356 adolescent patients at the Adolescent Health Research Center in Rio de Janeiro State University to identify possible STD risk factors in adolescence. Young men reported more partners and early sexual initiation. Females used condoms less frequently and were more subject to sexual abuse. The results confirm a model sustained by traditional gender values that demarcate the male and female spheres, with male supremacy. We conclude that to achieve more effective STD control, it is necessary to expand the discussion on culturally constructed patterns of masculinity and femininity.

  1. [Sexually transmitted diseases: epidemiological and social aspects].

    PubMed

    Marin, V; Bertoncello, C

    2002-01-01

    STDs represent a major public health problem for two reasons: their serious sequelae and the facts that they facilitate transmission of HIV. This article presents WHO estimates new cases of some of curable STDs, and italian data from national reporting system (published from ISTAT and ISS). The number of new reported cases decreases in Italy, but reported cases are not all cases. People with STDs tend not to seek treatment or to self-medicate, this behaviour is common in youths. In many cases STDs are asymptomatic in both sexes, particularly in women. Women are also much more vulnerable biologically, culturally, socioeconomically. There is also a lack of notification by physicians. Important social determinants of STDs diffusion are migration and travels. Prevention and control of STDs need collaboration between medical disciplines: gynaecology, urology, dermo-venerology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health. Contributions of nurses, laboratory technician and social workers are also required. The role of public health specialists in the prevention is strictly related to health education. Health education will promote responsible sexual behaviour and early recourse to health services by people with STDs and their sexual partners. PMID:12070901

  2. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  3. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826

  4. Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A

    1992-10-01

    The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

  5. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  6. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  7. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors.

  8. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors. PMID:22774431

  9. Olympic outreach: testing for sexually transmitted infections in construction workers.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaratnam, S; Horne, P; Coyne, K M

    2012-09-01

    Concerns have been voiced in the national press that the surge in migrant construction workers leading up to the 2012 Olympics Games would increase the levels of sexual ill health in East London. Between 2009 and 2011, we sent a sexual health outreach team to the Olympic Park and Village. A total of 614 clients were tested, of whom 91% were men and 46% reported English/Scottish/Welsh ethnicity. The age range was 17-73 years and median age 30 years. Reported sexual risk factors were low, including use of commercial sex workers. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections was low, with Chlamydia trachomatis found in 20 clients (3%), and hepatitis B diagnosed in one client. This study, although small, did not support the image of construction workers presenting a higher than average sexual health risk.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infection among Adolescents Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Eleey, Catharine C.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Noll, Elizabeth; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Blank, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To estimate the relative risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among children identified as having learning disabilities through the special education system. Methods: This cross-sectional study used special education data and Medicaid data from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for calendar year 2002. The sample comprised 51,234…

  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hit All-Time High: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161565.html Sexually Transmitted Diseases Hit All-Time High: CDC More prevention efforts needed, agency ... Oct. 19, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are provided by HealthDay ...

  12. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  13. Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at US Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koumans, Emilia H.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Motamed, Cathy; Kohl, Katrin; Schillinger, Julia A.; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors' objectives in this study were to describe the proportion of schools providing and the percentage of students with access to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) education, treatment, and prevention services at 2-year and 4-year US colleges and universities. The authors mailed self-administered questionnaires to a stratified…

  14. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  15. Facts about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, and birth control.

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    This patient update presents information about teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. In the US, one million teenagers become pregnant each year, and 85% of these pregnancies are unplanned. Pregnancy can occur the first time a person has sexual intercourse, and, without the use of contraception, 90% of sexually active teenagers will become pregnant within a year. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted during first intercourse, and about 25% of sexually active teenagers (three million) get an STD each year. The best protection against STDs and AIDS is abstinence, followed by use of a latex male condom or a female condom. It is known that many teenagers are afraid to use contraceptives because they fail to realize that contraception is safer than pregnancy and delivery. Common fears about oral contraceptives (that the body need a "rest" from their use and that they cause cancer, weight gain, future problems with pregnancy, and birth defects) arise from misinformation. In fact, this type of contraception has many beneficial effects. Similarly, fears about the condom (it is not effective, it may break, it will interfere with pleasure), contraceptive implants (they will hurt, they are not safe, they can break in the arm), and injectables (they are not effective, they cause heavy menstrual bleeding, and they cause cancer) are also ill-founded. This patient information sheet provides accurate information in each case.

  16. Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir; Profumo, Elio

    2008-01-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. We show that the epidemic outbreak in bipartite populations, with number of sexual partners distributed as in empirical observations from national sex surveys, takes place for larger spreading rates than for the case in which the bipartite nature of the network is not taken into account. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the theoretical results. Our findings indicate that the restriction to crossed infections between the two classes of individuals (males and females) has to be taken into account in the design of efficient immunization strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18212127

  17. Factors influencing recall of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M L

    1995-10-01

    Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  18. Sexual abuse in childhood : a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Cherian, A; Kuruvilla, K

    1996-04-01

    Sexual abuse of children and adolescents is prevalent across all cultures. Sexual abuse often begins in infancy or toddler stage for many children. A Child's developmental level influences the detection and disclosure of sexual abuse. Pre-school children very rarely make verbal disclosures, but may present with behavioural and physical symptoms. Older children may make a conscious decision to reveal the abuse, but often feel that they risk their safety in making a disclosure. This paper reports four cases of sexual abuse detected in a clinic during a period of 12 months. The age group of these children ranged between 4-12 years. PMID:21584153

  19. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  20. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  1. Pattern of Child Sexual Abuse by Young Aggressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alert-Dancer, Claire; Halley, Nancy; Hamate, Maryam; Bernard-Bonnie, Anne-Claude

    1997-01-01

    Medical evaluation of 316 children, mean age 6 years, found 39 perpetrators of sexual abuse were less than 16 years old and 15 were between 16 and 19. Young aggressors were more likely to abuse older female children. Adolescent aggressors appeared to engage in more genital/genital and genital/anal sexual abuse than older aggressors. (Author/DB)

  2. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Dissociation, and Adult Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2001-01-01

    Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…

  4. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  5. Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9–12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179

  6. Sexual Abuse History and Pelvic Floor Disorders in Women

    PubMed Central

    Cichowski, Sara B.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sexual abuse rates in the general female population range between 15% and 25%, and sexual abuse is known to have a long-term impact on a woman’s health. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of sexual abuse history in women presenting to clinicians for pelvic floor disorders (PFD) and to determine whether a history of sexual abuse is associated with a specific type of PFD. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of new urogynecology patients seen at the University of New Mexico Hospital. All women underwent a standardized history and physical examination and completed symptom severity and quality-of-life measures. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine which PFDs were associated with a history of sexual abuse among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Results A total of 1899 new urogynecology patients with complete information were identified from January 2007 and October 2011; 1260 (66%) were asked about a history of sexual abuse. The prevalence of sexual abuse was 213/1260 (17%). In the multivariable analysis, only chronic pelvic pain remained significantly associated with a history of sexual abuse. Conclusions A history of sexual abuse is common among women with PFDs, and these women were more likely to have chronic pelvic pain. PMID:24305526

  7. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  8. Intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Reis, Cláudia Bastos Silveira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in 2012 and involved 221 individuals (40.3% male and 59.7% female) attended to at reference health care units for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Data were collected using a questionnaire applied during interviews with each participant. A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model was conducted using the stepwise technique. Only the variables with a p value < 0.05 were included in the adjusted analysis. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. RESULTS A total of 30.3% of the participants reported experiencing some type of violence (27.6%, psychological; 5.9%, physical; and 7.2%, sexual) after the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease. In the multivariate analysis adjusted to assess intimate partner violence after the revelation of the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, the following variables remained statistically significant: extramarital relations (OR = 3.72; 95%CI 1.91;7.26; p = 0.000), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR = 2.16; 95%CI 1.08;4.33; p = 0.026), history of violence prior to diagnosis (OR = 2.87; 95%CI 1.44;5.69; p = 0.003), and fear of disclosing the diagnosis to the partner (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 1.32;5.32; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Individuals who had extramarital relations, experienced violence prior to the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease, feared disclosing the diagnosis to the partner, and those whose partner consumed alcohol had an increased likelihood of suffering violence. The high prevalence of intimate partner violence suggests that this population is vulnerable and therefore intervention efforts should be directed to them. Referral health care services for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases can be strategic

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  10. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  11. Sexual abuse of children. Detection and management.

    PubMed

    Herjanic, B; Wilbois, R P

    1978-01-23

    Detection of sexual abuse in children involves careful history-taking, complete physical examination, and most importantly, a high index of suspicion. Primary care physicians play an important role, since they are likely to be the first persons consulted. Complete management includes immediate attention to physical care, prophylactic measures, psychological evaluation and treatment, and collection of medicolegal evidence. For the protection of the child, one person must assume responsibility to coordination of treatment and adequate follow-up.

  12. Children's life transition following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hatlevig, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    The life transition of children 6 to 13 years old was studied for 1 to 3 years following sexual abuse. Data included transcripts from in-depth interviews about the children's daily living experiences and drawings were analyzed using the ADOPT analysis procedure. Implications for nursing include the use of drawings as a research technique and the effectiveness of strategies used by participants to manage the aftermath of the trauma.

  13. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  14. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  15. Assessment and Treatment of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, H. Elizabeth; And Others

    These papers on child and adolescent sexual abuse address the psychological consequences, psychological assessment techniques, and clinical issues in group therapy with sexually abused girls. In the first paper. H. Elizabeth King discusses the psychological consequences of sexual assault and incest on minors particularly in regard to family…

  16. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health.

  17. [Gynecological clinical study in girls and adolescent victims of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Sam Soto, Selene; Gayón Vera, Eduardo; García Piña, Corina A

    2008-07-01

    In spite of a very important under-registration, sexual abuse represents a social and public health problem worldwide. In Mexico, estimated prevalence of sexual abuse in women is 17.3%, half of them in youngsters under 15 years old. Most of cases have a late gynecological evaluation, due to a delay in a formal complaint. Gynecologist or pediatrician are the specialists who most frequently perform the genital examination of girls suspected of sexual abuse, due to this a complete knowledge of the topic is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis, register the physical findings and give prompt medical and psychological treatment as well as follow up to the patient. Despite the low risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection, it is important to evaluate the use of prophylactic treatment and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy with emergency contraception. Big efforts are being made by preventive programs on sexual abuse, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy, all of which are serious problems in Mexican children and youths, and should constitute a fundamental part of the public politics on sexual health. PMID:18798442

  18. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  19. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.

  20. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765

  1. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  2. Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Frey, Marcos Noronha; Ioppi, Ana Elisa Empinotti; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Prado, Guilherme Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age) and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5) and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  3. Effects of Trauma Intervention on HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Women with Co-Occurring Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…

  4. Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... in-depth look at the severe human and economic burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the ... would have resulted in a substantially higher estimated economic burden. 1 Satterwhite CL, et al. Sexually transmitted ...

  5. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  6. Vulnerable Adolescent Participants' Experience in Surveys on Sexuality and Sexual Abuse: Ethical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.…

  7. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  8. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  9. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations. PMID:25427632

  10. Microbicides for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Onkar; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 34 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) at the end of 2011. From the last two decades, researchers are actively involved in the development of an effective HIV-1 treatment, but the results intended are still doubtful about the eradication of HIV. The HIV-1 virus has gone from being an “inherently untreatable” infectious agent to the one liable to be affected by a range of approved therapies. Candidate microbicides have been developed to target specific steps in the process of viral transmission. Microbicides are self-administered agents that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the aim of preventing, or reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV-1. The development of efficient, widely available, and low-cost microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted HIV infections should be given high priority. In this review, we studied the various forms of microbicides, their mechanism of action, and their abundant approaches to control the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). PMID:26556193

  11. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  12. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

  13. Sexual Abuse of the Mentally Retarded Patient: Medical and Legal Analysis for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Jamie P.

    2001-01-01

    The primary care physician has a vital role in documenting and preventing sexual abuse among the mentally retarded populations in our community. Since the current national trend is to integrate citizens with mental retardation into the community away from institutionalized care, it is essential that all physicians have a basic understanding of the unique medical and legal ramifications of their clinical diagnoses. As the legal arena is currently revising laws concerning rights of sexual consent among the mentally retarded, it is essential that determinations of mental competency follow national standards in order to delineate clearly any instance of sexual abuse. Clinical documentation of sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease is an important part of a routine examination since many such individuals are indeed sexually active. Legal codes adjudicating sexual abuse cases of the mentally retarded often offer scant protection and vague terminology. Thus, medical documentation and physician competency rulings form a solid foundation for future work toward legal recourse for the abused. PMID:15014610

  14. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  15. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  16. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  17. A social model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2004-10-01

    We have introduced recently a model for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a key factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population. The social behavior is taking into account by means of two parameters: the fraction of singles ρs and the promiscuity p. The promiscuity parameter defines the per individual daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In this contribution we show that the interaction between this two parameters give rise to a non-trivial epidemic threshold condition, when going from the homogeneous case ( ρs=1) to heterogeneous cases ( ρs<1). These results can have profound implication in the interpretation of real epidemic data.

  18. Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508

  19. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  20. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion.

  1. The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Sexual Identity Formation in Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…

  2. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  3. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  4. [Pornography and sexual abuse in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W

    2007-01-01

    Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality. PMID:17177094

  5. [Pornography and sexual abuse in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W

    2007-01-01

    Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality.

  6. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731

  7. Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-04-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimuli. In a community sample of women with (N = 48) and without (N = 48) a history of CSA, we tested (1) the mediation of negative affect on the relation between sexual self-schemas and sexual function/satisfaction, (2) the mediation of negative affect in the relation between CSA and sexual function/satisfaction, and (3) the mediation of sexual self-schemas in the relation between a history of CSA and negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. We found that more Embarrassed/Conservative and less Romantic/Passionate sexual self-schemas predicted negative affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli which, in turn, predicted levels of sexual satisfaction. The lower sexual satisfaction of CSA survivors was partially mediated by higher reports of negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. However, negative affect prior to sexual stimuli was not mediated by the sexual self-schemas of CSA survivors. Thus, although sexual self-schemas predicted sexual satisfaction, they did not predict variance in negative affect prior to sexual videos experienced by women with a history of CSA. PMID:21140286

  8. Tips for Protecting Child Athletes from Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...

  9. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  10. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  11. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions related to sexual abuse. 115.6 Section 115.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS § 115.6 Definitions related to sexual abuse. For purposes of this part,...

  12. A Theoretical Foundation for Understanding Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…

  13. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  14. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  15. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  16. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  17. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  18. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  19. When Daughter's Sexual Abuse Is an Injury to Mother's Narcissism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePinho, Connie Maria

    The mother's reaction to the disclosure of sexual abuse is often dramatic and her particular type of response in turn affects the daughter's coping mechanisms to deal with the abuse and the disclosure. The type of symptoms developed are thus considered in part dependent on the mother's reaction. Mothers of children who have been sexually abused…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  1. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  2. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  3. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  4. Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse: Learning from Direct Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…

  5. A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

  6. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia: what's the difference?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Molly R; Nochajski, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and therapeutic issues than survivors of child sexual abuse who have had continuous memory of their abuse. This article first discusses those differences in terms of the moderating risk factors for developing dissociative amnesia (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) and then mediating risk factors (e.g., social support, trait dissociativity, etc.). The differences between the two types of survivors are then explored in terms of treatment issues.

  7. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  8. Sexual, Physical, Verbal/Emotional Abuse and Unexplained Chest Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…

  9. Sexual Abuse by Men Who Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Matthew; Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about those who sexually abuse children while working in organizations. Here, we adopt a case study approach to examine this problem. We focus on eight adult males who had been imprisoned for abusing a total of 35 children while working in educational and voluntary settings. We provide a detailed account of abusers'…

  10. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases: the global picture.

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, A.; Meheus, A.

    1990-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are now the commonest group of notifiable infectious diseases in most countries, particularly in the age group of 15 to 50 years and in infants. Their control is important considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, their socioeconomic impact, and their role in increasing transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The worldwide incidence of major bacterial and viral STD is estimated at over 125 million cases yearly. STD are hyperendemic in many developing countries. In industrialized countries, the bacterial STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chancroid) declined from the peak during the Second World War till up to the late fifties, then increased during the sixties and early seventies, and they have been decreasing again from the late seventies till the present. In the industrialized world, diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes virus, human papillomaviruses and human immunodeficiency virus are now more important than the classical bacterial ones; both groups remain major health problems in most developing countries. Infection rates are similar in both women and men, but women and infants bear the major burden of complications and serious sequelae. Infertility and ectopic pregnancies are often a consequence of pelvic inflammatory disease, and are preventable. Sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women can result in prematurity, stillbirth and neonatal infections. In many areas 1-5% of newborns are at risk of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, a blinding disease; congenital syphilis causes up to 25% of perinatal mortality. Genital and anal cancers (especially cervical cancer) are associated with viral sexually transmitted diseases (genital human papillomavirus and herpes virus infections). Urethral stricture and infertility are frequent sequelae in men. PMID:2289300

  11. Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix)

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Rossini, Carmen; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

  12. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning. PMID:21667232

  13. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Abuse: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohan, Audrey; And Others

    This handbook offers strategies for ending sexual abuse and sexual harassment of students by other students or staff members. Chapter 1 discusses how to define sexual harassment and abuse, provides a review of literature, and reviews pertinent laws and litigation. The second chapter presents step-by-step procedures for handling a complaint of…

  14. Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a history of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer; Rellini, Alessandra H; Roberts, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of sexual abuse during childhood/adolescence experience a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Evidence also suggests that they often use avoidant coping strategies, such as substance abuse, dissociation, and emotional suppression, which are likely factors implicated with their psychopathology. There is a dearth of information on potential psychological mechanisms affecting the sexuality of these women. Therefore, it is relevant to investigate whether avoidance, an important cognitive mechanism associated with anxiety disorders, relates to sexual functioning in this population. In this study, participants with (N = 34) and without (N = 22) a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16 years completed questionnaires on severity of sexual abuse, sexual functioning, and a tendency to avoid experiences. A three-step hierarchical regression investigated the effects of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies on different aspects of sexual functioning. A significant interaction between childhood/adolescent sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies was found for orgasm function, with the combination of sexual abuse and avoidance tendencies explaining lower orgasm function. These findings suggest that, for women with a history of early sexual abuse, the tendency to avoid interpersonal closeness and avoid emotional involvement predicts orgasm functioning.

  15. Attorney attitudes regarding behaviors associated with child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hartman, G L; Karlson, H; Hibbard, R A

    1994-08-01

    There appears to be a good deal of disagreement between professionals as to what constitutes child abuse. Attorneys as a group have been found to judge behaviors associated with child abuse more leniently than other abuse professionals. However, no one has discriminated between defense and prosecuting attorneys in these areas. It was hypothesized that because of divergent roles in child sexual abuse cases attitudes toward adult-child behaviors associated with sexual abuse would differ among attorney groups. Two prosecuting and two defense attorneys from every county in the state of Indiana were sent questionnaires. Participants were asked to indicate if a behavior was acceptable, inappropriate, or sexual abuse if it occurred on one or on multiple occasions. Prosecutors had more severe judgements than the defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. They were more likely to indicate that a behavior was inappropriate or abuse. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as a possible explanation for these findings.

  16. Sexually transmitted disease control in China (1949-1994).

    PubMed

    Shao, C; Xu, W; Ye, G

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes the historical experiences in venereal disease control in China during the 1950s. Venereal diseases had been all but eliminated in the whole country till 1964. However, along with the implementation of open-door policy and economic reform in the 1980s, the social environment was changed to a great extent in this country. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were re-introduced in the Chinese mainland and new foci of infection established themselves in some cities. During the recent 8 years the national STD case-reporting and sentinel surveillance systems have been set up. The results of surveillance show that the annual incidence of STD has been on the increase. The existing factors associated with the increasing incidence of STD mainly are; population movement, increasing affluence in a part of population, the availability of multiple sexual partners (including the prostitution) and asymptomatic STD increased. Finally, the strategies for STD control are discussed in detail. PMID:9387394

  17. Promiscuity and the evolution of sexual transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo; Ferreira da Costa Gomes, Marcelo

    2003-09-01

    We study the relation between different social behaviors and the onset of epidemics in a model for the dynamics of sexual transmitted diseases. The model considers the society as a system of individual sexuated agents that can be organized in couples and interact with each other. The different social behaviors are incorporated assigning what we call a promiscuity value to each individual agent. The individual promiscuity is taken from a distribution and represents the daily probability of going out to look for a sexual partner, abandoning its eventual mate. In terms of this parameter we find a threshold for the epidemic which is much lower than the classical SIR model prediction, i.e., R0 (basic reproductive number)=1. Different forms for the distribution of the population promiscuity are considered showing that the threshold is weakly sensitive to them. We study the homosexual and the heterosexual case as well.

  18. Sexually transmitted diseases in the history of Uganda.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M

    1994-01-01

    First noticed in Uganda in 1863 by a European explorer, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were cited as a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout this century. In 1908 the venereal diseases campaign was launched marking the real introduction of western medicine. By the mid-1920s, the campaign was combined with the medical service but throughout the colonial period (1901-1962) venereal diseases were considered intractable. A 1991 survey revealed alarming incidence rates and in light of the importance of STDs as a co-factor in the transmission of HIV, it is of paramount importance to implement more effective control measures. PMID:8206475

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases. Present problems-future prospects.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D

    1998-10-01

    The tools of molecular biology have brought us to a new level of understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of sexually transmitted diseases, which has been augmented and concentrated by the challenge of HIV/AIDS. We enter the next millennium with an unprecedented knowledge of these infections, but lacking the resources and drive to apply this broadly, especially where most needed in the areas of socioeconomic deprivation. We may develop cures or vaccines for complex viral infections, but for whom? Eventually, the knowledge will flow and disseminate, but will practice change?

  20. [Current protocols for diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, A

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the guidelines for the treatment of individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) that were developed by the STD Study Group "GIRVE" of the Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Venereologia (Italian Society of Dermatology and Venerology) in accordance with those developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998. The guidelines represent a useful tool for physicians and other health-care providers in preventing and controlling STDs. The guidelines include new recommendations for treating genital herpes and genital warts.

  1. Dangerous liaison: sexually transmitted allergic reaction to Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Bansal, A S; Chee, R; Nagendran, V; Warner, A; Hayman, G

    2007-01-01

    Brazil nuts are the second most frequent cause of nut allergy in the United Kingdom. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman with documented Brazil nut allergy who developed widespread urticaria and mild dyspnea after intercourse with her boyfriend who had earlier consumed Brazil nuts. Skin prick testing with the boyfriend's semen after Brazil nut consumption confirmed significant reactivity whereas a sample before nut consumption was negative. We believe this to be the first case of a sexually transmitted allergic reaction.

  2. Incarceration and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Neighborhood Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Levandowski, Brooke A.; Isler, Malika Roman; Torrone, Elizabeth; Wilson, George

    2007-01-01

    The social dynamics of some communities are affected by the loss of significant numbers of people to prison and by the release of others who encounter the challenge of coping with the negative effects of the incarceration experience. The effects on communities are evident, in part, in the high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in North Carolina (NC) counties that have a high rate of incarceration. In the present study, we examined whether the same associations can be observed at the census tract level in one urban city of NC. To identify the mechanisms by which incarceration can affect the transmission of STIs, we conducted ethnographic interviews with ex-offenders and people who lost a sexual partner to prison. We found that census tract rates of incarceration were consistently associated with gonorrhea rates in the subsequent year. An increase of the percentage of census tract person-time spent in prison from 2.0% to 2.5% corresponded to a gonorrhea rate increase of 7.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The people interviewed spoke of sexual partnership changes including those left behind finding new partners, in part for help in making financial ends meet; men having sex with men for the first time in prison; and having multiple new partners upon reentry to the community. The statistical associations and stories of the effects of incarceration on sexual relationships provide additional evidence of unintended community health consequences of high rates of incarceration. PMID:18046653

  3. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Day, S; Ward, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

  4. The Impact of a History of Child Sexual Abuse on Maternal Response to Allegations of Sexual Abuse Concerning Her Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…

  5. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  6. Sexually abused and nonabused mothers' discussions about sex and their children's sexual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Grocke, M; Smith, M; Graham, P

    1995-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of a mother's experience of childhood sexual abuse on her discussion of sex with her child. Two groups of sexually abused and nonabused mothers, drawn from a larger community sample and matched for social class and the sex and age of their index children, were asked about discussion of sexual information within their family. Children were interviewed about their sexual knowledge. Significantly more mothers who reported an incident of sexual abuse during their childhood said that they had detailed discussions with their child about sexual development and contraception than mothers who reported no childhood incidence of abuse. Although there was no difference between the two groups in independent interviewers' ratings of the children's overall sexual knowledge, more children from the abused mothers' group mentioned their parents as a definite source of sexual information, in particular, regarding contraception. There were also differences between the two groups in the children's responses to a set of ambiguous pictures. More children in the abused mothers' group than the nonabused group gave stories related to child abductions and the possibility of sexual abuse in response to two of the pictures. A mothers' willingness to acknowledge childhood sexual abuse is related to more open discussion of sexual information within the family.

  7. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M

    2016-09-01

    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals. PMID:27169881

  8. Veterinary Forensic Pathology of Animal Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Stern, A W; Smith-Blackmore, M

    2016-09-01

    Animal sexual abuse (ASA) involves harm inflicted on animals for the purposes of human sexual gratification and includes such terms as bestiality, zoophilia, zoosadism, animal sexual assault, and others. The prevalence of ASA is not known, although it may be more common than is currently perceived. Veterinarians have the skills required to identify and document cases of ASA. This article reviews the terminology, legal definitions and forms of ASA, and its social and psychological context. An investigative approach is outlined, including an alternate light source examination; collection of swabs for DNA analysis; sampling vaginal washes, rectal washes, and toenails for trace evidence and biologic analyses; radiographic studies; and a complete forensic necropsy, including histopathology. Gross lesions identified in ASA victims include injuries to the anus, rectum, penis, scrotum, nipples, and vagina; the presence of foreign bodies; and abrasions, bruising, and other evidence of nonaccidental injury. Specialized procedures, including examination using alternate light sources and screening tests to identify human seminal fluid within samples from ASA victims, are of potential value but have not been validated for use in animals.

  9. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  10. Sexually transmitted disease, ethnomedicine and health policy in Africa.

    PubMed

    Green, E C

    1992-07-01

    Compared with both industrialized countries and other less developed parts of the world, most of sub-Saharan Africa suffers inordinately from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It has high prevalence rates of traditional STDs, such as gonorrhea and syphilis, and if accurate seroprevalence surveys were to be done, it would probably prove to have the highest HIV seropositive incidence in the world. Unlike the pattern in the West, AIDS is primarily a heterosexually transmitted disease in Africa. This appears to be largely because of the prevalence of other untreated or improperly treated STDs. Therefore to lower the incidence of STDs would be to curtail the spread of HIV infection. The problem becomes how exactly to accomplish this. Most STD cases are never even presented at biomedical health facilities; they are presented to traditional healers. Both healers and their patients seem to believe that traditional STD cures are more effective than 'modern' cures, although the former are probably biomedically ineffective. While there is scant ethnomedical literature on STDs in Africa, the present paper presents Swaziland findings and related evidence from other African societies that the ultimate cause of several common STDs is believed to be the violation of norms governing sexual behavior, requiring traditional rather than biomedical treatment. Traditional healers therefore need to be a central part of any scheme to lower the incidence of STDs.

  11. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  12. Communication About Sexually-Related Topics Among Hispanic Substance-Abusing Adolescents and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Mena, Maite P; Dillon, Frank R; Mason, Craig A; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2008-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control talk between 108 Hispanic substance abusing adolescents and their parents. Results indicate that Hispanic parents who had older adolescents, reported more involvement, were less concerned of possible negative reactions from their child, and felt more knowledgeable and confident regarding sex and birth control also reported greater frequency of birth control talk. Hispanic parents with a daughter, who reported more involvement, or whose child reported more communication were more likely to report greater frequency of talking about moral issues.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  14. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  15. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

    This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

  16. "Normal" Childhood Sexual Play and Games: Differentiating Play from Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Coakley, Mary

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 128 undergraduate female students indicated that 44% had experienced cross-gender sexual play as children, which was often seen as involving persuasion, manipulation, or coercion. A typology of six kinds of sexual play experiences was derived. Discussion focuses on the differentiation of childhood sexual abuse from play and gender…

  17. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: suggestions for perinatal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Roussillon, J A

    1998-11-01

    As many as 1 in 4 women are survivors of childhood sexual abuse. This traumatic life event profoundly influences the care that advanced practice nurses provide throughout the life cycle, and particularly the care that is provided during times of physical and emotional stress. Despite the prevalence of sexual abuse, there has been little research on the experiences of survivors during the perinatal period, and few suggestions for interventions. This article reviews the literature on the implications of sexual abuse on a woman's experience of pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. It emphasizes the importance of routine screening for abuse, as well as assessment of a survivor's stage in the recovery process. Finally, this article suggests topics for appropriate perinatal anticipatory guidance for women who have a history of sexual abuse.

  18. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Malmedal, Wenche; Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons. PMID:25642347

  19. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  20. Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

  1. Attribution retraining with sexually abused children: review of techniques.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne; Hazzard, Ann; Campbell, Susan K; Lang, Claudia B

    2002-02-01

    Clinicians increasingly use empirically based cognitive-behavioral techniques in their treatment of child victims of sexual abuse. Attribution retraining is often a primary component of this work, and it involves various techniques aimed at decreasing abuse-related self-blame and encouraging the child to attribute responsibility for the abuse to the perpetrator This article reviews literature that highlights the complexity of self and other blame for sexually abused children in terms of developmental status, the multifaceted nature and interrelationships of abuse-specific attributions, and the psychological effects of self-blame and perpetrator blame. A review of written attribution retraining techniques developed by diverse authors for use with sexually abused children and their nonoffending parents is provided, including written and verbal techniques and techniques using games and the arts. The relative utility of different approaches with children of various stages of development is discussed, along with the need for empirical research regarding the effectiveness of these techniques.

  2. Child sexual abuse in Tanzania: much noise, little justice.

    PubMed

    Rajani, R R

    1998-01-01

    Every day in Tanzania, newspapers report horrible stories of the sexual abuse of children. This serious situation has aroused calls for stricter punishment of perpetrators, but little is being done to help the abused children. A 1997 analysis of these reports by the Tanzania Legal Human Rights Center has revealed that the majority of the perpetrators are adult males who are close to their victims and who hold positions of respect in society. The sexual abuse of children is fundamentally an expression of power over a child's life, and Tanzanian children have little control over their lives and are usually disciplined with corporeal punishment. Tanzanian children are accustomed to seeing men hurt weaker people without censure, and the children do not have the status to defend themselves against physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Thus, child sexual abuse is an inevitable consequence in a society where children have no voice. It is impossible to condone physical and verbal abuse while condemning sexual abuse, and punishing the abusers will not solve the problem. Instead, perpetrators must be held accountable and made to understand the seriousness of their actions. In order to make amends to their victims, they should be required to pay for the child's health care and education and to perform mandatory community service to make children safer. Children must be given the opportunity to learn that they can say no to adults and refuse to accept abuse.

  3. Sexual revictimization: the impact of attachment anxiety, accumulated trauma, and response to childhood sexual abuse disclosure.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

  4. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    PubMed

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments. PMID:27276546

  5. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  6. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  7. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.

  8. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…

  9. Gender differences in sexual practices and sexually transmitted infections among adults in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, J; Gotuzzo, E; Escamilla, J; Carrillo, C; Phillips, I A; Barrios, C; Stamm, W E; Ashley, R L; Kreiss, J K; Holmes, K K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined the prevalences of antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a sample of Peruvian adults. METHODS. Among adults seeking health certification in Lima, Peru, 600 were randomly selected to undergo interviews and serologic testing. RESULTS. Men's reported mean lifetime number of partners (10.6) far exceeded women's (1.1), yet antibody to sexually transmitted infection pathogens among sexually experienced participants was 2.8 times more prevalent among women than among men. Among men, female sex workers accounted for 37% of recent partners, and only sex with female sex workers while using condoms less than half of the time was independently associated with antibody (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 8.8). among women, number of partners was associated with any sexually transmitted infection antibody, while intercourse before 18 years of age was associated with C trachomatis antibody. At every level of perceived risk, sexually transmitted infection antibody was more frequent among women. CONCLUSIONS. Men having unprotected sex with female sex workers had the greatest risk of acquiring infections and (by inference) of transmitting them to women. PMID:8712268

  10. Catholicism and childhood sexual abuse: women's coping and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christi M; O'Neill-Arana, Margarita R; Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Ossege, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    The long-term effects of child sexual abuse include numerous psychological, social, and behavioral difficulties in women survivors, ranging from poor self-esteem and depression to sexual disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role that religious beliefs may play in the difficulties these women suffer has been largely unexplored. This qualitative study explored women's experience of healing within the context of Catholicism. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women raised as Catholics who reported child sexual abuse and who had participated in at least two years of psychotherapy. Results suggest that Catholic identity can both compound and relieve the suffering many women experience in healing from child sexual abuse. Participants related that their Catholicism was rarely addressed during psychotherapy. These findings have implications for clinicians working with Catholic survivors of child sexual abuse. PMID:24819394

  11. An Epidemiological Overview of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958

  12. HIV-seroconversion following sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2005-10-01

    Transkei is a poverty stricken former black homeland, now a part of the Eastern Cape Province. Unemployment and the incidental violence are very high. Women are mainly responsible for bringing up their children. Single parenting is also common in this community. Sexual abuse of children is selected to be under-reported. This reports the case of a 13-year-old girl who was raped twice within three months and brought to the Sinawe Centre of the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. Failure to adhere to post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has undermined the implementation of antiretroviral roll out programme by the government. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations of this case are given. Preventive steps are suggested. PMID:16198970

  13. Casualties of Childhood: A Developmental Perspective on Sexual Abuse Using Projective Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Bobbie; Wohl, Agnes

    Recognizing the compelling language of imagery available in the drawings of children who have been sexually abused, this book focuses on the link between sexual abuse during the latency period and specific developmental problems. Chapter 1, "Paradigms of Trauma and Sexual Abuse," presents sexual abuse as an external event associated with a…

  14. Women's responses to sexual abuse in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J C

    1989-01-01

    One hundred ninety-three women having serious problems in an intimate relationship with a man were recruited by newspaper advertisement to participate in this study. Of the 97 battered women, 44.3% also were being sexually abused. Sexual abuse was inversely correlated with body image and self-esteem scores and positively related to danger of homicide, even when severity and frequency of violence were controlled for. Assessment and interventions for sexual abuse are necessary in all women's health settings, especially if a woman is battered.

  15. Child sexual abuse and the media: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weatherred, Jane Long

    2015-01-01

    The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed. PMID:25635896

  16. The girl who cried wolf: pseudologia phantastica and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Matas, M; Marriott, A

    1987-05-01

    There has been an explosion of interest recently in sexual abuse and incest, with reported causal links to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The integrity of Freud's seduction theory has been challenged by Jeffrey Masson and sexual abuse activists. What is the position of a therapist who finds out that a patient's reports of incest and sexual abuse turn out to be fabrications? These issues are presented and discussed in the context of a brief, illustrative case history. There is also a review of the concept of "pseudologia fantastica", as well as a brief review of a feminist critique of Freudian theory. PMID:3607712

  17. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources). PMID:26301441

  18. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  19. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  20. Extradyadic Sexual Involvement and Sexual Compulsivity in Male and Female Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John

    2016-01-01

    We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in Canada, 1800-1992.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, H

    1994-01-01

    The history of sexually transmitted diseases in Canada from 1800 to the present reflects the changing views and values of citizens, medical experts, politicians and bureaucrats. During the colonial period, the military devoted attention to the problem but strict moral codes and social conventions prevented public discussion. Although middle class reformers began to pressure the federal government for funding and direction after 1900, World War I was the catalyst for involvement. Health education through a voluntary group and federal-provincial cost-shared funding for treatment facilities across Canada were introduced to control STDs. Public perception of STD patients as marginalised or deviant limited the impact of these efforts. Social changes during the 1960s, new STDs appearing in the 1970s and the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s have redirected the STD campaign to focus on high risk groups and prevention rather than the moralistic curative efforts of the past. PMID:8300103

  2. siRNA-based topical microbicides targeting sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Katakowski, Joseph A; Palliser, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a vaccine is available for HPV, no effective vaccines exist for the HIV-1 and HSV-2 viral pathogens, and there are no cures for these infections. Furthermore, recent setbacks in clinical trials, such as the failure of the STEP trial to prevent HIV-1 infection, have emphasized the need to develop alternative approaches to interrupt the transmission of these pathogens. One alternative strategy is represented by the use of topically applied microbicides, and such agents are being developed against various viruses. RNAi-based microbicides have recently been demonstrated to prevent HSV-2 transmission, and may be useful for targeting multiple STIs. In this review, microbicides that are under development for the prevention of STIs are described, with a focus on topically applied microbicidal siRNAs.

  3. Default patterns of patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Mahony, J D; Bevan, J; Wall, B

    1978-04-01

    The influence of gender, propaganda, and treatment methods was studied in relation to default behaviour of patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The overall default rate of men and women was similar, but a larger proportion of men defaulted after the initial visit, while the biggest fall-out in women was after the second attendance at the clinic. The institution of a propaganda campaign was followed by a reduction in defaulting. The statistical significance of this is open to question, however: moreover the observed improvement in default rate was not maintained once the propaganda had been relaxed. Men treated for non-gonococcal urethritis by a regimen which included one injection a week for three weeks showed a highly significantly lower default rate compared with those who received tablets alone.

  4. Sexually transmitted infections of the anus and rectum.

    PubMed

    Assi, Roland; Hashim, Peter W; Reddy, Vikram B; Einarsdottir, Hulda; Longo, Walter E

    2014-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant public health concern. Several STIs, once thought to be on the verge of extinction, have recently reemerged. This change is thought to be partially related to an increase in STIs of the anus and rectum. Importantly, the global human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has contributed to the emergence of particular anorectal lesions that require specialized approaches. In this report, we review common anorectal STIs that are frequently referred to colorectal surgeons in the United States. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management are summarized, including the latest treatment recommendations. The particularity of anorectal diseases in HIV/AIDS is addressed, along with recent trends in anal cytology and human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID:25386074

  5. Sexually transmitted infection and the evolution of serial monogamy

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, David V.; Day, Troy

    2014-01-01

    The selective forces shaping mating systems have long been of interest to biologists. One particular selective pressure that has received comparatively little attention is sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While it has been hypothesized that STIs could drive the evolutionary emergence of monogamy, there is little theoretical support. Here we use an evolutionary invasion analysis to determine what aspects of pathogen virulence and transmission are necessary for serial monogamy to evolve in a promiscuous population. We derive a biologically intuitive invasion condition in terms of population-specific quantities. From this condition, we obtain two main results. First, when pathogen virulence causes mortality rather than sterility, monogamy is more likely to evolve. Second, we find that at intermediate pathogen transmission rates, monogamy is the most selectively advantageous, whereas at high- and low-transmission rates, monogamy is generally selected against. As a result, it is possible for a pathogen to be highly virulent, yet for promiscuity to persist. PMID:25320174

  6. Attributable risk of exposures associated with sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed

    Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Attributable risk combines information on the prevalence of an exposure with a measure of the associated increment in risk, providing an estimate of the proportion of incident or prevalent disease that might be avoided by eliminating the exposure. Thus, attributable risk identifies exposures most productively targeted by public health interventions. Attributable risk can be defined as the ratio of average excess risk to average risk. As with other measures of association between exposure and disease computed from observational data, adjustment must be made for confounding factors. Estimates of attributable risk are highly variable. Nonetheless, attributable risk retains its usefulness as an approximate measure of the public health significance of exposures associated with acquisition of sexually transmitted disease, provided it is estimated and interpreted cautiously. PMID:8843248

  7. Voices of healing and recovery from childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Arias, Brittany J; Johnson, Chad V

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse continues to occur for a significant number of children, often having deleterious consequences for survivors' physical and mental health. Research has thoroughly explored various consequences as a result of child sexual abuse, but scholars and practitioners know less about the healing processes from survivors' viewpoints. Using a constructivist grounded theory design, this study examined perceptions of healing in 10 female survivors of child sexual abuse. Results conclude with a theoretical model of healing, capturing the significance of supportive relationships, internal characteristics, turning points, and sources of active healing. Important sources of active healing include therapy, informal and formal education, compassion and empathy, blame attribution to abusers, and confronting abusers. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:24125084

  8. Transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by donor semen.

    PubMed

    Shanis, B S; Check, J H; Baker, A F

    1989-01-01

    Therapeutic insemination by donor (TID) is being used with increasing frequency. Because many diseases, some of which are lethal, can be transmitted through semen, the American Fertility Society established guidelines for use of donor sperm. They limit TID to cases of male infertility or hereditary/genetic disorders. Donor selection requires good health and absence of genetic abnormalities; criteria for semen including normal sperm motility, concentration, and normal morphology, and blood screening for infectious agents. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing should be performed initially in donors for fresh semen inseminations. If positive, the assay is verified with a Western blot test; if negative, the donor should be screened at 6-month intervals. Frozen samples should not be used until the 180 day reevaluation of the donor. Many studies show higher pregnancy rates using fresh rather than frozen semen samples for insemination. New methods of cryopreservation minimize the deleterious effects of freezing. If these effects, namely decreased sperm motility and impaired penetration ability, are eliminated, pregnancy rates can be expected to rise. Frozen semen is preferable because it allows time for sexually transmitted diseases to manifest themselves and for specimens from those donors to be rejected prior to use. PMID:2619413

  9. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  11. A Validational Study of the Structured Interview of Symptoms Associated with Sexual Abuse (SASA) Using Three Samples of Sexually Abused, Allegedly Abused, and Nonabused Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robert; McCann, John; Adams, Joyce; Voris, Joan; Dahl, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    A study validated the use of a structured parent interview regarding emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms by comparing results among 22 sexually abused boys whose perpetrator confessed, 47 boys evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic but without a history of perpetrator confession, and 52 nonabused boys (ages 3-15). (Author/CR)

  12. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Overlooked Sexually Transmitted Pathogen in Women?

    PubMed Central

    Ona, Samsiya; Molina, Rose L.; Diouf, Khady

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a facultative anaerobic organism and a recognized cause of nongonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium has been associated with cervicitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and adverse birth outcomes, indicating a consistent relationship with female genital tract pathology. The global prevalence of M. genitalium among symptomatic and asymptomatic sexually active women ranges between 1 and 6.4%. M. genitalium may play a role in pathogenesis as an independent sexually transmitted pathogen or by facilitating coinfection with another pathogen. The long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in asymptomatic individuals need to be investigated further. Though screening for this pathogen is not currently recommended, it should be considered in high-risk populations. Recent guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control regarding first-line treatment for PID do not cover M. genitalium but recommend considering treatment in patients without improvement on standard PID regimens. Prospective studies on the prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term reproductive consequences of M. genitalium infection in the general population are needed to determine if screening protocols are necessary. New treatment regimens need to be investigated due to increasing drug resistance. PMID:27212873

  13. Self-reported sexually transmitted infections among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Tiblom Ehrsson, Ylva; Stenhammar, Christina; Rosenblad, Andreas; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the occurrence of self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female university students requesting contraceptive counselling. Material and methods Cross-sectional study. Female university students (n = 353) completed a waiting-room questionnaire in connection with contraceptive counselling at a Student Health Centre in Uppsala, Sweden. Results Ninety-three (26.3%) female students had experienced an STI. The three most frequently reported STIs were chlamydia trachomatis, condyloma, and genital herpes. The experience of an STI was significantly associated with the total number of sexual partners (OR 1.060, 95% CI 1.030–1.091, P < 0.001), being heterosexual (OR 4.640, 95% CI 1.321–16.290, P = 0.017), having experienced an abortion (OR 2.744, 95% CI 1.112–6.771, P = 0.028), not being HPV-vaccinated (OR 2.696, 95% CI 1.473–4.935, P = 0.001), and having had intercourse on first night without using a condom (OR 2.375, 95% CI 1.182–4.771, P = 0.015). Conclusions Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID:26489857

  14. Sexually transmitted infections-microbial infections, 2007 update.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007. PMID:17786104

  15. Sexually transmitted infections-microbial infections, 2007 update.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Human sexual behavior required for the continuation of humankind nevertheless has its downsides, among them sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The treatment of microbial STIs is challenging but not in itself essentially very difficult. Controlling STIs, on the other hand, is like the task of Sisyphus, a king in Greek mythology who was forced forever to roll a block of stone to the top of a steep hill, only to see it roll back to the valley, where he started the toilsome task again. This is how many a venereologist must view the day's practice, supervising patients with STIs. Yes, there are newcomers, many of them very young, but there are many others, the recidivists, whom the physician and health care staff know only too well. "You don't mind seeing me again, doc. You (collectively) were so good to me last time"--as though catching a chlamydial infection 3 or 4 times, gonorrhea 20 or 30 times, and syphilis on occasion were badges of virility or part of life's natural progression. This is the pattern of STIs in 2007.

  16. [Vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS and use of psychoactive drugs by truck drivers].

    PubMed

    Masson, Valéria Aparecida; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with the purpose of identify the demographic characteristics, health aspects and life style, vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS amongst long distance truck drivers were applied to 50 drivers from supply center of Campinas (fruit, vegetable, product wholesale market). The outcomes showed that almost all drivers interviewed were men, the majority were married, had kids, low study level and fewer than 40 years old. 70% reported abuse psychoactive drugs. The majority was aware of the importance of using condoms with casual partners; 94% reported relationship with casual partners and just 6% never used condoms. Although the small sample analyzed, the results suggests that must be implemented health promotion actions and illness prevention public politics, including the development of customized educational interventions with in this professional group. PMID:20339759

  17. Increased risk of prostate cancer following sexually transmitted infection in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chung, S D; Lin, Y K; Huang, C C; Lin, H C

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prostate cancer (PC) remains inconclusive. Moreover, all such studies to date have been conducted in Western populations. This study aimed to investigate the risk of PC following STI using a population-based matched-cohort design in Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 1055 patients with STIs, and 10 550 randomly selected subjects were used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratio for PC during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with a STI was 1.95 (95% confidence interval 1.18-3.23), that of comparison subjects after adjusting for urbanization level, geographical region, monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity, chronic prostatitis, history of vasectomy, tobacco use disorder, and alcohol abuse. We concluded that the risk of PC was higher for men who were diagnosed with a STI in an Asian population.

  18. [Vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS and use of psychoactive drugs by truck drivers].

    PubMed

    Masson, Valéria Aparecida; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with the purpose of identify the demographic characteristics, health aspects and life style, vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS amongst long distance truck drivers were applied to 50 drivers from supply center of Campinas (fruit, vegetable, product wholesale market). The outcomes showed that almost all drivers interviewed were men, the majority were married, had kids, low study level and fewer than 40 years old. 70% reported abuse psychoactive drugs. The majority was aware of the importance of using condoms with casual partners; 94% reported relationship with casual partners and just 6% never used condoms. Although the small sample analyzed, the results suggests that must be implemented health promotion actions and illness prevention public politics, including the development of customized educational interventions with in this professional group.

  19. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  20. Raising Sexually Healthy Children. Sexual Development, Sexual Abuse Prevention & Self Esteem for Children under Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Louise Welsh; Hoke, Susan

    This videotape guide is intended to prepare current and future parents to handle without nervousness important body issues that develop during a child' early years. The early prevention training companion video shows how parents can protect the young from sexual abuse by training children to recognize improper advances, to say no to a perpetrator,…

  1. Imbalanced sex ratios, men's sexual behavior, and risk of sexually transmitted infection in China.

    PubMed

    South, Scott J; Trent, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    China has been experiencing pronounced changes in its sex ratio, but little research has explored the consequences of these changes for sexual behavior and health. We merge data from the 1999-2000 Chinese Health and Family Life Survey with community-level data from the 1982, 1990, and 2000 Chinese censuses to examine the relationship between the local sex ratio and several dimensions of men's sexual behavior and sexual health. Multilevel logistic regression models show that, when faced with a relative abundance of age-matched women in their community, Chinese men are slightly less likely to have intercourse with commercial sex workers, but are more likely to engage in premarital noncommercial intercourse and to test positive for a sexually transmitted infection. These findings are consistent with hypotheses derived from demographic-opportunity theory, which suggests that an abundance of opposite-sex partners will increase the risk of early, frequent, and multi-partner sex and, through this, sexually transmitted infection risk. PMID:21131616

  2. Women on men's sexual health and sexually transmitted infection testing: a gender relations analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Chabot, Cathy; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy; Bungay, Vicky; Shoveller, Jean A

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing is typically portrayed as a women's issue amid men's estrangement from healthcare services. While the underreporting of men's STIs has been linked to masculinities, little is known about how women interpret and respond to heterosexual men's sexual health practices. The findings drawn from this qualitative study of 34 young women reveal how femininities can be complicit in sustaining, as well as being critical of and disrupting masculine discourses that affirm sexual pleasure and resistance to health help-seeking as men's patriarchal privileges. Our analysis revealed three patterns: looking after the man's libido refers to women's emphasised femininity whereby the man's preference for unprotected sex and reticence to be tested for STIs was accommodated. Negotiating the stronger sex refers to ambivalent femininities, in which participants strategically resist, cooperate and comply with men's sexual health practices. Rejecting the patriarchal double standard that celebrates men as 'studs' and subordinates women as 'sluts' for embodying similar sexual practices reflects protest femininities. Overall, the findings reveal that conventional heterosexual gender relations, in which hegemonic masculinity is accommodated by women who align to emphasised femininity, continues to direct many participants' expectations around men's sexual health and STI testing. PMID:22497206

  3. Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Spanish (español) Abuso sexual de menores Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Woman's Guide to Coping with Childhood Abuse Issues Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Bilingual PDF Substance Abuse ...

  4. Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…

  5. Anatomically Correct Dolls: Use in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duty, Diane Scott

    Sexual abuse of children has been recognized as a major problem. Attempts have been made to elicit descriptions of the abuse of children. A variety of interview methods for obtaining descriptions have been used. Methods of interviewing depend on the age of the child, the purpose of the interview, and the training and philosophy of the interviewer.…

  6. Treatment and Therapy for the Sexually Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Sandra C.

    Little information is available on therapeutic interventions or counseling techniques used with sexually abused children. Many experts consider parental and family support to be the single most important factor in preventing abuse from becoming a life destroying event. The goals of therapy are to make the child and family feel better about…

  7. Forensic Impact of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…

  8. Group Work with Sexually Abused Children: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotsky, Lynn; Camerer, Carel; Damiano, Lynn

    Sexual assault is a trauma that affects the entire family as well as the individuals involved. It is a social disease that alters human development and the ability to relate to others. Without treatment, the effects of abuse can progressively undermine and overwhelm all areas of both the abused individual's and the family's functioning. This book…

  9. The Fallacy of Victimization in the Treatment of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Anne Glinert

    Object relations theory offers the most viable explanation of the dynamics of sexually abused individuals by allowing for the conceptualization of an individual, whose earlier object relations left him barren, lonely, or neglected, as having a predisposition or vulnerability to abuse. Children with adequate nurturing experiences react negatively…

  10. Undergraduate Students' Reactions to Analogue Male Disclosure of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tanya D.; Tan, Josephine C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates undergraduates' reactions toward hypothetical male survivor's disclosure of sexual abuse. Reports that when age of incident was higher, survivor was seen as less masculine; more responsible for abuse; and sex role and rape myths were strongly applied to him. Less positive reactions were associated with disclosing to other men, abuse…

  11. Filial Dependency and Recantation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…

  12. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  13. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse Assessment: Issues in Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    1995-01-01

    Coordinates ethical codes for psychiatry, psychology, and social work and discusses their implications for child sexual abuse assessment in child protection and divorce/custody/visitation cases. Guidelines developed by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children are also considered. Confidentiality, protection from harm, and bias…

  15. Teachers That Sexually Abuse Students: An Administrative and Legal Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.

    This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…

  16. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  17. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  18. Sexual and Physical Revictimization Among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This fifteen year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse—revictimizations (N=89). Method These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of non-abused comparison females (N=90). Results Abused females were almost twice as likely to have experienced sexual revictimization (Odds = 1.99 ± 2.79, p<.05), and physical revictimization (Odds = 1.96 ±2.58, p<.05) as compared to victimization rates reported by comparison females. Abused females’ revictimizations were also more likely to have been perpetrated by older, non-peers and characterized by physical injury than were victimizations reported by comparison females. Conclusion Early childhood sexual abuse may provide information regarding the level of risk for recurrent sexual and physical victimization. PMID:19596434

  19. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  20. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  1. Maternal Perceptions Of And Responses To Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vidovič, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381

  2. Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Kotarski, Jan; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Radowicki, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation defines child sexual abuse as the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. It is estimated that in the world on average one in 3-4 women and one in 6-10 men were victims of sexual abuse in childhood. In Poland, according to the estimates of the Child's Rights Protection Committee, approximately 20% of girls and 5-6% of boys under the age of 15 years has suffered sexual abuse. In 2007 there was an increase in violence victims in all age categories, but the most alarming data concerned minors under 13 years. Girls fall victim to sexual abuse three times more frequently than boys. Sexual abuse of boys frequently involves violence. Data show that there are fewer women than men who execute such actions against a minor. Most victims (49-84%) know the perpetrator, and approximately 14-20% of acts of violence take place within the family. This article presents recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society concerning procedures in cases of suspected sexual abuse of children. PMID:21061918

  3. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  4. Sexual Abuse Prevention Treatment Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    The paper describes a federally funded project of the University of Alberta (Canada) addressing sexual assault and sexual abuse of people with disabilities. Written in outline style, the paper briefly describes project activities and general conclusions. Phase I of the project documented the nature and extent of the problem. It was concluded that…

  5. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  6. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  7. Sexual Abuse Allegations by Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…

  8. Sexual Harassment and Abuse of Adolescent Schoolgirls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…

  9. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  11. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  12. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. PMID:26294381

  13. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information.

  14. Prevalence of a history of sexual abuse among female psychiatric patients in a state hospital system.

    PubMed

    Craine, L S; Henson, C E; Colliver, J A; MacLean, D G

    1988-03-01

    Fifty-one percent of a sample of 105 female state hospital patients were found to have been sexually abused as children or adolescents. In the majority of cases, hospital staff were unaware that the patients had histories of sexual abuse, and only 20 percent of the abused patients believed they had been adequately treated for sexual abuse. Sixty-six percent of the abused patients met the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, although none had received that diagnosis. Compared with patients who had not been sexually abused, abused patients were significantly more likely to have 17 of 32 symptoms commonly linked with sexual abuse. Every patient who was positive for six symptoms--compulsive sexual behavior, chemical dependency, sadomasochistic sexual fantasy, sexual identity issues, chronic fatigue, and loss of interest in sex--had been sexually abused.

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  16. New Biomedical Technologies and Strategies for Prevention of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections remain to be of public health concern in many developing countries. Their control is important, considering the high incidence of acute infections, complications and sequelae, and their socioeconomic impact. This article discusses the new biomedical technologies and strategies for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:27703837

  17. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  18. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD.

  19. [Survey on risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescent students from Havana City, 1996].

    PubMed

    Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J

    1999-01-01

    The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD. PMID:10887571

  20. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  1. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments.

  2. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

  3. Determinants and consequences of sexual networks as they affect the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Irene A; Padian, Nancy S; Marlow, Cameron; Aral, Sevgi O

    2005-02-01

    Because pathogens spread only within the unique context of a sexual union between people when one person is infectious, the other is susceptible to new infection, and condoms are not used to prevent transmission, the epidemiological study of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly challenging. Social network analysis entails the study of ties among people and how the structure and quality of such ties affect individuals and overall group dynamics. Although ascertaining complete sexual networks is difficult, application of this approach has provided unique insights into the spread of STIs that traditional individual-based epidemiological methods do not capture. This article provides a brief background on the design and assessments of studies of social networks, to illustrate how these methods have been applied to understanding the distribution of STIs, to inform the development of interventions for STI control. PMID:15627230

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  5. Sexual and Physical Revictimization among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…

  6. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  7. The Sexual Well-Being of Women Who Have Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  9. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abusers Working With Children.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer

    2016-09-01

    Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631

  10. Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers.

  11. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  12. Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers. PMID:22994693

  13. Authority as coercion:when authority figures abuse their positions to perpetrate child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Karen

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial. PMID:16221632

  14. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abuse-Specific Attributions of Blame over 6 Years Following Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…

  16. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  17. Patterns of Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Their Relationships to Other Childhood Abuse and Adult Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Polly A.; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to cluster women who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) according to their shared patterns of CSA characteristics and (b) to examine differences across clusters on measures of other childhood abuse and adult health. Seven CSA characteristic variables were used for cluster analysis. The seven-cluster…

  18. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  19. Role of heparan sulfate in sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Maus, Erika; Sigar, Ira M; Ramsey, Kyle H; Shukla, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS), a polysaccharide composed of alternating uronic acid and glucosamine residues, represents a common link that many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require for infection. Variable modifications within the monomeric units of HS chains together with their unique structural conformations generate heterogeneity, which expands the ability of HS to bind a diverse array of host and microbial proteins. Recent advances made in the field of glycobiology have critically enhanced our understanding of HS and its interactions with microbes and their significance in important human diseases. The role of HS has been elaborated for several STIs to include those caused by herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and Chlamydia. In addition, gonorrhea, syphilis, and yeast infections are also dependent on the presence of HS on human target cells. Critical steps such as pathogen adhesion or binding to host cells followed by internalization to enhance intracellular survival and possible spread to other cells are mediated by HS. In addition, HS guided cell signaling plays a role in the development of angiogenesis and inflammation associated with many STIs. Past and ongoing investigations are providing new push for the development of HS-mimetics and analogs as novel prevention strategies against many different STIs. This review article summarizes the significance of HS in STIs and describes how emerging new products that target HS can be used to control the spread of STIs. PMID:22773448

  20. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  1. Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Adolescents Receiving Special Education Services

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, David S.; Eleey, Catharine C.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Noll, Elizabeth; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Blank, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To estimate the relative risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among children identified as having learning disabilities through the special education system. METHODS This cross-sectional study used special education data and Medicaid data from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for calendar year 2002. The sample comprised 51,234 Medicaid-eligible children, aged 12–17 years, 8015 of whom were receiving special education services. Claims associated with diagnoses of STIs were abstracted, and logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of STI among children in different special education categories. RESULTS There were 3% of males and 5% of females who were treated for an STI through the Medicaid system in 2002. Among females, those in the mental retardation (MR) category were at greatest risk (6.9%) and those in the emotionally disturbed or “no special education” category at lowest risk (4.9% each). Among males, STIs were most prevalent among those classified as mentally gifted (6.7%) and lowest among those in the MR category (3.0%). In adjusted analyses, males with specific learning disabilities and females with MR or who were academically gifted were at excess risk for STIs. CONCLUSIONS The finding that children with learning disabilities are at similar or greater risk for contracting STIs as other youth suggests the need to further understand their risk behaviors and the potential need to develop prevention programs specific to their learning needs. PMID:18611213

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual males in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Pichardo, A; Aznar, J; Camacho, F; Borobio, M V; Perea, E J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS--The absence of any official statistics on the prevalence of STD in homosexual men in Spain induced us to carry out a prospective study of new homosexual patients who consulted the STD Clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1988 and December 1989. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in this group of patients. RESULTS--1805 patients were seen during the study period; 318 patients were homosexual of whom 309 agreed to participate in the study. Of the 309 homosexual men, 108 (35%) had symptoms and the remaining 201 (65%) were asymptomatic. In the symptomatic group the diagnoses were: syphilis 28 (25.9%); urethritis 40 (37%) (of these 40, 11 had Neisseria gonorrhoeae, five had Chlamydia trachomatis, five had Ureaplasma urealyticum, one had Herpes simplex virus and in 18 no pathogen was detected); genital herpes seven (6.4%). Eleven (10%) had concomitant infections. The following infections were found in the asymptomatic group: syphilis 23 (11.4%), N gonorrhoeae six (3%), C trachomatis two (1%), Herpes simplex virus one (0.5%). Antibodies against HIV were detected in 30 (9.6%) of the total group. CONCLUSIONS--Sexually transmitted diseases are common amongst homosexual men in Seville and many of these are asymptomatic. PMID:1916797

  3. Characteristic Male Urine Microbiomes Associate with Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David E.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dong, Qunfeng; Revanna, Kashi V.; Fan, Baochang; Easwaran, Shraddha; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Diao, Lixia; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Background The microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and STI. Methodology/Findings Here, we used 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing to identify bacteria in urine specimens collected from men who lacked symptoms of urethral inflammation but who differed in status for STI. All of the urine samples contained multiple bacterial genera and many contained taxa that colonize the human vagina. Uncultivated bacteria associated with female genital tract pathology were abundant in specimens from men who had STI. Conclusions Urine microbiomes from men with STI were dominated by fastidious, anaerobic and uncultivated bacteria. The same taxa were rare in STI negative individuals. Our findings suggest that the composition of male urine microbiomes is related to STI. PMID:21124791

  4. DNA Microarray Characterization of Pathogens Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boyang; Wang, Suwei; Tian, Zhenyang; Hu, Pinliang; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study established a multiplex PCR-based microarray to detect simultaneously a diverse panel of 17 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)-associated pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 54 and 58. The target genes are 16S rRNA gene for N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium, M. hominism, and Ureaplasma, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) for C. trachomatis, the glycoprotein B gene (gB) for HSV; and the L1 gene for HPV. A total of 34 probes were selected for the microarray including 31 specific probes, one as positive control, one as negative control, and one as positional control probe for printing reference. The microarray is specific as the commensal and pathogenic microbes (and closely related organisms) in the genitourinary tract did not cross-react with the microarray probes. The microarray is 10 times more sensitive than that of the multiplex PCR. Among the 158 suspected HPV specimens examined, the microarray showed that 49 samples contained HPV, 21 samples contained Ureaplasma, 15 contained M. hominis, four contained C. trachomatis, and one contained N. gonorrhoeae. This work reports the development of the first high through-put detection system that identifies common pathogens associated with STDs from clinical samples, and paves the way for establishing a time-saving, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic tool for STDs.

  5. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Holmes, King K; Levine, Ruth; Weaver, Marcia

    2004-06-01

    In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of STIs within populations.

  6. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are “largely inevitable” and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  7. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI.

  8. Immunity and vaccines against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Sarah E. M.; Horner, Patrick J.; Horne, Andrew W.; Entrican, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent findings on immunity and vaccine development to Chlamydia trachomatis. Recent findings There is increasing knowledge on the interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis and infected host cells. During genital infection the organism avoids generating protective immunity but immune responses to a number of chlamydial proteins have been associated with reproductive tract pathology. Various vaccine and adjuvant preparations have been tried experimentally. Information generated by proteomics and complex studies of serological and T-lymphocyte immune responses points to novel vaccine candidates. Summary Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is associated with reproductive pathology. To develop rational vaccines it is necessary to understand the complex life-cycle of the organism, the host immune response to infection and how these relate to disease. Infection does not prevent reinfection and antibiotic treatment prevents antibody production at a population level. It remains unclear what type of immune response would be sufficient to prevent infection and/or reinfection. Although the prevalence and demographics of infection and the severity of disease associations suggest it would be desirable, there is no vaccine currently available. A number of studies have identified novel vaccine candidates. PMID:21124214

  9. Aspects of abuse: commercial sexual exploitation of children.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Melissa; Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and adolescents is a serious worldwide problem. It is, in essence, the sexual abuse of a minor for economic gain. In the United States, there is no uniform nationwide database to capture the incidence and prevalence of CSEC. Therefore, there is a great variation in the estimates, but the actual numbers are unknown. Given the clandestine nature of the practice, it is often underreported and underidentified. Healthcare providers will often encounter victims of commercial sexual exploitation due to mental health, physical health, and sexual health consequences, and therefore should be knowledgeable in the signs of possible sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to educate healthcare providers on how vulnerable children may become sexually exploited, the health consequences involved with sexual exploitation, how to better identify possible victims, and the medical evaluation of a victim of sexual exploitation.

  10. Gender Differences in HIV-Related Perceptions, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Chinese Migrants Visiting Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics

    PubMed Central

    WANG, BO; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; FANG, XIAOYI; LIANG, GUOJUN; LIU, HUI; LIN, DANHUA; YANG, HONGMEI

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore gender difference in HIV-related perceptions according to a social cognitive theory and sexual risk behaviors and to examine associations between mobility, sexual risk, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male and female migrants visiting STD clinics. A cross-sectional study among migrants visiting STD clinics in three large cities in China assessed HIV-related perceptions, sexual activity, condom use, and history of STDs was used. Among participants, 20% of women had ever sold sex and 33% of men had paid for sex. Women and men were similar in multiple partnerships in the last month (23% versus 22%), consistent condom use during last three sexual encounters (14% versus 15%), and a history of STDs (57% versus 53%). However, more women who reported a history of STD had contracted at least two STDs than men (55% versus 36%, p < 0.001). Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perception of extrinsic rewards for both genders, but was associated with increased perceptions of intrinsic rewards and response cost in women only, and with decreased perceptions of vulnerability and response efficacy in men only. High mobility was associated with increased sexual risk in women. Self-reported history of STD was associated with a high rate of past multiple partnership and low education among both genders, but was associated with high mobility and commercial sex in women only. Fifty-four percent of women with a history of STDs informed their partners about their infections, compared to 36% of men (p < 0.001). Married women, both women and men who did not engage in commercial sex, and women and men who used condoms were more likely to inform their partners about their STD infections. Gender differences in HIV-related perceptions and sexual behaviors underscore the importance of gender-specific intervention efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/STD in China. PMID:17263658

  11. Gender gaps, gender traps: sexual identity and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases among women in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian Fei-ling; Quan, Vu Minh; Chung, A; Zenilman, Jonathan; Hanh, Vu Thi Minh; Celentano, David

    2002-08-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to explore the pathways by which traditional gender roles may ultimately affect Vietnamese women's interpretation of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and health-seeking strategies. Data on gender roles, perceptions of types of sexual relationships, perceptions of persons with STDs, and STD patient experiences were gathered through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 18 men and 18 women in the general population of northern Vietnam. A framework integrating Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and Zurayk's multi-layered model was used to conceptualize women's health-seeking behavior for STD symptoms. Both men and women noted clear gender differences in sexual roles and expectations. According to participants, a woman's primary roles in northern Vietnam are socially constructed as that of a wife and mother-and in these roles, she is expected to behave in a faithful and obedient manner vis à vis her husband. It emerged that men's marital and sexual roles are less clearly defined by traditional norms and are more permissive in their tolerance of premarital and extramarital sex. For women, however, these activities are socially condemned. Finally, since STDs are associated with sexual promiscuity, both men and women expressed anxiety about telling their partners about an STD; women's expressions were characterized more by fear of social and physical consequences, whereas men expressed embarrassment. Community level interventions that work towards disassociating STDs from traditional social norms may enable Vietnamese women to report possible STD symptoms and promote diagnosis and care for STDs.

  12. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  13. Expert I-Witness Accounts of Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Abused as Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthel-Hackman, Tam

    Using a feminist and subversive perspective, a study examined the testimonies of five adult females each having experienced childhood sexual abuse. All the subjects--participants in a multi-medium art show sponsored by an urban mental health center--contacted the researcher voluntarily. Participants ranged in age from 39 to 54; sexual orientation…

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) epidemic in eastern Europe: a call for help.

    PubMed

    Gromyko, A

    1996-09-01

    During 1980-91 the incidences of syphilis and gonorrhea in western European countries fell to less than 2 and 20 per 100,000 persons, respectively. Since 1991, however, there has been a dramatic increase in the notification rate of syphilis. This increase is particularly marked in the countries of the former Soviet Union. In the Russian Federation, the incidence was 86 per 100,000 in 1994 and 172.1 in 1995, a 40-fold increase from 1989. In many countries of the former USSR, the incidence of syphilis has increased 15-30 times. The major social and economic changes experienced throughout eastern Europe during the past 10 years following the break-up of the Soviet Union are at the root of the increased prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the region. There has been a marked and prolonged decrease in national and per capita incomes reflected in growing unemployment, prostitution, and drug abuse. Such social conditions support the development and perpetuation of social disease epidemics. Prevention and control measures are urgently needed to check the spread of STDs in eastern Europe. Young people and adolescents are experiencing the epidemic to a greater extent than older age groups. Recommendations are made with regard to the prevention of STDs, sexual health promotion, clinical services, the management of STDs by non-dermatovenereologists, training, active case finding and screening, and surveillance. Information and the coordination of efforts are the keys to success.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  16. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  18. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507

  19. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  20. Molecular methods in the laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Sumathi

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a public health problem, and their prevalence is rising even in developed nations, in the era of HIV/AIDS. While the consequences of STIs can be serious, the good news is that many of these complications are preventable if appropriate screening is done in high-risk individuals, when infection is strongly suspected. The diagnostic tests for STIs serve many purposes. Apart from aiding in the diagnosis of typical cases, they help diagnose atypical cases, asymptomatic infections and also multiple infections. But, the test methods used must fulfill the criteria of accuracy, affordability, accessibility, efficiency, sensitivity, specificity and ease of handling. The results must be rapid, cost-effective and reliable. Most importantly, they have to be less dependent on collection techniques. The existing diagnostic methods for STIs are fraught with several challenges, including delay in results, lack of sensitivity and specificity. With the rise of the machines in diagnostic microbiology, molecular methods offer increased sensitivity, specificity and speed. They are especially useful for microorganisms that cannot be, or are difficult to cultivate. With the newer diagnostic technologies, we are on the verge of a major change in the approach to STI control. When diagnostic methods are faster and results more accurate, they are bound to improve patient care. As automation and standardization increase and human error decreases, more laboratories will adopt molecular testing methods. An overview of these methods is given here, including a note on the point-of-care tests and their usefulness in the era of rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:26392648

  1. Substance abuse in women: relationship between chemical dependency of women and past reports of physical and/or sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, G B; Andersen, M D

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe a group of chemically dependent females who were involved with the criminal justice system and note if they reported histories of physical/sexual abuse. Data for this study were obtained from Andersen's 1986 research project funded by the Michigan Department of Corrections and Wayne State University. The findings showed that 19.7% reported histories of sexual abuse and that 27% reported histories of physical/sexual abuse prior to incarceration. These findings suggest a need for a sexual assessment tool and for further research on the relationships of sexual/physical abuse and chemical dependency. PMID:2606585

  2. [Childhood sexual behavior as an indicator of sexual abuse: professionals' criteria and biases].

    PubMed

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.

  3. Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.

    PubMed

    Dijanić, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medić, Alan; Jurcev-Savicević, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship

  4. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established.

  5. Childhood sexual abuse, dissociation, and adult self-destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Srednicki, O

    2001-01-01

    Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N=175) and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (N=260) were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The samples were also compared on two measures of dissociation, the Trauma Symptom Checklist dissociation subscale and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices of self-destructive behavior except self-mutilation (where the mean difference approached significance), and on both measures of dissociation. One or both dissociation measures were related significantly to each index of self-destructive behavior except binge eating. Multiple regression mediation analyses provided support for the hypothesis that dissociation mediates the relationships between CSA and both drug use and alcohol abuse. Dissociation also explained significant variability when added to the regressions of risky sex and suicidality on CSA.

  6. Child sexual abuse in Turkey: an analysis of 1002 cases.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376

  7. Ethological, psychological and legal aspects of animal sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hvozdík, Anton; Bugarský, Andrej; Kottferová, Jana; Vargová, Milada; Ondrasovicová, Ol'ga; Ondrasovic, Miloslav; Sasáková, Nad'a

    2006-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of sexual abuse of five three-month old calves that died as a result of injury. A subsequent police investigation concluded that the animals had been sexually abused by an individual affected with zoophilia. The calves received injuries in the anogenital region resulting in fatal internal bleeding. The wounds appeared to have been caused by inserting and manipulating an unknown object into the vaginas of the animals. Post-mortem examination showed rupture of both the rectum and vagina in each calf with massive haemorrhage into the abdominal and thoracic cavities. From the psychiatric and animal welfare viewpoints animal sexual abuse is linked to clinical veterinary ethology. Ethical and legal aspects of animal welfare are evaluated with particular regard to the cases described.

  8. Breaking the silence about sexual abuse of deaf youth.

    PubMed

    Mertens, D M

    1996-12-01

    Sexual abuse of deaf youth is a serious problem that needs to have attention given to it in a way that will lead to real changes in the lives of the boys and girls affected. Through the use of an emancipatory approach to research, this study investigated the various theories that people hold as to why sexual abuse occurs in this population and what can be done to prevent it. Data were collected at one residential school through document review, observation, interviews, and a survey of staff. The results revealed that some participants held theories that blame the victim or the culture and that such theories would not lead to positive, meaningful change. Other theories that recognize the power inequities inherent in a sexual abuse situation are discussed as leading to potentially fruitful political and social actions.

  9. The medical analysis of child sexual abuse images.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sharon W

    2011-11-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses, methods used in working with this form of contraband, and recommendations that analysts document their findings in a format that allows for verbal descriptions of the images so that the content will be reflected in legal proceedings should there exist an aversion to visual review. Child sexual abuse images are a digital crime scene, and analysis requires a careful approach to assure that all victims may be identified.

  10. The male sexual partners of adult versus teen women with sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We compared the male sexual partners of teen girls, age 15 - 19 years-old, currently infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) versus the male partners of adult women, age 20 - 41 years-old, with an STI to determine risk factors in these high-risk sexual dyads related to the male partner. Study Design Interview of 514 men who were partnered with 152 teen girls and 362 adult women, enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone (SAFE), a randomized controlled trial of behavioral intervention to reduce recurrent STIs. Results Compared to the male partners of adult women, male partners of teen girls were significantly more likely (p < 0.05) to be infected with any STI at intake. Men partnered with teens were younger and had significantly more sexual partners per year sexually active, shorter relationship length, and shorter length of monogamy with the index girls. They were more likely to report that it was “really important” for the teen to have their baby (p = 0.04) and were slightly more likely to be the father of her children (p = 0.17). Young age independently predicted STI infection in men. Conclusions Although all women had an STI at intake, important differences were noted among the male partners of teens versus adults. Clinicians with similar populations may use this data to understand the characteristics of male partners of teens with STIs, in order to more effectively counsel adult and teen women on partner notification, treatment and STI prevention. PMID:19704393

  11. Incarceration, high-risk sexual partnerships, and sexually transmitted infections in an urban population

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Susan M; Khan, Maria R; Tan, Sylvia; Turner, Charles F; Miller, William C.; Erbelding, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the associations between personal and partner incarceration, high-risk sexual partnerships and biologically-confirmed sexually transmitted infection (STI) in a U.S. urban population. Methods Data from a probability survey of young adults 15 to 35 years of age in Baltimore, MD, USA were analyzed to assess the prevalence of personal and partner incarceration and its association with several measures of high-risk sexual partnerships including multiple partners, partner concurrency, and current STI. Results A history of incarceration was common (24.1% among males and 11.3% among females). Among females with an incarcerated partner in the past year (15.3%), the risk of current STI was significantly increased (adjusted PR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5, 3.5). Multiple partners (5+) in the past year and partner concurrency were disproportionately high among men and women who had been incarcerated or who had sexual partner(s) who had recently been incarcerated. These associations remained robust independent of personal socio-demographic factors and illicit drug use. Conclusions Incarceration may contribute to STI risk not only by influencing engagement in high-risk behaviors but also by influencing contact with partners who engage in risky behaviors and who hence have elevated risk of infection. PMID:22250181

  12. Childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ogata, S N; Silk, K R; Goodrich, S; Lohr, N E; Westen, D; Hill, E M

    1990-08-01

    Experiences of abuse and neglect were assessed in 24 adults diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder according to the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and in 18 depressed control subjects without borderline disorder. Significantly more of the borderline patients than depressed patients reported childhood sexual abuse, abuse by more than one person, and both sexual and physical abuse. There were no between-group differences for rates of neglect or physical abuse without sexual abuse. A stepwise logistic regression revealed that derealization, diagnostic group, and chronic dysphoria were the best predictors of childhood sexual abuse in this group of patients.

  13. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  14. Teen Birth Rates in Sexually Abused and Neglected Females

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173

  15. Child sexual abuse and forensic psychiatry: evolving and controversial issues.

    PubMed

    Burton, K; Myers, W C

    1992-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has received growing attention in recent years, and the topic continues to spark controversy among mental health and legal professionals as well as in the popular media. This paper will review the concept of child sexual abuse, cover relevant definitions, address the clinician's role, and then will address the principal evolving and controversial areas. These areas include psychic damages, false allegations, improper investigatory techniques, use of anatomical dolls, admissibility of expert testimony, hearsay testimony, and the competency of minors to testify. PMID:1482798

  16. Child sexual abuse prevention policy: an analysis of Erin's law.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse affects thousands of children in the United States and is vastly underreported. Tertiary prevention policies, primarily in the form of sex offender registries and community notification programs, have received the most attention and funding. Few policies have focused on school-based prevention. One recently passed law in Illinois mandates all K-5 public schools to implement sexual abuse prevention programs. The law was championed by a young social worker, Erin Merryn. Through the multiple streams framework, this article examines the unique set of political circumstances, united with Merryn's advocacy, which created the opportunity for the law to pass.

  17. Vicarious Trauma: A Comparison of Clinicians Who Treat Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Ineke; VanDeusen, Karen M.; Martin, Gail; Applegate, Brooks; Jandle, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    This study compared vicarious trauma in a random sample of male and female clinicians who treat survivors (n=95) and those who treat offenders (n=252). A national survey was conducted with members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC). These data were…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  19. Outcome Evaluation of a Group Treatment of Sexually Abused and Reactive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…

  20. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Adults with Mental Retardation and Other Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharinger, Deborah; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…

  1. The Polygraph, Its Use in Cases of Alleged Sexual Abuse: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    1997-01-01

    This exploratory study of 42 cases with sexual abuse allegations and polygraph results found that polygraph findings were unrelated to other evidence of likelihood of sexual abuse, including the child's statements, medical evidence, psychological symptoms, or indicators of sexual abuse. When alleged offenders passed polygraphs, criminal…

  2. Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

  3. The Role of the Medical Provider in the Evaluation of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie

    2010-01-01

    It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…

  4. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  5. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  6. Attachment Representations and Anxiety: Differential Relationships among Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47…

  7. True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Tara, Ed.

    This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse"…

  8. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  9. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  10. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  11. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  12. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  13. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  14. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  15. Sexual abuse and incest. What can you do?

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, K. C.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of child sexual abuse is of increasing relevance to family physicians. Apart from the need to recognize and manage child victims and their families, it is important to be aware of the incidence and nature of the many sequelae of childhood sexual exploitation. Common signals include physical, psychosomatic, and psychiatric disorders. Some physicians must deal with their own childhood victimization if the best interests of their patients are to be served. PMID:8038637

  16. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  17. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  18. Teenagers and the risks of sexually transmitted diseases: a need for the provision of balanced information.

    PubMed Central

    Mellanby, A; Phelps, F; Lawrence, C; Tripp, J H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Evaluation of teenagers' knowledge and understanding about sexually transmitted disease, conception and contraception. DESIGN--A questionnaire study. SETTING--Schools SUBJECTS--1025 teenagers aged 15/16 years (mean 16.00). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores attained in response to questions about sexually transmitted disease related to the sources of information given as most helpful. RESULTS--Teenagers have an incorrect understanding of the risks of sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSIONS--Teenagers may substantially underestimate their personal risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases following the promotion of information about HIV/AIDS. Apparently simple messages about HIV and AIDS given in mass media advertising programmes may have unwanted results and need to be balanced by appropriate professional interpretation to teenagers. PMID:1398659

  19. [Genital ulcers caused by sexually transmitted diseases: current therapies, diagnosis and their relevance in HIV pandemy].

    PubMed

    Da Costa, João Borges; Domingues, Dulce; Castro, R; Exposto, Filomena

    2006-01-01

    The sexual transmitted pathogens associated with genital ulcers are Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2. Although geographic differences still exist, herpetic infections prevalence is growing worldwide as the most frequent ulcerative sexual transmitted disease. The failure of the many different used guidelines in achieving a sustained reduction in the number of new cases, in particular the WHO syndromic management, leads into an over treatment of bacterial agents and missing of viral agents. This situation is also associated with poor efficacy and wasting of economical resources. Ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexual transmitted diseases are important in the world HIV pandemy because they promote HIV transmission and are also associated with the disease evolution. Portugal had until recently the highest incidence of HIV infection in Europe and that points out to importance of treating and control of both ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexual transmitted diseases in order.

  20. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  1. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  2. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  3. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  4. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  5. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  6. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  7. 28 CFR 115.311 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.311 Section 115.311 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities...

  8. 28 CFR 115.11 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.11 Section 115.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Prevention...

  9. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  10. 28 CFR 115.111 - Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zero tolerance of sexual abuse and sexual harassment; PREA coordinator. 115.111 Section 115.111 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Prevention Planning §...

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  12. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  13. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  14. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attendees in Honiara, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kako, H; Butcher, R; Lauri, B; Puiahi, E; Pitakaka, R; Sokana, O; Kilua, G; Roth, A; Solomon, A W; Mabey, D C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the prevalence of common bacterial sexually transmitted infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in women attending clinics in the Solomon Islands. Methods We conducted a sexual health survey among women attending three nurse-led community outpatient clinics in August 2014, to establish the prevalence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attenders in Honiara, Solomon Islands. Vaginal swab samples were tested for infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae using a commercial strand displacement amplification assay. Serum samples were tested for syphilis. Results We enrolled 296 women, aged 16–49, attending three clinics. Knowledge of safe sexual practices was high but reported condom usage was low. The prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis was 20%. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoeae and syphilis were 5.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial sexually transmitted infections are a major health problem in the Solomon Islands. Interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25922103

  15. Gender Differences in Drug Use, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Arrested Youths*

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415

  16. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  17. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  19. Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Tool for Six Sexually Transmitted Infections - Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    GRAD, ALECSANDRA IULIA; VICA, MIHAELA LAURA; MATEI, HOREA VLADI; GRAD, DORU LUCIAN; COMAN, IOAN; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Sexually transmitted infections are a very frequent and under-diagnosed cause of illness worldwide. A high number of detection methods and a large range of specimens in which sexually transmitted infections can be determined are available at the moment. Polymerase chain reaction performed on first void urine offers the advantage of being non-invasive, self-collectable and has high sensitivity and specificity. We looked to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods Six sexually transmitted infections were determined in the first void urine of 15 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients by polymerase chain reaction. We used “Epicenter MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit” for the DNA purification and “Seeplex® STD6 ACE Detection” for the DNA amplification. The results were examined in UV light. Results A number of 5 patients had positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually transmitted infections are more frequent in men between 27 and 40 years old. Conclusions Polymerase chain reaction is a good diagnostic tool for sexually transmitted infections because it has a high sensitivity and specificity. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:26528045

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  1. Blame and Resilience in Women Sexually Abused as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Leslie L.; Stuart, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attribution of blame and recovery from childhood sexual abuse. Specifically, blaming self, fate, or both self and fate were associated with higher levels of symptomatology, while blaming the perpetrator was associated with the lowest level of symptomatology. The theoretical and…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  3. Support and Profiles of Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Hebert, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure may be a crucial factor in children's recovery. A person-centered approach was used to examine how profiles of nonoffending mothers could better describe their ability to support their children after disclosure. Cluster analyses based on a total of 226 nonoffending…

  4. Resilience in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Healing Power of Illusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; And Others

    Because research has focused on psychopathology rather than psychological health, little is known about how child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors escape childhood trauma unharmed. This investigation sought to identify cognitive characteristics associated with resilience following a history of CSA. The study sample of 180 women was drawn from a small,…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs in Texas Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…

  6. Nonoffending Caregiver and Youth Experiences with Child Sexual Abuse Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa M.; Atoro, Kathryn E.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Shadoin, Amy L.; Magnuson, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative responses by caregivers (n = 203) and youth (aged 8 and older; n = 65) about their experiences with sexual abuse investigations were analyzed in conjunction with quantitative ratings of satisfaction. Respondents described mostly high levels of satisfaction, although dissatisfaction was reported with some key aspects of investigations.…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  8. Correlates of Sexual Abuse and Smoking among French Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gary; Guilbert, Philippe; Ward, D. Gant; Arwidson, Pierre; Noubary, Farzad

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse (SA) and initiation, cessation, and current cigarette smoking among a large representative adult population in France. Method: A random sample size of 12,256 adults (18-75 years of age) was interviewed by telephone concerning demographic variables, health…

  9. When Staff Members Sexually Abuse Children in Residential Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents practical suggestions for managing a protective service agency for children when one of its staff members is accused of sexually abusing a child in residential care. The agency must balance the tasks of protecting the child, supporting the staff, and maintaining the integrity and reputation of the agency. (GLR)

  10. When staff members sexually abuse children in residential care.

    PubMed

    Bloom, R B

    1992-01-01

    When an agency staff member is accused of sexually abusing a client, the administration is faced with the Solomonic task of balancing the necessity of protecting the child, supporting the staff, and maintaining the integrity and reputation of the agency. This article presents practical suggestions for managing the agency through such a crisis. PMID:1638902

  11. Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-11-01

    Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported.

  12. [Anogenital warts and suspicion of child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan Pablo; Indart de Arza, Miguel Javier; Stabilito, Luis

    2012-10-01

    This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician.

  13. Group Therapy Techniques for Sexually Abused Preteen Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Pearl

    1990-01-01

    Describes an open-ended, structured, highly intensive therapy group for sexually abused preteen girls that was the primary mode of treatment for 11 girls from low-income, rural White families with numerous problems. Unique features of the group included simultaneous group and individualized goals. (Author/BB)

  14. Process and Outcome: Evaluation of the Sexual Abuse Treatment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Arnold J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses the feasibility and effectiveness of the Sexual Abuse Treatment Project used in a child welfare setting in Canada. Also evaluates the therapeutic process, which was based on an intensive psychodynamic model, and assesses its effectiveness for child and adult clients. (RJC)

  15. Including Siblings in the Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Juanita N.; Tanis, Heyley J.; Rice, Jennifer B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed. Case examples using a particular intervention approach and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)

  16. Sexual Abuse among Female High School Students in Istanbul, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Erginoz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Uysal, Omer; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in female adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey from data collected as part of a school-based population study on health and health behaviors. Method: A stratified cluster sampling procedure was used for this cross-sectional study. The study sample included 1,955…

  17. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  18. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  19. Victim Therapy with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…

  20. Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-11-01

    Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported. PMID:23156936

  1. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  2. Countertransference Reactions in Therapeutic Work with Incestuous Sexual Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Monika; Leiper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    The study was a qualitative investigation aimed at therapists' responses to working with a population of incestuous sexual abusers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine therapists who were recruited from psychotherapy, psychology, and forensic psychology services in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. The predominant…

  3. Epidemiology of Sexual Abuse of Children: Old Problems, New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, John M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the major findings from epidemiological studies on the sexual abuse of children, raises questions that need to be addressed by future epidemiological studies, and reviews some of the barriers to conducting these studies. Findings are organized into five categories: prevalence, reported incidence, data from children,…

  4. Emotional Closeness with Perpetrators and Amnesia for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Tammy; Passmore, J. Lawrence; Yoder, C. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, a contentious debate regarding delayed memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has existed. In order to address this debate, 240 female participants completed questions about CSA, the Dissociative Experience Scale (Bernstein & Putnam, 1986), Perceived Emotional Closeness with Perpetrator Scale (Schultz, Passmore, & Yoder,…

  5. Technical Conduct of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the technical conduct of the child-sexual-abuse medical examination and offers a research agenda. Introduction of the colposcope in the early 1980s is noted, as are other technological advances, such as the videocolposcopy and linkage with computer technology. Achievement highlights in the last 20 years of research are identified, along…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…

  7. Gender Differences in Extrafamilial Sexual Abuse Experiences among Young Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Extrafamilial sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents (ages 10-14), particularly young teen boys, are not well studied. This retrospective chart review study compared psychosocial correlates and victimization experiences between young adolescent girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 64) referred to a hospital child advocacy center. Several…

  8. Prosecuting Child Sexual Abuse: The Importance of Evidence Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore P.; Lippert, Tonya

    2010-01-01

    Corroborating evidence has been associated with a decrease in children's distress during the court process, yet few studies have empirically examined the impact of evidence type on prosecution rates. This study examined the types of evidence and whether charges were filed in a sample of child sexual abuse cases (n = 329). Cases with a child…

  9. Disclosure of Sexual Abuse in Sport Organizations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…

  10. Identifying Sexually Abused Children Using Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper presents a summary of the research literature concerning the psychological and behavioral impact of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. It examines the dynamics involved in the process of making such determinations and examines the utility of using Human Figure Drawings as part of an assessment battery to determine the probability…

  11. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  12. Images from Purgatory: Art Therapy with Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazloomian, Hoda; Moon, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the clinical practice of two male art therapists and their work with male adolescent sex offenders in a residential treatment facility. The authors share experiences of working with clients who, in addition to being offenders, were diagnosed with a mental illness and were themselves victims of sexual abuse. The function of…

  13. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  14. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  15. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  16. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: The Case of Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022

  17. Posttraumatic growth among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D; Coohey, Carol; Rhodes, Alison M; Moorthy, M V

    2013-11-01

    Despite an increased risk of long-term mental health problems, many survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) experience positive changes in areas such as appreciation for life, personal strength, and interpersonal relationships. Drawing on life course theory, this study examined factors related to posttraumatic growth among a sample of men with CSA histories (N = 487). Using multiple linear regression (i.e., ordinary least squares), we found that men who had a better understanding of the sexual abuse experience, who ascribed to less traditional masculine norms, and who experienced a turning point reported greater growth. To promote growth, practitioners can help survivors understand the meaning and impact of the abuse on their lives and deconstruct rigid gender norms. More research on growth is needed with male survivors, especially on the nature of turning points in the recovery process.

  18. Long-term consequences of childhood physical and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Glod, C A

    1993-06-01

    Psychiatric nurses are confronted daily with individuals who are suffering from the consequences of trauma. Physical and sexual abuse is associated with acute psychiatric symptomatology in children and may progress to a spectrum of psychiatric and medical disorders in adults, ranging from the extreme adaptive reactions seen in multiple personality disorder and refractory psychosis to intermediate adaptive reactions present in borderline personality disorder to more delimited reactions manifest in chronic headaches and unremitting pelvic pain. Subjects sampled in inpatient, outpatient, psychiatric, medical, criminal, and community settings describe the link between histories of widespread abuse and various intractable and common disorders. This article presents the state-of-the-art knowledge of the long-term sequelae of childhood physical and sexual abuse by critically reviewing the initial uncontrolled investigations and mounting evidence from controlled studies.

  19. Improving decision making in forensic child sexual abuse evaluations.

    PubMed

    Herman, Steve

    2005-02-01

    Mental health professionals can assist legal decision makers in cases of allegations of child sexual abuse by collecting data using forensic interviews, psychological testing, and record reviews, and by summarizing relevant findings from social science research. Significant controversy surrounds another key task performed by mental health professionals in most child sexual abuse evaluations, i.e., deciding whether or not to substantiate unconfirmed abuse allegations. The available evidence indicates that, on the whole, these substantiation decisions currently lack adequate psychometric reliability and validity: an analysis of empirical research findings leads to the conclusion that at least 24% of all of these decisions are either false positive or false negative errors. Surprisingly, a reanalysis of existing research also indicates that it may be possible to develop reliable, objective procedures to improve the consistency and quality of decision making in this domain. A preliminary, empirically-grounded procedure for making substantiation decisions is proposed.

  20. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  1. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group.

  2. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group. PMID:24088813

  3. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents: An Assessment of Ecological Approaches and Study Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoveller, Jean A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Savoy, Daphne M.; Pietersma, W. A. Wia

    2006-01-01

    Most primary prevention research has attempted to explain sexual health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, by focusing on individual characteristics (e.g. age), qualities (e.g. knowledge levels), and risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected intercourse). Emerging evidence indicates that population-level health outcomes are unlikely to be…

  4. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  5. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  6. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  7. A Study of the Awareness of Selected College Students Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Gregory H.; Klein, Daniel

    Changes in sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates among adolescents and young adults may depend on changes in sexual activity, accessibility of referral and treatment services, and education. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students toward various aspects of STD's, a 45-item Likert inventory focusing on symptoms, prevalence,…

  8. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  9. Sexual Abuse and its Relation to Chronic Pain among Women from a Methadone Maintenance Clinic versus a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of sexual abuse history on chronic pain and its relation to opioid addiction and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), we studied current women MMT patients, and women patients from a sexual abuse treatment center with no history of opioid addiction. Questionnaires included Chronic Pain, Chronic Severe Pain, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (complex-PTSD). Chronic severe pain was most prevalent among sexually abused women with no history of opioid addiction (64% of 25), followed by sexually abused MMT women (30.9% of 68), and MMT women with no history of sexual abuse (25% of 8, p = 0.01). Pain severity correlated with dissociation and complex-PTSD scores. The sexually abused non-MMT women had higher rates of high dissociation scores (DES ≥ 30) and complex-PTSD, but fewer obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scored ≥16) than the MMT sexually abused women. Chronic pain was found to be highly prevalent among sexually abused women, independent of being methadone-maintained with an addiction history. The high known prevalence of chronic pain among MMT patients, which may be attributable to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, may partially reflect the sexual abuse history, and should be targeted in future studies evaluating pain indices. PMID:27430532

  10. Sexual Abuse and its Relation to Chronic Pain among Women from a Methadone Maintenance Clinic versus a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of sexual abuse history on chronic pain and its relation to opioid addiction and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), we studied current women MMT patients, and women patients from a sexual abuse treatment center with no history of opioid addiction. Questionnaires included Chronic Pain, Chronic Severe Pain, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (complex-PTSD). Chronic severe pain was most prevalent among sexually abused women with no history of opioid addiction (64% of 25), followed by sexually abused MMT women (30.9% of 68), and MMT women with no history of sexual abuse (25% of 8, p = 0.01). Pain severity correlated with dissociation and complex-PTSD scores. The sexually abused non-MMT women had higher rates of high dissociation scores (DES ≥ 30) and complex-PTSD, but fewer obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scored ≥16) than the MMT sexually abused women. Chronic pain was found to be highly prevalent among sexually abused women, independent of being methadone-maintained with an addiction history. The high known prevalence of chronic pain among MMT patients, which may be attributable to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, may partially reflect the sexual abuse history, and should be targeted in future studies evaluating pain indices.

  11. History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Unsafe Anal Intercourse in a 6-City Study of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Baker, A. Cornelius; Miner, Michael H.; Brennan, David J.; Jacoby, Scott; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed rates of childhood sexual abuse and its demographic and mental health correlates among HIV-positive men who reported unsafe anal intercourse with other men in the past year. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 593 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in the Positive Connections intervention. Results. Childhood sexual abuse was reported by 47% of participants; 32% reported frequency as often or sometimes. Men reporting abuse were more likely to be Latino (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 4.2; P < .001) or African American (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.7; P = .005) than White. Among those who were abused, more frequent abuse was associated with more sexual contacts (for each, rate ratio [RR] = 1.3; P < .001) and unsafe anal intercourse (often, RR = 1.5; sometimes, RR = 2.0; P < .001) compared with men who were not abused. Conclusions. History of childhood sexual abuse is highly prevalent among HIV-positive men who engage in risky sexual behavior with other men and appears to be more common among men of color. Our findings suggest that abuse is associated with a significantly increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:19372529

  12. Sexual abuse allegations by children with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-03-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric experts were engaged in only two cases. When experts were involved, the courts focused on credibility issues. When the courts applied neuropsychiatric arguments in the absence of an expert, they used developmental arguments. When the authors found that significant neuropsychiatric issues were not discussed by the court it concerned interpretations of symptoms and developmental standpoints. The results illustrate the complexity and pitfalls of drawing conclusions about associations between symptoms and personality characteristics on one side and accuracy of sexual abuse allegations on the other. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of a high quality system for providing courts with adequate neuropsychiatric knowledge.

  13. Sexual functioning of male anabolic steroid abusers.

    PubMed

    Moss, H B; Panzak, G L; Tarter, R E

    1993-02-01

    The effects of anabolic steroid use on male sexual behavior were assessed using a structured clinical interview administered to male body builders currently using steroids, and to two comparison groups (body builders with a past but not current history of steroid use, and a group of "natural" body builders who had never used steroids). Current anabolic steroid users had a significantly higher coital and orgasmic frequency than did comparison athletes. They also reported a significantly higher incidence of erectile difficulties during the past month. Beliefs concerning the sexually stimulating effects of steroids did not correlate with the frequencies of specific sexual behaviors. The data support the contention that anabolic steroids, as androgenic compounds, enhance sexual desire.

  14. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  15. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Rosanne J.; And Others

    The legal obligation of Ohio school employees to report situations of suspected child abuse and neglect has generated a need for school districts to adopt a written policy together with guidelines and procedures to assure school personnel are aware of the mandate to report and have a structural procedure to do so. The written policy should: (1)…

  18. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  19. Providing sexual education to victims of child sexual abuse:what is a clinician to do?

    PubMed

    Rubenzahl, Samuel A; Gilbert, Brenda O

    2002-01-01

    Despite the large body of research on childhood sexual abuse, virtually no one has examined the coverage of sexual education in treatment. Agencies from across the United States that specialize in treating child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse were surveyed. The results indicate that sexual education is covered in treatment with children of all ages, with male and female clients, and in both individual and group therapy. There was a statistically significant difference in the coverage of sexual education based on clients' age, but not based on gender or treatment modality. Parents are often included in treatment; however, the amount of parental involvement varies. Published materials, such as children's books and videos, are frequently used. Participants (i.e., clinicians) are satisfied with their coverage of sexual education in treatment even though clients often experience negative reactions. Results suggest that covering sexual education in treatment helps decrease some of the negative effects of sexual abuse. This study also serves as a test of Dillman's Total Design Method of conducting mail surveys. PMID:16221631

  20. Incident sexually transmitted infections and their risk factors in an Aboriginal community in Australia: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P; Law, M; Torzillo, P; Kaldor, J

    2001-01-01

    website extra Extended tables can be found on the STI website www.sextransinf.com Objective: To identify risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: An Aboriginal community in central Australia. Participants: 1034 Aboriginal people aged 12–40 years, resident in the study region, seen during the period 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1998 for STI diagnosis. Main outcome measures: Incident rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis per 100 person years. Results: There were 313 episodes of incident gonorrhoea, 240 of incident chlamydial infection, and 17 of incident syphilis. For gonorrhoea, risk factors were age, substance abuse, and previous prevalent chlamydial infection with a rate ratio (RR) of 3.2 in people aged 15–19 years, 1.6 in people who abused alcohol, and 3.2 in women who had sniffed petrol on a regular basis. For chlamydia, risk factors were sex, age, and a previous history of STI with a RR of 2.7 in people aged 15–19 years. Similar factors were associated with an increased risk of syphilis but the associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified objective predictors of incident STI which can be used to target interventions and maximise their impact. The results of this study may well have relevance to indigenous communities in other countries that are faced with high levels of STI and substance abuse. Key Words: Aborigines; sexually transmitted infections; risk factors; Australia PMID:11158687